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US20100171820A1 - Lens system - Google Patents

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Publication number
US20100171820A1
US20100171820A1 US12666545 US66654508A US2010171820A1 US 20100171820 A1 US20100171820 A1 US 20100171820A1 US 12666545 US12666545 US 12666545 US 66654508 A US66654508 A US 66654508A US 2010171820 A1 US2010171820 A1 US 2010171820A1
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Prior art keywords
lens
image
group
optical
magnification
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Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Pending
Application number
US12666545
Inventor
Bernardus Hendrikus Wihelmu Hendriks
Jeff Shimizu
Stein Kuiper
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Koninklijke Philips NV
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Koninklijke Philips NV
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B23/00Telescopes, e.g. binoculars; Periscopes; Instruments for viewing the inside of hollow bodies; Viewfinders; Optical aiming or sighting devices
    • G02B23/24Instruments or systems for viewing the inside of hollow bodies, e.g. fibrescopes
    • G02B23/2407Optical details
    • G02B23/2423Optical details of the distal end
    • G02B23/243Objectives for endoscopes
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B26/00Optical devices or arrangements using movable or deformable optical elements for controlling the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light, e.g. switching, gating, modulating
    • G02B26/08Optical devices or arrangements using movable or deformable optical elements for controlling the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light, e.g. switching, gating, modulating for controlling the direction of light
    • G02B26/10Scanning systems
    • G02B26/103Scanning systems having movable or deformable optical fibres, light guides or waveguides as scanning elements

Abstract

A lens system comprises a first lens group and a second lens group, and is configured to form an image at a first magnification and at a second magnification. The lens system has a common optical axis in both magnifications. The lens system is further configured to form an intermediate image between the first lens group and the second lens group at the first magnification. The intermediate image formed in the first magnification is further imaged onto an optical detector. In the first magnification, the second lens group acts as a relay lens imaging the intermediate image onto the optical detector. In the second magnification, the first and second lens groups together form an image on the optical detector without forming an intermediate image.

Description

    FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • [0001]
    This invention relates to a lens system, more in particular to the lens system included in an optical biopsy device.
  • BACKGROUND TO THE INVENTION
  • [0002]
    A biopsy is carried out during a minimal-invasive surgery to determine the status of a suspicious lesion. Since suspicious lesions must be visible for a surgeon, these biopsies are taken generally in a later stage of a disease. The biopsies are then sent to a pathologist to examine target tissue sections. The outcome thus depends on the local tissue samples that may or may not represent the actual disease stage in the tissue. Optical biopsy is an alternative method, where in-vivo optical technology is used to determine whether the disease has affected the tissue. This method also enables the diagnosis of the disease in an early stage. Light can interact with tissue in a number of ways, including elastic and inelastic (multiple or single) scattering, reflection at boundary layers and absorption, and can for instance lead to fluorescence and Raman scattering. All of these can be utilized to measure any abnormal change in tissue. This is beneficial to a patient, because no tissue is removed and an analysis can be performed in real time on the spot at all necessary locations. Furthermore, automatic diagnosis would save time for the patient as well as for the surgeon who can diagnose and treat the person instead of waiting for pathology results.
  • [0003]
    An optical biopsy device must fulfill two requirements to be useful. Firstly it must be able to scan a significant area within a limited time. Secondly, it must have a high sensitivity and specificity. Currently, various optical methods have been proposed for cancer detection. The available methods capable of screening larger areas (in general non-point-like methods) have a high sensitivity but a rather low specificity. Hence, these methods produce a lot of false positives. Methods that have a much higher specificity are in general point like measuring methods. These methods can give a good diagnosis but are not suited to scan significant areas in a short period of time. To fulfill both the above mentioned requirements two different optical devices are required. One based on “camera” like imaging and capable of viewing larger areas and another one based on “microscope” like imaging and capable of viewing tissue on a cellular level. It is apparent that biopsy procedures would be more efficient and effective if a single optical biopsy device can switch between two different views of a target site without the device having to be removed from the patient.
  • [0004]
    Although combining camera and microscope functions in one device has been described in patent application US-A1-20040158129, the two optical modalities are still separate entities placed aside each other. This results in rather bulky devices. Since for minimal invasive procedures the width of the device is of utmost importance, such solutions as described in US-A1-20040158129 may not be preferable.
  • [0005]
    It would therefore be advantageous to have an optical biopsy device which does not have the disadvantage described above and more in particular to have a compact optical biopsy device that enables camera-like (macroscopic) and microscope-like imaging.
  • [0006]
    Particular and preferred aspects of the invention are set out in the accompanying independent and dependent claims. Features of the dependent claims may be combined with features of the independent claims and with features of other dependent claims, as appropriate and not merely as explicitly set out in the claims.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • [0007]
    According to a first aspect of the invention, a lens system has a first lens group and a second lens group and is configured to form an image at a first magnification and at a second magnification, wherein the lens has a common optical axis in both magnifications. The lens system is further configured to form an intermediate image between the first lens group and the second lens group at the first magnification. The intermediate image formed in the first magnification is further imaged onto an optical detector. The first magnification allows viewing a significant area of a target being imaged whereas the second magnification allows viewing the target with a high sensitivity and specificity. In the first magnification, the second lens group acts as a relay lens imaging the intermediated image onto the optical detector. In the second magnification, the first and second lens groups together form an image on the optical detector without forming an intermediate image between the first and the second lens groups.
  • [0008]
    According to a first aspect of the invention, a lens system for an optical biopsy device has a first lens group and a second lens group configured to form an image at a first magnification and at a second magnification, wherein the lens has a common optical axis in both magnifications. The lens system is further configured to form an intermediate image between the first lens group and the second lens group at the first magnification. The intermediate image formed in the first magnification is further imaged onto an optical detector. The first magnification allows viewing a significant area of a target being imaged whereas the second magnification allows viewing the target with a high sensitivity and specificity. For minimal invasive procedures, it is critical to have a compact optical biopsy device. If viewing at two different magnifications is combined in a single objective lens system, a significant reduction in the width of the biopsy device is achieved and also larger areas can be viewed with a higher specificity. In the first magnification, the second lens group acts as a relay lens imaging the intermediated image onto the optical detector. In the second magnification, the first and second lens groups together form an image on the optical detector without forming an intermediate image between the first and the second lens groups.
  • [0009]
    According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the first magnification is associated with a macroscopic view and the second magnification is associated with a microscopic view. A macroscopic view enables viewing a significant area of a target whereas a microscopic view enables viewing the target on a cellular level with high specificity and sensitivity. For an optical biopsy device to be practically useful, a combination of a macroscopic view capable of viewing a larger area of the target and a microscopic view capable of viewing the target on a cellular level is important.
  • [0010]
    According to another embodiment of the invention, the absolute value of the first magnification is at least 100 times smaller than the absolute value of the second magnification. The higher magnification allows viewing the target on a cellular level with high specificity and sensitivity while the lower magnification allows viewing a significant area of the target. Having two different magnifications in a single unit yields a compact optical biopsy device that enables camera-like (macroscopic) and microscope-like imaging.
  • [0011]
    According to a further embodiment of the invention, the first lens group has a focal length F1 and the second lens group has a focal length F2 and the first lens group and the second lens group are at a distance of D12. The focal length F1 of the first lens group is preferably smaller than the distance D12. This constraint ensures that the intermediate image is formed at the first magnification.
  • [0012]
    According to a still further embodiment of the invention, the focal length F1 of the first lens group and the focal length F2 of the second lens group comply with |F2/F1|>1. The focal length of the second lens group is larger than that of the first lens group in order to be able to image the intermediate image onto the detector in the first magnification, while allowing imaging of the object onto the detector without intermediate image in the second magnification.
  • [0013]
    According to a second aspect of the invention, an optical biopsy device comprises an inserting tube to be inserted into a body; and a lens system secured in a tip end of the inserting tube having a first lens group and a second lens group configured to form an image at a first magnification and at a second magnification. The lens system has a common optical axis in both magnifications. The lens system is further configured to form an intermediate image between the first lens group and the second lens group at the first magnification. With this kind of optical biopsy device, the examining physician could scan a larger area of the target (macroscopic view) and, upon noticing a suspicious region, directly view in situ the single cells (microscopic view) to make a pathological determination during the course of a single optical biopsy procedure.
  • [0014]
    According to an embodiment of the invention, the optical biopsy device further comprises a switchable lens system configured for switching between the first magnification and the second magnification. The switchable lens allows more design freedom for the optical biopsy device.
  • [0015]
    According to another embodiment of the invention, the switchable lens system is configured to work according to the electro-wetting principle. Such lenses do not have moveable parts, thus making a compact and robust lens system design possible.
  • [0016]
    According to another embodiment of the invention, the switchable lens system is configured to work by displacing a lens.
  • [0017]
    According to a still further embodiment of the invention, the second lens group consists of at least one fixed lens and one switchable lens. This combination improves aberration control in the lens system that can be used to increase the performance of the first lens group.
  • [0018]
    According to a further embodiment of the invention, the optical biopsy device further comprises an image sensor. The image formed by the lens is imaged on to the image sensor.
  • [0019]
    According to a still further embodiment of the invention, the optical biopsy device further comprises a fiber bundler configured for relaying an image formed and a console optically coupled to the fiber bundler. The console is configured for reading out the image formed. The image sensor is generally integrated into an optical head. To make the design of the optical head simpler, the image can be relayed using the fiber bundler. Instead of being imaged onto the image sensor, the target is imaged on one end of a fiber bundler. This fiber bundler consists of many tiny fibers. The image is relayed by this fiber bundler to the other end of the fiber bundler. The other end of the fiber bundler is probed by the beam of a console of the optical biopsy device.
  • [0020]
    According to another embodiment of the invention, the optical biopsy device further comprises a single scanning fiber configured for reading out an image formed and a console optically coupled to the single scanning fiber. The console is configured for reconstructing the image formed.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES
  • [0021]
    These and other characteristics, features and advantages of the present invention will become apparent from the following detailed description, taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, which illustrate, by way of example, the principles of the invention. This description is given for the sake of example only, without limiting the scope of the invention. The reference figures quoted below refer to the attached drawings.
  • [0022]
    FIGS. 1 a and 1 b show an optical biopsy device according to an embodiment of the invention;
  • [0023]
    FIGS. 2 a and 2 b show an optical biopsy device according to an embodiment of the invention;
  • [0024]
    FIGS. 3 a and 3 b show an optical biopsy device according to another embodiment of the invention;
  • [0025]
    FIGS. 4 a and 4 b show an optical biopsy device according to an embodiment of the invention, where an image sensor is replaced by a fiber bundler;
  • [0026]
    FIG. 5 shows a schematic view of a confocal scanning mechanism; and
  • [0027]
    FIGS. 6 a and 6 b show an optical biopsy device where an image sensor is replaced by a scanning fiber.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  • [0028]
    Particular and preferred aspects of the invention are set out in the accompanying independent and dependent claims. Features of the dependent claims may be combined with features of the independent claims and with features of other dependent claims, as appropriate and not merely as explicitly set out in the claims.
  • [0029]
    The present invention will be described with respect to particular embodiments and with reference to certain drawings, but the invention is not limited thereto but only by the claims. Any reference signs in the claims shall not be construed as limiting the scope. The drawings described are only schematic and are non-limiting. In the drawings, the size of some of the elements may be exaggerated and not drawn to scale for illustrative purposes. Where the term “comprising” is used in the present description and claims, it does not exclude other elements or steps. Where an indefinite or definite article is used when referring to a singular noun e.g. “a” or “an”, “the”, this includes a plural of that noun unless something else is specifically stated.
  • [0030]
    Furthermore, the terms first, second, third and the like in the description and in the claims, are used for distinguishing between similar elements and not necessarily for describing a sequential or chronological order. It is to be understood that the terms so used are interchangeable under appropriate circumstances and that the embodiments of the invention described herein are capable of operation in other sequences than described or illustrated herein.
  • [0031]
    Moreover, the terms top, bottom, over, under and the like in the description and the claims are used for descriptive purposes and not necessarily for describing relative positions. It is to be understood that the terms so used are interchangeable under appropriate circumstances and that the embodiments of the invention described herein are capable of operation in other orientations than described or illustrated herein.
  • [0032]
    In the context of the invention, target can be any interior region including lung, bladder, abdominal cavity, knee joint and the like. The examining physician can examine the interior region and upon noticing a suspicious region i.e. a lesion, he can view in situ the single cells of the lesion. Target can also be any surface to be inspected for its defects. In the same context, macroscopic viewing refers to viewing a larger area of the target and microscopic viewing refers to viewing the target on a cellular level with high sensitivity. In the context of the invention, first lens group refers to lens elements between a target and an intermediate image and second lens group refers to lens elements between the intermediate image and an image sensor.
  • [0033]
    A lens system of an optical biopsy device 1 as shown in FIG. 1 a consists of a first lens group 10 and a second lens group 20 having an optical axis 60. The lens system, at a first magnification, transforms a beam 40, 50 emerging from a target (not shown) into a beam 41, 51 and forms an intermediate image at plane 70. The beam 41, 51 is further transformed into a beam 42, 52 by the second lens group 20. The intermediate image is further imaged onto an image sensor 30 by the second lens group 20. At the second magnification, as shown in FIG. 1 b, the lens system 100 images a target from close proximity, without forming any intermediate image between the first lens group 10 and the second lens group 20. The second lens group 20 images the beam onto the image sensor 30.
  • [0034]
    The second lens group 20 consists of a switchable lens system configured for switching viewing between the first magnification and the second magnification of the optical biopsy device 1, as shown in FIGS. 2 a and 2 b. The second lens group 20 includes two lenses 21 and 22 in such a way that they form a cavity 23 between them. The image is formed on an image sensor 30. A protective glass plate 15 is placed before the lens 16 and they together form the first lens group 10.
  • [0035]
    The optical biopsy device 1 as shown in FIGS. 3 a and 3 b includes the first lens group 10 and the second lens group 20. The first lens group consists of a glass plate 15 and a lens 17 whereas the second lens group 20 includes a first lens 26 and a second switchable lens 27. The switchable lens 27 is a fluid focus lens.
  • [0036]
    FIGS. 4 a and 4 b show an optical biopsy device 1 including a first lens group 10 and a second lens group 20. The image sensor 30 is replaced by a fiber bundler 80. In FIG. 4 a, the first lens group 10 transforms a beam 40, 50 emerging from a target (not shown) into a beam 41, 51 and forms an intermediate image at plane 70 in between the first lens group 10 and the second lens group 20. The beam from the intermediate image 70 is further transformed into a beam 42, 52 and forms an image onto one end of the fiber bundler 80. The image is relayed to the other end of the fiber bundler 80 and is probed by the beam 220 from a console 210 of the image sensor 30. In FIG. 4 b, the beam 40, 50 emerging from the target is transformed into a beam 41, 51 and 42, 52 and forms an image onto one end of the fiber bundler 80. The image is relayed to the other end of the fiber bundler 80 and is probed by the beam 220 from a console 210 of the image sensor 30.
  • [0037]
    FIG. 5 shows a confocal scanning system as described in J. Vasc. Res. 2004; 41:400-411 by E. Laemmel et al., which is an example of a console system 210 of FIG. 4. The insert 11 shows an extended view of the image bundler 2. 2 is an image bundler. 3 is a lens. 4 is a tilting mirror. 5 is a dichroic filter. 6 is a laser source. 7 is a photo detector. Details of the system are described in the above reference and are included by reference.
  • [0038]
    FIGS. 6 a and 6 b show an optical biopsy device 1 including a first lens group 10 and a second lens group 20. In this case, the image sensor is replaced by a scanning fiber 300 that reads out the images. This fiber 300 is connected to a console (not shown). In FIG. 6 a, the first lens group 10 transforms a beam 40, 50 emerging from a target (not shown) into a beam 41, 51 and forms an intermediate image 70 before the second lens group 20. The beam from the intermediate image 70 is further transformed into a beam 42, 52 and forms an image that is scanned by scanning the fiber end 310. The image formed can be read out and transferred to the console. In FIG. 6 b, the beam 40, 50 emerging from the target is transformed into a beam 41, 51 and 42, 52 and forms an image onto one end of the fiber bundler 80. The image is scanned by scanning the fiber end 310. The image formed can be read out and transferred to the console.
  • [0039]
    At the first magnification, the first lens group 10 with the optical axis 60, images the target from far away, first onto an intermediate image 70. This intermediate image is then imaged by the second lens group 20 containing a switchable optical element, in the first switching state, onto the image sensor 30. At this magnification, the first lens group 10 acts as a camera and images large tissue areas (macroscopic view). At the second magnification, the first lens group 10 images the target from close proximity, forming no intermediate image between the first lens group 10 and the second lens group 20 containing a switchable optical element. The switchable optical element at the second magnification images the beam onto the image sensor 30. The image sensor 30 can be a spectral detector. The switchable optical system 20 can be a mechanical actuation-based optical system or can be an electro-wetting principle-based optical system.
  • [0040]
    As shown in FIGS. 2 a and 2 b, a switchable lens system based on an electro-wetting principle consists of a cavity enclosed by two lenses 21 and 22. The cavity 23 between the two lenses 21 and 22 is occupied by a conducting liquid and a non-conducting liquid. Both liquids do not mix. Switching between the two liquids is achieved by making use of the electro-wetting effect as described in EP-A1-1543370. Filling the cavity 23 with two different fluids gives rise to two different focal lengths of the second lens group 20. In the case of macroscopic viewing, the intermediate image 70 produced is imaged by the second lens group 20 onto the image sensor 30. The second lens group 20 acts as a relay lens. In this case, the cavity 23 of the switchable lens system 20 is filled with salted water (conducting liquid). For the microscopic view no intermediate image is formed and the second lens group 20 is used to image the target in focus on the image sensor 30. In this way two functionalities can be combined in one optical biopsy device. In this design, the microscope function has a magnification of 12.8. The macroscopic view has a field of view of 30 degrees and a magnification of 0.033. The change in magnification between the macroscopic and the microscopic view is thus a factor of 389.
  • [0041]
    The general formula describing a “sag” or z-coordinate of a surface as a function of the radial coordinate r is given by
  • [0000]
    z ( r ) = r 2 R ( 1 + 1 - r 2 / R 2 ) + A 2 r 2 + A 4 r 4 + A 6 r 6 + A 8 r 8 + A 10 r 10 + A 12 r 12 + A 14 r 14 + A 16 r 16 ( 1 )
  • [0042]
    where R denotes the radius of each lens surface, r denotes the distance from the optical axis 60 and z the position of the sag of the surface in the z-direction along the optical axis 60. The coefficients A2 to A16 are the aspherical coefficients of the surface. If the lens surfaces are numbered from left to right in FIGS. 2 a and 2 b starting with the object plane as surface no. 0, the image plane at the image sensor will be surface no. 10. The stop of the lens system, determining the numerical aperture of the lens system, is positioned at the lens surface of lens 16 facing the lens group 2 (surface no. 5). Table 1 and Table 2 show the numerical values of the parameters for the lens surfaces in macroscopic and microscopic viewing.
  • [0043]
    For the macroscopic viewing, the stop diameter is 0.35 mm and the magnification is 0.0329. For the microscopic viewing, the stop diameter is 0.8 mm and the magnification is −12.838. All examples are designs at a wavelength of 650 nm.
  • [0044]
    The focal length F1 of the first lens group is 0.545 mm and the distance D12 between the first lens group and the second lens group is 2 mm. The lens system complies with F1<D12. Furthermore, the focal length F2 of the second group is 2.01 mm in the macroscopic view and F2 is 3.07 mm in the microscopic view. Hence |F2/F1| is greater than 1 in both views.
  • [0045]
    In Tables 1 to 4, “No” denotes the surface number, “R” the radius of the lens surface [mm], “d” denotes the lens thickness or the lens interval [mm], “n” denotes the refractive index of the lens. The coefficients A2 to A16 denote the aspherical coefficients: A2 in [mm−1], A4 in [mm−3], A6 in [mm−5], A8 in [mm−7], A10 in [mm−9], A12 in [mm—11], A14 in [mm−13], A16 in [mm−15]. In the last column, denoted as “remark”, the object, the stop and the image surface are indicated.
  • [0000]
    TABLE 1
    No R D n A2 A4 A6 A8
    0 50.0 0 0 0 0
    1 Infinity 0.1 1.5864 0 0 0 0
    2 Infinity 0.308 1.4893 0 0 0 0
    3 −0.505 0.05 0 2.2781106 395.78477 −22863.226
    4 Infinity 0.5 1.4893 0 0 0 0
    5 Infinity 2.0 −1.4126962 3.4642668 −199.81128 4177.5756
    6 −1.839 1.0 1.6000 0 0 0 0
    7 Infinity 0.3 1.3313 −0.59217799 −0.22344204 −0.046872184 0.31412181
    8 Infinity 1 1.6000 0.68799559 −0.14118644 0.48306084 −0.35036155
    9 Infinity 8 0 −0.013601463 0.19970431 −0.081464652
    10 Infinity 0 0 0 0
    No A10 A12 A14 A16 Remark
    0 0 0 0 0 Object
    1 0 0 0 0
    2 0 0 0 0
    3 878251.69 −18220793.0 1.95633 108 −8.60217 108
    4 0 0 0 0
    5 −49341.888 323794.08 −1110030.3 1534803.9 Stop
    6 0 0 0 0
    7 −0.5939669 0 0 0
    8 0.14318611 0 0 0
    9 0 0 0 0
    10 0 0 0 0 Image
  • [0000]
    TABLE 2
    No R d N A2 A4 A6 A8
    0 0.075 0 0 0 0
    1 Infinity 0.1 1.5864 0 0 0 0
    2 Infinity 0.308 1.4893 0 0 0 0
    3 −0.505 0.05 0 2.2781106 395.78477 −22863.226
    4 Infinity 0.5 1.4893 0 0 0 0
    5 Infinity 2.0 −1.4126962 3.4642668 −199.81128 4177.5756
    6 −1.839 1.0 1.6000 0 0 0 0
    7 Infinity 0.3 1.6000 −0.59217799 −0.22344204 −0.046872184 0.31412181
    8 Infinity 1 1.6000 0.68799559 −0.14118644 0.48306084 −0.35036155
    9 Infinity 8 0 −0.013601463 0.19970431 −0.081464652
    10 Infinity 0 0 0 0
    No A10 A12 A14 A16 Remark
    0 0 0 0 0 Object
    1 0 0 0 0
    2 0 0 0 0
    3 878251.69 −18220793.0 1.95633 108 −8.60217 108
    4 0 0 0 0
    5 −49341.888 323794.08 −1110030.3 1534803.9 Stop
    6 0 0 0 0
    7 −0.5939669 0 0 0
    8 0.14318611 0 0 0
    9 0 0 0 0
    10 0 0 0 0 Image
  • [0046]
    Switching between the macroscopic and the microscopic viewing is possible by using the second lens group as shown in FIGS. 3 a and 3 b. The first lens of the second lens group 26 is a fixed lens, while the second lens 27 is a fluid focus lens as described in US-B2-7126903. The fluid focus lens 27 consists of water and oil. In the case of the macroscopic viewing, an intermediate image 70 is formed in between the first lens group 10 and the second lens group 20, which intermediate image is further imaged by the second lens group 20 onto the image sensor 30. The second lens group 20, with the lens 27 in the first switching state, acts as a relay lens. For the microscopic viewing, with the fluid focus lens 27 in the second switching state, no intermediate image is formed in between the first lens group and the second lens group. In this way two functionalities can be combined in one optical biopsy device. In this design the microscope function has an absolute value of the magnification of 9.4. The macroscopic view has a field of view of 30 degrees, with the absolute value of the magnification equal to 0.036. The change in magnification between the macroscopic and the microscopic view is thus a factor of 262.
  • [0047]
    Table 3 and Table 4 show the numerical values of the parameters for this design in macroscopic and microscopic viewing, respectively. For macroscopic viewing, the stop diameter is 0.26 mm. For microscopic viewing, the stop diameter is 0.8 mm. All examples are designs at a wavelength of 650 nm.
  • [0048]
    The focal length F1 of the first lens group is 0.545 mm and the distance D12 between the first lens group and the second lens group is 1.5 mm. Furthermore, the focal length F2 of the second lens group is 1.54 mm in the macroscopic view and is 3.27 mm in the microscopic view. Hence |F2/F1| is always greater than 1.
  • [0000]
    TABLE 3
    No R d n A2 A4 A6 A8
    0 52.0 0 0 0 0
    1 Infinity 0.308 1.4893 0 0 0 0
    2 −0.505 0.05 0 2.2781062 395.78578 −22863.304
    3 Infinity 0.5 1.4893 0 0 0 0
    4 Infinity 1.5 −1.4126962 3.4642668 −199.81128 4177.5756
    5 −16.123  1.0 1.5803 0 0.10876535 −0.066019473 0.19278492
    6 −1.203 0.2 0 0.083373851 0.037893098 0.11166808
    7 Infinity 0.1 1.5145 0 0 0 0
    8 Infinity 0.167 1.3313 0 0 0 0
    9 −1.0  0.816 1.6000 0 0 0 0
    10 Infinity 0.1 1.5145 0 0 0 0
    11 Infinity 5.8 0 0 0 0
    12 Infinity 0 0 0 0
    No A10 A12 A14 A16 Remark
    0 0 0 0 0 Object
    1 0 0 0 0
    2 878255.44 −18220886 1.95633 108 −8.60223 108
    3 0 0 0 0 Stop
    4 −49341.888 323794.08 −1110030.3 1534803.9
    5 0 0 0 0
    6 0 0 0 0
    7 0 0 0 0
    8 0 0 0 0
    9 0 0 0 0
    10 0 0 0 0
    11 0 0 0 0
    12 0 0 0 0 Image
  • [0000]
    TABLE 4
    No R d n A2 A4 A6 A8
    0 0.0 0 0 0 0
    1 Infinity 0.308 1.4893 0 0 0 0
    2 −0.505 0.05 0 2.2781062 395.78578 −22863.304
    3 Infinity 0.5 1.4893 0 0 0 0
    4 Infinity 1.5 −1.4126962 3.4642668 −199.81128 4177.5756
    5 −16.123  1.0 1.5803 0 0.10876535 −0.066019473 0.19278492
    6 −1.203 0.2 0 0.083373851 0.037893098 0.11166808
    7 Infinity 0.1 1.5145 0 0 0 0
    8 Infinity 0.983 1.3313 0 0 0 0
    9 −1.0  0.167 1.6000 0 0 0 0
    10 Infinity 0.1 1.5145 0 0 0 0
    11 Infinity 5.8 0 0 0 0
    12 Infinity 0 0 0 0
    No A10 A12 A14 A16 Remark
    0 0 0 0 0 Object
    1 0 0 0 0
    2 878255.44 −18220886 1.95633 108 −8.60223 108
    3 0 0 0 0 Stop
    4 −49341.888 323794.08 −1110030.3 1534803.9
    5 0 0 0 0
    6 0 0 0 0
    7 0 0 0 0
    8 0 0 0 0
    9 0 0 0 0
    10 0 0 0 0
    11 0 0 0 0
    12 0 0 0 0 Image
  • [0049]
    In all the above mentioned embodiments, the image is formed on the image sensor 30. To make the design of the optical device simpler, relaying the image using a fiber bundle technique as described for instance in J. Vasc. Res. 2004; 41:400-411 by E. Laemmel et al. is preferably employed. Instead of being imaged onto an image sensor 30, the image is now imaged on one end of a fiber bundler 80 as shown in FIGS. 4 a and 4 b. This fiber bundler 80 consists of many tiny fibers. The image is then relayed by this fiber bundler to the other end of the fiber bundler 80. The other end of the fiber can now be probed by the beam 220 of the console 210. An example of such a console 210 is for instance a confocal scanning system as shown in FIG. 5 and as described in J. Vasc. Res. 2004; 41:400-411 by E. Laemmel et al. This reference shows an example of the scanning system 210 and 220 of FIGS. 4 a and 4 b to read out the relayed image by means of the fiber bundler 80.
  • [0050]
    In a further embodiment, as shown in FIGS. 6 a and 6 b, a single scanning fiber 300 is used for relaying the image formed. This fiber 300 is connected to a console (not shown). By scanning the fiber end 310, the image formed by the optical probe can be read out and transferred to the console as described in US-A1-20050052753.
  • [0051]
    It is to be understood that although preferred embodiments, specific constructions and configurations, as well as materials, have been discussed herein for devices according to the present invention, various changes or modifications in form and detail may be made without departing from the scope and spirit of this invention. In particular the switchable lens may be of any type, such as a displaceable lens being moved by a mechanical motor or a switchable lens based on liquid crystal principles.

Claims (14)

  1. 1. A lens system comprising a first lens group and a second lens group configured to form an image at a first magnification and at a second magnification, wherein the lens system has a common optical axis in both magnifications, and wherein the lens system is further configured to form an intermediate image between the first lens group and the second lens group at the first magnification.
  2. 2. A lens system for an optical biopsy device comprising a first lens group and a second lens group configured to form an image at a first magnification and at a second magnification, wherein the lens system has a common optical axis in both magnifications, and wherein the lens system is further configured to form an intermediate image between the first lens group and the second lens group at the first magnification.
  3. 3. The lens system of claims 1 and 2 claim 1, wherein the first magnification is associated with a macroscopic view and the second magnification is associated with a microscopic view.
  4. 4. The lens system of claim 3, wherein the absolute value of the first magnification is at least 100 times smaller than the absolute value of the second magnification.
  5. 5. The lens system of claim 1, wherein the first lens group has a focal length F1 and the second lens group has a focal length F2 and the first lens group and the second lens group are at a distance of D12, and wherein the focal length F1 of the first lens group is smaller than the distance D12.
  6. 6. The lens system of claim 5, wherein the focal length F1 of the first lens group and the focal length F2 of the second lens group comply with |F2/F1|>1.
  7. 7. An optical biopsy device comprising:
    an inserting tube to be inserted into a body; and
    a lens system secured in a tip end of the inserting tube having a first lens group and a second lens group configured to form an image at a first magnification and at a second magnification, wherein the lens system has a common optical axis in both magnifications, and wherein the lens system is further configured to form an intermediate image between the first lens group and the second lens group only at the first magnification.
  8. 8. The optical biopsy device of claim 7, further comprising a switchable lens system configured for switching between the first magnification and the second magnification.
  9. 9. The optical biopsy device of claim 8, wherein the switchable lens system is configured to work according to an electro-wetting principle.
  10. 10. The optical biopsy device of claim 8, wherein the switchable lens system is configured to work by displacing a lens.
  11. 11. The optical biopsy device of claim 7, wherein the second lens group consists of at least one fixed lens and one switchable lens.
  12. 12. The optical biopsy device of claim 7, further comprising an image sensor, wherein the image formed by the lens system is imaged on to the image sensor.
  13. 13. The optical biopsy device of claim 7, further comprising:
    a fiber bundler configured for relaying the image formed by the lens system; and
    a console optically coupled to the fiber bundler and configured for reading out the image formed.
  14. 14. The optical biopsy device of claim 7, further comprising:
    a single scanning fiber configured for reading out the image formed by the lens system; and
    a console optically coupled to the single scanning fiber and configured for reconstructing the image formed.
US12666545 2007-06-28 2008-06-25 Lens system Pending US20100171820A1 (en)

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US94676607 true 2007-06-28 2007-06-28
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US12666545 US20100171820A1 (en) 2007-06-28 2008-06-25 Lens system

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CN101688972A (en) 2010-03-31 application
EP2162779B1 (en) 2013-08-07 grant
CN101688972B (en) 2012-08-29 grant
EP2162779A1 (en) 2010-03-17 application
WO2009001300A1 (en) 2008-12-31 application

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