New! View global litigation for patent families

US20100172557A1 - Method and apparatus for reconstructing bone surfaces during surgery - Google Patents

Method and apparatus for reconstructing bone surfaces during surgery Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US20100172557A1
US20100172557A1 US12730337 US73033710A US2010172557A1 US 20100172557 A1 US20100172557 A1 US 20100172557A1 US 12730337 US12730337 US 12730337 US 73033710 A US73033710 A US 73033710A US 2010172557 A1 US2010172557 A1 US 2010172557A1
Authority
US
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
anatomical
structure
model
surface
tool
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US12730337
Inventor
Alain Richard
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Orthosoft Inc
Original Assignee
Orthosoft Inc
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B90/00Instruments, implements or accessories specially adapted for surgery or diagnosis and not covered by any of the groups A61B1/00 - A61B50/00, e.g. for luxation treatment or for protecting wound edges
    • A61B90/36Image-producing devices or illumination devices not otherwise provided for
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B34/00Computer-aided surgery; Manipulators or robots specially adapted for use in surgery
    • A61B34/20Surgical navigation systems; Devices for tracking or guiding surgical instruments, e.g. for frameless stereotaxis
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B34/00Computer-aided surgery; Manipulators or robots specially adapted for use in surgery
    • A61B34/10Computer-aided planning, simulation or modelling of surgical operations
    • A61B2034/101Computer-aided simulation of surgical operations
    • A61B2034/105Modelling of the patient, e.g. for ligaments or bones
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B34/00Computer-aided surgery; Manipulators or robots specially adapted for use in surgery
    • A61B34/20Surgical navigation systems; Devices for tracking or guiding surgical instruments, e.g. for frameless stereotaxis
    • A61B2034/2046Tracking techniques
    • A61B2034/2055Optical tracking systems
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B34/00Computer-aided surgery; Manipulators or robots specially adapted for use in surgery
    • A61B34/20Surgical navigation systems; Devices for tracking or guiding surgical instruments, e.g. for frameless stereotaxis
    • A61B2034/2068Surgical navigation systems; Devices for tracking or guiding surgical instruments, e.g. for frameless stereotaxis using pointers, e.g. pointers having reference marks for determining coordinates of body points
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B34/00Computer-aided surgery; Manipulators or robots specially adapted for use in surgery
    • A61B34/25User interfaces for surgical systems
    • A61B2034/256User interfaces for surgical systems having a database of accessory information, e.g. including context sensitive help or scientific articles
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B34/00Computer-aided surgery; Manipulators or robots specially adapted for use in surgery
    • A61B34/10Computer-aided planning, simulation or modelling of surgical operations
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B34/00Computer-aided surgery; Manipulators or robots specially adapted for use in surgery
    • A61B34/25User interfaces for surgical systems

Abstract

There is provided a method for intraoperatively presenting an approximate model of an anatomical structure by collecting a cloud of small surfaces. The cloud of small surfaces is gathered with a registration pointer having an adapted tip capable of making contact with the surface of an anatomical structure and registering the normal at the point of contact.

Description

    CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION(S)
  • [0001]
    The present application is a divisional of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/345,403, filed on Jan. 16, 2003, and claims priority on U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 60/349,267, filed on Jan. 18, 2002, and on PCT Patent Application No. PCT/CA02/00047, filed on Jan. 16, 2002, now withdrawn, both incorporated herein by reference.
  • FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • [0002]
    The invention relates to the field of computer-assisted surgery or image-guided surgery. More specifically, it relates to the reconstruction of the surface of a bone during surgery.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • [0003]
    As technology allows us to advance in the field of computer-aided surgery, such systems are becoming more specialized and refined. The advances made for orthopedic surgery are particularly impressive. These systems allow surgeons to prepare for surgery by viewing 3D models of patients' anatomy that were reconstructed using preoperative images such as scans and x-rays. Virtual planning markers can be inserted into three-dimensional images at any sites of interest and the ideal implant or prosthesis can be designed for a specific patient by constructing virtual implant models and simulating the results with the reconstructed model.
  • [0004]
    Furthermore, during surgery, many surgical instruments are now tracked and can be displayed on the reconstructed 3D models to provide surgeons with a reference as to where they are within a patient's body. This is a precious asset in surgeries that involve delicate procedures that allow the surgeon very little room to maneuver. Unfortunately, this feature can only be taken advantage of when a 3D reconstruction of the patient's structure has been made. This is done preoperatively using various imaging technologies and can become quite time-consuming for a surgeon.
  • [0005]
    However, it is desirable to cut down the pre-operative time a surgeon must spend to prepare a surgery. It is also desirable to develop an application that can use other media than Computer-Tomographic (CT) scans, when these are not available.
  • [0006]
    Moreover, since it is advantageous to provide a surgeon with visual confirmation of the tasks he is performing during the surgery, there is a need to develop a CT-less intra-operative bone reconstruction system.
  • SUMMARY OF THE APPLICATION
  • [0007]
    Accordingly, an object of the present invention is to reduce preoperative time in surgical procedures.
  • [0008]
    Another object of the present invention is to reduce the time of instrumentation calibration in surgical procedures.
  • [0009]
    A further object of the present invention is to provide a simple CT-less system to use for simple surgical cases that can be used in combination with a CT-based system for difficult surgical cases.
  • [0010]
    Therefore, in accordance with the present application, there is provided a method for intraoperatively presenting an approximate model of an anatomical structure, the anatomical structure being a bone, the method comprising: acquiring input data by applying a tool directly in contact against locations on said bone and tracking the tool; processing said input data into an approximate model of said bone without using an image of the anatomical structure taken preoperatively or intra-operatively; and displaying said approximate model without any image of the anatomical structure taken preoperatively or intraoperatively, and with a tracked surgical tool having the position-sensing system associated therewith on an output device during a navigation in surgery.
  • [0011]
    Preferably, the tool is a double-ended tool with a first flat surface at the first end and a second flat surface at a second end also adapted to determine the normal at a point of contact. The first flat surface and the second flat surface have different dimensions. Alternatively, the second end may comprise another intraoperative tool.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • [0012]
    These and other features, aspects and advantages of the present invention will become better understood with regard to the following description and accompanying drawings wherein:
  • [0013]
    FIG. 1 is a flowchart of the method in accordance with the invention;
  • [0014]
    FIG. 2 shows the mosaic reconstruction of a bone;
  • [0015]
    FIG. 3 shows the reconstructed bone after smoothing;
  • [0016]
    FIG. 4 is a diagram of a registration tool with an adaptive tip;
  • [0017]
    FIG. 5 is a block diagram of the system in accordance with the invention; and
  • [0018]
    FIG. 6 is a block diagram of a portion of the system of FIG. 5.
  • DESCRIPTION OF THE EXEMPLARY EMBODIMENTS
  • [0019]
    For the purpose of this description, a total knee replacement surgery will be used to demonstrate the invention. However, it can be appreciated that the invention can be used to reconstruct the surface of any anatomical structure in a body.
  • [0020]
    FIG. 1 is a flowchart describing the steps used to intra-operatively present an approximate model of an anatomical structure on an output device. The first step is to apply a registration tool to the anatomical surface 20. This tool can be a standard digitizing pointer, a laser pointer, or any other registration tool known to a person skilled in the art. A position-sensing system must be associated to the tool to track the position and orientation of the registration tool as it moves over the surface of the anatomical structure. In a preferred embodiment, an infrared, light reflecting tracking system having at least three reflectors is used. Alternatively, any mechanical, electro-magnetic, or optical position-sensing system may be used. The next step consists in acquiring input data at each point of contact 22.
  • [0021]
    In a preferred embodiment, the normal at each point of contact is determined and included in the input data. A tool having a small flat surface, such as a small disc, is used to acquire the data such that instead of registering only a point, a small surface is registered at each point of contact. The input data is then processed into an approximate model of the anatomical surface 23 and is then displayed on the output device 24.
  • [0022]
    The processing may simply comprise transforming the input data into a cloud of points forming a mosaic representing a portion of the anatomical structure that was digitized. An example of a portion of a femur bone is shown represented by a cloud of points in FIG. 2. Alternatively, the input data may be smoothed over to be displayed as a smoothed surface representing a more accurate surface topology of the portion of the anatomical structure that was digitized. An example of the same femur bone portion smoothed over can be seen in FIG. 3. It can be seen from this figure that the normal of each point of contact was taken into consideration when the points were registered. A surface topology is evident from the displayed surface.
  • [0023]
    The input data may also be used to reconstruct a three-dimensional model of the portion of the anatomical structure that was digitized. This requires a more complex processing of the input data than a simple smoothing over. Alternatively, the points registered may be matched to a known model of the same anatomical structure and the model is displayed on the output device with the digitized points indicated on the model. This way, the entire bone can be visualized during the surgery. Alternatively, the input data may be used to reconstruct an entire model of the anatomical surface using extrapolation of the input data.
  • [0024]
    Another way to display an entire anatomical structure is to attach a portion of a known model to the portion digitized using the registration tool. For example, if the portion of a femur that is digitized consists of the anterior cortex, the condylar surface, and the intercondylar notch, then a shaft portion and a femoral head from a known model having similar dimensions can be attached to the digitized portion and displayed as an entire femur. The known model can be attached to a cloud of points forming a mosaic, a smoothed surface, or a three-dimensional reconstruction.
  • [0025]
    Optionally, the model of the anatomical structure displayed on the output device may be adjusted by acquiring more points to better represent the actual topology of the anatomical structure. As more data is acquired, the model displayed is updated to reflect the new information.
  • [0026]
    Once a model representing the anatomy is displayed on the output device, tools used for the surgery can be tracked with respect to this model, thereby allowing the surgeon to navigate with tools and have a reference in the body.
  • [0027]
    The surface model reconstruction is a process that allows the user to digitize small surfaces instead of points only. These surfaces can be small circles, as can be seen from FIG. 2. The small circle is physically present on the tip of the registration tool as a small, flat disc. The size of the disc (radius) is chosen as a compromise between accuracy and time. It is counterproductive to ask a surgeon to take hundreds of points when digitizing the surface of a bone. However, the more points taken, the better the representation of the bone and the more accurate the model. The size can also vary depending on the morphology of the bone surface, affecting the precision of the tool. For example, the disc could cover an area of 1 cm2. The disc must be flat on the surface to register as much surface as possible. The tool also registers the normal at the point of contact between the flat disc surface and the bone. The reconstruction is done in real time.
  • [0028]
    FIG. 4 is the preferred embodiment of the registration tool to be used in the digitizing process. The tool is equipped with a position-sensing device 30, such as those known in the field of tracking, having three position-identifying devices. In this embodiment, both ends of the tool can serve as a digitizing tip, each end having a different radius. The smaller end 32 can be used on anatomical surfaces that do not easily accommodate the flat surface of the tool. The larger end 34 can be used on flatter anatomical surfaces. The user selects on the computer which end is used. Alternatively, there can be automatic detection of the end being used, such as the computer recognizing the radius of the disc surface when it is placed on the bone surface. For the actual registration of the small surfaces, this can be achieved in several ways. For example, there can be a button on the tool that controls the digitizing. Alternatively, this can be done by pressing a key on a keyboard to select a point to be digitized. Also alternatively, digitizing can be triggered by a rotating action of the tool by a quarter turn. It can be appreciated that alternative embodiments for the registration tool are possible. For example, other multi-purpose combinations can be made. One end can be an awl, a screwdriver, or a probe, while the other end is a digitizer. Similarly, the tool can be a single-ended digitizer as well.
  • [0029]
    FIG. 5 shows the system for displaying an approximate model of a surface of an anatomical structure in accordance with the present invention. A registration tool 40 sends data to a position-sensing system 42 corresponding to its position and orientation relative to an anatomical structure. The tool 40 is tracked by the position-sensing system 42 in a three-dimensional environment. The orientation and position of the tool 40 is captured by the position-sensing system and transferred to a storing module 44. The data is then sent to an output device 46, such as a monitor, to display to the user.
  • [0030]
    FIG. 6 is a block diagram of the storing module 44 in a preferred embodiment. When the data indicating the position and orientation of the tool 40 is received by the storing module 44, it may be processed in various ways. A processing module 48 is used to smooth over the mosaic surface formed by the data recorded by the tool 40. The initial bone registration procedure is done by collecting information on the surface of the bone. The information collected is the position and orientation of the bone surface at each point of contact. The normal of the digitized surface is calculated using the mean value of the orientation of the registration tool 40, which is collected by the sensing system 42. The processing module 48 receives the orientation and position information and uses a surface-modeling algorithm, such as the marching cubes algorithm, to provide a smoothed over surface of the bone topology. It can be appreciated that any surface-modeling algorithm known in the art can be used to perform the smoothing procedure. Optionally, the points at which the initial data was gathered may also be displayed on top of the smoothed surface.
  • [0031]
    Alternatively, the processing module 48 may perform a three-dimensional reconstruction of a bone using the position and orientation data gathered by the registration tool 40. This reconstruction is similar to a three-dimensional reconstruction of a bone done preoperatively using other types of data gathering devices such as CT scans and other scanning devices. In one embodiment, the three-dimensional reconstruction is done independently of any standard or known shape and size of bone. In a varying embodiment, a database of known models 50 is available to the processing module 48. In this case, the reconstruction is based on known models. The registered points are matched using a best-fit algorithm to a known model of similar size and shape as the anatomical structure under examination. The reconstructed shape is then displayed on the output device 46. The matched points may be displayed on top of the three-dimensional shape. In another embodiment, the known models are simply used as a reference for the three-dimensional reconstruction. The reconstruction algorithm simply uses the known models as a guide in reconstructing a full three-dimensional model.
  • [0032]
    The known models database 50 comprises a plurality of anatomical structures of varying sizes and shapes. The processing module 48 accesses the database 50 and selects a model of similar size and shape to the anatomical structure undergoing operation. The database 50 may also comprise portions or parts of complete anatomical structures. For example, in the case of a femur bone, the database may comprise femoral heads of different sizes and shapes, or femoral shafts of different sizes and shapes. These parts of anatomical structures are used to attach any one of three-dimensional reconstructions, smoothed-over surfaces, or clouds of points forming a portion of an anatomical structure. The attached portion provides a more complete visual tool to the surgeon during the surgical procedure. Intraoperative time is saved by limiting the amount of digitizing necessary to have a faithful representation of the areas of interest on the anatomical structure. A better visual tool is provided for guidance during surgical navigation with a computer-assisted surgical navigation system.
  • [0033]
    The above-described system may be used independently, or with a complete computer-assisted surgical navigation system. Once the intraoperative registration is complete and a representation of the anatomical structure is displayed on the output device, a plurality of surgical tools may be tracked and displayed with respect to the intra-operative representation. Cutting guides and positioning blocks may be tracked and used in conjunction with the displayed representation.
  • [0034]
    The method and system described above may be used on cadavers or dummies in order to test a computer-aided surgery system. Testing of new equipment such as a new tracking system, a positioning block, a cutting guide, or so on, can also be done in conjunction with the method and system of the present invention. The method and system described may also be used on cadavers or dummies as a teaching tool for medical students. Real-life situations may be simulated using the system in order to practice various surgical procedures without the risks posed to a patient.
  • [0035]
    It will be understood that numerous modifications thereto will appear to those skilled in the art. Accordingly, the above description and accompanying drawings should be taken as illustrative of the invention and not in a limiting sense. It will further be understood that it is intended to cover any variations, uses, or adaptations of the invention following, in general, the principles of the invention and including such departures from the present disclosure as come within known or customary practice within the art to which the invention pertains and as may be applied to the essential features herein before set forth, and as follows in the scope of the appended claims.

Claims (17)

  1. 1. A method for intraoperatively presenting a representation of an anatomical structure, the anatomical structure being a bone, the method comprising:
    acquiring input data by applying a tool directly in contact against locations on said bone and tracking the tool;
    processing said input data into a representation of said bone without using an image of the anatomical structure taken preoperatively or intra-operatively; and
    displaying said representation without any image of the anatomical structure taken preoperatively or intra-operatively, and with orientation data of a tracked surgical tool on an output device.
  2. 2. A method as claimed in claim 1, wherein said processing comprises processing said input data into a cloud of locations forming a mosaic and representing a portion of said anatomical structure.
  3. 3. A method as claimed in claim 1, wherein said processing comprises smoothing over a surface represented by said input data to display a smoothed surface of a portion of said anatomical structure.
  4. 4. A method as claimed in claim 3, wherein said processing comprises providing on said smoothed surface said plurality of locations where said input data was acquired.
  5. 5. A method as claimed in claim 4, comprising repeating said acquiring input data after said displaying to adjust said model of said anatomical structure.
  6. 6. A method as claimed in claim 1, wherein said processing comprises reconstructing a three-dimensional model using said input data to display a three-dimensional model of a portion of said anatomical structure.
  7. 7. A method as claimed in claim 1, wherein said processing comprises reconstructing a three-dimensional model using said input data and a known model of said anatomical structure to display a three-dimensional model of said anatomical structure.
  8. 8. A method as claimed in claim 1, wherein said processing comprises selecting a known model from a known model database comprising a plurality of known models of varying sizes and shapes and performing an algorithm to determine a best-fit match of said input data onto said known model.
  9. 9. A method as claimed in claim 8, wherein said processing comprises providing on said known model said best-fit match such that said best-fit match is displayed on said output device.
  10. 10. A method as claimed in claim 2, wherein said processing comprises attaching a portion of a known model of said anatomical structure to said mosaic representing a portion of said anatomical structure, said known model representing a remaining portion of said anatomical structure such that an entire model of said anatomical structure is displayed.
  11. 11. A method as claimed in claim 3, wherein said processing comprises attaching a portion of a known model of said anatomical structure to said smoothed surface of a portion of said anatomical structure, said known model representing a remaining portion of said anatomical structure such that an entire model of said anatomical structure is displayed.
  12. 12. A method as claimed in claim 6, wherein said processing comprises attaching a portion of a known model of said anatomical structure to said three-dimensional model of a portion of said anatomical structure, said known model representing a remaining portion of said anatomical structure such that an entire model of said anatomical structure is displayed.
  13. 13. A method as claimed in claim 1, wherein said acquiring input data comprises determining a normal to each of said plurality of locations.
  14. 14. A method as claimed in claim 1, wherein processing said input data into a representation comprises processing a representation of axes of the anatomical structure.
  15. 15. A method as claimed in claim 1, wherein processing said input data into a representation comprises processing a representation from the normal of locations on the bone.
  16. 16. A method as claimed in claim 1, wherein processing said input data into a representation comprises processing said input data into an approximate model of the anatomical structure.
  17. 17. A method as claimed in claim 1, wherein displaying said representation with a tracked surgical tool comprises displaying said representation with a cutting block.
US12730337 2002-01-16 2010-03-24 Method and apparatus for reconstructing bone surfaces during surgery Abandoned US20100172557A1 (en)

Priority Applications (5)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CA0200047 2002-01-16
CAPCT/CA02/00047 2002-01-16
US34926702 true 2002-01-18 2002-01-18
US10345403 US7715602B2 (en) 2002-01-18 2003-01-16 Method and apparatus for reconstructing bone surfaces during surgery
US12730337 US20100172557A1 (en) 2002-01-16 2010-03-24 Method and apparatus for reconstructing bone surfaces during surgery

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US12730337 US20100172557A1 (en) 2002-01-16 2010-03-24 Method and apparatus for reconstructing bone surfaces during surgery

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20100172557A1 true true US20100172557A1 (en) 2010-07-08

Family

ID=29586615

Family Applications (2)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US10345403 Active 2027-09-30 US7715602B2 (en) 2002-01-18 2003-01-16 Method and apparatus for reconstructing bone surfaces during surgery
US12730337 Abandoned US20100172557A1 (en) 2002-01-16 2010-03-24 Method and apparatus for reconstructing bone surfaces during surgery

Family Applications Before (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US10345403 Active 2027-09-30 US7715602B2 (en) 2002-01-18 2003-01-16 Method and apparatus for reconstructing bone surfaces during surgery

Country Status (1)

Country Link
US (2) US7715602B2 (en)

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US9168153B2 (en) 2011-06-16 2015-10-27 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Surgical alignment using references

Families Citing this family (62)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
FR2816200A1 (en) 2000-11-06 2002-05-10 Praxim Determination of the position of a knee prosthesis
US7715602B2 (en) * 2002-01-18 2010-05-11 Orthosoft Inc. Method and apparatus for reconstructing bone surfaces during surgery
US8801720B2 (en) 2002-05-15 2014-08-12 Otismed Corporation Total joint arthroplasty system
EP1579803A1 (en) * 2004-03-24 2005-09-28 BrainLAB AG Method and device for detecting the position of a characteristic point
US20060036397A1 (en) * 2004-03-24 2006-02-16 Robert Dick Method and device for ascertaining a position of a characteristic point
US8430881B2 (en) 2004-10-15 2013-04-30 Baxano, Inc. Mechanical tissue modification devices and methods
US8257356B2 (en) 2004-10-15 2012-09-04 Baxano, Inc. Guidewire exchange systems to treat spinal stenosis
US8366712B2 (en) 2005-10-15 2013-02-05 Baxano, Inc. Multiple pathways for spinal nerve root decompression from a single access point
US7578819B2 (en) 2005-05-16 2009-08-25 Baxano, Inc. Spinal access and neural localization
US8092456B2 (en) 2005-10-15 2012-01-10 Baxano, Inc. Multiple pathways for spinal nerve root decompression from a single access point
US9247952B2 (en) 2004-10-15 2016-02-02 Amendia, Inc. Devices and methods for tissue access
US7738968B2 (en) 2004-10-15 2010-06-15 Baxano, Inc. Devices and methods for selective surgical removal of tissue
US8062298B2 (en) 2005-10-15 2011-11-22 Baxano, Inc. Flexible tissue removal devices and methods
US20110190772A1 (en) 2004-10-15 2011-08-04 Vahid Saadat Powered tissue modification devices and methods
US20100331883A1 (en) 2004-10-15 2010-12-30 Schmitz Gregory P Access and tissue modification systems and methods
US8617163B2 (en) 2004-10-15 2013-12-31 Baxano Surgical, Inc. Methods, systems and devices for carpal tunnel release
US8062300B2 (en) 2006-05-04 2011-11-22 Baxano, Inc. Tissue removal with at least partially flexible devices
US7887538B2 (en) 2005-10-15 2011-02-15 Baxano, Inc. Methods and apparatus for tissue modification
US20110004207A1 (en) 2004-10-15 2011-01-06 Baxano, Inc. Flexible Neural Localization Devices and Methods
US8221397B2 (en) 2004-10-15 2012-07-17 Baxano, Inc. Devices and methods for tissue modification
CA2583906C (en) 2004-10-15 2011-12-06 Baxano, Inc. Devices and methods for tissue removal
US7738969B2 (en) 2004-10-15 2010-06-15 Baxano, Inc. Devices and methods for selective surgical removal of tissue
US9101386B2 (en) 2004-10-15 2015-08-11 Amendia, Inc. Devices and methods for treating tissue
US7938830B2 (en) 2004-10-15 2011-05-10 Baxano, Inc. Powered tissue modification devices and methods
US8048080B2 (en) 2004-10-15 2011-11-01 Baxano, Inc. Flexible tissue rasp
DE102005003318A1 (en) * 2005-01-17 2006-07-27 Aesculap Ag & Co. Kg Displaying method for the position of a medical instrument in which planes and an intersection line are defined and determined for the femur and inserted instrument
EP1893117A1 (en) * 2005-04-06 2008-03-05 Depuy International Limited Registration system and method
US20070038059A1 (en) * 2005-07-07 2007-02-15 Garrett Sheffer Implant and instrument morphing
EP2007291A2 (en) 2006-02-15 2008-12-31 Otismed Corp. Arthroplasty jigs and related methods
US9808262B2 (en) 2006-02-15 2017-11-07 Howmedica Osteonics Corporation Arthroplasty devices and related methods
US8231634B2 (en) * 2006-03-17 2012-07-31 Zimmer, Inc. Methods of predetermining the contour of a resected bone surface and assessing the fit of a prosthesis on the bone
US8565853B2 (en) 2006-08-11 2013-10-22 DePuy Synthes Products, LLC Simulated bone or tissue manipulation
US7643662B2 (en) * 2006-08-15 2010-01-05 General Electric Company System and method for flattened anatomy for interactive segmentation and measurement
US7857813B2 (en) 2006-08-29 2010-12-28 Baxano, Inc. Tissue access guidewire system and method
US8192436B2 (en) 2007-12-07 2012-06-05 Baxano, Inc. Tissue modification devices
US8214016B2 (en) * 2006-12-12 2012-07-03 Perception Raisonnement Action En Medecine System and method for determining an optimal type and position of an implant
US8460302B2 (en) 2006-12-18 2013-06-11 Otismed Corporation Arthroplasty devices and related methods
US9179983B2 (en) * 2007-08-14 2015-11-10 Zimmer, Inc. Method of determining a contour of an anatomical structure and selecting an orthopaedic implant to replicate the anatomical structure
US7959577B2 (en) 2007-09-06 2011-06-14 Baxano, Inc. Method, system, and apparatus for neural localization
US8460303B2 (en) 2007-10-25 2013-06-11 Otismed Corporation Arthroplasty systems and devices, and related methods
US8221430B2 (en) 2007-12-18 2012-07-17 Otismed Corporation System and method for manufacturing arthroplasty jigs
US8545509B2 (en) 2007-12-18 2013-10-01 Otismed Corporation Arthroplasty system and related methods
US8617171B2 (en) 2007-12-18 2013-12-31 Otismed Corporation Preoperatively planning an arthroplasty procedure and generating a corresponding patient specific arthroplasty resection guide
US8737700B2 (en) * 2007-12-18 2014-05-27 Otismed Corporation Preoperatively planning an arthroplasty procedure and generating a corresponding patient specific arthroplasty resection guide
US8715291B2 (en) 2007-12-18 2014-05-06 Otismed Corporation Arthroplasty system and related methods
US9408618B2 (en) 2008-02-29 2016-08-09 Howmedica Osteonics Corporation Total hip replacement surgical guide tool
US8480679B2 (en) 2008-04-29 2013-07-09 Otismed Corporation Generation of a computerized bone model representative of a pre-degenerated state and useable in the design and manufacture of arthroplasty devices
US8160345B2 (en) 2008-04-30 2012-04-17 Otismed Corporation System and method for image segmentation in generating computer models of a joint to undergo arthroplasty
US8398641B2 (en) 2008-07-01 2013-03-19 Baxano, Inc. Tissue modification devices and methods
US8409206B2 (en) 2008-07-01 2013-04-02 Baxano, Inc. Tissue modification devices and methods
US9314253B2 (en) 2008-07-01 2016-04-19 Amendia, Inc. Tissue modification devices and methods
EP2328489A4 (en) 2008-07-14 2013-05-15 Baxano Inc Tissue modification devices
US8777875B2 (en) 2008-07-23 2014-07-15 Otismed Corporation System and method for manufacturing arthroplasty jigs having improved mating accuracy
US8617175B2 (en) 2008-12-16 2013-12-31 Otismed Corporation Unicompartmental customized arthroplasty cutting jigs and methods of making the same
US8394102B2 (en) 2009-06-25 2013-03-12 Baxano, Inc. Surgical tools for treatment of spinal stenosis
US8876830B2 (en) * 2009-08-13 2014-11-04 Zimmer, Inc. Virtual implant placement in the OR
US8652148B2 (en) 2010-02-25 2014-02-18 Zimmer, Inc. Tracked cartilage repair system
CN103339659A (en) * 2011-01-07 2013-10-02 兰德马克绘图国际公司 Systems and methods for the construction of closed bodies during 3d modeling
US9498231B2 (en) 2011-06-27 2016-11-22 Board Of Regents Of The University Of Nebraska On-board tool tracking system and methods of computer assisted surgery
US9167989B2 (en) * 2011-09-16 2015-10-27 Mako Surgical Corp. Systems and methods for measuring parameters in joint replacement surgery
US9402637B2 (en) 2012-10-11 2016-08-02 Howmedica Osteonics Corporation Customized arthroplasty cutting guides and surgical methods using the same
US20140278232A1 (en) * 2013-03-14 2014-09-18 Curexo Technology Corporation Intra-operative registration of anatomical structures

Citations (51)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6169817A (en) *
US4936862A (en) * 1986-05-30 1990-06-26 Walker Peter S Method of designing and manufacturing a human joint prosthesis
US4962460A (en) * 1987-07-31 1990-10-09 Fanuc Ltd. Digitizing apparatus for digitizing a model surface using a contactless probe
US5071252A (en) * 1987-09-02 1991-12-10 Fanuc Ltd. Method for contactless profiling normal to a surface
US5182714A (en) * 1989-05-30 1993-01-26 Fanuc Ltd. Digitizing control apparatus
US5402801A (en) * 1991-06-13 1995-04-04 International Business Machines Corporation System and method for augmentation of surgery
US5564437A (en) * 1992-12-15 1996-10-15 Universite Joseph Fourier Method and system for determining the fixation point on the femur of a crossed ligament of the knee
US5611353A (en) * 1993-06-21 1997-03-18 Osteonics Corp. Method and apparatus for locating functional structures of the lower leg during knee surgery
US5622170A (en) * 1990-10-19 1997-04-22 Image Guided Technologies, Inc. Apparatus for determining the position and orientation of an invasive portion of a probe inside a three-dimensional body
US5649929A (en) * 1995-07-10 1997-07-22 Callaway; George Hadley Knee joint flexion-gap distraction device
US5682886A (en) * 1995-12-26 1997-11-04 Musculographics Inc Computer-assisted surgical system
US5688280A (en) * 1995-01-06 1997-11-18 Bristol-Myers Squibb Co. Instrumentation for use in orthopaedic surgery
US5748767A (en) * 1988-02-01 1998-05-05 Faro Technology, Inc. Computer-aided surgery apparatus
US5765561A (en) * 1994-10-07 1998-06-16 Medical Media Systems Video-based surgical targeting system
US5772594A (en) * 1995-10-17 1998-06-30 Barrick; Earl F. Fluoroscopic image guided orthopaedic surgery system with intraoperative registration
US5806518A (en) * 1995-09-11 1998-09-15 Integrated Surgical Systems Method and system for positioning surgical robot
US5824083A (en) * 1992-04-24 1998-10-20 Draenert; Klaus Cement-free femoral prosthesis component and method of producing it
US5823778A (en) * 1996-06-14 1998-10-20 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Air Force Imaging method for fabricating dental devices
US6006126A (en) * 1991-01-28 1999-12-21 Cosman; Eric R. System and method for stereotactic registration of image scan data
US6008128A (en) * 1997-07-18 1999-12-28 Shin-Etsu Handotai Co., Ltd. Method for smoothing surface of silicon single crystal substrate
US6021343A (en) * 1997-11-20 2000-02-01 Surgical Navigation Technologies Image guided awl/tap/screwdriver
US6023495A (en) * 1998-05-15 2000-02-08 International Business Machines Corporation System and method for acquiring three-dimensional data subject to practical constraints by integrating CT slice data and CT scout images
US6033415A (en) * 1998-09-14 2000-03-07 Integrated Surgical Systems System and method for performing image directed robotic orthopaedic procedures without a fiducial reference system
US6051028A (en) * 1996-06-21 2000-04-18 Texon U.K. Ltd. Digitiser
US6056756A (en) * 1998-08-11 2000-05-02 Johnson & Johnson Professional, Inc. Femoral tensing and sizing device
US6161080A (en) * 1997-11-17 2000-12-12 The Trustees Of Columbia University In The City Of New York Three dimensional multibody modeling of anatomical joints
US6169817B1 (en) * 1998-11-04 2001-01-02 University Of Rochester System and method for 4D reconstruction and visualization
US6177034B1 (en) * 1998-04-03 2001-01-23 A-Pear Biometric Replications Inc. Methods for making prosthetic surfaces
US6246784B1 (en) * 1997-08-19 2001-06-12 The United States Of America As Represented By The Department Of Health And Human Services Method for segmenting medical images and detecting surface anomalies in anatomical structures
US6285902B1 (en) * 1999-02-10 2001-09-04 Surgical Insights, Inc. Computer assisted targeting device for use in orthopaedic surgery
US6322567B1 (en) * 1998-12-14 2001-11-27 Integrated Surgical Systems, Inc. Bone motion tracking system
US20010056230A1 (en) * 1999-11-30 2001-12-27 Barak Jacob H. Computer-aided apparatus and method for preoperatively assessing anatomical fit of a cardiac assist device within a chest cavity
US20020120192A1 (en) * 1999-04-20 2002-08-29 Nolte Lutz Peter Method and device for percutaneous determination of points associated with the surface of an organ
US20030069591A1 (en) * 2001-02-27 2003-04-10 Carson Christopher Patrick Computer assisted knee arthroplasty instrumentation, systems, and processes
US20030176783A1 (en) * 2000-07-06 2003-09-18 Qingmao Hu Method and device for impingement detection
US20030185346A1 (en) * 2002-03-27 2003-10-02 Stefan Vilsmeier Medical navigation and/or pre-operative treatment planning with the assistance of generic patient data
US20030225415A1 (en) * 2002-01-18 2003-12-04 Alain Richard Method and apparatus for reconstructing bone surfaces during surgery
US6670962B2 (en) * 2001-03-16 2003-12-30 Mitsubishi Electric Research Laboratories, Inc. Surface following interaction method for adaptively sampled distance fields
US6701174B1 (en) * 2000-04-07 2004-03-02 Carnegie Mellon University Computer-aided bone distraction
US20040227761A1 (en) * 2003-05-14 2004-11-18 Pixar Statistical dynamic modeling method and apparatus
US20050015022A1 (en) * 2003-07-15 2005-01-20 Alain Richard Method for locating the mechanical axis of a femur
US20050148860A1 (en) * 2003-09-19 2005-07-07 Imaging Therapeutics, Inc. Method for bone structure prognosis and simulated bone remodeling
US20050163358A1 (en) * 2004-01-26 2005-07-28 Thomas Moeller System and method for automatic bone extraction from a medical image
US20050182319A1 (en) * 2004-02-17 2005-08-18 Glossop Neil D. Method and apparatus for registration, verification, and referencing of internal organs
US20050228266A1 (en) * 2004-03-31 2005-10-13 Mccombs Daniel L Methods and Apparatuses for Providing a Reference Array Input Device
US20050267722A1 (en) * 2003-02-04 2005-12-01 Joel Marquart Computer-assisted external fixation apparatus and method
US20050288574A1 (en) * 2004-06-23 2005-12-29 Thornton Thomas M Wireless (disposable) fiducial based registration and EM distoration based surface registration
US6990220B2 (en) * 2001-06-14 2006-01-24 Igo Technologies Inc. Apparatuses and methods for surgical navigation
US20060089609A1 (en) * 2004-10-15 2006-04-27 Baxano, Inc. Devices and methods for tissue modification
US20060258951A1 (en) * 2005-05-16 2006-11-16 Baxano, Inc. Spinal Access and Neural Localization
US20080262345A1 (en) * 2003-07-21 2008-10-23 The John Hopkins University Image registration of multiple medical imaging modalities using a multiple degree-of-freedom-encoded fiducial device

Family Cites Families (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE29704393U1 (en) 1997-03-11 1997-07-17 Aesculap Ag An apparatus for pre-operative determination of the position data of Endoprothesenteilen
US6052611A (en) 1997-11-28 2000-04-18 Picker International, Inc. Frameless stereotactic tomographic scanner for image guided interventional procedures
EP1027681A4 (en) 1998-05-13 2001-09-19 Acuscape International Inc Method and apparatus for generating 3d models from medical images
EP1079756B1 (en) 1998-05-28 2004-08-04 Orthosoft, Inc. Interactive computer-assisted surgical system
JP4612196B2 (en) 1999-03-17 2011-01-12 アーオー テクノロジー アクチエンゲゼルシャフト And contrast for ligament graft placement, Planning device
DE69930769D1 (en) 1999-11-15 2006-05-18 Synthes Ag Device for determination of reduction parameters for the subsequent repositioning of a fractured bone
JP2003534035A (en) 2000-03-15 2003-11-18 オーソソフト インコーポレイテッド Automatic calibration system of computer-aided surgical instruments
FR2816200A1 (en) 2000-11-06 2002-05-10 Praxim Determination of the position of a knee prosthesis
GB0101990D0 (en) 2001-01-25 2001-03-14 Finsbury Dev Ltd Surgical system
FR2829060B1 (en) * 2001-09-04 2004-09-24 Vaslin Bucher A safety device for a pneumatic press membrane

Patent Citations (55)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6169817A (en) *
US4936862A (en) * 1986-05-30 1990-06-26 Walker Peter S Method of designing and manufacturing a human joint prosthesis
US4962460A (en) * 1987-07-31 1990-10-09 Fanuc Ltd. Digitizing apparatus for digitizing a model surface using a contactless probe
US5071252A (en) * 1987-09-02 1991-12-10 Fanuc Ltd. Method for contactless profiling normal to a surface
US5748767A (en) * 1988-02-01 1998-05-05 Faro Technology, Inc. Computer-aided surgery apparatus
US5182714A (en) * 1989-05-30 1993-01-26 Fanuc Ltd. Digitizing control apparatus
US5622170A (en) * 1990-10-19 1997-04-22 Image Guided Technologies, Inc. Apparatus for determining the position and orientation of an invasive portion of a probe inside a three-dimensional body
US6006126A (en) * 1991-01-28 1999-12-21 Cosman; Eric R. System and method for stereotactic registration of image scan data
US5402801A (en) * 1991-06-13 1995-04-04 International Business Machines Corporation System and method for augmentation of surgery
US5824083A (en) * 1992-04-24 1998-10-20 Draenert; Klaus Cement-free femoral prosthesis component and method of producing it
US5564437A (en) * 1992-12-15 1996-10-15 Universite Joseph Fourier Method and system for determining the fixation point on the femur of a crossed ligament of the knee
US5611353A (en) * 1993-06-21 1997-03-18 Osteonics Corp. Method and apparatus for locating functional structures of the lower leg during knee surgery
US5765561A (en) * 1994-10-07 1998-06-16 Medical Media Systems Video-based surgical targeting system
US5688280A (en) * 1995-01-06 1997-11-18 Bristol-Myers Squibb Co. Instrumentation for use in orthopaedic surgery
US5649929A (en) * 1995-07-10 1997-07-22 Callaway; George Hadley Knee joint flexion-gap distraction device
US5806518A (en) * 1995-09-11 1998-09-15 Integrated Surgical Systems Method and system for positioning surgical robot
US5772594A (en) * 1995-10-17 1998-06-30 Barrick; Earl F. Fluoroscopic image guided orthopaedic surgery system with intraoperative registration
US5682886A (en) * 1995-12-26 1997-11-04 Musculographics Inc Computer-assisted surgical system
US5871018A (en) * 1995-12-26 1999-02-16 Delp; Scott L. Computer-assisted surgical method
US5823778A (en) * 1996-06-14 1998-10-20 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Air Force Imaging method for fabricating dental devices
US6051028A (en) * 1996-06-21 2000-04-18 Texon U.K. Ltd. Digitiser
US6008128A (en) * 1997-07-18 1999-12-28 Shin-Etsu Handotai Co., Ltd. Method for smoothing surface of silicon single crystal substrate
US6246784B1 (en) * 1997-08-19 2001-06-12 The United States Of America As Represented By The Department Of Health And Human Services Method for segmenting medical images and detecting surface anomalies in anatomical structures
US6161080A (en) * 1997-11-17 2000-12-12 The Trustees Of Columbia University In The City Of New York Three dimensional multibody modeling of anatomical joints
US6021343A (en) * 1997-11-20 2000-02-01 Surgical Navigation Technologies Image guided awl/tap/screwdriver
US6177034B1 (en) * 1998-04-03 2001-01-23 A-Pear Biometric Replications Inc. Methods for making prosthetic surfaces
US6023495A (en) * 1998-05-15 2000-02-08 International Business Machines Corporation System and method for acquiring three-dimensional data subject to practical constraints by integrating CT slice data and CT scout images
US6056756A (en) * 1998-08-11 2000-05-02 Johnson & Johnson Professional, Inc. Femoral tensing and sizing device
US6033415A (en) * 1998-09-14 2000-03-07 Integrated Surgical Systems System and method for performing image directed robotic orthopaedic procedures without a fiducial reference system
US6169817B1 (en) * 1998-11-04 2001-01-02 University Of Rochester System and method for 4D reconstruction and visualization
US6322567B1 (en) * 1998-12-14 2001-11-27 Integrated Surgical Systems, Inc. Bone motion tracking system
US6285902B1 (en) * 1999-02-10 2001-09-04 Surgical Insights, Inc. Computer assisted targeting device for use in orthopaedic surgery
US20020120192A1 (en) * 1999-04-20 2002-08-29 Nolte Lutz Peter Method and device for percutaneous determination of points associated with the surface of an organ
US20010056230A1 (en) * 1999-11-30 2001-12-27 Barak Jacob H. Computer-aided apparatus and method for preoperatively assessing anatomical fit of a cardiac assist device within a chest cavity
US6701174B1 (en) * 2000-04-07 2004-03-02 Carnegie Mellon University Computer-aided bone distraction
US20030176783A1 (en) * 2000-07-06 2003-09-18 Qingmao Hu Method and device for impingement detection
US20030069591A1 (en) * 2001-02-27 2003-04-10 Carson Christopher Patrick Computer assisted knee arthroplasty instrumentation, systems, and processes
US6670962B2 (en) * 2001-03-16 2003-12-30 Mitsubishi Electric Research Laboratories, Inc. Surface following interaction method for adaptively sampled distance fields
US6990220B2 (en) * 2001-06-14 2006-01-24 Igo Technologies Inc. Apparatuses and methods for surgical navigation
US20030225415A1 (en) * 2002-01-18 2003-12-04 Alain Richard Method and apparatus for reconstructing bone surfaces during surgery
US7715602B2 (en) * 2002-01-18 2010-05-11 Orthosoft Inc. Method and apparatus for reconstructing bone surfaces during surgery
US20030185346A1 (en) * 2002-03-27 2003-10-02 Stefan Vilsmeier Medical navigation and/or pre-operative treatment planning with the assistance of generic patient data
US20050267722A1 (en) * 2003-02-04 2005-12-01 Joel Marquart Computer-assisted external fixation apparatus and method
US20040227761A1 (en) * 2003-05-14 2004-11-18 Pixar Statistical dynamic modeling method and apparatus
US7427272B2 (en) * 2003-07-15 2008-09-23 Orthosoft Inc. Method for locating the mechanical axis of a femur
US20050015022A1 (en) * 2003-07-15 2005-01-20 Alain Richard Method for locating the mechanical axis of a femur
US20080262345A1 (en) * 2003-07-21 2008-10-23 The John Hopkins University Image registration of multiple medical imaging modalities using a multiple degree-of-freedom-encoded fiducial device
US20050148860A1 (en) * 2003-09-19 2005-07-07 Imaging Therapeutics, Inc. Method for bone structure prognosis and simulated bone remodeling
US20050163358A1 (en) * 2004-01-26 2005-07-28 Thomas Moeller System and method for automatic bone extraction from a medical image
US20050182319A1 (en) * 2004-02-17 2005-08-18 Glossop Neil D. Method and apparatus for registration, verification, and referencing of internal organs
US20050228266A1 (en) * 2004-03-31 2005-10-13 Mccombs Daniel L Methods and Apparatuses for Providing a Reference Array Input Device
US20050288574A1 (en) * 2004-06-23 2005-12-29 Thornton Thomas M Wireless (disposable) fiducial based registration and EM distoration based surface registration
US20060089609A1 (en) * 2004-10-15 2006-04-27 Baxano, Inc. Devices and methods for tissue modification
US20060135882A1 (en) * 2004-10-15 2006-06-22 Baxano, Inc. Devices and methods for selective surgical removal of tissue
US20060258951A1 (en) * 2005-05-16 2006-11-16 Baxano, Inc. Spinal Access and Neural Localization

Non-Patent Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
D. Glozman, et al., "A Surface-Matching Technique for Robot-Assisted Registration", 2001, Computer Aided Surgery 6, pg. 259-269. *
Glozman et al, "A Surface-Matching Technique for Robot-Assisted Registration", Computer Aided Surgery Vol. 6, pg. 259-269, Dec. 2001. *

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US9168153B2 (en) 2011-06-16 2015-10-27 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Surgical alignment using references

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
US20030225415A1 (en) 2003-12-04 application
US7715602B2 (en) 2010-05-11 grant

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US7427200B2 (en) Computer-based training methods for surgical procedures
US6923817B2 (en) Total knee arthroplasty systems and processes
US6533737B1 (en) Interactive computer-assisted surgical system and method thereof
US6511418B2 (en) Apparatus and method for calibrating and endoscope
Sugano Computer-assisted orthopedic surgery
Li et al. The application accuracy of the NeuroMate robot—A quantitative comparison with frameless and frame‐based surgical localization systems
US20090089034A1 (en) Surgical Planning
Nolte et al. Computer-aided fixation of spinal implants
US20050197569A1 (en) Methods, systems, and apparatuses for providing patient-mounted surgical navigational sensors
US20010051761A1 (en) Apparatus and method for calibrating an endoscope
US5806518A (en) Method and system for positioning surgical robot
US7008430B2 (en) Adjustable reamer with tip tracker linkage
US20090209884A1 (en) Implant planning using corrected captured joint motion information
US7780681B2 (en) Non-imaging, computer assisted navigation system for hip replacement surgery
Amiot et al. Computed tomography-based navigation for hip, knee, and spine surgery.
US20070038223A1 (en) Computer-assisted knee replacement apparatus and method
US20080004633A1 (en) System and method for verifying calibration of a surgical device
US5765561A (en) Video-based surgical targeting system
US20050149050A1 (en) Arrangement and method for the intra-operative determination of the position of a joint replacement implant
US20070066917A1 (en) Method for simulating prosthetic implant selection and placement
US20080033442A1 (en) Computer-assisted surgery tools and system
US20080319491A1 (en) Patient-matched surgical component and methods of use
US20040181149A1 (en) Device and method for intraoperative navigation
US7121832B2 (en) Three-dimensional surgery simulation system
US20040087852A1 (en) Computer-assisted surgical positioning method and system

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AS Assignment

Owner name: ORTHOSOFT INC., CANADA

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:RICHARD, ALAIN;REEL/FRAME:024134/0440

Effective date: 20030224