US20100274312A1 - Spinal cord modulation for inducing paresthetic and anesthetic effects, and associated systems and methods - Google Patents

Spinal cord modulation for inducing paresthetic and anesthetic effects, and associated systems and methods Download PDF

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US20100274312A1
US20100274312A1 US12/765,685 US76568510A US2010274312A1 US 20100274312 A1 US20100274312 A1 US 20100274312A1 US 76568510 A US76568510 A US 76568510A US 2010274312 A1 US2010274312 A1 US 2010274312A1
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pulses
patient
delivering
method
includes
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Konstantinos Alataris
Andre B. Walker
Jon Parker
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Crg Servicing LLC
Nevro Corp
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Nevro Corp
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Priority claimed from US13/645,387 external-priority patent/US9403020B2/en
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61NELECTROTHERAPY; MAGNETOTHERAPY; RADIATION THERAPY; ULTRASOUND THERAPY
    • A61N1/00Electrotherapy; Circuits therefor
    • A61N1/18Applying electric currents by contact electrodes
    • A61N1/32Applying electric currents by contact electrodes alternating or intermittent currents
    • A61N1/36Applying electric currents by contact electrodes alternating or intermittent currents for stimulation
    • A61N1/3605Implantable neurostimulators for stimulating central or peripheral nerve system
    • A61N1/3606Implantable neurostimulators for stimulating central or peripheral nerve system adapted for a particular treatment
    • A61N1/36071Pain
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61NELECTROTHERAPY; MAGNETOTHERAPY; RADIATION THERAPY; ULTRASOUND THERAPY
    • A61N1/00Electrotherapy; Circuits therefor
    • A61N1/18Applying electric currents by contact electrodes
    • A61N1/32Applying electric currents by contact electrodes alternating or intermittent currents
    • A61N1/36Applying electric currents by contact electrodes alternating or intermittent currents for stimulation
    • A61N1/36014External stimulators, e.g. with patch electrodes
    • A61N1/36021External stimulators, e.g. with patch electrodes for treatment of pain
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61NELECTROTHERAPY; MAGNETOTHERAPY; RADIATION THERAPY; ULTRASOUND THERAPY
    • A61N1/00Electrotherapy; Circuits therefor
    • A61N1/18Applying electric currents by contact electrodes
    • A61N1/32Applying electric currents by contact electrodes alternating or intermittent currents
    • A61N1/36Applying electric currents by contact electrodes alternating or intermittent currents for stimulation
    • A61N1/3605Implantable neurostimulators for stimulating central or peripheral nerve system
    • A61N1/36128Control systems
    • A61N1/36132Control systems using patient feedback
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61NELECTROTHERAPY; MAGNETOTHERAPY; RADIATION THERAPY; ULTRASOUND THERAPY
    • A61N1/00Electrotherapy; Circuits therefor
    • A61N1/18Applying electric currents by contact electrodes
    • A61N1/32Applying electric currents by contact electrodes alternating or intermittent currents
    • A61N1/36Applying electric currents by contact electrodes alternating or intermittent currents for stimulation
    • A61N1/3605Implantable neurostimulators for stimulating central or peripheral nerve system
    • A61N1/36128Control systems
    • A61N1/36146Control systems specified by the stimulation parameters
    • A61N1/3615Intensity
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61NELECTROTHERAPY; MAGNETOTHERAPY; RADIATION THERAPY; ULTRASOUND THERAPY
    • A61N1/00Electrotherapy; Circuits therefor
    • A61N1/18Applying electric currents by contact electrodes
    • A61N1/32Applying electric currents by contact electrodes alternating or intermittent currents
    • A61N1/36Applying electric currents by contact electrodes alternating or intermittent currents for stimulation
    • A61N1/3605Implantable neurostimulators for stimulating central or peripheral nerve system
    • A61N1/36128Control systems
    • A61N1/36146Control systems specified by the stimulation parameters
    • A61N1/36167Timing, e.g. stimulation onset
    • A61N1/36171Frequency
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61NELECTROTHERAPY; MAGNETOTHERAPY; RADIATION THERAPY; ULTRASOUND THERAPY
    • A61N1/00Electrotherapy; Circuits therefor
    • A61N1/18Applying electric currents by contact electrodes
    • A61N1/32Applying electric currents by contact electrodes alternating or intermittent currents
    • A61N1/36Applying electric currents by contact electrodes alternating or intermittent currents for stimulation
    • A61N1/3605Implantable neurostimulators for stimulating central or peripheral nerve system
    • A61N1/36128Control systems
    • A61N1/36146Control systems specified by the stimulation parameters
    • A61N1/36167Timing, e.g. stimulation onset
    • A61N1/36178Burst or pulse train parameters
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61NELECTROTHERAPY; MAGNETOTHERAPY; RADIATION THERAPY; ULTRASOUND THERAPY
    • A61N1/00Electrotherapy; Circuits therefor
    • A61N1/02Details
    • A61N1/04Electrodes
    • A61N1/06Electrodes for high-frequency therapy

Abstract

Spinal cord modulation for inducing paresthetic and anesthetic effects, and associated systems and methods are disclosed. A representative method in accordance with an embodiment of the disclosure includes creating a therapeutic effect and a sensation in a patient by delivering to the patient first pulses having a first set of first signal delivery parameters and second pulses having a second set of second signal delivery parameters, wherein a first value of at least one first parameter of the first set is different than a second value of a corresponding second parameter of the second set, and wherein the first pulses, the second pulses or both the first and second pulses are delivered to the patient's spinal cord.

Description

    CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION
  • The present application claims priority to U.S. Provisional Application 61/171,790, filed on Apr. 22, 2009 and incorporated herein by reference.
  • TECHNICAL FIELD
  • The present disclosure is directed generally to spinal cord modulation for inducing paresthetic and anesthetic effects, and associated systems and methods.
  • BACKGROUND
  • Neurological stimulators have been developed to treat pain, movement disorders, functional disorders, spasticity, cancer, cardiac disorders, and various other medical conditions. Implantable neurological stimulation systems generally have an implantable pulse generator and one or more leads that deliver electrical pulses to neurological tissue or muscle tissue. For example, several neurological stimulation systems for spinal cord stimulation (SCS) have cylindrical leads that include a lead body with a circular cross-sectional shape and one or more conductive rings spaced apart from each other at the distal end of the lead body. The conductive rings operate as individual electrodes and, in many cases, the SCS leads are implanted percutaneously through a large needle inserted into the epidural space, with or without the assistance of a stylet.
  • Once implanted, the pulse generator applies electrical pulses to the electrodes, which in turn modify the function of the patient's nervous system, such as altering the patient's responsiveness to sensory stimuli and/or altering the patient's motor-circuit output. In pain treatment, the pulse generator applies electrical pulses to the electrodes, which in turn can generate sensations that mask or otherwise alter the patient's sensation of pain. For example, in many cases, patients report a tingling or paresthesia that is perceived as more pleasant and/or less uncomfortable than the underlying pain sensation. While this may be the case for many patients, many other patients may report less beneficial effects and/or results. Accordingly, there remains a need for improved techniques and systems for addressing patient pain.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • FIG. 1 is a partially schematic illustration of an implantable spinal cord modulation system positioned at the spine to deliver therapeutic signals in accordance with an embodiment of the present disclosure.
  • FIG. 2 is a flow diagram illustrating a method for treating a patient in accordance with a particular embodiment of the disclosure.
  • FIGS. 3A-3F are flow diagrams illustrating further methods for treating a patient in accordance with further embodiments of the disclosure.
  • FIG. 4 is a schematic illustration of a representative lead body suitable for providing modulation to a patient in accordance with several embodiments of the disclosure.
  • FIGS. 5A-5D illustrate representative wave forms associated with signals applied to patients in accordance with particular embodiments of the disclosure.
  • FIG. 6 is a partially schematic, cross-sectional illustration of a patient's spine, illustrating representative locations for implanted lead bodies in accordance with embodiments of the disclosure.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • The present disclosure is directed generally to spinal cord modulation and associated systems and methods that induce, produce, generate, or otherwise cause paresthetic and anesthetic effects in a patient. Such systems and methods can be used to treat patient pain. Specific details of certain embodiments of the disclosure are described below with reference to methods for modulating one or more target neural populations or sites of a patient, and associated implantable structures for providing the modulation. Although selected embodiments are described below with reference to modulating the dorsal root and/or other particular regions of the spinal column to control pain, the leads may be in some instances be used to modulate other neurological structures of the spinal cord. Some embodiments can have configurations, components or procedures different than those described in this section, and other embodiments may eliminate particular components or procedures. A person of ordinary skill in the relevant art, therefore, will understand that the invention may have other embodiments with additional elements, and/or may have other embodiments without several of the features shown and described below with reference to FIGS. 1-6.
  • In general terms, aspects of many of the following embodiments are directed to producing a sensation (e.g., paresthesia or a paresthetic effect) in the patient, in addition to producing a therapeutic effect (e.g., anesthesia or an anesthetic effect) in the patient. The therapeutic effect can be produced by inhibiting, suppressing, downregulating, blocking, preventing, or otherwise modulating the activity of the affected neural population (e.g., nerve cells). Such embodiments may be useful in cases for which the patient benefits from an anesthetic effect, but, because the anesthetic effect typically creates an absence of pain and/or other sensations, the patient may require the assurance or comfort of a detectable sensation. By supplementing the anesthetic effect with a paresthetic effect, which is detected by the patient, the patient and/or the associated practitioner can better monitor the manner in which the anesthesia-producing signals are provided. In other embodiments, the patient and/or the practitioner may have other bases for supplementing anesthesia-producing signals with paresthesia-producing signals. Further details are described below with reference to FIGS. 1-6.
  • FIG. 1 schematically illustrates a representative treatment system 100 for providing relief from chronic pain and/or other conditions, arranged relative to the general anatomy of a patient's spinal cord 191. The system 100 can include a pulse generator 101, which may be implanted subcutaneously within a patient 190 and coupled to a signal delivery element 110. In a representative example, the signal delivery element 110 includes a lead or lead body 111 that carries features for delivering therapy to the patient 190 after implantation. The pulse generator 101 can be connected directly to the lead body 111, or it can be coupled to the lead body 111 via a communication link 102 (e.g., an extension). Accordingly, the lead 111 can include a terminal section that is releasably connected to an extension at a break 114 (shown schematically in FIG. 1). This allows a single type of terminal section to be used with patients of different body types (e.g., different heights). As used herein, the terms lead and lead body include any of a number of suitable substrates and/or support members that carry devices for providing therapy signals to the patient 190. For example, the lead body 111 can include one or more electrodes or electrical contacts that direct electrical signals into the patient's tissue, such as to provide for patient relief. In other embodiments, the signal delivery element 110 can include devices other than a lead body (e.g., a paddle) that also direct electrical signals and/or other types of signals to the patient 190.
  • The pulse generator 101 can transmit signals to the signal delivery element 110 that up-regulate (e.g., stimulate or excite) and/or down-regulate (e.g., block or suppress) target nerves. As used herein, and unless otherwise noted, the terms “modulate” and “modulation” refer generally to signals that have either type of effect on the target nerves. The pulse generator 101 can include a machine-readable (e.g., computer-readable) medium containing instructions for generating and transmitting suitable therapy signals. The pulse generator 101 and/or other elements of the system 100 can include one or more processors 107, memories 108 and/or input/output devices. Accordingly, the process of providing modulation signals (e.g., electrical signals) and executing other associated functions can be performed by computer-executable instructions contained on computer-readable media, e.g., at the processor(s) 107 and/or memory(s) 108. The pulse generator 101 can include multiple portions, elements, and/or subsystems (e.g., for directing signals in accordance with multiple signal delivery parameters), housed in a single housing, as shown in FIG. 1, or in multiple housings.
  • The pulse generator 101 can also receive and respond to an input signal received from one or more sources. The input signals can direct or influence the manner in which the therapy instructions are selected, executed, updated and/or otherwise performed. The input signal can be received from one or more sensors 112 (one is shown schematically in FIG. 1 for purposes of illustration) that are carried by the pulse generator 101 and/or distributed outside the pulse generator 101 (e.g., at other patient locations) while still communicating with the pulse generator 101. The sensors 112 can provide inputs that depend on or reflect patient state (e.g., patient position, patient posture and/or patient activity level), and/or inputs that are patient-independent (e.g., time). In other embodiments, inputs can be provided by the patient and/or the practitioner, as described in further detail later. Still further details are included in co-pending U.S. application Ser. No. 12/703,683, filed on Feb. 10, 2010 and incorporated herein by reference.
  • In some embodiments, the pulse generator 101 can obtain power to generate the therapy signals from an external power source 103. The external power source 103 can transmit power to the implanted pulse generator 101 using electromagnetic induction (e.g., RF signals). For example, the external power source 103 can include an external coil 104 that communicates with a corresponding internal coil (not shown) within the implantable pulse generator 101. The external power source 103 can be portable for ease of use.
  • In another embodiment, the pulse generator 101 can obtain the power to generate therapy signals from an internal power source, in addition to or in lieu of the external power source 103. For example, the implanted pulse generator 101 can include a non-rechargeable battery or a rechargeable battery to provide such power. When the internal power source includes a rechargeable battery, the external power source 103 can be used to recharge the battery. The external power source 103 can in turn be recharged from a suitable power source (e.g., conventional wall power).
  • In some cases, an external programmer 105 (e.g., a trial modulator) can be coupled to the signal delivery element 110 during an initial implant procedure, prior to implanting the pulse generator 101. For example, a practitioner (e.g., a physician and/or a company representative) can use the external programmer 105 to vary the signal delivery parameters provided to the signal delivery element 110 in real time, and select optimal or particularly efficacious parameters. These parameters can include the position of the signal delivery element 110, as well as the characteristics of the electrical signals provided to the signal delivery element 110. In a typical process, the practitioner uses a cable assembly 120 to temporarily connect the external programmer 105 to the signal delivery device 110. The cable assembly 120 can accordingly include a first connector 121 that is releasably connected to the external programmer 105, and a second connector 122 that is releasably connected to the signal delivery element 110. Accordingly, the signal delivery element 110 can include a connection element that allows it to be connected to a signal generator either directly (if it is long enough) or indirectly (if it is not). The practitioner can test the efficacy of the signal delivery element 110 in an initial position. The practitioner can then disconnect the cable assembly 120, reposition the signal delivery element 110, and reapply the electrical modulation. This process can be performed iteratively until the practitioner obtains the desired position for the signal delivery device 110. Optionally, the practitioner may move the partially implanted signal delivery element 110 without disconnecting the cable assembly 120. Further details of suitable cable assembly methods and associated techniques are described in co-pending U.S. application Ser. No. 12/562,892, filed on Sep. 18, 2009, and incorporated herein by reference.
  • During this process, the practitioner can also vary the position of the signal delivery element 110. After the position of the signal delivery element 110 and appropriate signal delivery parameters are established using the external programmer 105, the patient 190 can receive therapy via signals generated by the external programmer 105, generally for a limited period of time. In a representative application, the patient 190 receives such therapy for one week. During this time, the patient wears the cable assembly 120 and the external programmer 105 outside the body. Assuming the trial therapy is effective or shows the promise of being effective, the practitioner then replaces the external programmer 105 with the implanted pulse generator 101, and programs the pulse generator 101 with parameters selected based on the experience gained during the trial period. Optionally, the practitioner can also replace the signal delivery element 110. Once the implantable pulse generator 101 has been positioned within the patient 190, the signal delivery parameters provided by the pulse generator 101 can still be updated remotely via a wireless physician's programmer (e.g., a physician's remote) 111 and/or a wireless patient programmer 106 (e.g., a patient remote). Generally, the patient 190 has control over fewer parameters than does the practitioner. For example, the capability of the patient programmer 106 may be limited to starting and/or stopping the pulse generator 101, and/or adjusting signal amplitude.
  • In any of these foregoing embodiments, the parameters in accordance with which the pulse generator 101 provides signals can be modulated during portions of the therapy regimen. For example, the frequency, amplitude, pulse width and/or signal delivery location can be modulated in accordance with a preset program, patient and/or physician inputs, and/or in a random or pseudorandom manner. Such parameter variations can be used to address a number of potential clinical situations, including changes in the patient's perception of pain, changes in the preferred target neural population, and/or patient accommodation or habituation.
  • FIG. 2 is a schematic flow diagram illustrating a process 250 for treating a patient in accordance with particular embodiments of the disclosure. The process 250 can include creating both a therapeutic effect and a sensation in a patient by delivering first pulses (e.g., first electrical pulses) having a first set of signal delivery parameters, and second pulses (e.g., second electrical pulses) having a second set of signal delivery parameters. A first value of at least one parameter of the first set is different than a second value of a corresponding second parameter of the second set, and the first pulses, second pulses, or both are delivered to the patient's spinal cord. In particular embodiments, the effects on the patient may be separately attributable to each of the first and second pulses, but in other embodiments, the effects need not be attributed in such a manner. In one embodiment, the process 250 can include creating an anesthetic, non-paresthetic effect in the patient by applying first pulses to the patient's spinal cord in accordance with first signal delivery parameters (process portion 251). In general, the anesthetic, non-paresthetic effect is one that addresses the patient's pain by blocking or otherwise eliminating the sensation of pain, without creating a sensation for the patient. In particular embodiments, the anesthetic, non-paresthetic effect of the first pulses can have one or both of the following characteristics. One characteristic is that the anesthetic, non-paresthetic effect is undetected by the patient. Another characteristic is that the anesthetic, non-paresthetic effect produces a reduction or elimination of pain.
  • In process portion 252, a paresthetic effect is created in the patient by applying second pulses to the spinal cord in accordance with second signal delivery parameters. In general terms, an aspect of at least one of the second signal delivery parameters is different than an aspect of the corresponding first signal delivery parameter, so as to produce a paresthetic effect rather than an anesthetic, non-paresthetic effect. In particular embodiments, the paresthetic effect creates a tingling and/or other patient-detectable sensation. In process portion 253, information obtained from the patient's feedback to the paresthetic effect is used. For example, the patient and/or practitioner may use this information to understand that the system is in an “on” state rather than an “off” state, and/or to determine whether the lead is properly or improperly placed, and/or to obtain an indication of the amplitude or signal strength provided by the system. In other embodiments, the process can include obtaining different information and/or taking different actions. Further details of representative methods employing variations of some or all of the foregoing steps are described below with reference to FIGS. 3A-3F.
  • In some cases, the pain experienced by the patient (and addressed with the methods and systems of the present disclosure) may not be experienced by the patient on a continual basis. For example, in some instances, the patient may experience pain while standing or walking, but not while lying down. In such instances, it can be difficult to accurately conduct the pre-implant procedure described above with reference to FIG. 1. During such a procedure, the patient is typically lying down in a prone position while the practitioner adjusts the signal delivery parameters associated with signals provided by the signal delivery element (e.g., waveform parameters, active electrodes, and/or the position of the signal delivery element). FIG. 3A is a schematic flow diagram illustrating a process 350 that can address the foregoing case. Process 350 can include creating an anesthetic, non-paresthetic effect in a patient by delivering, to a target neural population at the patient's spinal cord, first pulses having a first set of first signal delivery parameters, with the anesthetic effect of the first pulses being undetected by the patient. This is an example of the first characteristic described above with reference to FIG. 2. Because the anesthetic effect of the first pulses is undetected by the patient, process 350 can further include creating a patient-detectable paresthetic effect in the patient, concurrent with the anesthetic, non-paresthetic effect (process portion 352). This process can be accomplished by delivering, to the patient's spinal cord, second pulses having a second set of signal delivery parameters. A first value of at least one first parameter of the first set of signal delivery parameters is different than a second value of a corresponding second parameter of the second set, e.g., to produce the paresthetic effect. In this process, the corresponding parameters of the first and second sets are analogous. For example, if the frequency of the second pulses is different than the frequency of the first pulses to produce a paresthetic effect, the two frequencies can be considered corresponding parameters. Based on patient feedback to the second pulses, the first signal delivery parameters are changed (process portion 353), generally by the practitioner.
  • As noted above, some patients may experience pain while standing or walking, but not while lying down. Because the patient is typically lying down while the practitioner adjusts the signal delivery parameters, it may not be immediately evident that the parameters are creating the desired effect in the patient. Accordingly, the practitioner can position the signal delivery device at a site expected to produce the desired anesthetic, non-paresthetic effect in the patient, and can accompany the signals intended to produce that effect with signals that deliberately produce a patient-detectable paresthetic effect. When the patient begins to report a paresthetic effect, the practitioner can have an enhanced degree of confidence that the signal delivery parameters that are common to both the first pulses (which produce the anesthetic effect) and the second pulses (which produce the paresthetic effect) are properly selected. These signal delivery parameters can include the location at which the signal is delivered, the strength (e.g., amplitude) of the signal, and/or other parameters. If, based on patient feedback to the second pulses, the parameter values can be improved, the practitioner can change the first signal delivery parameters, e.g., by moving the lead, applying signals to different contacts on the lead, changing signal strength and/or making other adjustments. In a particular example, this arrangement can reduce the likelihood that the practitioner will inadvertently increase the amplitude of the anesthesia-producing first pulses to a level that will produce discomfort and/or muscle activation when the patient changes position. In other embodiments, other signal delivery parameters may be adjusted, as described further below with reference to FIGS. 3B-3F. In any of these embodiments, the second signal delivery parameters can also be changed, e.g., in parallel with changes to the first signal delivery parameters, so that the practitioner continues to receive feedback from the patient based on the paresthetic effect created by the second pulses.
  • FIG. 3B illustrates another representative process 355 for treating a patient, and includes creating an anesthetic, non-paresthetic effect in the patient (process portion 356), generally similar to process portion 351 described above. The anesthetic, non-paresthetic effect is typically manifested as a perceived reduction or elimination of pain, and so represents an example of the second characteristic described above with reference to FIG. 2. In process portion 357, the process 355 includes providing an indication of a strength of the first pulses by creating a patient-detectable paresthetic effect in the patient. This can in turn include delivering to the patient's spinal cord second pulses having a second set of signal delivery parameters (process portion 358 a), with the strength of the second pulses being correlated with a strength of the first pulses (process portion 358 b) and with a first value of at least one parameter of the first set being different than a second value of a corresponding second parameter of the second set (process portion 358 c). For example, the frequency of the first pulses may be different than the frequency of the second pulses. In process portion 359, the strengths of the first and second pulses are changed in a parallel manner. For example, as the strength of the first pulses is increased, the strength of the second pulses can also be increased. Accordingly, when the patient reports a sensation of paresthesia resulting from the second pulses, the practitioner can effectively obtain an indication of the strength of the first pulses, even though the patient may not be able to report a direct effect of the first pulses. In one aspect of this embodiment, the strengths of the first and second pulses may be identical, and may be changed in identical manners. In other embodiments, this may not be the case. For example, in a particular embodiment, the practitioner may be aware of a typical offset between the strength of a pulse that is suitable for creating an anesthetic effect and the strength of a pulse that is sufficient to create a paresthetic effect. In such instances, the practitioner may build this offset into the manner in which the two sets of pulses are changed to preserve a desired correlation between the onset of a patient-detectable effect created by the second pulses and an expected anesthetic effect created by the first pulses. The amplitude or intensity of the second pulses can be significantly less than that associated with standard SCS systems. This can be the case for at least the reason that in at least some embodiments, the second pulses are not necessarily intended to mask pain (as they are in standard SCS treatments), but rather are intended to create a patient-detectable sensation. When this is the case, delivering the second pulses can use less energy than delivering standard SCS pulses. In addition to or in lieu of this potential benefit, the second pulses can allow the practitioner more flexibility in setting an appropriate intensity level because a wider range of intensity levels (e.g., extending to lower values than are associated with standard SCS) are expected to produce the desired patient sensation.
  • In addition to or in lieu of providing feedback that may be used to adjust signal delivery parameters associated with the first pulses (e.g., the anesthesia-producing pulses), aspects of the foregoing process may be used to identify faults (e.g., defects, abnormalities and/or unexpected states) associated with the system at an early stage. For example, FIG. 3C illustrates a process 360 that includes creating an anesthetic, non-paresthetic effect in the patient (process portion 361) that is undetected by the patient, and that is accompanied by creating a patient-detectable paresthetic effect (process portion 362) generally similar to process portion 352 described above. In process portion 363, the amplitudes of the first and second pulses are changed in parallel. In one representative process, the amplitudes are increased and, in other processes, the amplitudes can be decreased.
  • Process portion 364 includes identifying a fault with the delivery of the first pulses based at least in part on the presence or absence of a patient response to the changing amplitude of the second pulses. For example, while the patient may be unable to detect whether or not the first pulses are being delivered, the practitioner can increase the amplitude of both the first and second pulses to a point at which the practitioner would expect the patient to report a paresthetic effect created by the second pulses. If the patient fails to report such an effect, the practitioner may be alerted to a fault in the signal delivery system that applies to both delivery of the first pulses and the second pulses. Accordingly, the practitioner can rectify the fault and continue the process of establishing suitable signal delivery parameters for the first pulses, and optionally, the second pulses as well. The fault may be that the system is not on, that there is an electrical discontinuity between the signal generator and the lead contacts, that an element of the signal generator or lead has failed, and/or that the system has another abnormality or unexpected characteristic. In other embodiments, the fault can be identified by the presence of a patient response, rather than the absence of a patient response. For example, if the patient reports a sensation when no sensation is expected (e.g., if the patient reports muscle cramping, sensation and/or stimulation), this may indicate a system fault. In other cases, this may indicate a misplaced lead, or a patient with a lower than expected activation threshold.
  • FIG. 3D illustrates a process 370 that includes directing both the first and second pulses to the same target neural population of the patient. Accordingly, process 370 includes creating an anesthetic, non-paresthetic effect in a patient by delivering to a target neural population at the patient's spinal cord, first pulses having a first set of first signal delivery parameters (process portion 371). The process 370 further includes creating a paresthetic effect in the patient by delivering, to the same target neural population, second pulses having characteristics generally similar to those discussed above with reference to process portion 352 (e.g., at least one parameter value differing from a corresponding parameter value of the first pulses). In this embodiment, the first and second pulses are delivered to the same target neural population, for example, when it is expected that other target neural populations may not have a known correlation between patient responses to the second pulses, and patient effects created by the first pulses. In cases where such a correlation is known, the second signals can be applied to a different neural population than the first pulses. For example, as is discussed further with reference to FIGS. 5A and 5B, if one neural population is susceptible to paresthesia but not anesthesia, the practitioner may wish to apply the second pulses to a different neural population than the first pulses.
  • FIG. 3E is a flow diagram illustrating a process 365 in which a paresthetic effect is provided to the patient in response to a patient request. Process 365 includes creating an anesthetic, non-paresthetic effect in the patient by delivering, to a target neural population at the patient's spinal cord, first pulses having a first set of first signal delivery parameters (process portion 366). Process portion 367 includes supplementing the anesthetic, non-paresthetic effect in the patient with a patient-detectable, paresthetic effect, based on a request from the patient. This process can in turn include delivering to the patient's spinal cord, second pulses having a second set of signal delivery parameters, with a first value of at least one first parameter of the first set being different than a second value of a corresponding second parameter of the second set. In a particular embodiment, the patient may request the second pulses to emulate an effect the patient is already familiar with, as described below with reference to FIG. 3F.
  • FIG. 3F is a schematic block diagram of a process 375 for treating a patient that, in general terms, includes emulating the paresthesia-inducing effects of a conventional SCS device with a device that provides both anesthesia and paresthesia. Accordingly, the process 375 can include selecting a patient who previously received paresthesia-inducing pulses from a first implanted spinal cord modulator, and implanting a second spinal cord modulator in that patient (process portion 376). In process portion 377, the second spinal cord modulator is used to create an anesthetic, non-paresthetic effect in the patient (process portion 378 a), and also a patient-detectable paresthetic effect (process portion 378 b), using different signal delivery parameters (process portion 379 a). The signal delivery parameters can be selected to emulate the paresthesia-inducing pulses from the first implanted spinal cord modulator (process portion 379 b). This arrangement can be used for patients who prefer to retain the paresthetic effect obtained with a conventional SCS device, in addition to obtaining the benefit of an anesthetic effect. The patient may want the paresthetic effect for any of a variety of reasons, including but not limited to the sense of familiarity it may provide, and/or the pleasurable effect of the sensation.
  • In at least some instances, it may be desirable to the physician or other practitioner to control the amplitude or strength of the anesthesia-producing first pulses, and the patient control the amplitude or strength of the paresthesia-producing second pulses. Accordingly, the system 100 (FIG. 1) delivering the pulses can allow the patient access to the amplitude control of the second pulses, and restrict access to the amplitude control of the first pulses to the practitioner. In this manner, the practitioner can be assured that the anesthetic effect is provided automatically at a selected level, and the patient can control at least some aspects of the sensation-producing second pulses. This is a representative example of the more general case in which the amplitude (and/or other parameters) of the first and second pulses are varied independently of each other. For example, the practitioner may want to vary the frequency of the first pulses while keeping the frequency of the second pulses constant. In other embodiments, the practitioner may want to have the first and second pulses applied with different duty cycles, different pulse widths, different interpulse intervals, and/or other parameters, and so may wish to have independent control over the values of these parameters as they apply to the first pulses, independent of the values of the these parameters as they apply to the second pulses.
  • FIG. 4 is a partially schematic illustration of a lead body 111 that may be used to apply modulation to a patient in accordance with any of the foregoing embodiments. In general, the lead body 111 includes a multitude of electrodes or contacts 120. When the lead body 111 has a circular cross-sectional shape, as shown in FIG. 4, the contacts 120 can have a generally ring-type shape and can be spaced apart axially along the length of the lead body 111. In a particular embodiment, the lead body 111 can include eight contacts 120, identified individually as first, second, third . . . eighth contacts 121, 122, 123 . . . 128. In general, one or more of the contacts 120 are used to provide signals, and another one or more of the contacts 120 provide a signal return path. Accordingly, the lead body 111 can be used to deliver monopolar modulation (e.g., if the return contact is spaced apart significantly from the delivery contact), or bipolar modulation (e.g., if the return contact is positioned close to the delivery contact and in particular, at the same target neural population as the delivery contact).
  • FIG. 5A illustrates a representative electrical signal wave form 540 a having first pulses 541 a and second pulses 542 a. In a particular aspect of this embodiment, the first pulses 541 a are provided at a higher frequency than are the second pulses 542 a. In another embodiment, this relationship can be reversed. A single second pulse 542 a can be positioned between sequential bursts of the first pulses 541 a (as shown in FIG. 5A), or multiple second pulses 542 a can be provided between sequential bursts of the first pulses 541 a. In either of these embodiments, the first and second pulses 541 a, 542 a can be provided to the same contact(s) e.g., so that both sets of pulses are directed to the same target neural population. In such instances, the first and second pulses 541 a, 542 a generally do not overlap temporally with each other. Accordingly, the practitioner can maintain a suitable level of control over the electric fields produced by each set of pulses. Although the first and second pulses do not overlap, they can be interleaved with each other in such a manner that the effects of each set of pulses (e.g., anesthetic and paresthetic effects) can temporarily overlap. Put another way, the patient can concurrently receive an anesthetic effect and a paresthetic effect from the interleaved pulses. As discussed above, the first and second pulses can be applied to different neural populations in other embodiments.
  • The first pulses 541 a can be provided at a duty cycle that is less than 100%. For example, as shown in FIG. 5A, the first pulses 541 a can be provided at a duty cycle of about 60%, meaning that the first pulses 541 a are active during 60% of the time interval between sequential second pulses 542 a. The first pulses 541 a can be provided continuously during each burst (e.g., each first pulse in a burst can be immediately followed by another first burst), or an interpulse interval can be positioned between neighboring first pulses 541 a. In a representative embodiment, the interpulse interval between first pulses 541 a is 15 microseconds, and in other embodiments, the interpulse interval can have other values, including zero. In the embodiment shown in FIG. 5A, the interpulse interval between neighboring second pulses 542 a is filled or partially filled with the first pulses 541 a. The first pulses 541 a can also include an interphase interval between anodic and cathodic portions of the pulse. The interphase interval can also be 15 microseconds in a representative embodiment, and can have other zero or non-zero values in other embodiments.
  • In general, the pulse width of the second pulses 542 a can be greater than that of the first pulses 541 a (as shown in FIG. 5A). In other embodiments, the second pulses 542 a can have pulse widths equal to or less than the pulse widths of the first pulses 541 a. The amplitude (e.g., current amplitude or voltage amplitude) of the second pulses 542 a can be less than the amplitude of the first pulses 541 a (as shown in FIG. 5A), or equal to the amplitude of the first pulses 541 a, or greater than the amplitude of the first pulses 541 a (as described below with reference to FIG. 5B), depending upon whether or not it is beneficial to maintain an offset between the respective amplitudes, as discussed above with reference to FIG. 3B. In particular examples, the first pulses 541 a can be delivered at a frequency of from about 1.5 kHz to about 100 kHz, or from about 1.5 kHz to about 50 kHz. In more particular embodiments, the first pulses 541 a can be provided at frequencies of from about 3 kHz to about 20 kHz, or from about 3 kHz to about 15 kHz, or from about 5 kHz to about 15 kHz, or from about 3 kHz to about 10 kHz. The amplitude of the first pulses 541 a can range from about 0.1 mA to about 20 mA in a particular embodiment, and in further particular embodiments, can range from about 0.5 mA to about 10 mA, or about 0.5 mA to about 4 mA, or about 0.5 mA to about 2.5 mA. In still further embodiments, the amplitude can be from about 2.0 mA to about 3.5 mA, or from about 1 mA to about 5 mA, about 6 mA, or about 8 mA. The pulse width (e.g., for just the cathodic phase of the pulses) can vary from about 10 microseconds to about 333 microseconds. In further particular embodiments, the pulse width of the first pulses 541 a can range from about 25 microseconds to about 166 microseconds, or from about 33 microseconds to about 100 microseconds, or from about 50 microseconds to about 166 microseconds. The frequency of the second pulses 542 a can be in the range of from about 2 Hz to about 1.2 kHz, and in a more particular embodiment, about 60 Hz. The amplitude of the second pulses 542 a can be from about 1 mA to about 20 mA, and in a particular embodiment, from about 2 mA to about 10 mA. The pulse width of the second pulses 542 a can range from about 10 microseconds to about 1,000 microseconds. In a further particular embodiment, the pulse width of the second pulses can be from about 100 microseconds to about 1,000 microseconds, and in a still further particular embodiment, can be about 250 microseconds. In at least some embodiments, it is expected that the foregoing amplitudes will be suprathreshold. It is also expected that, in at least some embodiments, the neural response to the foregoing signals will be asynchronous. For example, the frequency of the first pulses 541 a can be selected to be higher (e.g., between twice and ten times higher) than the refractory period of the target neurons at the patient's spinal cord, which in at least some embodiments is expected to produce an asynchronous response. Further details of representative systems and methods for producing asynchronous neural responses are included in pending U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/362,244 filed on Jan. 29, 2009 and incorporated herein by reference.
  • FIG. 5B illustrates another electrical signal 540 b having first pulses 541 b and second pulses 542 b. In this particular embodiment, the first pulses 541 b are provided at a higher duty cycle (e.g., about 85%) compared with that shown in FIG. 5A. The second pulses 542 b are also provided at an amplitude slightly higher than that of the first pulses 541 a.
  • The pulses shown in FIGS. 5A and 5B can be provided to different patients, or to the same patient at different times, or the pulses can be provided to the same patient at the same time, but via different leads. For example, the patient may be implanted with two leads generally similar to the lead shown in FIG. 4. The first signal 540 a is then applied to the first and second contacts of one lead, and the second signal applied to the first and second contacts of the other lead. In other embodiments, the signals can be applied in any of a wide variety of manners, e.g., to two 8-contact leads, to one 8-contact lead and two 4-contact leads, to four 4-contact leads, or to other lead arrangements. In any of these embodiments, the second pulses can be applied to the same target neural population as are the first pulses, e.g., when it is expected that the target neural population will have both a paresthetic response and an anesthetic response. In other embodiments, the second pulses can be applied to a different neural population than are the first pulses. For example, if the target neural population to which the first pulses are applied is expected to have an anesthetic response, but not a paresthetic response, the second pulses can be applied to a different neural population. In such a case, the paresthetic response at the second neural population may still be used to influence the manner in which the first pulses are applied to the first target neural population. Further details of representative leads and associated systems and methods are included in co-pending U.S. patent application Ser. No. ______, filed concurrently herewith, titled “Selective High Frequency Spinal Cord Stimulation for Inhibiting Pain with Reduced Side Effects, and Associated Systems and Methods” (Attorney Docket No. 66245.8020US1), and incorporated herein by reference.
  • FIG. 5C illustrates still another signal 540 c having spaced-apart bursts of first pulses 541 c. Bursts of second pulses 542 c are interleaved with the bursts of first pulses 541 c. For example, a single burst of second pulses 542 c may be positioned between neighboring bursts of first pulses 541 c. This arrangement can be appropriate in cases where multiple, uninterrupted second pulses 542 c are suitable for creating a paresthetic effect, and the resulting separation between bursts of the first pulses 541 c does not detract significantly from the anesthetic effect created by the first pulses 541 c.
  • In one aspect of the embodiment shown in FIGS. 5A and 5B, the first and second pulses are the only pulses provided to the corresponding signal delivery element, and are provided to, for example, the first and second contacts 121, 122 of the lead body 110 shown in FIG. 4. In other embodiments, these signals may be applied to other contacts or combinations of contacts. For example, FIG. 5D illustrates an embodiment in which a first signal 540 d applies corresponding first and second pulses 541 d, 542 d to a selected pair of contacts (e.g., the first and second contacts 121, 122 shown in FIG. 4) and a second signal 540 e applies first and second pulses 541 e, 542 e to another pair of contacts (e.g., the seventh and eighth contacts 127, 128 shown in FIG. 4). The high frequency first pulses 541 d, 541 e are provided simultaneously at each pair of contacts, while the low second frequency pulses 542 d, 542 e are staggered in time and location. This arrangement may be used when the practitioner wishes to provide a broader field with the first pulses 541 d, 541 e. In other embodiments, the first and second pulses may be provided to other contacts, and/or in accordance with other timing patterns, based generally on a patient-specific basis.
  • In any of the foregoing embodiments, the signal delivery parameters selected for any of the first pulses 541 a-e (referred to collectively as first pulses 541) and the second pulses 542 a-e (referred to collectively as second pulses 542) can be selected to produce an anesthetic, non-paresthetic effect, and a paresthetic effect, respectively. As discussed above, in at least some embodiments, the first pulses 541 will be provided at a higher frequency than the second pulses 542. For example, the first pulses 541 can be provided at a frequency of from about 1.5 kHz to about 50 kHz, while the second pulses 542 can be provided in a range of from about 2 Hz to about 1.2 kHz. In other embodiments, the pulses can have different relationships. For example, the second pulses 542 can be within a 3 kHz to 10 kHz range, but at a frequency less than the first pulses 541.
  • FIG. 6 is a cross-sectional illustration of the spinal cord 191 and an adjacent vertebra 195 (based generally on information from Crossman and Neary, “Neuroanatomy,” 1995 (published by Churchill Livingstone)), along with selected representative locations for representative lead bodies 110 (shown as lead bodies 110 a-110 d) in accordance with several embodiments of the disclosure. The spinal cord 191 is situated between a ventrally located ventral body 196 and the dorsally located transverse process 198 and spinous process 197. Arrows V and D identify the ventral and dorsal directions, respectively. In particular embodiments, the vertebra 195 can be at T9, T10, T11 and/or T12 (e.g., for axial low back pain and/or leg pain) and in other embodiments, the lead bodies can be placed at other locations. The lead body can be positioned to provide the same or different pulses to different vertebral levels (e.g., T9 and T10). The spinal cord 191 itself is located within the dura mater 199, which also surrounds portions of the nerves exiting the spinal cord 191, including the dorsal roots 193 and dorsal root ganglia 194.
  • The lead body is generally positioned to preferentially modulate tactile fibers (e.g., to produce the paresthetic effect described above) and to avoid modulating fibers associated with nociceptive pain transmission. In a particular embodiment, a lead body 110 a can be positioned centrally in a lateral direction (e.g., aligned with the spinal cord midline 189) to provide signals directly to the spinal cord 191. In other embodiments, the lead body can be located laterally from the midline 189. For example, the lead body can be positioned just off the spinal cord midline 189 (as indicated by lead body 110 b), and/or proximate to the dorsal root 193 or dorsal root entry zone 188 (e.g., 1-4 millimeters from the spinal cord midline 189, as indicated generally by lead body 110 c), and/or proximate to the dorsal root ganglion 194 (as indicated by lead body 110 d). Other suitable locations for the lead body 110 include the “gutter,” also located laterally from the midline 189. In still further embodiments, the lead bodies may have other locations proximate to the spinal cord 191 and/or proximate to other target neural populations, e.g., laterally from the midline 189 and medially from the dorsal root ganglion 194. In any of the foregoing embodiments, electrical pulses may be applied to the lead body 110 to provide both a paresthetic and an anesthetic effect, as described above. As discussed above, the patient can be implanted with a single lead body (e.g., one of the lead bodies 110 a-110 d) or multiple lead bodies (e.g., combinations of the lead bodies 110 a-110 d).
  • From the foregoing, it will be appreciated that specific embodiments of the invention have been described herein for purposes of illustration, but that various modifications may be made without deviating from the invention. For example, the signal delivery parameters may have values other than those specifically described above, but which are also selected to produce anesthetic or paresthetic effects in the manner described above. Particular embodiments were described above in the context of signals applied to the patient's spinal cord, but in other embodiments, signals (e.g., signals creating an anesthetic, non-paresthetic effect, and/or signals creating a paresthetic effect) can be applied to other neural populations, including, but limited to, peripheral nerves. For example, such methods can include applying first pulses to the patient's spinal cord to create an anesthetic, non-paresthetic effect, and applying second pulses to a peripheral nerve to create a paresthetic effect. Systems suitable for carrying out embodiments of the foregoing techniques are included in co-pending U.S. application Ser. No. ______, filed concurrently herewith, titled “Devices for Controlling High Frequency Spinal Cord Stimulation for Inhibiting Pain, and Associated Systems and Methods” (Attorney Docket No. 66245.8024US), and incorporated herein by reference.
  • Certain aspects of the invention described in the context of particular embodiments may be combined or eliminated in other embodiments. For example, the wave forms described above with reference to FIGS. 5A-5D may be combined in further embodiments. In addition, while advantages associated with certain embodiments have been described and the context of those embodiments, other embodiments may also exhibit such advantages. Not all embodiments need necessarily exhibit such advantages to fall within the scope of the present disclosure. Accordingly, the disclosure and associated technology can encompass other embodiments not expressly shown or described herein.

Claims (60)

1. A method for treating a patient, comprising:
creating a therapeutic effect and a sensation in a patient by delivering to the patient first pulses having a first set of first signal delivery parameters and second pulses having a second set of second signal delivery parameters, wherein a first value of at least one first parameter of the first set is different than a second value of a corresponding second parameter of the second set, and wherein the first pulses, the second pulses or both the first and second pulses are delivered to the patient's spinal cord.
2. The method of claim 1 wherein delivering the first pulses includes delivering bursts of first pulses, and wherein delivering the second pulses includes delivering a single second pulse during an interval between sequential bursts of the first pulses, without the first pulses overlapping temporally with the second pulses, wherein the first pulses have a first pulse width and the second pulses have a second pulse width greater than the first pulse width.
3. The method of claim 1 wherein delivering the first and second pulses includes delivering the first and second pulses to the same electrode implanted in electrical communication with a target neural population at the patient's spinal cord, and wherein delivering the first pulses includes delivering intermittent bursts of first pulses, and wherein delivering the second pulses includes delivering a single second pulse during an interval between sequential bursts of the first pulses, without the first pulses overlapping temporally with the second pulses, wherein the first pulses have a first pulse width and the second pulses have a second pulse width greater than the first pulse width.
4. The method of claim 1 wherein delivering the first pulses includes delivering bursts of first pulses, and wherein delivering the second pulses includes delivering a burst of second pulses during an interval between sequential bursts of the first pulses, without the first pulses overlapping temporally with the second pulses, wherein the first pulses have a first pulse width and the second pulses have a second pulse width greater than the first pulse width.
5. The method of claim 1 wherein the first parameter is a first signal frequency and the second parameter is a second signal frequency and wherein the first signal frequency is higher than the second signal frequency.
6. The method of claim 1 wherein the first parameter is a first signal frequency and the second parameter is a second signal frequency and wherein the first signal frequency is in the range of from about 1.5 kHz to about 50 kHz, and the second signal frequency is in the range of from about 2 Hz to about 1.2 kHz.
7. The method of claim 1 wherein creating a therapeutic effect includes creating an anesthetic, non-paresthetic effect, and wherein creating a sensation includes creating a paresthetic effect.
8. A method for treating a patient, comprising:
creating a therapeutic, non-paresthetic effect in a patient by delivering, to a target neural population at the patient's spinal cord, first pulses having a first set of first signal delivery parameters; and
creating a sensation in the patient by delivering, to the spinal cord, second pulses having a second set of second signal delivery parameters, wherein a first value of at least one first parameter of the first set is different than a second value of a corresponding second parameter of the second set.
9. The method of claim 8 wherein creating a therapeutic effect includes creating an anesthetic effect.
10. The method of claim 8 wherein creating a sensation includes creating a paresthetic effect.
11. The method of claim 8 wherein delivering the second pulses includes delivering the second pulses to the target neural population.
12. The method of claim 8 wherein delivering the first pulses includes delivering bursts of first pulses, and wherein delivering the second pulses includes delivering a single second pulse during an interval between sequential bursts of the first pulses, without the first pulses overlapping temporally with the second pulses, wherein the first pulses have a first pulse width and the second pulses have a second pulse width greater than the first pulse width.
13. The method of claim 8 wherein delivering the first and second pulses includes delivering the first and second pulses to the same electrode implanted in electrical communication with the target neural population, and wherein delivering the first pulses includes delivering intermittent bursts of first pulses, and wherein delivering the second pulses includes delivering a single second pulse during an interval between sequential bursts of the first pulses, without the first pulses overlapping temporally with the second pulses, wherein the first pulses have a first pulse width and the second pulses have a second pulse width greater than the first pulse width.
14. The method of claim 8 wherein delivering the first pulses includes delivering bursts of first pulses, and wherein delivering the second pulses includes delivering a burst of second pulses during an interval between sequential bursts of the first pulses, without the first pulses overlapping temporally with the second pulses, wherein the first pulses have a first pulse width and the second pulses have a second pulse width greater than the first pulse width.
15. The method of claim 8 wherein the first parameter is a first signal frequency and the second parameter is a second signal frequency and wherein the first signal frequency is higher than the second signal frequency.
16. The method of claim 8 wherein the first parameter is a first signal frequency and the second parameter is a second signal frequency and wherein the first signal frequency is in the range of from about 1.5 kHz to about 50 kHz, and the second signal frequency is in the range of from about 2 Hz to about 1.2 kHz.
17. The method of claim 8 wherein the first parameter is a first pulse width and the second parameter is a second pulse width and wherein the first pulse width is less than the second pulse width.
18. The method of claim 8, further comprising:
fixing an amplitude of the first pulses and preventing the patient from changing the amplitude of the first pulses; and
allowing the patient to change an amplitude of the second pulses.
19. The method of claim 8, further comprising:
increasing an amplitude of the first pulses without creating a patient-detectable sensation;
creating a patient sensation by increasing an amplitude of the second pulses as the amplitude of the first pulses is increased; and
based on patient feedback to the second pulses, changing the first signal delivery parameters.
20. A method for treating a patient, comprising:
creating an anesthetic, non-paresthetic effect in a patient by delivering, to a target neural population at the patient's spinal cord, first pulses having a first set of first signal delivery parameters, wherein the anesthetic effect of the first pulses is undetected by the patient and/or produces a reduction or elimination of pain in the patient;
creating a patient-detectable paresthetic effect in the patient concurrent with the anesthetic, non-paresthetic effect by delivering, to the patient's spinal cord, second pulses having a second set of second signal delivery parameters, wherein a first value of at least one first parameter of the first set is different than a second value of a corresponding second parameter of the second set; and
based on patient feedback to the second pulses, changing the first signal delivery parameters.
21. The method of claim 20 wherein creating a patient-detectable paresthetic effect includes creating a patient-detectable paresthetic effect with an external trial modulator placed external to the patient, and wherein the method further comprises:
implanting a modulator in the patient; and
programming the implanted modulator to create an anesthetic, non-paresthetic effect in the patient by delivering the first pulses in accordance with the changed first signal delivery parameters.
22. The method of claim 20 wherein delivering the second pulses includes delivering the second pulses to the same target neural population as receives the first pulses.
23. The method of claim 20 wherein the target neural population is a first target neural population and wherein delivering the second pulses includes delivering the second pulses to a second target neural population different than the first target neural population.
24. The method of claim 20 wherein changing the first signal delivery parameters includes changing an amplitude of the first pulses.
25. The method of claim 20 wherein changing the first signal delivery parameters includes changing a position of an electrode delivering the first pulses.
26. The method of claim 20 wherein delivering first pulses includes delivering first pulses from a first electrode of an implanted electrode device, and wherein changing the first signal delivery parameters includes delivering the first pulses from a second electrode spaced apart from the first electrode.
27. The method of claim 20, further comprising identifying the patient as one who receives the anesthetic, non-paresthetic effect when in at least one body position, but not when in at least another body position.
28. The method of claim 20, further comprising obtaining patient feedback as a result of changing strengths of the first and second pulses in a parallel manner.
29. A method for treating a patient, comprising:
creating an anesthetic, non-paresthetic effect in a patient by delivering, to a target neural population at the patient's spinal cord, first pulses having a first set of first signal delivery parameters, wherein the anesthetic effect of the first pulses is undetected by the patient and/or produces a reduction or elimination of pain in the patient;
providing an indication of a strength of the first pulses by creating a patient-detectable paresthetic effect in the patient, wherein creating the paresthetic effect includes delivering, to the patient's spinal cord, second pulses having a second set of second signal delivery parameters, and wherein a strength of the second pulses is correlated with a strength of the first pulses, and wherein a first value of at least one first parameter of the first set is different than a second value of a corresponding second parameter of the second set; and
changing the strengths of the first and second pulses in a parallel manner.
30. The method of claim 29 wherein changing the strengths of the pulses includes changing the amplitudes of the pulses.
31. The method of claim 29 wherein changing the strengths of the first and second pulses in a parallel manner includes (a) increasing the strengths concurrently, (b) decreasing the strengths concurrently, or both (a) and (b).
32. The method of claim 29 wherein changing the strengths of the pulses includes changing the strengths of the first and second pulses by the same amount.
33. The method of claim 29 wherein the strengths of the pulses are offset, and wherein changing the strengths of the pulses includes changing the strengths of the pulses by different amounts.
34. The method of claim 29 wherein delivering the first and second pulses includes delivering the first and second pulses to the same target neural population.
35. The method of claim 29 wherein changing the strengths of the first and second pulses includes increasing the strength of the second signal as the strength of the first signal increases, in a concurrent or sequential manner.
36. The method of claim 29 wherein changing the strengths of the pulses includes changing the strengths of the pulses in response to a patient request.
37. A method for treating a patient, comprising:
creating an anesthetic, non-paresthetic effect in a patient by delivering, to a target neural population at the patient's spinal cord, first pulses having a first set of first signal delivery parameters, wherein the anesthetic effect of the first pulses is undetected by the patient and/or produces a reduction or elimination of pain in the patient;
creating a patient-detectable paresthetic effect in the patient by delivering, to the patient's spinal cord, second pulses having a second set of second signal delivery parameters, wherein a first value of at least one first parameter of the first set is different than a second value of a corresponding second parameter of the second set;
changing amplitudes of the first and second pulses in parallel; and
identifying a fault with the delivery of the first pulses based in least in part on the presence or absence of patient response to the changing amplitude of the second pulses.
38. The method of claim 37 wherein changing the amplitudes of the first and second signals includes changing the amplitudes concurrently.
39. The method of claim 37 wherein identifying a fault is based at least in part on an absence of a patient response.
40. The method of claim 37 wherein identifying a fault is based at least in part on the presence of a patient response.
41. The method of claim 37 wherein changing amplitudes includes increasing amplitudes.
42. The method of claim 37 wherein changing amplitudes includes decreasing amplitudes.
43. The method of claim 37 wherein identifying a fault includes identifying an electrical discontinuity in an electrical path between a pulse generator and a signal delivery electrode.
44. The method of claim 37 wherein identifying a fault includes identifying a signal delivery system as being in an off state.
45. A method for treating a patient, comprising:
creating an anesthetic, non-paresthetic effect in a patient by delivering, to a target neural population at the patient's spinal cord, first pulses having a first set of first signal delivery parameters; and
based on a request from the patient, supplementing the anesthetic, non-paresthetic effect in the patient with a patient-detectable paresthetic effect by delivering, to the patient's spinal cord, second pulses having a second set of second signal delivery parameters, wherein a first value of at least one first parameter of the first set is different than a second value of a corresponding second parameter of the second set.
46. The method of claim 45 wherein the patient previously received paresthesia-inducing pulses from a first implanted spinal cord modulator, and wherein delivering the first pulses includes delivering the first pulses from a second implanted spinal cord modulator, and wherein supplementing the anesthetic, non-paresthetic effect in the patient with a patient-detectable paresthetic effect includes emulating an effect of the paresthesia-inducing pulses by delivering the second pulses from the second implanted spinal cord modulator.
47. The method of claim 45, further comprising:
fixing an amplitude of the first pulses and preventing the patient from changing the amplitude of the first pulses; and
allowing the patient to change an amplitude of the second pulses.
48. The method of claim 45 wherein providing the first and second pulses includes providing the first and second pulses to the same target neural population.
49. The method of claim 45 wherein providing the first and second pulses includes providing the first and second pulses to different target neural populations.
50. A method for treating a patient, comprising:
in a patient who previously received paresthesia-inducing pulses from a first implanted spinal cord modulator, implanting a second spinal cord modulator; and
using the second spinal cord modulator to:
create an anesthetic, non-paresthetic effect in the patient by delivering first pulses having a first set of first signal delivery parameters to a target neural population at the patient's spinal cord; and
create a patient-detectable paresthetic effect in the patient by delivering, to the patient's spinal cord, second pulses having a second set of second signal delivery parameters, wherein a first value of at least one first parameter of the first set is different than a second value of a corresponding second parameter of the second set, and wherein the paresthetic effect emulates the paresthesia-inducing pulses from the first implanted spinal cord modulator.
51. The method of claim 50, further comprising removing the first implanted spinal cord modulator from the patient and replacing the first implanted spinal cord modulator with the second spinal cord modulator.
52. The method of claim 50, further comprising:
fixing an amplitude of the first pulses and preventing the patient from changing the amplitude of the first pulses; and
allowing the patient to change an amplitude of the second pulses.
53. A patient treatment system, comprising:
a signal delivery device having a plurality of electrodes configured to be implanted within a patient, proximate to one or more target neural populations at the patient's spinal cord;
an implantable pulse generator having a controller programmed with instructions for:
directing first pulses to the signal delivery device to create an anesthetic, non-paresthetic effect in the patient, the first pulses having a first set of first signal delivery parameters; and
directing second pulses to the signal delivery device to create a paresthetic effect in the patient, the second pulses having a second set of second signal delivery parameters, wherein a first value of at least one first parameter of the first set is different than a second value of a corresponding second parameter of the second set.
54. The system of claim 53, further comprising:
an external physician programmer programmed with instructions for adjusting an amplitude of the first pulses; and
an external patient controller programmed with instructions for adjusting an amplitude of the second pulses, and programmed with instructions preventing adjustment of the amplitude of the first pulses.
55. The system of claim 53 wherein the implantable pulse generator further includes instructions for receiving updates to the first signal delivery parameters, independent of updates to the second signal delivery parameters.
56. The system of claim 53 wherein the implantable pulse generator includes instruction for interleaving one or more second pulses between sequential bursts of the first pulses.
57. The system of claim 53 wherein the implantable pulse generator includes instructions for directing the first pulses to a first electrode of the signal delivery device and directing the second pulses to a second electrode of the signal delivery device different that the first electrode.
58. The system of claim 53 wherein the first pulses have a frequency of from about 3 kHz to about 10 kHz, and the second pulses have a frequency of from about 20 Hz to about 1.2 kHz.
59. The system of claim 53 wherein the implantable pulse generator is programmed with instructions for directing the first and second pulses sequentially to the same electrode of the signal delivery device.
60. The system of claim 53 wherein the implantable pulse generator is programmed with instructions for directing the first and second pulses to the same electrode of the signal delivery device, with a single second pulse directed during an interval between sequential bursts of the first pulses, without the first pulses overlapping temporally with the second pulses, and with the first pulses having a first pulse width and the second pulses having a second pulse width less than the first pulse width, the first pulses being directed at a first frequency, the second pulses being directed at a second frequency less than the first frequency.
US12/765,685 2009-04-22 2010-04-22 Spinal cord modulation for inducing paresthetic and anesthetic effects, and associated systems and methods Abandoned US20100274312A1 (en)

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