US20100101171A1 - Panels - Google Patents

Panels Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US20100101171A1
US20100101171A1 US12/451,696 US45169608A US2010101171A1 US 20100101171 A1 US20100101171 A1 US 20100101171A1 US 45169608 A US45169608 A US 45169608A US 2010101171 A1 US2010101171 A1 US 2010101171A1
Authority
US
United States
Prior art keywords
panel
form
forms
side
flanges
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US12/451,696
Inventor
George Charles Clifton
Raed Jawad El Sarraf
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
NEW ZEALAND HEAVY ENGINEERING RESEARCH ASSOCIATION Inc
Original Assignee
NEW ZEALAND HEAVY ENGINEERING RESEARCH ASSOCIATION Inc
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to NZ555414 priority Critical
Priority to NZ555414A priority patent/NZ555414A/en
Priority to NZ560655 priority
Priority to NZ56065507 priority
Application filed by NEW ZEALAND HEAVY ENGINEERING RESEARCH ASSOCIATION Inc filed Critical NEW ZEALAND HEAVY ENGINEERING RESEARCH ASSOCIATION Inc
Priority to PCT/NZ2008/000123 priority patent/WO2008147225A1/en
Assigned to NEW ZEALAND HEAVY ENGINEERING RESEARCH ASSOCIATION INCORPORATED reassignment NEW ZEALAND HEAVY ENGINEERING RESEARCH ASSOCIATION INCORPORATED ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: EL SARRAF, RAED JAWAD, CLIFTON, GEORGE CHARLES
Publication of US20100101171A1 publication Critical patent/US20100101171A1/en
Abandoned legal-status Critical Current

Links

Images

Classifications

    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04CSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; BUILDING MATERIALS
    • E04C2/00Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels
    • E04C2/02Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels characterised by specified materials
    • E04C2/26Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels characterised by specified materials composed of materials covered by two or more of groups E04C2/04, E04C2/08, E04C2/10 or of materials covered by one of these groups with a material not specified in one of the groups
    • E04C2/28Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels characterised by specified materials composed of materials covered by two or more of groups E04C2/04, E04C2/08, E04C2/10 or of materials covered by one of these groups with a material not specified in one of the groups combinations of materials fully covered by groups E04C2/04 and E04C2/08
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04CSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; BUILDING MATERIALS
    • E04C2/00Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels
    • E04C2/02Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels characterised by specified materials
    • E04C2/26Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels characterised by specified materials composed of materials covered by two or more of groups E04C2/04, E04C2/08, E04C2/10 or of materials covered by one of these groups with a material not specified in one of the groups
    • E04C2/284Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels characterised by specified materials composed of materials covered by two or more of groups E04C2/04, E04C2/08, E04C2/10 or of materials covered by one of these groups with a material not specified in one of the groups at least one of the materials being insulating
    • E04C2/288Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels characterised by specified materials composed of materials covered by two or more of groups E04C2/04, E04C2/08, E04C2/10 or of materials covered by one of these groups with a material not specified in one of the groups at least one of the materials being insulating composed of insulating material and concrete, stone or stone-like material

Abstract

Wall panels where cementitous material at least partly embeds sheet metal arrays that overlap embedded flanges of an array from one side beyond embedded flanges of an array from the other side.

Description

  • The present invention relates to composite building elements, composite panels or unitised panels, methods for forming such composite and/or unitised elements or panels, elements or panels so made, uses of such composite and/or unitised elements or panels and related methodologies including methods of construction, componentry of such elements of panels, and the like.
  • Alternative construction techniques are always being sought to best take advantage of characteristics of available materials or materials being developed, as well as combinations of materials.
  • An interest to the construction industry is the provision of factory made components for making composite building elements or panels and elements or panels that are factory made in whole or in part.
  • Prior art building elements tend to have short comings and disadvantages eg, in height, in length, in thickness of facing plates, etc as well as in make up, performance, manufacturing complexity, cost etc.
  • NZ patent specification 282881 (British Steel plc) discloses double skin composite panels are known. These comprise two steel facing plates positioned one on either side of a layer of concrete and connected thereto by transverse cross members which extend generally normally to and are attached at their ends to both facing plates.
  • That specification in addition states that hitherto, such double skin composite panels have been produced in situ. They state that the panels usually require relatively thick facing plates, internal ties and facing plate stiffness. They mention also that there is a requirement for external support and/or internal stiffeners to the facing plates during pouring of concrete to avoid structural distortion caused by the high hydrostatic pressures produced during pouring. They state if has usually been found necessary to limit the height from which or the rate at which concrete is poured to reduce such pressures.
  • New Zealand patent specification 282881 itself is directed to double skin composite panels intended to be factory produced and delivered to site as integral structures. Nevertheless facing plates are secured together by transverse connecting members.
  • We see an advantage in avoidance of such ties connecting from each side eg, no metal conductive pathway from one side to the other.
  • We also see a prospect for metal clad lightweight concrete panel systems that are load bearing that do not have the cladding faces tied directly to each other and/or have an improved ability to anchor fixings.
  • We envisage such panels as being useful as at least walls, floors and ceilings. The present invention envisages the provision of a lined panel which includes as part of its composite structure an outer metal (preferably steel) part and a set settable material part bound in some way to the metal part. The set settable material is preferably a filler that is a pourable, pumpable, flowable material which has the ability to convert or set to a stiff mass in a controlled manner. When “set” the core filler or settable material provides support to the steel elements to resist compressive loads.
  • Such settable materials can be cementitious in their nature and can include such aggregate and/or other materials as might be appropriate to render the overall panel construction more weight for almost the same, the same or improved load bearing purposes than hitherto has been the case with conventional construction panels.
  • By way of example, but in no way limiting of the invention hereafter described, a preferred settable material is a cementitious material preferably including light weight aggregate materials. In other forms however a foam plastics or other set settable material may be utilised in total, or in part, as the settable material hereinafter described.
  • The material may include foamed inorganic and/or organic polymers or foamed inorganic and/or organic polymers in combination with cementitious setting materials.
  • The invention also envisages composite building elements where sheet metal is partly or wholly embedded in a set material.
  • It is an object of the present invention to provide components, methods and panels that are able to be factory manufactured, preferably to some modular requirement, and to be used as a load bearing panel when installed in a constructional sense.
  • It is preferred that the panels are lined on at least one side or on both. Irrespective of whether or not the lining is the same or different on each side, preferably at least one side is of a metal (preferably steel). Preferably there is provision for fixing from at least one or that side's lining into the set material of the composite or unitised panel.
  • It is a further or alternative object of the present invention to provide a composite and/or unitised panel lined on both sides with a metal (whether the same or different) yet containing therein a set settable material embedding part of the lining of one side (preferably each side) without providing any substantial or direct metal to metal link from one side to the other thereby to reduce thermal and/or acoustic conductivity from one side to the other.
  • It is a further or alternative object of the present invention to provide a composite and/or unitised panel having metal liners on each side, or on at least one side, yet providing with a plurality of fitted together pressed or long run formed, sheet metal sections at least one panel liner or facing and providing one or more zones where several thicknesses of metal, some embedded within the panel, are available for securement of fittings to the panel.
  • It is a further or alternative object of the present invention to provide a method or methods of manufacture of a composite and/or unitised panel comprising or including
  • at least one exterior liner, whether fabricated or non-fabricated and whether profiled or non-profiled in whole or in part, of sheet metal defining or having been provided with inwardly extending embeddable forms, and
  • a matrix of a set settable material (i) moulded to the sheet metal and/or any interposed material(s) and (ii) embedding and retaining at least the distal regions of each said inwardly extendable form,
  • wherein, otherwise than from being matrix embedded and retained, the inwardly extending embeddable forms do not tie directly or indirectly to any exterior sheet beyond said matrix except preferably at the sides of the panel and do not tie directly or indirectly to that surface of the matrix opposite that moulded to the sheet metal and/or any interposed material(s).
  • It is a further or alternative object of the present invention to provide panels made by such a method.
  • It is a further or alternative object of the present invention to provide uses and/or assemblies of such panels.
  • It is a further or alternative object to provide metal dad panels with a core of set settable material(s) as if metal sandwiched where there is no, or no substantial, through panel metal to metal contact and/or where embedded and retained projections of each preferably fabricated metal liner interpose and/or are behind those of the other preferably fabricated metal liner.
  • In an aspect the invention is a composite panel having first and second sides as its faces and being a panel of at least one seeable material and having, partially and/or substantially wholly embedded in said settable materials) complementary arrays of sheet metal forms;
  • wherein one array extends from beyond one side, extends from one side, or extends from adjacent or nearer one side but within the panel, to embedded flanges at least substantially adjacent or nearer the second side but within the panel, and
  • a second array extends from beyond the second side, extends from the second side, or extends from adjacent or nearer the second side but within the panel, to embedded flanges adjacent or nearer the first side but within the panel; and
  • wherein
  • (A) there is lapping in part of individual flanges of one array with individual flanges of the other array when one notionally considers the panel normally to a said face, and/or
  • (B) there has been perforation and/or expanding of some part of at least one of the metal forms to better mechanically tie to said settable material(s), and/or
  • (C) there has been, for at least one array, some mechanical linking of the sheet metal forms, one to another, prior to any at least partial embedding thereof.
  • In an aspect the invention consists in a composite panel having first and second sides as its faces and being a panel of at least one settable material and having at least partially embedded in said settable material(s) complementary arrays of sheet metal forms;
  • wherein one array extends from; or one array from adjacent one side but within the panel, to embedded flanges at least substantially adjacent the second side but within the panel, and
  • a second array extends from, or a second array extends from adjacent the second side but within the panel to embedded flanges adjacent the first side but within the panel; and
  • wherein there is lapping in part of individual flanges of one array with individual flanges of the other array when one notionally considers the panel normally to a said face.
  • In an aspect the invention is a composite panel having first and second sides (eg, as its faces), the panel having complementary reinforcement forms at least partially embedded in set settable material or settable materials (“settable material(s)”);
  • wherein one form or set of forms (“first form(s)”), each form having at least one flange and having part or parts which
      • i) extend(s) from beyond one side,
      • ii) extend(s) from one side, and/or
      • iii) extend(s) from adjacent or nearer one side but within the panel, laterally to said flange(s) embedded at least substantially adjacent or nearer the second Side but within the panel, and
  • another form or set of forms (“second form(s)”), each form having at least one flange and having part or parts which
      • i) extend from beyond the second side,
      • ii) extends from the second side, and/or
      • iii) extends from adjacent or nearer the second side but within the panel, laterally to flanges embedded adjacent or nearer the first side but within the panel;
  • wherein flanges of the first form(s) and flanges of the second form(s) have longitudinal axes substantially parallel;
  • and wherein the flanges of the first form(s) and flanges of the second form(s) interact, first form flange to second form flange, via the set settable material(s) interposed therebetween, thereby to confer a structural or load bearing advantage to the composite panel.
  • Preferably the interaction via the interposed material(s) is as a consequence of flange lapping (ie, overlapping in part) or near lapping (ie, nearly overlapping in part) within the panel when one notionally considers the panel normally to a said side.
  • Preferably said interaction is without a flange of a first form touching a flange of a second form.
  • Preferably each form is elongate and the flange longitudinal axis is, or flange longitudinal axes are, parallel to the longitudinal axis of the form(s).
  • Preferably at least one of said first and second form(s) is, or are, metal form(s).
  • Preferably both of said first and second form(s), is or are, metal form(s).
  • Preferably at least one of said forms is a, or are, sheet metal form(s).
  • Preferably there is at least one set of elongate forms as an array, each form of an array having a said flange from a said longitudinal part thereof extending to the flange.
  • Preferably said elongate from or forms has or have the flanges as longitudinal lips to a lipped channel section elongate form.
  • Preferably there is lapping in part of individual flanges of one array with individual flanges of the other array when one notionally considers the panel normally to a said side.
  • Preferably one array extends from one side or extends from adjacent or nearer one side but within the panel.
  • Preferably wherein both arrays extend from one side or extends from adjacent or nearer one side but within the panel.
  • Optionally there has been perforation and/or expanding of some part of at least one of the forms, or the material of the forms, to better mechanically tie to said settable material(s).
  • Preferably there has been, for at least one set as an array, some mechanical linking of the forms, one to another, prior to any at least partial embedding thereof.
  • Optionally said settable material(s) is or includes at least one cementitious material and/or at least one polymeric material (eg, PUR).
  • Optionally said panel includes a mix of different settable material(s) and one of said sensible materials provides a surface over one of said sides.
  • Preferably there is said lapping of the flanges.
  • The composite panel defined may be externally lined.
  • Preferably said forms are sheet metal forms that are elongate and said flanges extend along parallel to the longitudinal axis thereof.
  • Preferably at least one of the sets is an array of mutually parallel elongate sheet metal forms.
  • A panel claim 21 wherein each elongate form has two flanges and each is in-turned to constrict the opening of a channel of a channel like section.
  • In any aspect optionally additional forms have been introduced to increase strength in some areas.
  • Preferably at least some of the embedded flanges are substantially flat and extend parallel to a face of said panel.
  • Preferably at least two individual sheet metal forms of a set, as an array are mechanically linked prior to the set of the settable material.
  • Preferably there is flange lapping and the lapping of individual flanges is such that along a face of a said panel (when notionally moving transversely to the preferred aligned longitudinal axis of roll or pressed elongate sheet metal forms), there is an alternating (as a consequence of an offset of the arrays) of which flange laps with which.
  • Optionally conduit forms pass between said arrays.
  • Preferably said conduit forms are embedded in said settable material.
  • Preferably conduit forms extend between said arrays substantially perpendicularly and/or obliquely to the elongate axis of the sheet metal forms.
  • In another aspect the invention is a structure or an envelope or wall which includes at least one composite panel of any one of the preceding claims.
  • In another aspect the invention is formwork of a composite panel as previously set forth.
  • In another aspect the invention is formwork or a panel as previously set forth.
  • In another aspect the invention is a composite panel having first and second sides as its faces and being a panel of at least one settable material and having, partially and/or substantially wholly embedded in said settable material(s) complementary arrays of sheet metal forms;
  • wherein one array extends from beyond one side, one array extends from one side, or one array extends from adjacent or nearer one side but within the panel, to embedded flanges at least substantially adjacent or nearer the second side but within the panel, and
  • a second array extends from beyond the second side, a second array extends from the second side, or a second array extends from adjacent or nearer the second side but within the panel, to embedded flanges adjacent or nearer the second side but within the panel to embedded flanges adjacent or nearer the first side but within the panel; and
  • wherein there is lapping in part of individual flanges of one array with individual flanges of the other array when one notionally considers the panel normally to a said face.
  • In an aspect the invention consists in a composite panel having first and second sides as its faces and being a panel of at least one settable material and having, partially and/or substantially wholly embedded in said settable material(s) complementary arrays of sheet metal forms;
  • wherein one array extends from beyond one side, one array extends from one side, or one array extends from adjacent or nearer one side but within the panel, to embedded flanges at least substantially adjacent or nearer the second, side but within the panel, and
  • a second array extends from beyond the second side, a second array extends from the second side, or a second array extends from adjacent or nearer the second side but within the panel, to embedded flanges adjacent or nearer the first side but within the panel; and
  • wherein there is perforate expanding of some part of at least one of the metal forms to better mechanically tie to said settable material(s).
  • In an aspect the invention consists in a composite panel having first and second sides as its faces and being a panel of at least one settable material and having, partially and/or substantially wholly embedded in said settable material(s), complementary arrays of elongate sheet metal forms, the longitudinal axes of the elongate forms being parallel,
  • wherein one array extends from beyond one side, one array extends from one side, or one array extends from adjacent or nearer one side but within the panel, to embedded flanges at least substantially adjacent or nearer the second side but within the panel, and
  • a second array extends from beyond the second side, a second array extends from the second side, or a second array extends from adjacent or nearer the second side but within the panel, to embedded flanges adjacent or nearer the first side but within the panel; and
  • wherein there has been, for at least one array, some mechanical linking of the sheet metal forms, one to another, prior to any at least partial embedding thereof.
  • Preferably there is lapping in part of individual flanges of one array with individual flanges of the other array when one notionally considers the panel normally to a said face.
  • Preferably any of the embodiments hereinafter described and shown in the drawings or variations thereof, can satisfy such a statement of invention. At least two different settable materials can be used.
  • Preferably said sheet metal forms are elongate and said flanges extend along a longitudinal axis thereof.
  • Preferably at least one of the arrays (optionally both arrays) has said sheet metal forms as members of a channel like section.
  • Preferably each channel like section has two flanges and each is in turned to constrict the opening of such a channel of the channel like section.
  • Optionally the flanges have a flanged lip that preferably extends back into the channel of said channel section.
  • Preferably said embedded flanges are substantially flat and preferably extend parallel to a face of said panel.
  • Preferably individual sheet metal forts are mechanically linked prior to the set of the settable material.
  • Preferably the lapping of the individual flanges is such that along a face of a said panel (when notionally moving transversely to the preferred aligned longitudinal axis of roll or pressed elongate sheer metal forms), there is an alternating (as a consequence of an offset of the arrays) of which flange laps with which, eg, preferably substantially as hereinafter described with reference to any one or more of the accompanying drawings.
  • In some preferred forms of the present invention conduit or solid reinforcing bars (eg, tubing, rods, solid rods, reinforcing rods or solid bars) pass between said arrays.
  • Preferably said conduit or solid reinforcing bars (eg, tubing, rods, solid rods, reinforcing rods or solid bars) are embedded in said settable material.
  • Where said sheet metal forms are elongate, preferably the elongate axis of the sheet metal forms of each said array is, or both arrays are, substantially parallel and said conduit forms preferably extend between said arrays substantially perpendicularly and/or obliquely.
  • In some preferred forms of the present invention the composite panel is a wall panel or a wall. It may be curved, cornered or the like.
  • In other forms the panel can be for any constructional or free standing or other purpose (eg, acoustic, security, etc.).
  • In some forms of the present invention, quite apart from a preferred off-set to ensure lapping of flanges, alternately there can be a greater degree of asymmetry from one side of the other. Such asymmetry can arise from the adoption of sheet metal forms for each array or a mixture of sheet metal forms for one or each array.
  • In a further aspect the invention consists in a composite panel comprising sheet metal elongate members, arranged substantially with their elongate axes parallel and with at least part of each embedded in one or more settable materials irrespective of whether or not one or other side conceals and/or presents any part of any such elongate member.
  • Preferably said composite panel has some degree of lapping of such metal forms when considered transversely of the panel axis.
  • In a further aspect the invention consists in a building structure or a building envelope which includes at least one composite panel as aforesaid.
  • In some preferred forms of the present invention both arrays are fully embedded. In other embodiments, however, at least the base of a preferred sheet metal form has its outer metal surface exposed or not embedded (irrespective of whether subsequently coated, clad or otherwise treated). In some forms the sheet metal forms include locating recesses for fixtures which will ensure passage of a said fixture into a said embedded flange of a sheet metal form of the other array and/or its own embedded flange.
  • In another aspect the invention is a composite and/or unitised panel comprising or including
  • at least one exterior liner, whether fabricated or non-fabricated and whether profiled or non-profiled in whole or in part, of sheet metal defining or having been provided with inwardly extending embeddable forms, and
  • a matrix of a set settable material (i) moulded to and/or contacting the sheet metal and/or any interposed material(s) and (ii) embedding and retaining at least the distal regions of each said inwardly extendable form,
  • wherein, otherwise than from being matrix embedded and retained, the inwardly extending embeddable forms do not tie directly or indirectly to any exterior sheet beyond said matrix and do not tie directly or indirectly to that surface of the matrix opposite that moulded to the sheet metal and/or any interposed material(s).
  • In another aspect of the present invention, there can be provided a composite building element where sheet metal is profiled and is embedded in a matrix of a set settable material moulded to and/or contacting the sheet metal and/or any interposed material(s), wherein, for each sheet of metal, there are regions thereof spaced apart through the matrix when considered (eg, if a panel) perpendicularly of at least some regions of the panel.
  • The composite instructions of the present invention demonstrate high stiffness and vertical load carrying capacity prior to any visible buckling of light gauge skin (if for example the sheet metal forms part of the skin).
  • In an aspect the invention is a composite and/or unitised panel comprising or including
  • a first sheet or panel liner, whether fabricated or non-fabricated and whether profiled or non-profiled in whole or in part, of sheet metal defining or having been provided with inwardly extending embeddable forms,
  • a second sheet or panel liner, whether fabricated or non-fabricated and whether profiled or non-profiled in whole or in part, of sheet metal defining or having been provided with inwardly extending embeddable forms, and
  • a matrix of set settable material (i) moulded to the sheet metal and/or any interposed material(s) and (i) embedding and retaining at the least the distal regions of each set of said extendable forms,
  • wherein, otherwise than from being matrix embedded and retained, the inwardly extending embeddable forms of one sheer or panel liner do not tie directly or indirectly to the other sheet or panel liner nor to the inwardly extending embeddable forms thereof.
  • Preferably said sheet or panel liner is of a metal (preferably sheet metal).
  • Preferably said metal is a steel. Optionally that steel is coated eg, galvanised or otherwise protected.
  • Preferably the metal is profiled preferably by a long run procedure (optionally pressing).
  • Preferably the panel liner is fabricated from at least two, and preferably more than two, preformed sheet metal components pressed or long run formed (or some hybrid of the two).
  • Preferably at least some of the metal components are fabricated to a channel form. Preferably said channel form has a profiled exterior face.
  • Preferably said channel form metal components include at least one flange to direct inwardly of its (optionally profiled) lining region of the section and that flange provides distally thereof a fold in flange which hips over the exterior lining region.
  • Preferably there is such a flange sequence flanking either side of said exterior lining region.
  • Preferably said panel liner is fabricated form a plurality of metal components of an elongate character where transverse sections thereof are serially fixed one to another.
  • In a further aspect the invention is a composite and/or unitised panel comprising or including
  • a panel liner fabricated from at least two components of sheet metal, and
  • a matrix of a set settable material keyed to the fabricated panel liner,
  • wherein each of the at least two components has at least one flange or flange sequence embedded and retained in the set settable material.
  • Preferably the arrangement is as detailed hereinafter (preferably by reference to a double lined composite or unitised panel).
  • The invention is also a panel where a filler is interposed between two such fabricated panel liners as aforesaid or at least two liners, one of which is a fabricated panel liner as aforesaid.
  • Preferably where there are the sandwiching fabricated panel liners, preferably one or more of the flange or flange sequences of each sheet metal component of one fabricated panel liner extends into the set settable material (ie, filler) beyond the distal region of flange or flange sequences of the each sheet metal component other fabricated liner.
  • Preferably said extension into the set settable material is such that there is some interposing of flanges or flange sequences from one side with those of the other.
  • Preferably lapping of the final flange of each flange sequence allows fixing into the panel through at least two metal thicknesses.
  • In a further aspect the invention is a composite and/or unitised panel comprising or including
  • a fabricated panel liner, of sheet metal, and
  • a cementitious and/or biopolymer matrix keyed to the fabricated panel liner,
  • wherein, the keying is to flanges and/or flange sequences of juxtaposed sheet metal channel forms where the base of each channel presents on its underside the liner surface.
  • In another aspect the invention is a construction provided by a series of prefabricated panels,
  • wherein, each panel comprises or includes
  • a first sheet or panel liner, whether fabricated or non-fabricated and whether profiled or non-profiled in whole or in part, of sheet metal defining or having been provided with inwardly extending embeddable forms,
  • a second sheet or panel liner, whether fabricated or non-fabricated and whether profiled or non-profiled in whole or in part, of sheet metal defining or having been provided with inwardly extending embeddable forms, and
  • a matrix of set settable material (i) moulded to the sheet metal and/or any interposed material(s) and (ii) embedding and retaining at the least the distal regions of each set of said extendable forms,
  • wherein, otherwise than from being matrix embedded and retained, the inwardly extending embeddable forms of one sheet or panel liner do not tie directly or indirectly to the other sheet or panel liner nor to the inwardly extending embeddable forms thereof.
  • Optionally at least some panels mate panel to panel (eg, index) via an interposed lesser panel that includes a utilities cavity (eg, by virtue of only a partial fill).
  • In another aspect the invention is a load and/or non-load bearing panel comprising or including
  • a first sheet or panel liner, whether fabricated or non-fabricated and whether profiled or non-profiled in whole or in part, of sheet metal defining or having been provided with inwardly extending embeddable forms,
  • a second sheet or panel liner, whether fabricated or non-fabricated and whether profiled or non-profiled in whole or in part, of sheet metal defining or having been provided with inwardly extending embeddable forms, and
  • a matrix of set settable material selected from a cementitious composition and/or a polymeric composition (i) moulded to the sheet metal and/or any interposed material(s) and (ii) embedding and retaining at the least the distal regions of each set of said extendable forms,
  • wherein, otherwise than from being matrix embedded and retained, the inwardly extending embeddable forms of one sheet or panel liner do not tie directly or indirectly to the other sheet or panel liner nor to the inwardly extending embeddable forms thereof.
  • In another aspect the invention is a metal faced panel.
  • Having fabricated long run metal forms or elongate pressings; or a hybrid of both, providing a metal facing on either side of filling,
  • wherein, over some extent(s) of the panel, in the plane(s) of the panel, metal sheet spaced normally to such faces is such that, if the forms of one side are “A” and the other side are “B”, there is in the transverse direction, for such extent(s), a metal thickness progress as follows:
  • A to B to A to B.
  • in another aspect the invention is a method of forming a load and/or non-load bearing panel comprising or including the steps of:
  • laying up a panel liner of a plurality of elongate roll formed or pressed metal sheet forms; each of a section having a panel exterior zone and a flange or flange sequence on one side of the zone, and, optionally for some forms, a flange of flange sequence on the other side of the zone,
  • before, during and/or after such laying up attaching each metal sheet form to its neighbour(s); and
  • laying a settable material on the panel liner so as to embed the flanges and/or flange sequences, and to conform to the sheet metal defining the panel exterior zone and/or to material inside that zone;
  • and optionally laying down a similar or dissimilar panel liner, or a sheet metal liner with embeddable features, into said settable material so as to fix, with or without further provision of settable material, only, or primarily only, via the settable material(s) when set to said first mentioned panel line.
  • The method of attachment is not critical. It may involve popriveting, “flanged hole” attachment, welding, adhesion, or other. Flanged hole attachment is favoured for pre-painted/pre-coated metal forms and involves punching a hole, pressing an upstand around a hole in an adjacent element and then rolling the upstand back over the first hole to lock the two members together.
  • The method provides a panel of any of the kinds previously mentioned.
  • The invention is also any such panel when so formed.
  • In still another aspect the invention is a self supporting load-bearing or non-load-bearing wall or floor panel including two structural skins interlocked indirectly through, and held apart by, settable filler.
  • Preferably the structural skins are profiled to have stiffening formations to resist local and/or overall buckling.
  • Optionally the structural skins have lateral members either attached mechanically to or formed integrally with the skin to extend into the filler to resist loads.
  • Preferably one or more structural skin is manufactured of (preferably light gauge) steel components which are mechanically connected to each other, but not to the opposing skin.
  • Optionally a partial inner skin is placed between the main structural skin and the filler as required to carry additional loading.
  • In use, a preferred method of connection to the footing includes a steel channel extending substantially from one edge of a structural skin to an opposite end of the skin and attached to the structure, into which the panel is lowered.
  • Panels may have peripheral features (eg, rebates, grooves, channels, tongues, etc) to facilitate panel to panel indexing, panel to footing placement, support of applied loads, etc.
  • Some panels can be of small expanse (eg, to accommodate utilities) or of lesser length (eg, to accommodate openings such as windows or doorways).
  • To provide peripheral features metal forms of a different section to these forms used elsewhere are envisaged.
  • In still another aspect the invention is a load-bearing and/or non-load-bearing building element comprising formed elements typically of metals based products such as steel or aluminium sheet, coil, strip, or plate and a typically settable compound or compounds such as concrete and/or polymeric material (preferably bio-polymers) wherein the principal composite interaction between the formed elements is by interlocking mechanical means.
  • In still another aspect the invention is a load-bearing and/or non-load-bearing building component comprising elements formed from metal based sheet, strip or plate materials, and a space filler composition, where the principal composite interaction between the formed elements is through mechanical connection.
  • The space filler is a performance enhanced settable compound such as lightweight concrete or foamed polyurethane which may form a chemical bond with the formed elements.
  • In another aspect the invention is a load-bearing and/or non-load-bearing filled (or at least substantially filled) building component, wherein each of a number of elements, as a set, are serially mechanically connected (eg, to adjacent elements on each side) but those of one side are unconnected to those elements, as a set, on an opposing side of the component.
  • Preferably formed elements as a set on one side are offset from those on the other side, with no direct connection other than through the filler, which give an integral load resisting component.
  • The formed elements may include lateral extensions either formed integrally or attached mechanically to act in a composite manner with the settable compound to resist loads.
  • Formed elements are strategically placed alongside the principal elements as required to carry additional loading.
  • A preferred footing for panels of the invention includes a steel channel, into which the panel is lowered.
  • Optionally at least some panel(s) include(s) at least one formed hollow and/or local indentations into which screws and other fastenings may be attached.
  • In another aspect the invention is a wall of other like structure where panels (howsoever formed) dock on a part filled exoskeleton post that provides for utilities.
  • Preferably said panels are metal sheet faced set material filled panels (eg, as previously defined).
  • Preferably said docking is by a tongue and groove engagement. Preferably the post presents the tongue(s).
  • As used herein the terms “composite” in respect of a panel refers to any suitable mixture of materials.
  • As used herein the term “unitised” in respect of a panel refers to a panel formed from at least two multiple preformed components and in some way they are held relative to each other (preferably by said matrix in addition to any optional prefixing).
  • As used herein the term “module” or “modular” refers to any chosen characteristic of a dimensional nature that allows the mating or use together of such panels and/or components of such panels.
  • As used herein “settable material” refers to any suitable material or distinct suitable materials that has a flowable characteristic notwithstanding any solids or foaming agent that may be present therein and which thereafter can set to provide the matrix. Examples include, but are in no way limited to cementitous material(s), foamed plastics material(s) [eg, polyurethane] etc, and mixtures thereof. Similarly the term “matrix” refers the overall set settable material rather than any adhesive or binding ingredient thereof.
  • In some embodiments the settable material may be set or cured otherwise than in situ.
  • An applied layer of adhesive can be used to achieve any formwork to settable materials) bond instead of the bond being generated during a curing process eg, between the outer and inner filler (eg outer geopolymer and inner foam. In this way we may adhere an outer material such as plywood, gib board or even a plastic. In some circumstances this possibly may do away with floating ribs.
  • As used herein the term “embedded and retained” refers to a relationship between the sheet or panel liner and the matrix whereby separation in a direction normal to the general plane of a substantially or notionally flat composite and/or unitised panel can be resisted. A corresponding meaning attaches to shaped panels (ie, which might have some intentional curving or the like).
  • “Embedded” has the further meaning that the sheet or sheets are surrounded by the settable material on sheet-to-matrix interfaces.
  • As used herein the term “reinforcing bar” refers to any elongate member used for reinforcement and may encompass any of the following terms “tubing”, “rod”, “solid rod”, “reinforcing rod” or “solid bar”.
  • As used herein “and/or” includes “and” or “or”, or where the context allows, both.
  • As used herein the term “s” following a noun means, as might be appropriate, the singular or plural form of the noun, or both.
  • As used herein the term “sheet” refers to a material of a sheet like form whether flat or not and whether of a constant thickness or not.
  • As used herein the term “panel” refers to any component able to provide by itself or in conjunction with any other component structure or the like some panel like characteristic whether as part of or all of a wall, a ceiling, a roof, a floor or the like in preferably a building. Such panels however, are not restricted to use in the building or the construction industry and could have uses elsewhere (eg, as freestanding walls for display purposes; security purposes and the like). Preferably the sheet metal “keys” to the set settable material and thus is “retained” by part of the sheer metal (eg, a flange of a flange sequence or holes or profiled flanges) having set material blocking withdrawal.
  • As used herein the term “inward” or “inwardly” refers to a direction into a panel from the sheet or panel liner. “Outward” and “outwardly” have the corresponding meaning. Such directions are independent of whether or not the panel or components thereof are substantially flat.
  • As used herein “flange” can include a configured sheet metal flange where or not part of a “flange sequence”.
  • As used herein the term “key” or “keyed” or “keying” preferably refers to the outcome of the set of settable material on the sheet and/or panel liner to provide a mechanical attachment (eg, embedded and retained) irrespective of whether or not there is any adherence.
  • As used herein “load bearing” means able to bear a load at least in one direction along the panel.
  • Preferred forms of the present invention will now be described with reference with the accompanying drawings in which:
  • FIG. 1 shows a perspective end view of a part width of an assembly of sheet metal forms adapted to interact with each other such that the two shown on the lower side and the three shown on the upper side interact so as to provide embeddable forms in the fill material (the fill not being shown) and overlapping sheet metal (when viewed normal to the panel) as a result of flanges and/or flange sequences,
  • FIG. 2 is an end view of the arrangement as shown in FIG. 1,
  • FIG. 3 is a perspective view of a panel (but omitting the fill material for clarity) showing a channel form at the right hand end able to receive the panel,
  • FIG. 4 shows how components of a system such as depicted in FIGS. 1-3 and described in more detail by reference to at least FIGS. 5-7 can co-act to form a panel liner or face with embeddable forms as a result of flanges and/or flange sequences and art out of register similar arrangement is possible on the other side or face so that the embeddable forms, as a result of the panel liner fabrications on each side or face, result in the interposed arrangement as shown and the overlapping as depicted, (FIG. 4 also showing how modifications of the main profiled forms can be used to provide each side periphery of the lined panel form),
  • FIG. 5 is an end view or a section of a main sheet metal form of a kind used in FIG. 4,
  • FIG. 6 shows a sheet metal form as is appropriate for forming part of the side peripheries of the panel of FIG. 4,
  • FIG. 7 shows a sheet metal form or component to co-act with the component of FIG. 6 (that of FIG. 7 preferably being for the interior of the panel whilst that of FIG. 6 is for the exterior of the panel) where the two components may or may not overlap at the sides of the panel.
  • FIG. 8 shows holes that can be formed in the sides of the components as depicted in the preceding figures,
  • FIG. 9 shows rivet hole placement for the components such as in FIGS. 5-7,
  • FIG. 10 shows a cross connection that can be used between adjacent panels (generally of the form shown in FIG. 4) so as to provide a partially filled panel or post that may leave a services cavity,
  • FIG. 11 shows a front view of the assembly of FIG. 10 showing side openings to the services cavity in order to run services,
  • FIG. 12 is a view of the form work of a panel in accordance with a further embodiment of the present invention, (eg, one having a steel face on each exterior side), FIG. 12 showing the assembly of three different types of elongate sheet metal element looking longitudinally of such elongate members, and forming a complete unitised part.
  • FIG. 13 is an end view or sectional view of a preferred main elongate element of the assembly as shown in FIG. 12,
  • FIG. 13A is an isometric view of part of the length of such a main elongate element as shown in FIG. 13,
  • FIG. 14 is an end view or sectional view of an exterior elongate element of an assembly as shown in FIG. 12,
  • FIG. 14A is a short length isometric view of the exterior elongate element of FIG. 14,
  • FIG. 15 is an end or cross-sectional view of an interior elongate element incorporated in an assembly as shown in FIG. 12,
  • FIG. 15A is a short length isometric view of the interior elongate element of FIG. 15,
  • FIG. 16 is a view such as in the direction AA of FIG. 13 showing openings in the inward extending sheet region of the inwardly extending embeddable forms of the elongate element of FIG. 13,
  • FIG. 17, analogously to FIG. 16, is the view BB of either or both of the elongate elements of FIGS. 14 and 15,
  • FIG. 18 is a perspective view of the assembly shown in FIG. 12,
  • FIG. 19 is a view of the panel in accordance with a further embodiment of the present invention, (eg, one face being concrete and the other face being steel and with preferably a two filler mix with two different types of elongate sheet metal element forming a “floating rib” looking longitudinally of such elongate members).
  • FIG. 20 is an end view or sectional view of a preferred main elongate element of the assembly as shown in FIG. 19,
  • FIG. 20A is an isometric view of part of the length of such a main elongate element as shown in FIG. 20,
  • FIG. 21 is an exterior elongate element of an assembly as shown in FIG. 19,
  • FIG. 21A is a short length isometric view of the exterior elongate element of FIG. 22,
  • FIG. 22 is an end or cross-sectional view of an interior elongate element incorporated in an assembly as shown in FIG. 19,
  • FIG. 22A is a short length isometric view of the interior elongate element of FIG. 22,
  • FIG. 23 is a view of the panel in accordance with a further embodiment of the present invention, (eg, concrete on each face, preferably using fillers of different mixes),
  • FIG. 24 is an end view or, sectional view of a preferred main elongate element of the assembly as shown in FIG. 23,
  • FIG. 24A is an isometric view of part of the length of such a main elongate element as shown in FIG. 23,
  • FIG. 25 is an end view or sectional view of a pairing of elongate elements (mirror imaged preferably) of an assembly as shown in FIG. 23, the pairing providing a combination or subassembly as a “floating rib”,
  • FIG. 25A is a short length isometric view of the floating rib of FIG. 25,
  • FIG. 26 is an end or cross-sectional view of an interior elongate element incorporated in an assembly as shown in FIG. 23,
  • FIG. 26A is a short length isometric view of the interior elongate element of FIG. 26,
  • FIG. 27 is a diagrammatic view showing reinforcing bar which may or may not be incorporated to act as a rigidifying influence transversely of the longitudinal run of the elongate sheet metal forms of any one or more of the embodiments of the present invention, such reinforcing bar acting not only as a rigidifying feature for the form work and/or the completed panel, (ie, with the cementitious or other filling material in place), but also providing access for utilities, FIG. 27 for simplicity not showing the make up, insofar as the elongate metal forms are concerned, of the whole panel,
  • FIG. 28 shows with aggregate fill a variation of the wall as shown in FIG. 4,
  • FIG. 29 shows two elements used in the wall of 28 being used on a wall where the form work elements, of a different kind, are embedded behind one face of the wall but not the other,
  • FIG. 30 shows a wall where all of the form work is embedded
  • FIG. 31 shows a sheet metal form of a kind that may be used in the panels of FIGS. 28 to 30,
  • FIG. 32 shows a sheet metal form of a kind that may be used in the panels of FIGS. 28 to 30,
  • FIG. 33 shows a sheet metal form of a kind that may be used in the panels of FIGS. 28 to 30,
  • FIG. 34 shows a sheet metal form of a kind that may be used in the panels of FIGS. 28 to 30,
  • FIG. 35 shows a sheet metal form of a kind that may be used in the panels of FIGS. 28 to 30,
  • FIG. 36 shows a sheet metal form of a kind that may be used in the panels of FIGS. 28 to 30,
  • FIG. 37 shows a sheet metal form of a kind that may be used in the panels of FIGS. 28 to 30,
  • FIG. 38 shows a sheet metal form of a kind that may be used in the panels of FIGS. 28 to 30,
  • FIG. 39 shows a graph of the design axial ultimate strength of concentric and eccentrically loaded 100 mm panels (i.e the panel of FIG. 28) with a light weight cementious filler and a foam filler,
  • FIG. 40 shows a graph of the design axial ultimate strength of concentric and eccentrically loaded 125 mm panels (i.e the panel of FIG. 28) with a light weight cementious filler and a foam filler,
  • FIG. 41 shows a graph of the design axial ultimate strength of concentric and eccentrically loaded 100 mm panels (i.e the panel of FIG. 28) with a medium weight cementious filler and a normal weight cementious filler,
  • FIG. 42 shows a graph of the design axial ultimate strength of concentric and eccentrically loaded 125 mm panels (i.e the panel of FIG. 28) with a medium weight cementious filler and normal weight cementious filler, and
  • FIG. 43 is a table showing the mechanical properties of possible filler materials.
  • Preferred forms of the present invention will now be described with reference first to a preferred embodiment where both faces of a panel are lined with a fabrication of sheet metal forms and which have such forms attached, one to another, by any suitable fixing arrangement, eg, riveting, welding, clinching, scam lining, or the like.
  • Some drawings show reasonably symmetric panel forms but it should be appreciated that asymmetric panel forms can also be used (ie, asymmetric in the sense that there can be a fabricated face provided by at least two shaped forms of long run and/or pressed sheet metal and, on the other face, any appropriate facing material, if any at all).
  • Preferably however there is a sandwiching effect by the panel liners thereby to present an exterior metal face.
  • In the preferred embodiments depicted a fill is provided between the panel liners. Any acceptable fill material that is a settable material and which confers the appropriate characteristics to the panel can be used.
  • For example, James Hardie WO 00/14354 discloses a panel filling cementitious material 17, preferably producing a core density of between 200 kg/m3 and around 1200 kg/m3, and ideally around 550 kg/m3. Their preferred cementitious formulation comprises a mixture of sand, cement and water, together with suitable additives adapted to achieve the desired density and to facilitate mixed performance and bonding. One particularly preferred formulation they disclose includes, within a tolerance of around ±10%, approximately:
  • 43% by weight of cement;
  • 19% by weight of sand,
  • 29.5% by weight of water;
  • 4% by weight of expanded polystyrene beads, and
  • 0.5% by weight of concrete additives.
  • Whilst such a composition can be used, a preferred filler for use with the present invention is a foamed Portland cement concrete with a dry density of about 650 kg/m̂3 and comprising approximately:
  • 57% by weight of cement,
  • 12% by weight of sand or flyash,
  • 29% by weight of water,
  • 2% by weight of specialist additives and foaming agent
  • In other forms of the present invention, a non-cementitious fill can be used, eg, of a biopolymer or a polymeric foam eg, a polyurethane foam atone or in conjunction with other material(s).
  • As can be seen in the drawings there are provided on each face as a sheathing assembly there is a main long run form, rolled form and/or pressed form as one of the elements. Each such element (see particularly FIG. 5) includes a channel form with a restricted entrance. The channel base 3 is to contact, preferably directly, the filling material. In some embodiments the filling material can include or the liftable space can be packed with an insulating material or left, in part, protected against filling by some appropriate inclusion (eg, a void former or foam material).
  • Preferably visible on the outer face of the main panel/facing region which has been profiled, preferably by longitudinal forming of exterior grooves 4, there are localised hollows or indentations, to facilitate fixing to the resulting panel at positions underlying part of a flap sequence. The visible outer face has also been stiffened by the longitudinal forming of exterior indentations 5. All such profiling assists in suppressing visible deformation of the outer face under normal in-service conditions.
  • The arrangement as shown in FIG. 5 and carried through in FIGS. 1-4 includes on one side a flap sequence 6, 8 and 10 and on the other side a flap sequence 7, 9 and 11.
  • In other forms a flap 6 and/or 7 alone could be used with openings and/or kinking to render it retainable in the set embedding fill.
  • The inwardly directed flanges 6 and 7 are preferably provided with openings as shown in the figures to allow migration of unset fill along the panel and to key through the mated flanges 6, 7 and vice versa.
  • The face (substantially parallel) flanges Sand 9 (which may or may not be strengthened by interned flanges 10 and 11 respectively) are positioned to lie inwardly of the base 3 of the channel forms of the other side. They are also positioned to ensure fixings, (eg, screws, bolts, etc) using grooves 4, or any of them, if at sufficient length will pass not only through the metal thickness on the face of the panel but also through a flange 8 or 9, or both, for more secure fixing without reaching to the other face of the panel and thereby providing any metal to metal conductive pathway through the panel.
  • As can be seen in the figures, the stagger of one face relative to the other results in the pairings 14 of flange sequences of the proximate forms being interposed between mirror imaged arrangements from the other face. This ensures, if desired, a fixing from a groove 4 can engage into a flange 9 or 8 of a form of the facing/panel liner from the other side, if it is not to extend to a flange 8 at 9 from the form of same side. There is the prospect of fixing through both without reaching to the other side. The grooves 4 are slightly offset from a symmetrical position so that a screw from one side which is longer than half the panel width does not interfere with a screw that is also longer then half the panel width which is installed from the other side.
  • Preferably other forms, such as those depicted in FIGS. 6 and 7 which are variations of the form as shown in FIG. 5, are provided with rebates 12 and 13 respectively that co-act in the manor as shown in each of the side peripheries of the panel of FIG. 4 to defuse locating sockets/grooves 22.
  • The modularity of the system allows any appropriate side periphery to side periphery distance to be used. Variations of the form substantially as shown in FIGS. 10 and 11 can be used to provide abbreviated panels or post forms able to index with a fabricated tongue 21 into a groove 22 provided by the paired rebates 12 and 13 of the forms as shown in FIGS. 6 and 7.
  • FIG. 10 shows a roll formed or other formed member (of any suitable material whether metal, plastics or otherwise) 19 (eg, a plastic extrusion) which has the effect of leaving clear a utilities conduit 23 accessible via openings 20. The optional member 19 keeps the fill 24 against the metal surfaces other than those of the region 23.
  • As can be seen in FIG. 1, paired members 6 and 7, from FIG. 5, or vice versa, of proximate forms 1 provide an attached intrusion 14 topped by the top part of a T-form defined respectively by a flange 8 or 9, or vice versa. The forms 14 can be provided with the through openings 15 depicted (either circular or square cross section) and previously described to allow fill migration and/or keying.
  • It is envisaged that the preferred method of manufacture in accordance with the present invention comprises a layout jig or formwork into which the forms of one side are positioned (post fabrication, prior to fabrication or during fabrication, or any hybrid thereof). There can then be a laying up of the fabricated form of the other side into such a jigging arrangement. Thereafter there can then be the filling with the appropriate mix by any appropriate feed in method to ensures a complete fill.
  • It should be appreciated that the forms shown in juxtaposition or subassembly in FIGS. 1-4 are not necessarily the full side periphery in side periphery expanse. Side peripheries are preferably each formed with components as shown in FIGS. 4-7 but need not be necessarily be so.
  • The dimensions of the panel or modular panels of a panel system in accordance with the present invention will depend on the end usage. Likewise the nature of the fill. Likewise the thickness(es) and surface treatment(s) of the metal forms.
  • By way of example, a panel sub-assembly as shown in FIG. 2 could be of half a metre in side periphery to side periphery with each channel base being about 250 mm across can be of any length). Its inwardly directed flanges 6 and 7 can be of about 75 mm. The flanges 8 and 9 can be of about 89 mm whilst the inturned lip can be of about 5 mm.
  • Do appreciate that such dimensions are in no way fixed at these values.
  • Mating of such forms in the manner aforementioned will provide a filled panel of thickness of about 100 mm.
  • As far as the rebates are concerned, these can be of any suitable co-acting kind. By way of example, the dimensions of the panel forming sheet metal of FIG. 6 can be much the same as that of FIG. 5 but with a rebate of about 45 mm by about 27.7 mm. The panel of, for example,
  • FIG. 7 could be 125 mm across (with similar dimensions otherwise as far as intrusion is concerned) but with a flange of say 50 mm and a rebate of, for example, about 45 mm by about 28.9 mm. Again these are examples only.
  • A preferred metal is sheet steel (eg, G300 or G550 coated sheet steel) and can be as little as about 0.4 mm thick (preferably at least 0.5 mm thick up to, say, 2 mm thick) depending on the loading outcomes required.
  • The preferred sheet steel grades and thicknesses are either Grade 300 at 0.75 mm thick or Grade 550 at 0.55 mm thick. While sheet thickness can range from the about 0.4 mm thickness stated upwards, examples of appropriate steel thicknesses are 0.55 mm, 0.75 mm and 1.2 mm thickness.
  • The position of holes can be as is appropriate but preferably as such as to maintain modularity of the system. Preferred hole shape is circular.
  • A preferred filler for use with the present invention is a foamed Portland cement concrete with a dried density of about 650 kg/m3. The preferred recipe for such a material is:
  • 57% by weight of cement,
  • 12% by weight of sand or flyash,
  • 29% by weight of water, and
  • 2% by weight of specialist additives and foaming agent.
  • Preferred load carrying capacity in terms of length is 10 tonnes/metre width for a panel of around 6 metres in length. Including self-weight.
  • It should be appreciated that thinner sheet will be more difficult to handle during manufacture and more prone to local damage and surface. Thicker sheet is less difficult to handle and less prone to such damage and will provide a greater capacity for the fasteners that might be used.
  • Preferred form to form fabrication preferably takes place on a supporting surface and/or in a jig and is by riveting and/or line clinching and/or other connecting mechanisms.
  • Panel edges, where they occur, can be joined by blind steel rivets through holes drilled as appropriate. Alternatively the join can be achieved using clinching of the two sheets at the edges through the pre-formed holes.
  • FIGS. 12 through 18 show a further form of the present invention where complementary arrays capped, at each end of the array progressions, by elongate members (the inner and exterior members) respectively of FIGS. 15 and 14 to provide ends (laterally of the arrays) of components as in FIG. 13. Such figures correspond more or less with those previously disclosed.
  • FIGS. 16 and 17 however show how preferred openings might be provided therein so that, if desired, tubes as shown in FIG. 27 or reinforcing bar can pass through such openings 26.
  • The panel construction sequence for the steel face on each side option shown in FIGS. 12 through 18 is as follows:
      • (i) Punch the holes into the steel sheet
      • (ii) Cut and fold (either roll form or fold press) the steel sheets into the elements.
      • (iii) Assemble and connect the elements together (either through clinching, mechanical lock, seaming etc).
      • (iv) Insert the panel face into the slanted or level formwork.
      • (v) Install the service pipes and/or reinforcing bars if required.
      • (vi) Connect the panel edge elements together (either through riveting, clinching, etc).
      • (vii) Seal edges as required and prepare panel for filler.
      • (viii) Prepare filler material and pour into panel once ready.
      • (ix) Remove panel after a suitable amount of time for filler set.
      • (x) Panel ready to be used on Site after filler obtained required strength.
  • FIGS. 19 through 22A shows an embodiment where, in a manner substantially as previously described there is the metal array and end capping reliant upon members as depicted in FIGS. 20 through 22, the arrangement being substantially as previously defined. In this situation however, preferably a light concrete core as the settable material can be used to provide the embedding core 27 and one side can be provided with identical or different more rupture resistant salable material 28, ie, for example, a durable, high modulus of rupture concrete mix.
  • An arrangement even as shown in FIG. 19 can make provision for transverse service pipes or reinforcing bar as depicted in FIG. 27.
  • By way of example, if one considers the panel of FIG. 19 as having a panel thickness of say 100 mm, the outer zonal material could be a concrete mix of, for example, 35 mm depth. Even so, there is still provision with openings of the kinds depicted in FIGS. 16 and 17, but analogously for the sections of FIGS. 20 to 22, to accommodate, by way of example, a 28 mm diameter steel service pipe at, for example, spacings of, say, 2 metre intervals up through the panel or a reinforcing bar at spacings of 1 metre intervals for example.
  • The panel construction sequence for the steel face/concrete face and with a two filler mix as described in connection with FIGS. 19 through 22A is as follows:
      • (i) Punch the holes into the steel sheet.
      • (ii) Cut and fold (either, roll form or fold press) the steel sheets into the elements, this process also includes expanding the element flanges if required.
      • (iii) Assemble and connect the elements together (either through clinching, mechanical lock, seaming etc).
      • (iv) Insert the panel face into the pouring box.
      • (v) Install the service pipe and/or reinforcing bar if required.
      • (vi) Seal and prepare panel for fillers.
      • (vii) Prepare both filler materials and pour into panel once ready, the lighter filler fast followed by the more durable filler.
      • (viii) Level the durable filler and set patterns if required.
      • (ix) Remove panel after a suitable amount of time for filler set.
      • (x) Panel ready to be used on site after fillers obtained required strength.
  • In FIG. 19 the floating rib assembly 30 is shown. This can be two mirroring sections mechanically or adhesively, or both, held together.
  • FIG. 19 shows, by way of example, a fully embedded floating rib 30 to the left hand side of FIG. 19. The right hand side of FIG. 19 shows parts of the floating rib 30A outwardly of the settable material 28.
  • The sellable material can be the same or different from the settable material on the other side, ie, 27 (for example, a durable surface providing mix when the floating rib is fully embedded and a light-weight mix when the floating rib extends outwardly of the settable material).
  • The left hand side of FIG. 19 shows the floating rib 30 flanges 29 embedded but not in an overlapping arrangement as previously defined. Nonetheless there remains the lapping of, for example, 30 with flange 31.
  • By way of example all of the elongate members could be manufactured from, for example, 1.2 mm fixed steel sheets although thicknesses of, for example, 1.2 mm to 0.55 mm thick G300 (or G500) galvanised steel are also preferred.
  • The panel construction sequence for the embodiment with a concrete double face as shown in FIGS. 23 through 26A is as follows:
      • (i) Punch the holes into the steel sheet.
      • (ii) Cut and fold (either roll form or fold press) the steel sheets into the elements, this process also includes expanding the element if required.
      • (iii) Assemble and connect the elements together (either through clinching, mechanical lock, seaming etc).
      • (iv) Insert the panel face into the pouring box.
      • (v) Install the service pipe and/or reinforcing bar if required.
      • (vi) Connect the panel edge elements together (either through riveting, clinching, etc).
      • (vii) Prepare both filler materials and pour the durable filler first up to a certain height.
      • (viii) Insert the steel panel up to a certain depth, then pour the lighter filler to a certain height to be followed by the durable filler.
      • (ix) Level the durable filler and set patterns if required.
      • (x) Remove panel after a suitable amount of time for filler set.
      • (xi) Panel ready to be used on site after fillers obtained required strength.
  • In other embodiments surface coating (eg, with plaster, Gibraltar board, fibre board, etc.) can be considered.
  • It is believed that a panel in accordance with the present invention provides a worthwhile alternative to existing panel forms. Such elements and panels as described demonstrate high stiffness and vertical load carrying capacity prior to visible buckling of the light gauge sheet metal skin. Such capacity is surprising.
  • Optionally in the arrangement as shown in FIGS. 23 through 26A the regions 39, 40 and 41 of the sectional forms of FIGS. 24 through 26 respectively can be of perforately expanded metal so as to increase mechanical concrete bonding. Preferably the flange regions 33, 34 and 35 are not perforately expanded so as to ensure good and adequate fixing.
  • FIGS. 28, 29 and 30 show further embodiments of the present invention.
  • FIG. 28 shows a panel with a cementious filler. The panel is not lined on its periphery. The performance characteristics of such a panel are shown in the graphs of FIGS. 39 to 42
  • FIG. 29 shows a panel with a cementious fillet, but further having form work elements 28 embedded behind on one face of the wall but not the other. The form work liner may for example be a high density settable material.
  • FIG. 30 shows a panel with a cementious fillet, but with form work elements 28 embedded on both of its sides. The form work liners may be a high density settable material 28.
  • FIGS. 31 to 38 show various sheet metal forms of kinds used in the panels of FIGS. 28 to 30.
  • FIGS. 39 to 42 show the design ultimate axial strength to the effective panel height, for different fillers for a 100 mm thick panel and a 125 mm thick panel. FIGS. 39 and 40 show the results using a foam filler and a light weight concrete filler. FIGS. 41 and 42 show the results using a medium weight concrete filler and a normal weight concrete filler.
  • FIG. 43 summarises the mechanical properties of the different fillers used for the panels shown in FIGS. 39 to 42.
  • The design axial strength is that associated with the ultimate limit state loads, i.e. it must be compared with the strength limit state applied loads from a suitable loading standard such as AS/NZS 1170.
  • The FIGS. 39 to 42 show curves for concentric and eccentric loading. Under concentric loading the axial load is applied to the panel centre at the top, (i.e. as a roof or a floor placed on top of the panel which is continuous on both sides of the panel).
  • Under eccentric loading the axial load is applied at the face of the panel (i.e. as a floor connected to the panel face by an angle connection).
  • The x-axis of FIGS. 39 to 42 show the effective panel length for design. This is the length of an effective pin ended column and can be taken as the clear distance from the top of the floor to the bottom of the floor above or roof. Hence, for a 6 metre panel with a floor attached at 3 metres and a rood at 6 metres, the effective length (or height) is conservatively taken as 4 metres.
  • As shown in FIG. 39 there is little difference between the curves of foam filler and the light weight cementious filler. Therefore, the foam filler is providing a similar performance to the light cementious filler.
  • Similar results were obtained for the 125 mm panel as shown in FIG. 40.
  • As shown in FIG. 41, the medium and normal weight cementious fillers do have increased strength compared with the lighter fillers shown in FIG. 39. However, there is a major difference between the normal weight cementious fillet and the medium weight cementious filler.
  • Similar results were obtained for the 125 mm panel as shown in FIG. 42
  • What is common between all the graphs shown on FIGS. 39 to 42, is that at 5 metres effective height both concentric and eccentric loading starts to become the same due to the elastic limit being reached. The light weight fillers have such low compressive strength, density and modulus of elasticity that they do not contribute much tot the panel overall strength. As such, the steel is carrying most of the load, while the filler is just preventing it from buckling. When medium and normal cementious fillers are used the filler contributes to the overall strength. Such embodiments may be suitable for use in heavy load bearing applications. Such a panel may be used as a shear wall, for blast resistance, or any other suitable heavy duty uses. In this specification where reference has been made to patent specifications, other external documents, or other sources of information, this is generally for the purpose of providing a context for discussing the features of the invention. Unless specifically stated otherwise, reference to such external documents is not to be construed as an admission that such documents, or such sources of information, in any jurisdiction, are prior art, or form part of the common general knowledge in the art.

Claims (32)

1-59. (canceled)
60. A composite panel having first and second sides, the panel having complementary reinforcement forms at least partially embedded in set settable material or settable materials;
wherein a first form or set of first forms, each form having at least one flange and having part or parts which
i) extend from beyond one side,
ii) extend from one side, and/or
iii) extend from adjacent or nearer one side but within the panel,
laterally to said flange embedded at least substantially adjacent or nearer the second side but within the panel, and
another second form or set of second forms, each form having at least one flange and having part or parts which
i) extend from beyond the second side,
ii) extends from the second side, and/or
iii) extends from adjacent or nearer the second side but within the panel,
laterally to flanges embedded adjacent or nearer the first side but within the panel;
wherein flanges of the first form and flanges of the second form have longitudinal axes substantially parallel;
and wherein the flanges of the first form and flanges of the second form interact, first form flange to second form flange, via the set settable material interposed therebetween, thereby to confer a structural or load bearing advantage to the composite panel.
61. The composite panel of claim 60 wherein the interaction via the interposed material is as a consequence of flange overlapping or near overlapping within the panel when one notionally considers the panel normally to a said side.
62. The composite panel of claim 60 wherein said interaction is without a flange of a first form touching a flange of a second form.
63. The composite panel of claim 60 wherein each form is elongate and the flange longitudinal axis is, or flange longitudinal axes are, parallel to the longitudinal axis of the form.
64. The composite panel as claimed in claim 60 wherein at least one of said first and second form is a metal form.
65. The composite panel as claimed in claim 64 wherein both of said first and second form is a metal form.
66. The composite panel as claimed in claim 60 wherein at least one of said forms is a sheet metal form.
67. The composite panel of claim 60 wherein there is at least one set of elongate forms as an array, each form of the array having a said flange from a said longitudinal part thereof.
68. The composite panel of claim 67 wherein said elongate form has the flanges as longitudinal lips to a lipped channel section elongate form.
69. The composite panel as claimed in claim 67 wherein there is lapping in part of individual flanges of one array with individual flanges of the other array when one notionally considers the panel normally to a said side.
70. The composite panel as claimed in claim 67, wherein one array extends from one side or extends from adjacent or nearer one side but within the panel.
71. The composite panel as claimed in claim 67, wherein both arrays extend from one side or extends from adjacent or nearer one side but within the panel.
72. The composite panel as claimed in claim 60 wherein there has been perforation and/or expanding of some part of at least one of the forms, or the material of the forms, to better mechanically tie to said settable material.
73. The composite panel as claimed in claim 60 wherein there has been, for at least one set as an array, some mechanical linking of the forms, one to another, prior to any at least partial embedding thereof.
74. The composite panel as claimed in claim 60 wherein said settable material is or includes at least one cementitious material.
75. The composite panel as claimed in claim 60 wherein the settable material is or includes a polymeric material.
76. The composite panel as claimed in claim 60 wherein said panel includes a mix of different settable material and one of said settable materials provides a surface over one of said sides.
77. The composite panel of claim 60 wherein there is said lapping of the flanges.
78. The composite panel as claimed in claim 60 that is lined.
79. The composite panel of claim 66 wherein said sheet metal forms are elongate and said flanges extend along parallel to the longitudinal axis thereof.
80. The panel of claim 60 wherein at least one of the sets is an array of mutually parallel elongate sheet metal forms.
81. The panel claim 80 wherein each elongate form has two flanges and each is in-turned to constrict the opening of a channel of a channel like section.
82. The panel of claim 60 where additional forms have been introduced to increase strength in some areas.
83. The panel of claim 60 wherein at least some of the embedded flanges are substantially flat and extend parallel to a face of said panel.
84. The panel of claim 60 wherein at least two individual sheet metal forms of a set, as an array are mechanically linked prior to the set of the settable material.
85. The panel of claim 60 wherein there is flange lapping and the lapping of individual flanges is such that along a face of a said panel, when notionally moving transversely to the preferred aligned longitudinal axis of roll or pressed elongate sheet metal forms, there is an alternating as a consequence of an offset of the arrays of which flange laps with which.
86. The panel of claim 60 wherein conduit forms pass between said arrays.
87. The panel of claim 86 wherein said conduit forms are embedded in said settable material.
88. The panel of claim 86 wherein conduit forms extend between said arrays substantially perpendicularly and/or obliquely to the elongate axis of the sheet metal forms.
89. The structure, envelope or wall which includes at least one composite panel of claim 60.
90. The formwork of a composite panel of claim 60.
US12/451,696 2007-05-25 2008-05-23 Panels Abandoned US20100101171A1 (en)

Priority Applications (5)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
NZ555414 2007-05-25
NZ555414A NZ555414A (en) 2007-05-25 2007-05-25 Composite panel with flanged forms embedded in a settable material
NZ560655 2007-08-15
NZ56065507 2007-08-15
PCT/NZ2008/000123 WO2008147225A1 (en) 2007-05-25 2008-05-23 Panels

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20100101171A1 true US20100101171A1 (en) 2010-04-29

Family

ID=41416154

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US12/451,696 Abandoned US20100101171A1 (en) 2007-05-25 2008-05-23 Panels

Country Status (4)

Country Link
US (1) US20100101171A1 (en)
EP (1) EP2162587A1 (en)
AU (1) AU2008257719A1 (en)
WO (1) WO2008147225A1 (en)

Cited By (14)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20120090548A1 (en) * 2009-03-16 2012-04-19 Alta Devices, Inc. Wafer carrier track
US20120285116A1 (en) * 2010-08-24 2012-11-15 James Walker Ventilated structural panels and method of construction with ventilated structural panels
US20130125491A1 (en) * 2011-11-23 2013-05-23 Patrick M. Griffin Wall panel structure for a refrigerated trailer
US20130145714A1 (en) * 2010-08-24 2013-06-13 James Walker Ventilated structural panels and method of construction with ventilated structural panels
WO2013123369A1 (en) * 2012-02-16 2013-08-22 Tnp Holdings Llc Explosive blast energy dissipating and carrying building structure
US20140318077A1 (en) * 2013-04-30 2014-10-30 Alan Case Building Structural Connector
US20140318063A1 (en) * 2013-04-30 2014-10-30 Alan Case Building structural connector
US9050766B2 (en) 2013-03-01 2015-06-09 James Walker Variations and methods of producing ventilated structural panels
US9091049B2 (en) 2010-08-24 2015-07-28 James Walker Ventilated structural panels and method of construction with ventilated structural panels
US9127917B2 (en) 2012-02-16 2015-09-08 Tnp Holdings Llc Explosive blast energy dissipating and carrying building structure
US9169554B2 (en) 2008-05-30 2015-10-27 Alta Devices, Inc. Wafer carrier track
US9567764B2 (en) 2012-02-16 2017-02-14 Tnp Holdings Llc Explosive blast energy dissipating and carrying building structure
US9604428B2 (en) 2010-08-24 2017-03-28 James Walker Ventilated structural panels and method of construction with ventilated structural panels
US10370850B2 (en) * 2015-10-22 2019-08-06 Angelo Candiracci Antiperforation building panel structure

Families Citing this family (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
IT1395187B1 (en) * 2009-03-19 2012-09-05 Paver Costruzioni S P A Sound absorbing panels for noise barriers
WO2011091460A1 (en) * 2010-01-29 2011-08-04 Technische Universität Wien Composite element having a filling body
EP3467226A1 (en) * 2017-10-09 2019-04-10 HeidelbergCement AG Composite building elements
WO2019175613A1 (en) * 2018-03-14 2019-09-19 Ahmed Sakr Construction panel based on metal structure and manufacturing process

Citations (12)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1640065A (en) * 1926-09-24 1927-08-23 Sadie H Blaw Interior wall
US3381432A (en) * 1966-09-19 1968-05-07 Inventor S Group Stressed-skin span structure
US3394514A (en) * 1966-08-29 1968-07-30 Robertson Co H H Metal cellular flooring sections and composte flor utilizing the same
US3992839A (en) * 1974-11-21 1976-11-23 Ethyl Corporation Snap-on paneling
US4433522A (en) * 1980-04-13 1984-02-28 Koor Metals Ltd. Blast and fragment-resistant protective wall structure
US4843780A (en) * 1985-10-02 1989-07-04 Josef Krings Construction plate
US5287671A (en) * 1992-03-26 1994-02-22 Ueki Kokan Kabushiki Kaisha Construction panel with edges adapted to be coupled together
US5608999A (en) * 1995-07-27 1997-03-11 Mcnamara; Bernard Prefabricated building panel
US5740648A (en) * 1996-05-14 1998-04-21 Piccone; Francesco Modular formwork for concrete
US20030009967A1 (en) * 1998-10-16 2003-01-16 Francesco Piccone Modular formwork elements and assembly
US7540123B1 (en) * 2006-03-09 2009-06-02 Thomas Middleton Semmes Base for rooftop air conditioning units
US7559176B2 (en) * 2002-10-18 2009-07-14 Polyone Corporation Concrete fillable formwork wall

Family Cites Families (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB268750A (en) * 1926-04-03 1927-11-24 Hugo Junkers Improvements in and relating to material for use in building walls, roofs and the like
BE824725A (en) * 1975-01-24 1975-05-15 metal floor
WO2003008732A1 (en) * 2001-07-18 2003-01-30 Ernest Bodnar Steel stud and composite construction panel

Patent Citations (12)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1640065A (en) * 1926-09-24 1927-08-23 Sadie H Blaw Interior wall
US3394514A (en) * 1966-08-29 1968-07-30 Robertson Co H H Metal cellular flooring sections and composte flor utilizing the same
US3381432A (en) * 1966-09-19 1968-05-07 Inventor S Group Stressed-skin span structure
US3992839A (en) * 1974-11-21 1976-11-23 Ethyl Corporation Snap-on paneling
US4433522A (en) * 1980-04-13 1984-02-28 Koor Metals Ltd. Blast and fragment-resistant protective wall structure
US4843780A (en) * 1985-10-02 1989-07-04 Josef Krings Construction plate
US5287671A (en) * 1992-03-26 1994-02-22 Ueki Kokan Kabushiki Kaisha Construction panel with edges adapted to be coupled together
US5608999A (en) * 1995-07-27 1997-03-11 Mcnamara; Bernard Prefabricated building panel
US5740648A (en) * 1996-05-14 1998-04-21 Piccone; Francesco Modular formwork for concrete
US20030009967A1 (en) * 1998-10-16 2003-01-16 Francesco Piccone Modular formwork elements and assembly
US7559176B2 (en) * 2002-10-18 2009-07-14 Polyone Corporation Concrete fillable formwork wall
US7540123B1 (en) * 2006-03-09 2009-06-02 Thomas Middleton Semmes Base for rooftop air conditioning units

Cited By (20)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US9169554B2 (en) 2008-05-30 2015-10-27 Alta Devices, Inc. Wafer carrier track
US8985911B2 (en) * 2009-03-16 2015-03-24 Alta Devices, Inc. Wafer carrier track
US20120090548A1 (en) * 2009-03-16 2012-04-19 Alta Devices, Inc. Wafer carrier track
US8615945B2 (en) * 2010-08-24 2013-12-31 James Walker Ventilated structural panels and method of construction with ventilated structural panels
US8635822B2 (en) * 2010-08-24 2014-01-28 James Walker Ventilated structural panels and method of construction with ventilated structural panels
US9604428B2 (en) 2010-08-24 2017-03-28 James Walker Ventilated structural panels and method of construction with ventilated structural panels
US20130145714A1 (en) * 2010-08-24 2013-06-13 James Walker Ventilated structural panels and method of construction with ventilated structural panels
US9091049B2 (en) 2010-08-24 2015-07-28 James Walker Ventilated structural panels and method of construction with ventilated structural panels
US20120285116A1 (en) * 2010-08-24 2012-11-15 James Walker Ventilated structural panels and method of construction with ventilated structural panels
US20130125491A1 (en) * 2011-11-23 2013-05-23 Patrick M. Griffin Wall panel structure for a refrigerated trailer
US9383174B2 (en) * 2012-02-16 2016-07-05 Tnp Holdings Llc Explosive blast energy dissipating and carrying building structure
US20140026742A1 (en) * 2012-02-16 2014-01-30 Edward H. Phillips Explosive blast energy dissipating and carrying building structure
US9567764B2 (en) 2012-02-16 2017-02-14 Tnp Holdings Llc Explosive blast energy dissipating and carrying building structure
WO2013123369A1 (en) * 2012-02-16 2013-08-22 Tnp Holdings Llc Explosive blast energy dissipating and carrying building structure
US9127917B2 (en) 2012-02-16 2015-09-08 Tnp Holdings Llc Explosive blast energy dissipating and carrying building structure
US9050766B2 (en) 2013-03-01 2015-06-09 James Walker Variations and methods of producing ventilated structural panels
US20140318063A1 (en) * 2013-04-30 2014-10-30 Alan Case Building structural connector
US9574344B2 (en) * 2013-04-30 2017-02-21 Alan Case Building structural connector
US20140318077A1 (en) * 2013-04-30 2014-10-30 Alan Case Building Structural Connector
US10370850B2 (en) * 2015-10-22 2019-08-06 Angelo Candiracci Antiperforation building panel structure

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
WO2008147225A1 (en) 2008-12-04
AU2008257719A1 (en) 2008-12-04
EP2162587A1 (en) 2010-03-17

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US9982445B2 (en) Insulated concrete form and method of using same
US9273462B2 (en) System and method of manufacture for building panels
US6298622B1 (en) Self-supporting construction element of expanded plastics, in particular for manufacturing floor elements and walls of buildings in general
US4813193A (en) Modular building panel
US7523591B2 (en) Concrete panel construction system
EP0587612B1 (en) Sheet metal structural member, construction panel and method of construction
US5381635A (en) Construction wall panel and panel structure
US7107731B2 (en) Insulated asymmetrical directional force resistant building panel with symmetrical joinery, integral shear resistance connector and thermal break
CN103429831B (en) The method of building panel, building system and construction of buildings
CA2641755C (en) Building panels with support members extending partially through the panels and method therefor
AU2009200814B2 (en) Building panels
KR100787708B1 (en) Concrete formwork wall serving also as reinforcement
US7856786B2 (en) Wall and floor construction arrangements and methods
US6412243B1 (en) Ultra-lite modular composite building system
US6931806B2 (en) Concrete forming system and method
US4942707A (en) Load-bearing roof or ceiling assembly made up of insulated concrete panels
US4336676A (en) Composite structural panel with offset core
US6058672A (en) Construction of wall panel and panel structure
CA2597079C (en) Improved structural insulated panel and panel joint
US8677719B2 (en) Low-cost, energy-efficient building panel assemblies comprised of load and non-load bearing substituent panels
EP0208529B1 (en) Reinforced-concrete building structures
EP1192321B1 (en) Integral concrete wall forming panel and method
US4517782A (en) Construction element
US5285607A (en) Building exterior wall panel
US7543419B2 (en) Insulated structural building truss panel

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AS Assignment

Owner name: NEW ZEALAND HEAVY ENGINEERING RESEARCH ASSOCIATION

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:CLIFTON, GEORGE CHARLES;EL SARRAF, RAED JAWAD;SIGNING DATES FROM 20091117 TO 20091118;REEL/FRAME:023587/0675

STCB Information on status: application discontinuation

Free format text: ABANDONED -- FAILURE TO RESPOND TO AN OFFICE ACTION