US20100241155A1 - Guide system with suction - Google Patents

Guide system with suction Download PDF

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Publication number
US20100241155A1
US20100241155A1 US12/408,524 US40852409A US2010241155A1 US 20100241155 A1 US20100241155 A1 US 20100241155A1 US 40852409 A US40852409 A US 40852409A US 2010241155 A1 US2010241155 A1 US 2010241155A1
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United States
Prior art keywords
guide catheter
catheter
guide
suction
portion
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Abandoned
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US12/408,524
Inventor
John Y. Chang
Eric Goldfarb
Serena Swei
Mei Y. Pader
Michael J. Gottesman
Richard R. Newhauser, JR.
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Acclarent Inc
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Acclarent Inc
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Priority to US12/408,524 priority Critical patent/US20100241155A1/en
Assigned to ACCLARENT, INC. reassignment ACCLARENT, INC. ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: CHANG, JOHN Y., GOLDFARB, ERIC, GOTTESMAN, MICHAEL J., NEWHAUSER, RICHARD R., PADER, MEI Y., SWEI, SERENA
Publication of US20100241155A1 publication Critical patent/US20100241155A1/en
Application status is Abandoned legal-status Critical

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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/24Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets for use in the oral cavity, larynx, bronchial passages or nose; Tongue scrapers
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/34Trocars; Puncturing needles
    • A61B17/3415Trocars; Puncturing needles for introducing tubes or catheters, e.g. gastrostomy tubes, drain catheters
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/34Trocars; Puncturing needles
    • A61B17/3417Details of tips or shafts, e.g. grooves, expandable, bendable; Multiple coaxial sliding cannulas, e.g. for dilating
    • A61B17/3421Cannulas
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M25/00Catheters; Hollow probes
    • A61M25/0021Catheters; Hollow probes characterised by the form of the tubing
    • A61M25/0041Catheters; Hollow probes characterised by the form of the tubing pre-formed, e.g. specially adapted to fit with the anatomy of body channels
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M25/00Catheters; Hollow probes
    • A61M25/0043Catheters; Hollow probes characterised by structural features
    • A61M25/0054Catheters; Hollow probes characterised by structural features with regions for increasing flexibility
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M25/00Catheters; Hollow probes
    • A61M25/0067Catheters; Hollow probes characterised by the distal end, e.g. tips
    • A61M25/0068Static characteristics of the catheter tip, e.g. shape, atraumatic tip, curved tip or tip structure
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
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    • A61M25/008Strength or flexibility characteristics of the catheter tip
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
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    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
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    • A61M25/0097Catheters; Hollow probes characterised by the hub
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
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    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M25/00Catheters; Hollow probes
    • A61M25/01Introducing, guiding, advancing, emplacing or holding catheters
    • A61M25/06Body-piercing guide needles or the like
    • A61M25/0662Guide tubes
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
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    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
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    • A61M25/01Introducing, guiding, advancing, emplacing or holding catheters
    • A61M25/09Guide wires
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M29/00Dilators with or without means for introducing media, e.g. remedies
    • A61M29/02Dilators made of swellable material
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
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    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B1/00Instruments for performing medical examinations of the interior of cavities or tubes of the body by visual or photographical inspection, e.g. endoscopes; Illuminating arrangements therefor
    • A61B1/267Instruments for performing medical examinations of the interior of cavities or tubes of the body by visual or photographical inspection, e.g. endoscopes; Illuminating arrangements therefor for the respiratory tract, e.g. laryngoscopes, bronchoscopes
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
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    • A61B2017/00681Aspects not otherwise provided for
    • A61B2017/00738Aspects not otherwise provided for part of the tool being offset with respect to a main axis, e.g. for better view for the surgeon
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
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    • A61B17/24Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets for use in the oral cavity, larynx, bronchial passages or nose; Tongue scrapers
    • A61B2017/246Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets for use in the oral cavity, larynx, bronchial passages or nose; Tongue scrapers for cleaning of the nose
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
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    • A61B17/3417Details of tips or shafts, e.g. grooves, expandable, bendable; Multiple coaxial sliding cannulas, e.g. for dilating
    • A61B17/3421Cannulas
    • A61B2017/345Cannulas for introduction into a natural body opening
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
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    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/34Trocars; Puncturing needles
    • A61B17/3417Details of tips or shafts, e.g. grooves, expandable, bendable; Multiple coaxial sliding cannulas, e.g. for dilating
    • A61B2017/3454Details of tips
    • A61B2017/346Details of tips with wings
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B2217/00General characteristics of surgical instruments
    • A61B2217/002Auxiliary appliance
    • A61B2217/005Auxiliary appliance with suction drainage system
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M2210/00Anatomical parts of the body
    • A61M2210/06Head
    • A61M2210/0681Sinus (maxillaris)
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M25/00Catheters; Hollow probes
    • A61M25/0067Catheters; Hollow probes characterised by the distal end, e.g. tips
    • A61M25/0074Dynamic characteristics of the catheter tip, e.g. openable, closable, expandable or deformable
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M25/00Catheters; Hollow probes
    • A61M25/0067Catheters; Hollow probes characterised by the distal end, e.g. tips
    • A61M25/0082Catheter tip comprising a tool

Abstract

A guide catheter for use in treating sinuses, the catheter including a catheter shaft configured to provide suction about a balloon catheter and a distal portion shaped for navigating body anatomy. In one embodiment, the guide catheter includes a valve for sealing the balloon catheter and a vent for controlling suction.

Description

    FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • The present invention relates generally to medical devices and methods and more particularly to devices, systems and methods for treating sinusitis.
  • BACKGROUND
  • Chronic sinusitis is a medical condition that affects the lives of millions of people every year. In fact, it has been estimated that chronic sinusitis results in 18 million to 22 million physician office visits per year in the United States. Chronic sinusitis refers to inflammation of the paranasal sinuses that lasts for three months or more or that occurs frequently. The condition can be very debilitating, often causing headaches, facial pain, excessive nasal drainage, difficultly breathing through the nose and other symptoms, and often making certain activities such as flying in an airplane very painful. The overall costs to society of chronic sinusitis are enormous, in terms of medical costs, missed days of work, etc.
  • The paranasal sinuses are air spaces behind the bones of the upper face, between the eyes and behind the forehead, nose and cheeks. On each side of the face there is one set of frontal sinuses (in the forehead), maxillary sinuses (in the cheek bones), ethmoid sinuses (between the eyes) and sphenoid sinuses (farther back behind the eyes). The frontal, maxillary and sphenoid sinuses are all connected to, and drain into, the nasal cavity via openings called ostia (“ostium” singular). The nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses are made of bone covered with mucous tissue, and the mucous tissue has small, hair-like projections called cilia, which move together to sweep mucus through and out of the sinuses as a kind of filter. When the mucosal tissue of the sinuses becomes inflamed, often due to infection, it sometimes swells and can block one or more ostia, thus preventing the movement of mucus from the sinuses to the nasal cavity and thus causing blockage, pressure build-up, and the symptoms of sinusitis. This blockage can sometimes last for long periods of time or recur again and again, causing a great deal of discomfort.
  • One of the ways to treat sinusitis is by restoring the flow of mucus through and out of the sinuses via the openings (ostia) into the nasal cavity. Typically, the initial therapy attempted in treating sinusitis is drug therapy and nasal sprays—anti-inflammatory agents to reduce inflammation of the mucosal tissue and antibiotics to treat infection. A large number of patients do not respond to nasal spray/drug therapy, however. Patients with chronic or recurring sinusitis may and do not respond to drug therapy may then decide to undergo a surgical procedure.
  • One form of surgical procedure for treating chronic sinusitis is a called Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (“FESS”). In FESS, a rigid endoscope is inserted into the nose, and a surgeon uses one or more rigid instruments, such as shavers and graspers, to remove diseased or hypertrophic mucosal tissue and bone and in some cases enlarge the ostia of the sinuses to attempt to “open up” and restore normal drainage of the sinuses. These FESS procedures are successful in many cases but do have a number of significant drawbacks. For example, general anesthesia is required for a FESS procedure. Also, because significant amounts of soft tissue and bone are typically removed, FESS can cause significant bleeding and post-operative pain, and thus recovery from surgery can be painful and take many days or even weeks. Because FESS procedures are often associated with significant postoperative bleeding, nasal packing is frequently placed in the patient's nose for some period of time following the surgery. Such nasal packing can be uncomfortable and can interfere with normal breathing, eating, drinking etc. This packing often must be removed and replaced, which can be very uncomfortable. Scar tissue may also have to be removed in the physician's office, in a procedure called a “debridement,” which can also be very painful. Also, some patients remain symptomatic even after multiple FESS surgeries. Additionally, some FESS procedures are associated with risks of iatrogenic orbital, intracranial and sinonasal injury. Many otolaryngologists consider FESS an option only for patients who suffer from severe sinus disease (e.g., those showing significant abnormalities under CT scan). Thus, patients with less severe disease may not be considered candidates for FESS and may be left with no option but drug therapy. One of the reasons why FESS procedures can be bloody and painful relates to the fact that instruments having straight, rigid shafts are used. In order to target deep areas of the anatomy with such straight rigid instrumentation, the physician needs to resect and remove or otherwise manipulate any anatomical structures that may lie in the direct path of the instruments, regardless of whether those anatomical structures are part of the pathology.
  • As an alternative to traditional FESS procedures, the assignee of the present application has invented a number of less invasive/less traumatic systems, devices and methods for treating chronic sinusitis by expanding openings between the nasal cavity and the paranasal sinuses using an expandable dilation device. In some instances, these and other methods for treating sinusitis or other conditions may involve advancing one or more devices into the nasal cavity and/or a paranasal sinus via a guide device, such as a guide catheter. Because the anatomy of the nasal cavity, the paranasal sinuses and the openings between the two is very complex, small and tortuous, and because damage to mucosal tissue in the nasal cavity and sinuses may cause post-operative pain and bleeding, a need exists for guide devices that are relatively easy to use in this anatomy and are as atraumatic as possible. The present disclosure addresses these and other needs.
  • SUMMARY
  • Briefly and in general terms, the present disclosure is directed to a system and method for treating paranasal sinuses. In one particular aspect, the disclosed system and method is employed to treat sinusitis.
  • In one particular embodiment, the system for treating sinuses includes a guide catheter including a catheter shaft configured to receive a balloon catheter and to provide suction while the balloon catheter resides in the catheter shaft. The guide catheter can further include a proximal portion having a first stiffness and a distal portion having a second stiffness less than the first stiffness. The distal portion can be curved and have a diameter which is less than a diameter of the proximal portion. The system can additionally include a valve for sealing the balloon catheter as well as a suction port and vent.
  • In further embodiments, the system is contemplated to include a guidewire over which the balloon catheter can be advanced. It is also contemplated that the guidewire can be illuminating. Moreover, the distal tip of the guide catheter can be beveled in a manner to facilitate placement behind an ucinate process and can further embody a flexible material providing a less traumatic interface for engaging anatomy such as an ethmoid bulla. The flexibility of the distal tip can be chosen such that it expands to receive a balloon catheter. Additionally, the guide catheter can embody a tapered profile such that a distal portion thereof defines a smaller dimension than a proximal section.
  • The guide catheter can also include a proximally oriented flange providing a connection to other devices. The flange can be equipped with structure to register with such other devices as well as operator gripping surfaces. A vent is further contemplated to provide suction control.
  • Various different shapes of the distal end of the guide catheter are also contemplated. In particular, the distal tip can include various shaped flange structures intended to reduce trauma. The tip can also include structure providing visualization under fluoroscopy.
  • In related methods, treatment of the sinuses can include inserting a guide catheter within a head of a patient and advancing a flexible device through the guide catheter. A suction force is generated about the flexible device and the flexible device is advanced beyond a distal end of the guide catheter and into the patient's sinuses. In one particular aspect, the flexible device is a balloon catheter and the balloon catheter is employed to dilate an ostium of a paranasal sinus. The method can further involve employing a guidewire over which the interventional devices are placed.
  • Further aspects, details and embodiments of the present disclosure are set forth in the following detailed description of the invention and the accompanying drawings.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • FIG. 1 shows a schematic diagram of a system for catheter-based minimally invasive sinus surgery of the present invention being used to perform a sinus surgery procedure on a human patient.
  • FIG. 1A is an enlarged view of portion “1A” of FIG. 1.
  • FIGS. 2A through 2D are partial sagittal sectional views through a human head showing various steps of a method for gaining access to a paranasal sinus using a guide and thereafter dilating or remodeling the ostial opening into a sphenoid paranasal sinus.
  • FIGS. 3A-3D are coronal sectional views through a human head showing various steps of a method for gaining access to a paranasal sinus using a guide and thereafter dilating or remodeling the ostial opening into a maxillary paranasal sinus.
  • FIGS. 4A through 4D are partial coronal sectional views through a human head showing various steps of a method of accessing a maxillary paranasal sinus through an artificially created opening of the paranasal sinus and then dilating the artificially created opening, the natural paranasal sinus ostium or both.
  • FIG. 5 shows a perspective view of a tubular guide equipped for optional suctioning.
  • FIG. 5A shows a side view of an alternative embodiment of a tubular guide with a pinch tube.
  • FIG. 6 depicts a partial cross-sectional view of a guide catheter system including a balloon catheter and suction structure.
  • FIG. 7 shows a distal portion of the guide catheter system depicted in FIG. 6.
  • FIGS. 8-11 depict treating a sinus cavity with a guide catheter system.
  • FIG. 12 shows an alternative distal portion for a guide catheter.
  • FIG. 13 depicts a cross-section of a distal terminal end portion of a guide catheter system.
  • FIGS. 14A-C shows various views of a distal terminal end portion of a guide catheter system.
  • FIGS. 15A and B show a distal terminal end portion of an alternative guide catheter system.
  • FIG. 16 shows another alternative terminal end portion of a guide catheter.
  • FIGS. 17A and B depict another approach to a terminal end portion.
  • FIGS. 18A and B show a further approach to a terminal end.
  • FIGS. 19A-D depict yet further terminal end portions for a guide catheter system.
  • FIGS. 20A and B show views of an additional approach to a distal end portion of a guide catheter.
  • FIGS. 21A-C depict various views of a terminal end portion for guide catheter system which include an angled surface.
  • FIGS. 22A and B show another guide catheter system with an oval terminal end opening.
  • FIG. 23 depicts another alternative terminal end portion of a guide catheter system.
  • FIGS. 24A-C depict various approaches to sealing structure for a guide catheter.
  • FIGS. 25A and B are partial cross-sectional views depicting alternative approaches to a hub assembly for a guide catheter.
  • FIG. 26 depicts a guide catheter hub including a suction connection.
  • FIGS. 27A and B show a partial cross-sectional view of an auxiliary device connecting with a guide catheter hub.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • The following detailed description, the accompanying drawings and the above-set-forth Brief Description of the Drawings are intended to describe some, but not necessarily all, examples or embodiments of the invention. The contents of this detailed description do not limit the scope of the invention set forth in the claims.
  • A number of the drawings in this patent application show anatomical structures of the ear, nose and throat. In general, these anatomical structures are labeled with the following reference letters:
  • Nasal Cavity NC
    Nasopharynx NP
    Frontal Sinus FS
    Sphenoid Sinus SS
    Sphenoid Sinus Ostium SSO
    Maxillary Sinus MS
  • FIGS. 1 and 1A illustrate a patient on an operating table with a minimally invasive surgery system in position to perform a dilation procedure on one or more paranasal sinuses. The system shown includes a C-arm fluoroscope 1000, a first introducing device 1002 (e.g., a guide catheter or guide tube), a second introducing device 1004 (e.g., a guidewire or elongate probe) and a working device 1006 (e.g., a balloon catheter, other dilation catheter, debrider, cutter, etc.).
  • In some embodiments, the devices 1002, 1004, 1006 may be radiopaque and/or may incorporate radiopaque markers such that C-arm fluoroscope 1000 may be used to image and monitor the positioning of the devices 1002, 1004, 1006 during the procedure. In addition to, or as an alternative to, the use of radiographic imaging, the devices 1002, 1004, 1006 may incorporate and/or may be used in conjunction with one or more endoscopic devices, such as the typical rigid or flexible endoscopes or stereo endocscopes used by otolaryngologists during FESS procedures. Also, in addition to or as an alternative to radiographic imaging and/or endoscopic visualizations, some embodiments of the devices 1002, 1004, 1006 may incorporate sensors which enable the devices 1002, 1004, 1006 to be used in conjunction with image guided surgery systems or other electro-anatomical mapping/guidance systems including but not limited to: VectorVision (BrainLAB AG); HipNav (CASurgica); CBYON Suite (CBYON); InstaTrak, FluoroTrak, ENTrak (GE Medical); StealthStation Treon, iOn (Medtronic); Medivision; Navitrack (Orthosoft); OTS (Radionics); VISLAN (Siemens); Stryker Navigation System (Stryker Leibinger); Voyager, Z-Box (Z-Kat Inc.) and NOGA and CARTO systems (Johnson & Johnson). Commercially available interventional navigation systems can also be used in conjunction with the devices and methods. Further non-fluoroscopic interventional imaging technologies including but not limited to: OrthoPilot (B. Braun Aesculap); PoleStar (Odin Medical Technologies; marketed by Medtronic); SonoDoppler, SonoWand (MISON); CT Guide, US Guide (UltraGuide) etc. may also be used in conjunction with the devices and methods. Guidance under magnetic resonance is also feasible if the catheter is modified to interact with the system appropriately.
  • The devices and methods of the present invention relate to the accessing and dilation or modification of sinus ostia or other passageways within the ear nose and throat. These devices and methods may be used alone or may be used in conjunction with other surgical or non-surgical treatments, including but not limited to the delivery or implantation of devices and drugs or other substances as described in copending U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/912,578 entitled Implantable Devices and Methods for Delivering Drugs and Other Substances to Treat Sinusitis and Other Disorders filed on Aug. 4, 2004, the entire disclosure of which is expressly incorporated herein by reference.
  • FIGS. 2A-2D are partial sagittal sectional views through a human head showing various steps of a method of gaining access to and treating a paranasal sinus using a guide catheter. Although FIGS. 2A-2D demonstrate a method for accessing and treating a sphenoid paranasal sinus, in alternative embodiments this or analogous methods and devices may be used to access and treat any of the other paranasal sinuses (maxillary, frontal and/or ethmoid).
  • In FIG. 2A, a first introducing device in the form of a guide catheter 200 is introduced through a nostril and through a nasal cavity NC to a location close to an ostium SSO of a sphenoid sinus SS. The guide catheter 200 may be flexible. Flexible devices are defined as devices with a flexural stiffness less than about 200 pound-force per inch over a device length of one inch. The guide catheter 200 may be straight or it may incorporate one or more preformed curves or bends. In embodiments where the guide catheter 200 is curved or bent, the deflection angle of the curve or bend may be in the range of up to 135°. Examples of specific deflection angles formed by the curved or bent regions of the guide catheter 200 are 0°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 70°, 90°, 120° and 135°. Guide catheter 200 can be constructed from suitable elements like PEBAX, Polyimide, Braided Polyimide, Polyurethane, Nylon, PVC, Hytrel, HDPE, PEEK, metals like stainless steel and fluoropolymers like PTFE, PFA, FEP and EPTFE. Guide catheter 200 can have a variety of surface coatings e.g. hydrophilic lubricious coatings, hydrophobic lubricious coatings, abrasion resisting coatings, puncture resisting coatings, electrically or thermal conductive coatings, radiopaque coatings, echogenic coatings, thrombogenicity reducing coatings and coatings that release drugs.
  • In FIG. 2B, a second introduction device comprising a guidewire 202 is introduced through the first introduction device (i.e., the guide catheter 200) so that the guidewire 202 enters the sphenoid sinus SS through the ostium SSO. Guidewire 202 may be constructed and coated as is common in the art of cardiology.
  • In FIG. 2C, a working device 204, for example a balloon catheter, is introduced over guidewire 202 into the sphenoid sinus SS. Thereafter, in FIG. 2D, the working device 204 is used to perform a diagnostic or therapeutic procedure. In this particular example, the procedure is dilation of the sphenoid sinus ostium SSO, as is evident from FIG. 2D. However, the present invention may also be used to dilate or modify any other sinus ostium or other man-made or naturally occurring anatomical opening or passageway within the nose, paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx or adjacent areas, including but not limited to natural paranasal sinus ostia of the maxillary, frontal and/or ethmoid sinuses. After the completion of the procedure, guide catheter 200, guidewire 202 and working device 204 are withdrawn and removed. In this or any of the procedures described in this patent application, the operator may additionally advance other types of catheters or of the present invention, a guidewire 202 may be steerable (e.g. torquable, actively deformable) or shapeable or malleable. Guidewire 202 may comprise an embedded endoscope or other navigation or imaging modalities including but not limited to fluoroscopic, X-ray radiographic, ultrasonic, radiofrequency localization, electromagnetic, magnetic, robotic and other radiative energy based modalities. In this regard, some of the figures show optional scopes SC is dotted lines. Such optional scopes SC may comprise any suitable types of rigid or flexible endoscopes and such optional scopes SC may be separate from or incorporated into the working devices and/or introduction devices of the present invention.
  • Optionally, the methods disclosed herein may also comprise the step of cleaning or lavaging anatomy within the nose, paranasal sinus, nasopharynx or nearby structures including but not limited to irrigating and suctioning. The step of cleaning the target anatomy can be performed before or after a diagnostic or therapeutic procedure.
  • The methods of the present invention may also include one or more preparatory steps for preparing the nose, paranasal sinus, nasopharynx or nearby structures for the procedure, such as spraying or lavaging with a vasoconstricting agent (e.g., 0.025-0.5% phenylephyrine or Oxymetazoline hydrochloride (Neosynephrine or Afrin) to cause shrinkage of the nasal tissues, an antibacterial agent (e.g., provodine iodine (Betadine), etc. to cleanse the tissues, etc.
  • As shown in FIGS. 3A-3D, in one embodiment a maxillary sinus may be treated by dilating an ostium thereto. As shown in FIG. 3A, a guide catheter 290 may be advanced into a patient's nostril to position a distal end thereof adjacent the maxillary sinus ostium. As shown in FIG. 3B, a guidewire 294 may then be advanced through the guide 290 and through the maxillary sinus ostium, into the maxillary sinus. Next, as shown in FIG. 3C, a balloon catheter 302 may be advanced through the guide catheter 290 over the guidewire 294, to position an expandable balloon 304 of the balloon catheter 302 within the maxillary ostium. Then, as shown in FIG. 3D, the expandable balloon 304 may be inflated to dilate the natural paranasal sinus ostium of the maxillary sinus. When the dilation procedure is complete, the guide catheter 290, guidewire 294 and balloon catheter 302 may all be removed from the patient. In an alternative embodiment, the guide catheter 290 and/or the guidewire 294 may be left in the patient, the balloon catheter 302 may be removed, and another flexible device (not shown in the figures) may be advanced over and/or through the guide catheter and/the guidewire 294 into the maxillary sinus to perform an additional procedure. For example, in one embodiment, an irrigation catheter may be advanced through the guide catheter 290 and used to irrigate the sinus. Such an irrigation catheter may be advanced without a guidewire 294 or using a guidewire 294 in alternative embodiments.
  • FIGS. 4A-4D are partial coronal sectional views through a human head showing various steps of a method of accessing a maxillary paranasal sinus through an artificially created opening into the sinus and dilating the artificial opening, the natural paranasal sinus ostium or both. In some embodiments, rather than accessing a paranasal sinus via the natural sinus ostium, an artificial opening may be made into a sinus. In some embodiments, a guide may be used to then guide a balloon catheter or other dilator (with or without guidewire) through the artificial opening, into the sinus. The dilator may then be advanced to the natural paranasal sinus ostium and used to dilate the natural ostium, may be used to dilate the artificial opening, or both.
  • In FIG. 4A, a puncturing device 300 is inserted through a nostril and used to create an artificial opening in a maxillary sinus. Examples of such puncturing devices include but are not limited to straight needles, needles with bent shafts, dissectors, punches, drills, corers, scalpels, burs, scissors, forceps and cutters. In FIG. 4B, puncturing device 300 is withdrawn and a working device, for example a balloon catheter 302, is introduced through the artificial opening into the maxillary sinus. In FIG. 4C, balloon catheter 302 is used to dilate the artificially created opening in the maxillary sinus. After this step, the balloon catheter 302 is withdrawn. In another embodiment, as shown in FIG. 4D, the balloon catheter 302 may be advanced through the artificial opening into the maxillary sinus and then advanced farther into the maxillary sinus to position the balloon of the catheter 302 in the natural paranasal sinus ostium. In some embodiments, this advancement to the natural ostium may be performed after dilating the artificial opening. Alternatively, the balloon catheter 302 may be advanced in some embodiments without dilating the artificial opening.
  • In some embodiments, a balloon catheter 302 may be advanced over a guidewire to the natural paranasal sinus ostium. Alternatively, the balloon catheter 302 may be advanced without the use of a guidewire in other embodiments. In some embodiments, the puncturing device 300 may have a lumen through which an introduction device (e.g., a guidewire or other elongate probe or member), may be inserted into the maxillary sinus, and the puncturing device 300 may then be removed, leaving such introduction device (e.g., a guidewire or other elongate probe or member) in place. In such cases, the working device (e.g., balloon catheter 302) may incorporate a lumen or other structure that allows the working device (e.g., balloon catheter 300) to be advanced over the previously inserted introduction device (e.g., a guidewire or other elongate probe or member). In some embodiments, the piercing device may include a lumen, and the balloon catheter 302 may be advanced through the piercing device into the maxillary sinus, either with or without a guidewire in various embodiments. Again, similar methods and devices may be used to access and treat other paranasal sinuses in alternative embodiments.
  • In another alternative embodiment (not shown in FIGS. 4A-4D), a piercing device may be used to create an opening into a maxillary sinus at a different location, and a guide catheter may be used to access the sinus through the opening. For example, in one embodiment the artificial opening may be made through a canine fossa into a maxillary sinus. In another embodiment, a trephine incision may be made into a frontal paranasal sinus. In other embodiments, an artificial opening may be formed into an ethmoid or sphenoid sinus. In some embodiments, a guide may then be placed through the artificial opening and used to access the natural paranasal sinus ostium. In other embodiments, the guide catheter may remain outside the sinus, near the artificial opening, and used to guide a guidewire and/or other device(s) into the sinus. In alternative embodiments, the artificial opening may be dilated, the natural paranasal sinus ostium may be dilated, or both. These methods may be applied to any paranasal sinus. As will be described in greater detail below, any of these guide catheters, whether used to access a paranasal sinus via a natural or artificial opening, may be provided with suction capabilities according to various embodiments of the present invention.
  • Any of the guide catheters or other luminal devices disclosed herein may have suction capabilities and thus can comprise an arrangement for suctioning an anatomical region through the distal end of the guide catheter or device. In some embodiments, a guide catheter may be provided along with an adapter to attach the guide to a suction source. In another embodiment, a guide catheter may have an integrated or built-in suction attachment, so that an adapter is not necessary. Currently, physicians use a traditional suction device to clear the surgical field when using surgical devices in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. This requires the surgeon to frequently exchange devices, picking up and putting down the traditional suction device many times per case. Allowing the surgeon to suction through the guide catheter while simultaneously passing guidewires, balloons, irrigation catheters and/or the like through the guide catheter can simplify the surgical procedure. A suction adapter can attach to a proximal end of the guide catheter. It can include a valve in-line with an axis of the guide catheter shaft, the valve allowing devices such as guidewires, balloons, and irrigation catheters to be passed through the suction adapter and guide catheter while maintaining suction through the lumen of the guide catheter. Extension tubing can be configured to run offset from the body of the suction adapter. The extension tubing may terminate in a stepped adapter and/or an on-off valve to improve ease of use.
  • To connect to the guide catheter, a male slip-fit luer can be used. This provides a mechanically secure and airtight seal while allowing for easy rotational adjustment of the guide catheter with respect to the suction adapter. Moreover, a hole through the body of the suction adapter allows for easy control of the amount of suction through the guide catheter. When the hole is not occluded, there is little or no vacuum at the distal end of the guide catheter. The surgeon can partially or fully occlude the hole with his finger to increase the vacuum at the tip of the guide catheter. An on/off switch can be further provided to control suction activation. The switch is placed to “on” and then the hole is occluded to initiate suctioning. Further, a silicone or polyisoprrene valve can be used to maintain a seal around guidewires, balloons or irrigation catheters. The valve is fully closed when no device is present. Extension tubing in the form of lightweight tubing can be used to connect the suction adapter to heavier gauge tubing used commonly in operating rooms. The tubing has sufficient wall thickness to prevent collapse under vacuum but does not add mass or ergonomic challenges to the guide catheter.
  • For example, FIG. 5A shows a guide with a proximal adapter for attaching to suction. More specifically, the guide catheter 500 can comprise an elongate tube 502 that may be made of suitable biocompatible materials, including but not limited to metals such as stainless steel, titanium, Nickel-titanium alloy (e.g., Nitinol), etc.; plastics such as PEBAX, PEEK, Nylon, polyethylene, etc. The distal region of elongate tube 502 may comprise a curved, bent or angled region. In some embodiments, the distal end of elongate tube 502 may comprise an atraumatic tip 504. Although various modes of construction may be used, in the example shown, an elongate hypotube 506 is disposed on the outer surface of elongate tube 502 and the proximal end of guide catheter 500 comprises a branched or Y-connector 508. The proximal region of Y-connector 508 comprises a straight arm 510 and a side arm 512. The proximal end of straight arm 510 comprises a suitable hub 514. In one embodiment, hub 514 is a female luer hub. In another embodiment, hub 514 comprises a rotating hemostasis valve such as a Touhy-Borst adapter. The proximal end of side arm 512 comprises a suitable hub 516. In one embodiment, hub 516 comprises a rotating hemostasis valve such as a Touhy-Borst adapter to adjust the amount of suction. Hub 516 is connected to a suction tube 518 that provides suction to guide catheter 500. Thus, guide catheter 500 can be used to provide suction as well as introduce one or more diagnostic, therapeutic or access devices into the anatomy.
  • In an alternative approach, the guide catheter can be further equipped with a pinch tube 550 (See FIG. 5B). The pinch tube is connected to a proximal end of the Y-connecter 508 and can be formed from silicone or another flexible material. Further, a proximal end of the elongate tube 502 can be configured with a female luer 552 which mates with a male luer 554 attached to the Y-connector 508. In use, the pinch tube 550 is pinched closed by a physician about a guidewire 551 or other device to occlude the lumen extending through the guide to thereby facilitate suctioning. As before, suction forces are applied through the side arm 512.
  • Turning now to FIGS. 6 and 7, in one embodiment, a guide catheter system 600 may include a guide catheter 601 having a shaft 610 and a hub assembly 604 disposed at the proximal end of the shaft 610. The shaft 610 may include a proximal portion 603 having a first diameter, a terminal end portion 602 having a second, smaller diameter, a tapering transition 614 between the two, and a lumen 608 extending through the length of the shaft 610 and through the hub assembly 604. (The internal portion of the hub assembly 604 may be a lumen, a chamber or the like in fluid communication with the lumen 608 of the catheter shaft 610.) In some embodiments, the guide catheter system 600 may further include a guidewire 612 and/or a balloon catheter 606, as shown in FIG. 6. In some embodiments, the guide catheter system 600 may further include a suction device, such as suction tubing 633.
  • The outer profile of the shaft 610 is configured for advancement into a nasal cavity so that one or more devices may be advanced through the lumen 608 into a paranasal sinus. The tapering transition 614 is provided between the shaft proximal portion 603 and the distal portion 602 such that the distal portion 602 has a smaller cross-section than the proximal portion 603. In this way, a balloon catheter 606 can reside in the proximal portion 603 while suction forces are passed through the lumen 608, around the balloon catheter 606 structure. This configuration may be useful, for example, in advancing the guide catheter system 600 into a nostril of a patient with the balloon catheter 606 preloaded into the guide lumen 608 and allowing for suction during advancement and positioning of the guide catheter 601. Suction during advancement and positioning of the guide catheter 601 is advantageous because it allows for the removal of blood and mucus from the field in which the surgeon is working, thus facilitating visualization of the area and access to a paranasal sinus.
  • The shaft distal terminal portion 602 of the guide catheter 601 defines a specific curved profile intended to direct one or more devices advanced through the lumen 608 into a natural or manmade opening of a paranasal sinus. In one embodiment, the most distal tip 616 of the terminal end portion 602 is more flexible than the rest of the shaft 610. Accordingly, PEBAX is one contemplated material for the distal tip 616. An intermediate portion 618 of the shaft 610, which may include the tapering transition 614, may be made of a flexible material as well, but in one embodiment this material may be less flexible than material used to form the distal tip 616. For example, in one embodiment, the intermediate portion 618 may be formed of a nylon material. The proximal portion 603 of the shaft 610 proximal to this intermediate portion 618 may be formed of a more rigid material, such as but not limited to a more rigid polymer and/or a stainless steel hypotube 619.
  • One advantage of the flexible distal tip 616 is that it causes less trauma to soft mucosal tissue lining the nasal cavity as the guide catheter 601 is advanced, manipulated and retracted. For example, when the guide catheter 601 is advanced into the nasal cavity, the tip 616 may often contact the ethmoid bulla, and a flexible tip 616 will cause less trauma than a rigid one. In some embodiments, the distal tip 616 may also expand as a deflated balloon catheter 606 is drawn back into the guide catheter after a balloon dilation procedure has been performed. This expansion (or “give”) may reduce the amount of force required to pull the balloon catheter 606 back into the guide catheter 601 after a procedure, thus making use of the balloon catheter 606/guide catheter 601 system easier. This also allows the distal tip 616 diameter to be made smaller than it otherwise would, which further reduces trauma during use and also facilitates positioning of the distal tip 616 at a desired location in the anatomy. The tip 616 may also be provided with an expandable radiopaque band to aid in tracking positioning during an interventional procedure as well as to maintain an atraumatic profile.
  • Further, the PEBAX distal tip 616 is shaped relative to the adjacent proximal portion 618 for navigation through and about nasal cavity structures. For instance, in one embodiment, the curved shape of the tip portion 616 facilitates navigating about an ucinate process, so that one or more devices may be navigated into a maxillary sinus. In one embodiment, a junction between the distal tip 616 and the adjacent intermediate portion 618 is slanted. This slanted connection increases the area of the distal tip 616 portion relative to the intermediate portion 618, thus increasing the area of the most flexible portion of the shaft 610, which enhances the prevention of soft tissue trauma. The angled shape of the terminal end portion 602 is retained in part due to the more rigid nylon of the intermediate portion 618 and its slanted junction with the distal tip portion 616.
  • In various alternative embodiments, a guide device such as the one described above and below may have any suitable angled configuration. For example, embodiments may be provided with different angles to facilitate access to maxillary, frontal, sphenoid and ethmoid paranasal sinuses. In various embodiments, the distal tip 616 may be angled relative to the rest of the shaft 610 at angles from approximately 0° to approximately 180°. In some embodiments, a combination of guide catheters 601 having different angled configurations may be provided, such as a set of guide catheters 601 having angles of 0°, 30°, 70° and 110°. A surgeon may the select a guide catheter 601 with a desired angle for accessing a given paranasal sinus. In various embodiments, any angle or guides with any combination of angles may be provided.
  • In various embodiments, the outer an inner diameters of the shaft 610, including the terminal end portion 602, tapering transition 614 and proximal portion 603, may have a number of different sizes, as long as the shaft 610 is configured for advancement into the nasal cavity. The terminal end portion 602 and distal tip portion 616, in particular, may be sized to facilitate positioning near an opening to a paranasal sinus. In one embodiment, for example, the distal tip 616 can have an inner diameter of approximately 0.093 inches. This diameter structure can extend longitudinally from the tip 616 and to the catheter portion distal to the taper 614 and can define a relatively long dimension. A tip envelop 620 of the terminal end portion 602, however, can assume a relatively short dimension so that it can more easily pass through nasal anatomy and thus potentially engaging less structure as it is inserted, for example, past a middle turbinate. The “tip envelope,” for the purposes of this application, is defined as the length of a line drawn perpendicularly from the extreme distal end of the distal tip 616 to an oppositely facing surface of the straight portion of the terminal end portion 602, as shown in FIG. 7.
  • As shown in FIGS. 6 and 7, in one embodiment, the extreme distal end of the distal tip 616 may have a bevelled shaped. The bevelled shape also facilitates insertion and positioning relative to nasal cavity anatomy, such as directing the guide catheter 601 around the ucinate process to gain access to the maxillary sinus ostium. Moreover, the particular configuration of the beveled tip 616 permits an operator to view the opening of the tip when the device is placed within a nostril. This is due to the opening of the bevelled structure pointing back toward the operator. Such direct viewing of the opening of the tip 616 can aid in device manipulation and positioning.
  • In some embodiments, the lumen 608 in the terminal end portion 602 may have an inner diameter sized so that when the balloon catheter 606 is advanced within that portion of the lumen 608, suction is no longer possible, since an interference fit is created between the inner wall of the lumen 608 of the distal terminal end portion 602 and the outer surface of the balloon. In an alternative embodiment, it may still be possible to draw suction through the lumen 608 and around the balloon catheter 606, even in this advanced position, though the amount of suction force will be less when the balloon resides in the terminal end portion 602 compared with when it resides in the proximal shaft portion 603. Suction force may then be resumed again when the balloon catheter 606 is advanced distally beyond the tip 612 to perform an interventional procedure, although in some cases the primary use of suction may be during initial advancement and positioning of the guide catheter system 600 in the nasal cavity.
  • A proximal valve 624 is provided within the guide lumen 608 (or chamber of the hub 604). In one embodiment, the valve 624 forms a seal about the balloon catheter 606 to thereby facilitate the application of suction forces within the lumen 608. In one embodiment, the valve can be configured so that it also may form a seal around a guidewire 612. However, in an alternative embodiment, the valve does not form a seal about a guidewire 612, so that suction is only created when the balloon catheter 606 or another flexible device having a larger diameter than the guidewire 612 is positioned within the lumen 608.
  • The hub 604 of the guide catheter 601 further includes a vent 628 and a suction port 630. A most proximal portion is equipped with a flange 631 shaped for easy gripping by an operator. In one embodiment, for example, the flange 631 may be used by a surgeon to grip the guide catheter 601 like a syringe and advance the balloon catheter 606 through the guide catheter 601 with the same hand. In alternative embodiments, either standard or custom suction tubing 632 can be attached to the suction port 630 to create the desired suction force. Moreover, the suction port 630 is angled proximally so that a guidewire 612 advanced through the hub 604 will not exit the suction port 630.
  • The vent 628 is sized and positioned to accept an operator's finger, so that suction provided through the suction port 630 will be applied at the distal tip 616 of the guide catheter 601. In some embodiments, the vent 628 can define a short tubular path from an outer surface of the hub 604 to an inner wall of the hub 604 and can be directed proximally in a manner similar to the suction port 630, to prevent a guidewire 612 from passing through the vent 628. In one alternative embodiment, the vent 628 may also or alternatively be covered with a grate-like structure to prevent a guidewire 612 from passing therethrough.
  • With reference now to FIGS. 8-11, a method of using the guide catheter system 600 is described. Although FIGS. 8-11 show use of the guide catheter system 600 in accessing and treating a frontal paranasal sinus, this or other embodiments may be used to access and treat any of the other paranasal sinuses, including maxillary, sphenoid and ethmoid paranasal sinuses.
  • Referring to FIG. 8, in one embodiment of the method, a guide catheter 601 is first advanced into a nasal cavity and positioned so that the terminal end portion 602 of the guide catheter 601 is located at or near an opening into a paranasal sinus. In the example shown in FIG. 8, the terminal end portion 602 is positioned near the frontal recess, which is a pathway leading to the frontal sinus ostium (the natural opening into the frontal sinus). The guide catheter 601 may be positioned in a desired location using an endoscope for visualization and/or fluoroscopy, however, in most cases an endoscope alone will suffice. In some embodiments, the guide catheter 601 is advanced into the nasal cavity with a guidewire 612 and/or a balloon catheter 606 preloaded into the guide catheter lumen 608. During advancement and/or positioning of the guide catheter 601, suction may be applied by applying suction force through a suction tube coupled with the hub apparatus 604 and by placing a thumb or other finger over the vent 628 to remove blood, mucus and/or other fluids from the area of the terminal end portion 602. This use of suction will typically enhance a surgeon's ability to visualize the nasal cavity using an endoscope and thus facilitate location of a target paranasal sinus ostium.
  • Still referring to FIG. 8, once the guide catheter 601 is positioned in a desired location in the nasal cavity, the surgeon then advances the guidewire 612 out of the distal opening of the catheter 601 and through the natural ostium 650 of a paranasal sinus into the sinus cavity 652. In some embodiments, the guidewire 612 may be an illuminating guidewire. Such an illuminating guidewire may be used to create a transillumination spot on an external surface of the patient during and/or after advancement of the guidewire 612 to confirm that the distal end of the guidewire 612 has entered and resides in the desired paranasal sinus. (See, for example, U.S. patent application Ser. Nos. 11/522,497 and 11/803,695, the full disclosures of which are hereby incorporated by reference.) In other embodiments, a non-illuminating guidewire 612 may be used. In either the illuminating or non-illuminating guidewire embodiment, fluoroscopy may be used to visualize the guidewire 612 in the paranasal sinus for further confirmation of its location.
  • Next, as shown in FIG. 9, the balloon catheter 606 is advanced over the guidewire 612 and is positioned and then expanded within the paranasal sinus ostium 650. (In the case of the frontal sinus, as in these Figures, the balloon of the balloon catheter 606 may be positioned and inflated within the ostium, the frontal outflow tract or both.) An inflation device (not shown) is provided to inflate the balloon. Thereafter, the balloon catheter is deflated and withdrawn within the distal terminal end portion 602. In one embodiment, rather than immediately withdrawing the balloon catheter 606, instead the balloon may be repositioned and inflated again to further expand the ostium, expand a portion of the frontal sinus outflow tract and/or the like. Optionally, the balloon catheter 606 may be further withdrawn into the guide catheter 601, and a suction force may be applied to remove substances from the paranasal sinus cavity or outflow tract or from the nasal cavity.
  • With reference now to FIG. 10, in an optional step, in some embodiments, the balloon catheter 606 may be removed from the patient via the guide catheter, and a flexible irrigation catheter 654 may then be passed through the guide catheter 601 (either over the guidewire 612 or without a guidewire, in alternative embodiments), into the paranasal sinus. Irrigation fluid 652, such as saline solution, may then be passed out of the irrigation catheter 654 to flush or irrigate the sinus. In some embodiments, the irrigation fluid 652 may simply be allowed to flow out of the sinus without applying suction force. In other embodiments, suction may be applied via the suction guide catheter 601 to assist in removal of the fluid 652.
  • At the end of a procedure, as in FIG. 11, the guide catheter 601 and any remaining devices are removed from the patient. The ostium 650 is left in a dilated state, which ideally will facilitate normal drainage of the sinus and help treat the patient's sinusitis.
  • As shown in FIG. 12, an alternate approach to a guide catheter 700 may include a distal terminal end portion 702 which includes multiple turns or bends. A first bend 704 can be positioned distally with respect to a second bend 706, where the first bend 704 defines a smaller angle than the second bend 706. This “double-bend” configuration may facilitate insertion of the guide catheter 700 into a nostril in a tip-down orientation and then allow the catheter 700 to be rotated to position its distal tip 716 at or near a maxillary sinus ostium.
  • In other alternative embodiments, the terminal end portion 702 of a guide catheter 700 may be configured to facilitate other processes or manipulations within the nasal cavity. For example, in one embodiment the terminal end portion 702 may be configured to facilitate pushing an ucinate process (or other anatomy) out of the way during an interventional procedure while a distal tip 716 is positioned as desired relative to the treatment site. The “double-bend” approach shown in FIG. 12 may help lower insertion and retraction forces required to advance and retract a balloon catheter through the guide 700. For example, double bends of fifty and sixty degrees can be subjected to less such forces than a single bend of one hundred ten degrees.
  • Turning now to FIGS. 13-23, a number of alternative embodiments of distal end configurations for guide catheters are shown. Each embodiment may have advantages in facilitating advancement and/or positioning of a guide catheter within a nasal cavity and/or advancement or retraction of a balloon catheter or other device(s) into and out of the guide catheter's distal end. As shown in FIG. 13, in one embodiment, a terminal end tip 750 of a guide catheter may embody an eye-shaped extrusion or molding 752, including a round inner diameter 754. Integrated wings 756 are provided to help gain access to and traverse nasal cavity anatomy. For example, the wings 756 may facilitate positioning the distal end of the guide catheter behind an uncinate process to access a maxillary sinus ostium. The wings 756 may allow a surgeon to tease the uncinate anteriorly, thus exposing an open pathway for guide access to the maxillary sinus ostium.
  • Some of the guide catheter distal ends in FIGS. 13-23 also include an oval cross-section. This oval shape may help to minimize the dimension of he guide in the orientation of anatomic restriction. Because the uncinate process can often be tight against the ethmoid bulla (in an anterior-posterior direction), the guide is ovalized such that the smaller dimension is oriented between the uncinate and the ethmoid bulla. Various embodiments may include such an oval cross-section with or without wings 756. The soft distal tip material of some embodiments of the guide catheters allow the cross-sectional shape of the guide tip to change relative to the forces it encounters. Therefore, a soft tip with a round cross-sectional shape may ovalize while it is being placed behind the uncinate, thereby reducing the force required to achieve a desired position.
  • In other approaches, distal terminal end portions of a guide catheter can include flanged wings of various configurations. Wings can be positioned at the top, midline or bottom of a tip and the wing can be short, long, flat or curved. Also, the wings can be flared to form a single price of material and can be made of any suitable flexible or non-flexible material in various embodiments, such as but not limited to any number of metals or polymers, such as aluminum foil, stainless steel, hard plastic or soft plastic. In one specific approach (FIGS. 14A-C), a distal terminal end portion 750 of a guide catheter can include wings 756 formed by aluminium foil. Such wings are again intended to facilitate navigation through sinus anatomy such as for the purpose of slipping behind an ucinate process. Similarly configured wings formed from PEBAX are shown in FIGS. 15A and B. Yet another approach to facilitating navigation is shown in FIG. 16 which depicts a hard plastic covering 758 formed about a portion the distal terminal end 750 of a guide catheter.
  • Moreover, as shown in FIGS. 17A-B, navigating wings 757 can also be formed of a stainless steel bar configured across the terminal end generally perpendicular to a distal opening formed therein. Another approach to a PEBAX wing structure 756 is shown in FIGS. 18A and B. Yet further different approaches are depicted in FIGS. 19A-D, 20A-B, 21A-C, 22A-B and 23, respectively. Of particular note are the angled tip approach with underside wings 756 shown in FIG. 19A and the angle cut tips of FIGS. 21A-C. Various shaped openings at the terminal ends of the guides are also contemplated such as those depicted in FIGS. 21A-C, 22A-B and 23.
  • As shown in FIGS. 24A-C, various different approaches to a valve 624 for sealing a balloon catheter 606 within a guide catheter system are contemplated. In a first approach, a flat circular gasket 800 with a center sealing through hole 802 (FIG. 24A). Alternatively, a valve 810 defined by a through hole with a double taper 812 can be employed within a guide catheter system. Further, as shown in FIG. 24C, the valve 624 can embody a one-way valve 820 with internal flap structure 822.
  • Turning now to FIGS. 25A and B, there are shown alternative approaches to a hub assembly 604 of a guide catheter system 600. By splitting the hub into first 830 and second 840 parts, an improved approach to attaching a valve seal 624 to a catheter shaft 610 is contemplated. In a first approach, the valve 624 is affixed to the shaft 610 and the two parts are positioned within the second part of the hub 604. The first part of the hub 830 is then inserted in the second part to complete the hub assembly. In an alternate approach (FIG. 25B), the valve 624 is captured in the second part 840 of the hub assembly and the end of the catheter shaft 610. The first part 830 of the hub is configured with flanges 842 which traps the valve 624 in place. Such approaches are intended for ease of assembly.
  • As shown in FIG. 26, the hub assembly 604 can further include a suction port 630 including barbs 850. The attachment for a suction tube must be one that allows for ease of attaching and removal, yet also from a tight seal to provide sufficient suction rates with little to no leakage. The barbs 850 facilitate such a desirable connection and also define a profile which does not interfere with an operator during use whether the suction feature is being employed or not.
  • Additionally, as shown in FIGS. 27A and B, the hub assembly 604 can include a proximal opening 860 which can be provided for connecting the hub 604 to other devices. A ridge 862 can be formed within the opening 860 and can be sized and shaped to lockingly engage within a cut-out formed on an end of an auxiliary device 866. In this way, an audible click can be created by the engagement of the ridge 862 to thereby confirm a proper register of the hub 604 with auxiliary devices. With the cut-out 864 to thereby identify a full engagement of the ports. Additionally, some resistance is also provided between the ports to help avoid incidental release.
  • Although the present invention has been illustrated and described with respect to several preferred embodiments thereof, various changes, omissions and additions to the form and detail thereof, may be made therein, without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.

Claims (34)

1. A guide catheter for guiding one or more flexible devices into a paranasal sinus of a patient and allowing for suction through the guide catheter, the guide catheter comprising:
an elongate catheter shaft sized for advancement into a nostril of the patient, the catheter shaft comprising:
a proximal portion;
a curved distal portion that is more flexible than the proximal portion; and
a lumen extending longitudinally through the proximal and distal portions; and
a hub assembly coupled with the proximal portion of the catheter shaft, the hub assembly comprising:
an inner chamber in fluid communication with the catheter shaft lumen;
a one-way valve disposed inside the inner chamber, the valve having an opening sized to form a seal around a device advanced through the valve;
a suction port for coupling a suction source with the hub; and
a vent.
2. The guide catheter of claim 1, wherein the lumen comprises:
a first inner diameter in the proximal portion of the shaft, wherein the first inner diameter is sufficient to allow suction to be drawn proximally through the catheter shaft while a balloon catheter resides within the proximal portion lumen; and
a second inner diameter in the distal portion that is smaller than the first inner diameter.
3. The guide catheter of claim 1, wherein the catheter has a proximal outer profile larger than a distal outer profile.
4. The guide catheter of claim 3, wherein the catheter includes a tapering transition between the proximal outer profile and the distal outer profile.
5. The guide catheter of claim 1, wherein a section of the proximal portion is formed from stainless steel.
6. The guide catheter of claim 1, wherein a terminal end portion of the curved distal portion has a flexibility permitting it to expand when a flexible device is advanced therethrough.
7. The guide catheter of claim 6, wherein the terminal end portion of the curved distal portion is formed from PEBAX.
8. The guide catheter of claim 6, wherein the catheter includes a nylon section configured proximal to the terminal end portion of the curved distal portion formed from PEBAX.
9. The guide catheter of claim 1, further comprising a beveled terminal end.
10. The guide catheter of claim 1, further comprising a terminal end including wings.
11. The guide catheter of claim 1, wherein the valve forms a seal about a flexible balloon catheter advanced through the guide catheter.
12. The guide catheter of claim 1, wherein the hub assembly includes a gripping surface to allow a surgeon to grasp the hub assembly and cover the vent with fingers of one hand.
13. The guide catheter of claim 1, wherein the vent comprises a passageway from an outer surface of the hub to an inner surface of the hub, and wherein the passageway is angled proximally from the inner surface to the outer surface, relative to the longitudinal axis of the guide catheter.
14. The guide catheter of claim 1, wherein the suction port is angled proximally, relative to a longitudinal axis of the guide catheter.
15. A guide catheter for guiding one or more flexible devices into a paranasal sinus of a patient and allowing for suction through the guide catheter, the guide catheter comprising:
an elongate catheter shaft sized for advancement into a nostril of the patient, the catheter shaft comprising:
a proximal portion;
a curved distal portion that is more flexible than the proximal portion; and
a lumen extending longitudinally through the proximal and distal portions;
a one-way valve disposed inside the lumen in the proximal portion, the valve having an opening sized to form a seal around a device advanced through the valve;
a suction port disposed along the shaft proximal portion for coupling a suction source with the guide catheter; and
a vent disposed along the shaft proximal portion.
16. The guide catheter of claim 15, wherein the lumen comprises:
a first inner diameter in the proximal portion of the shaft, wherein the first inner diameter is sufficient to allow suction to be drawn proximally through the catheter shaft while a balloon catheter resides within the proximal portion lumen; and
a second inner diameter in the distal portion that is smaller than the first inner diameter.
17. A system for performing a procedure on or in a paranasal sinus, the system comprising:
a guide catheter comprising:
an elongate catheter shaft sized for advancement into a nostril of the patient, the catheter shaft comprising:
a proximal portion;
a curved distal portion that is more flexible than the proximal portion; and
a lumen extending longitudinally through the proximal and distal portions; and
a hub assembly coupled with the proximal portion of the catheter shaft, the hub assembly comprising:
an inner chamber in fluid communication with the catheter shaft lumen;
a one-way valve disposed inside the inner chamber, the valve having an opening sized to form a seal around a device advanced through the valve;
a suction port for coupling a suction source with the hub; and
a vent; and
a flexible device configured to pass through the guide catheter into a paranasal sinus to perform a procedure on or in the sinus.
18. A system as in claim 17, wherein the flexible device comprises a flexible balloon catheter used to dilate an opening into the paranasal sinus.
19. A system as in claim 18, further comprising a guidewire over which the balloon catheter is advanced.
20. A system as in claim 19, wherein the guidewire comprises an illuminating guidewire capable of transilluminating a paranasal sinus.
21. A system as in claim 18, further comprising an inflation device for inflating the balloon catheter.
22. A system as in claim 18, further comprising an irrigation catheter for passing through the guide catheter after the dilation to irrigate the paranasal sinus.
23. A system as in claim 15, wherein the lumen of the guide catheter comprises:
a first inner diameter in the proximal portion of the shaft, wherein the first inner diameter is sufficient to allow suction to be drawn proximally through the catheter shaft while a balloon catheter resides within the proximal portion lumen; and
a second inner diameter in the distal portion that is smaller than the first inner diameter.
24. A system as in claim 15, wherein a terminal end portion of the curved distal portion of the guide catheter has a flexibility permitting it to expand when a flexible device is advanced therethrough.
25. A system as in claim 15, wherein the guide catheter further comprises a beveled terminal end.
26. A system as in claim 15, wherein the valve of the guide catheter forms a seal about the flexible balloon catheter advanced through the guide catheter.
27. A method for advancing a flexible device into a paranasal sinus, the method comprising:
inserting a guide catheter into a head of a patient, wherein the flexible device is either preloaded into the guide catheter or advanced into the guide catheter during or after insertion into the patient's head;
generating a suction force proximally through the guide catheter, around the flexible device, via a suction source attached to the guide catheter; and
advancing the flexible device out of a distal end of the guide catheter into the paranasal sinus.
28. A method as in claim 27, wherein the flexible device comprises a balloon dilation catheter.
29. A method as in claim 28, further comprising performing a balloon dilation procedure using the balloon catheter to dilate an opening of the paranasal sinus.
30. A method as in claim 29, wherein dilating the opening comprises dilating a natural ostium of the paranasal sinus.
31. A method as in claim 29, further comprising creating an artificial opening into the paranasal sinus, wherein dilating the opening comprises dilating at least one of the artificial opening or a natural ostium of the paranasal sinus.
32. A method as in claim 28, wherein the flexible device further comprises a guidewire, and wherein the method further comprises advancing the guidewire out of the distal end of the guide catheter into the paranasal sinus before the balloon catheter is advanced, wherein the balloon catheter is advanced over the guidewire.
33. A method as in claim 27, wherein a distal portion of the guide catheter is flexible and further comprising advancing the flexible device through the distal portion thereby expanding the distal portion.
34. A method as in claim 27, wherein the guide catheter includes a hub assembly including a proximal end portion and further comprising attaching an auxiliary device to the hub assembly.
US12/408,524 2009-03-20 2009-03-20 Guide system with suction Abandoned US20100241155A1 (en)

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US12/408,524 US20100241155A1 (en) 2009-03-20 2009-03-20 Guide system with suction
CA2755321A CA2755321A1 (en) 2009-03-20 2010-03-18 Guide system with suction
BRPI1012540A BRPI1012540A2 (en) 2009-03-20 2010-03-18 suction guide system
RU2011142301/14A RU2538237C2 (en) 2009-03-20 2010-03-18 Guide system with aspiration mechanism
EP10710518A EP2408505A1 (en) 2009-03-20 2010-03-18 Guide system with suction
MX2011009837A MX2011009837A (en) 2009-03-20 2010-03-18 Guide system with suction.
JP2012500966A JP5855562B2 (en) 2009-03-20 2010-03-18 Guide system having a suction
PCT/US2010/027837 WO2010108017A1 (en) 2009-03-20 2010-03-18 Guide system with suction
KR1020117024526A KR20120012796A (en) 2009-03-20 2010-03-18 Guide system with suction
AU2010226594A AU2010226594B2 (en) 2009-03-20 2010-03-18 Guide system with suction
CN 201080013878 CN102361663B (en) 2009-03-20 2010-03-18 Guide system with suction
US15/165,209 US20160324535A1 (en) 2009-03-20 2016-05-26 Guide system with suction

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JP2012520749A (en) 2012-09-10
MX2011009837A (en) 2011-10-19
RU2538237C2 (en) 2015-01-10
KR20120012796A (en) 2012-02-10
RU2011142301A (en) 2013-04-27
CA2755321A1 (en) 2010-09-23
WO2010108017A1 (en) 2010-09-23
BRPI1012540A2 (en) 2016-03-29
AU2010226594B2 (en) 2015-12-03
EP2408505A1 (en) 2012-01-25
CN102361663A (en) 2012-02-22
AU2010226594A1 (en) 2011-10-20
JP5855562B2 (en) 2016-02-09
CN102361663B (en) 2015-04-01

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