US20100101169A1 - Siding system or roof shingle system comprising cementitious material, and systems and methods for manufacturing the same - Google Patents

Siding system or roof shingle system comprising cementitious material, and systems and methods for manufacturing the same Download PDF

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US20100101169A1
US20100101169A1 US12/567,494 US56749409A US2010101169A1 US 20100101169 A1 US20100101169 A1 US 20100101169A1 US 56749409 A US56749409 A US 56749409A US 2010101169 A1 US2010101169 A1 US 2010101169A1
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siding
cementitious
roof shingle
mold
roof
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US12/567,494
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John Richard Logan
Thomas J. Baker
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Tapco International Corp
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Tapco International Corp
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Assigned to TAPCO INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION reassignment TAPCO INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: BAKER, THOMAS J., LOGAN, JOHN RICHARD
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04DROOF COVERINGS; SKY-LIGHTS; GUTTERS; ROOF-WORKING TOOLS
    • E04D1/00Roof covering by making use of tiles, slates, shingles, or other small roofing elements
    • E04D1/26Strip-shaped roofing elements simulating a repetitive pattern, e.g. appearing as a row of shingles
    • E04D1/265Strip-shaped roofing elements simulating a repetitive pattern, e.g. appearing as a row of shingles the roofing elements being rigid, e.g. made of metal, wood or concrete
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04DROOF COVERINGS; SKY-LIGHTS; GUTTERS; ROOF-WORKING TOOLS
    • E04D1/00Roof covering by making use of tiles, slates, shingles, or other small roofing elements
    • E04D1/12Roofing elements shaped as plain tiles or shingles, i.e. with flat outer surface
    • E04D1/16Roofing elements shaped as plain tiles or shingles, i.e. with flat outer surface of ceramics, glass or concrete, with or without reinforcement
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04DROOF COVERINGS; SKY-LIGHTS; GUTTERS; ROOF-WORKING TOOLS
    • E04D1/00Roof covering by making use of tiles, slates, shingles, or other small roofing elements
    • E04D1/28Roofing elements comprising two or more layers, e.g. for insulation
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04FFINISHING WORK ON BUILDINGS, e.g. STAIRS, FLOORS
    • E04F13/00Coverings or linings, e.g. for walls or ceilings
    • E04F13/07Coverings or linings, e.g. for walls or ceilings composed of covering or lining elements; Sub-structures therefor; Fastening means therefor
    • E04F13/08Coverings or linings, e.g. for walls or ceilings composed of covering or lining elements; Sub-structures therefor; Fastening means therefor composed of a plurality of similar covering or lining elements
    • E04F13/0864Coverings or linings, e.g. for walls or ceilings composed of covering or lining elements; Sub-structures therefor; Fastening means therefor composed of a plurality of similar covering or lining elements composed of superposed elements which overlap each other and of which the flat outer surface includes an acute angle with the surface to cover
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04FFINISHING WORK ON BUILDINGS, e.g. STAIRS, FLOORS
    • E04F13/00Coverings or linings, e.g. for walls or ceilings
    • E04F13/07Coverings or linings, e.g. for walls or ceilings composed of covering or lining elements; Sub-structures therefor; Fastening means therefor
    • E04F13/08Coverings or linings, e.g. for walls or ceilings composed of covering or lining elements; Sub-structures therefor; Fastening means therefor composed of a plurality of similar covering or lining elements
    • E04F13/14Coverings or linings, e.g. for walls or ceilings composed of covering or lining elements; Sub-structures therefor; Fastening means therefor composed of a plurality of similar covering or lining elements stone or stone-like materials, e.g. ceramics concrete; of glass or with an outer layer of stone or stone-like materials or glass
    • E04F13/147Coverings or linings, e.g. for walls or ceilings composed of covering or lining elements; Sub-structures therefor; Fastening means therefor composed of a plurality of similar covering or lining elements stone or stone-like materials, e.g. ceramics concrete; of glass or with an outer layer of stone or stone-like materials or glass with an outer layer imitating natural stone, brick work or the like

Abstract

A board-type or log-shaped cementitious siding system, or a cementitious roof shingle system, having a reinforcement material contained therein, and an optional foam insert at least partially enveloped by a cementitious shell. Each system is molded from cementitious slurry, including gypsum cement and a latex/water mixture. A reinforcement material and an amount of the slurry are introduced into an open molding system or an alternative closed molding system, either molding system including a mold surface member having a face defining an exposed surface of the siding or roof shingle system. The slurry introduced to the mold surface member is to a desired depth and/or weight, or for a desired period of time. A foam insert is optionally introduced into the molding system. After sufficient curing, the siding or roof shingle system is separated from the mold surface member and is ready for immediate use and/or further processing. Alternatively, a system and method are provided for continually producing board-type cementitious siding systems and cementitious roof shingle systems that may be elongate and can be cut to an appropriate size, without the need to produce individual siding or roof shingle systems of limited size. The cementitious siding and roof shingle systems continually produced thereby are ready for immediate use and/or further processing.

Description

    CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • This application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Patent Applications Nos. 61/100,095, 61/100,124, and 61/100,144, all filed Sep. 25, 2008, the disclosures of which are each hereby incorporated by reference.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • 1. Field of the Invention
  • The present invention relates generally to siding systems and roof shingle systems, and more specifically to such systems formed from cementitious slurries, especially those containing gypsum, and processes for their manufacture.
  • 2. Description of the Related Art
  • Many homes in North America use brick, vinyl siding, aluminum siding, or wood as the material comprising the exterior walls thereof. Brick provides excellent aesthetic, weather protection, and insulation properties, and is virtually maintenance free. However, brick is considerably more expensive to install than the other three primary siding materials due to the high labor costs.
  • Vinyl siding is made from PVC (polyvinyl chloride) and has begun to be used in construction more and more all the time. Vinyl siding can be fashioned to resemble wood, with the average width of vinyl siding ranging from 6 inches to 10 inches. However, other various lengths and widths are available. Scratches are rarely visible, because the PVC that the siding is composed of is solid all the way through. Vinyl siding is similar in many properties to aluminum, such as weight and density. However, unlike aluminum, vinyl does not dent, and besides aesthetic repair, scratched vinyl siding does not rust and will not ruin the integrity of the siding. Temperature will not affect vinyl siding, which can be installed in nearly any climate. Aluminum siding might take a long time to re-install if damaged, which is untrue of vinyl siding. Vinyl's temperature at which it ignites is very high (736° F.), and it has half the burn time of cedar and burns one third as hard.
  • Aluminum siding is also one of the most popular exterior home coverings. It is more common than seamless siding systems because steel tends to rust when exposed for a long period of time, unlike aluminum Like vinyl siding, aluminum siding is relatively low-maintenance in its first few years. Aluminum siding comes in long panels, so it takes less time to install. It has baked on enamel that can be flat or shaped to resemble wood grain. Aluminum siding is waterproof, a good insulator, and the most fireproof type of siding. Unfortunately, aluminum siding is susceptible to dents and can be difficult to repair once it's been completely installed. For the first few years, aluminum siding requires little maintenance. However, it soon may show signs of cracking, rust, and peeling. After two or three years, the home owner should begin monitoring the aluminum siding for dents and other marks. Eventually, damaged panels should be repainted or replaced, which is a time-consuming and potentially expensive process.
  • The most common type of siding for a house is wood (e.g., cypress, cedar, redwood, and/or the like) which provides an attractive appearance and good insulation properties. However, as evidenced by the fact that more and more consumers are choosing vinyl, aluminum, and other siding choices, there are a number of drawbacks.
  • Wood in general is a haven for animals and insects. For example, many woodpeckers and other birds are drawn to the wood on the outside of houses. It is thought that tannin, a resin that is found in cedar is a natural insect repellent. However, the same tannin can cause rain spots that will appear for the first three years that the cedar is on the home. Redwood is much like cedar except that its color is slightly different.
  • Plywood, which is a common type of siding, is usually composed of western red fir, yellow pine, and Douglas fir. Either roughhewn or smooth, plywood is usually attached to a home horizontally and isn't the best way to protect from water damage. However, plywood is attractive for its natural look, and many ways are being developed to strengthen its structural integrity. Clapboard is simply long boards of wood applied horizontally and overlapping on a house. The result can look uneven and irregular, but beveled or tapered boards can correct this problem. Hardboard or composition board is comprised of compressed wood fiber and adhesives that are weather resistant are applied to planks or sheets of wood to strengthen them and make them more waterproof. Hardboard can measure 16 feet in length, though many people have it cut to better resemble clapboard. Plywood siding is comprised of a veneer is a slice of wood of constant thickness, and it is applied to hardwood to form hardwood siding. More durable than indoor plywood, it is also much more waterproof. Rectangular plank siding is comprised of smooth planks that meet each other evenly. When laid vertically, they form a flat surface that is interrupted only by battens designed to keep moisture out. Wood plank siding is very much like rectangular plank siding in that boards are laid vertically and protected from water damage. However, wood plank siding comes in many shapes and can be cut many different ways to give texture and a pattern.
  • A rustic, pastoral look can be achieved by using shake siding, which is made up of hand-split, irregular cedar sidings. They are rough and either put on all at once or in layers to use weathering as an effect for patterns. They are susceptible to cracking, warping and curling, so they should be checked often and replaced when necessary. Unlike shakes, sidings are machine cut, smooth and uniform. They are increasingly overlapped as they are higher on the house, however many people create their own patterns and decide the degree to which there is an overlap Like shakes, sidings can fall victim to warping, cracking, and curling.
  • Any wood siding product, but especially less protected wood, like shakes and sidings, should be kept away from moisture and protected from the elements. Typically this involves the regular application of stains, sealants, and paints, and is generally an expensive and time-consuming process. Failure to properly maintain the wood siding product can lead to irreparable damage and potential rotting of the wood, necessitating expensive repairs.
  • A recent product in the siding market has been asbestos-free fiber-cement siding. Its market share is on the rise, but it still lags behind wood and vinyl siding. Fiber-cement siding generally is more expensive than aluminum or vinyl siding, but it costs less than brick or traditional cedar siding. It is sold under a number of brand names, including HARDIPLANK, CEMPLANK, and WEATHERBOARDS. To make the siding, manufacturers mix cement, sand and cellulose fibers with water. The planks are offered in various widths in both horizontal and vertical styles. They can be given a smooth look or finished with a heavier wood grain appearance. James Hardie Building Products, which makes the HARDIPLANK line, has introduced a plank that simulates the look of sidings to use as an accent on a home. A big selling point is that fiber-cement siding offers a number of benefits over wood. For example, this siding resists damage from the elements and insects, and provides very good structural strength and good impact resistance. From a safety standpoint, the fiber-cement siding itself won't burn, but the finishing materials (e.g., paints) applied thereto might. Though makers of the fiber-cement siding tout its low-maintenance qualities, it does, as noted, need to be painted periodically. Attaching fiber-cement siding to a home is similar to applying wood siding; however, this type of siding is heavier, more difficult to cut, and generally more difficult to install than traditional siding materials.
  • Additionally, homes constructed of logs, whether they be conventionally rough hewn logs, engineering log products, or laminated log products, have become increasingly popular, especially for use in rural areas, e.g., a vacation homes, hunting lodges, and/or the like. While log homes are very attractive, there are several drawbacks associated with them. Initially, they require a substantial amount of trees to be cut down to form the requisite number of logs. From an environmental and conservation perspective, this is not desirable. Also, the cost of constructing and maintaining a log home can be considerably more expensive than a conventional stick and frame house of similar dimensions. Additionally, log homes are susceptible to structural problems as the logs begin to settle (e.g., due to improper drying), such as sagging door and window frames, checked and split logs, water and insect infiltration, and/or the like.
  • Although engineered and laminated log products (which attempt to provide an exterior and/or interior wall face that mimics a log cabin appearance with the use of a reduced amount of total wood to produce the log products) have addressed some of these drawbacks to a certain extent, buildings having walls constructed of logs are nonetheless still not entirely satisfactory from an environmental, conservation, cost and/or maintenance viewpoint.
  • With regard to roof shingle systems, approximately 80% of the homes in North America use asphalt shingles or tiles as the roofing material of choice. The primary attributes of asphalt tiles are reasonable price, low maintenance, and versatility. There are two different types of asphalt shingle base material construction: composition and fiberglass. Composition shingles use a base material termed organic felt, which is a blend of paper and wood fibers. Fiberglass, on the other hand, uses a base that is comprised of a fiberglass mat. In both cases, once the base material is produced it is soaked in an asphalt compound. In numbers sold, fiberglass leads the market. They are less expensive, weigh less because they are thinner, have a longer wear life and have a better fire rating than the composition base shingles.
  • Where just a few years ago asphalt shingles were only available in simple tab configurations in blacks, grays and browns, the manufacturers have expanded their product lines to include a vast array of colors, profiles and with the use of laminate coatings have created as assortment of eye pleasing textures. Special chemicals are also being blended into the shingles to make them mold and algae resistant. Although these additional features do increase the price per square, asphalt shingles are still the most economical roofing material available.
  • However, the serviceable life of asphalt shingles is the lowest of all the roofing materials. Although they are available in numerous grades designated by the expected life, from 15 to 50 years, they often need repair or replacement long before their supposed life has expired. The hotter the climate, the shorter the life of asphalt shingles. Many of the asphalt shingle problems that are encountered by homeowners are a direct result of three primary factors: poor initial installation, poor attic ventilation, and damage due to severe weather conditions.
  • One alternative to asphalt roof shingles is the natural slate roof shingle. A slate roof is one of the most durable roofing materials available. When properly installed and maintained, a slate roof can potentially last for more than a hundred years. The specific life of a slate roof is dependent upon several variables, such as type and origin of the slate, roof style, and climate.
  • Another consideration is the weight of slate tile. Many roofs are not structurally designed to handle the load represented by a slate tile installation. Before committing to the installation of a slate roof, a homeowner must ensure that the house's rafters and/or trusses have been designed and installed to handle the additional weight. Retrofitting of an existing home's roof support structure to accommodate a slate tile roof can be a very expensive and time-consuming undertaking.
  • Considered to be the most stylish and sophisticated roofing materials, slate comes in a wide range of colors, textures and quality levels. Because a slate roof installation requires skilled, professional and experienced roofers, slate is a much more expensive roof covering than conventional asphalt roof shingles. In addition, because of the products weight, special handling equipment is required and freight charges will add to the installation costs. For example, a homeowner can expect to pay around $1,000 per roofing square (i.e., 100 square feet), as opposed to conventional asphalt shingles which cost around $50-$150 per roofing square to install.
  • Therefore, it would be advantageous to provide durable and economical siding systems and roof shingle systems, and methods for forming the same, which overcome at least one of the aforementioned problems.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • The present invention provides siding systems and roof shingle systems, and methods for forming the same, comprised of a cement or cementitious exterior shell at least partially enveloping an optional foam core, wherein the cementitious materials especially contain gypsum (e.g., calcined gypsum). According to one embodiment of the present invention, a siding system or a roof shingle system is formed in a substantially open mold from cementitious slurry comprising gypsum cement (e.g., calcined gypsum) and a latex/water mixture. The slurry can also contain other materials, such as but not limited to reinforcement materials (e.g., fibers, scrims, netting, meshes, and/or the like), as well as other materials that are known in the art (e.g., activators, set preventers, plasticizers, fillers, and/or the like), which can be added before and/or after the combination of the gypsum and latex/water mixture.
  • The present invention provides a siding system or roof shingle system configured to simulate, and intended to be a substitute for, traditional siding or roof shingles, respectively. Such a system includes at least one of a plurality of members adapted for being mounted to a dwelling, the member including a cementitious material defining a first surface exposed relative to a dwelling to which the plurality of members is adapted for being mounted. The first surface is configured to simulate the appearance of at least one singular traditional siding element or roof shingle element. The member further includes a reinforcement material encapsulated by the cementitious material and disposed proximately beneath the first surface, with the reinforcement material extending substantially over the area of the first surface. The member includes a second surface opposed to the first surface and defining a reverse surface that faces the dwelling surface to which the plurality of members is adapted for being mounted. The member first surface is configured to simulate the appearance of at least one singular traditional siding or roof shingle element. Examples of such singular elements include a wooden board, a wooden shake, a wooden shingle, a log, a slate roof tile, and an asphalt roof shingle. Further, the member optionally includes a foam core at least partially enveloped by the cementitious shell and disposed on the side of reinforcement material opposite the first surface.
  • With respect to one embodiment of a production process for manufacturing a siding system or a roof shingle system according to the present invention, an appropriate amount of the cementitious slurry is added onto a bottom mold surface portion to a desired depth. The slurry can contain colorants dispersed therethrough, or alternatively, the bottom mold surface can be coated with a colorant. A reinforcement material (e.g., fibers, scrims, netting, meshes, and/or the like) can be added to the mold either before or after introduction of the cementitious slurry. An optional foam core can then be placed atop the cementitious slurry in a desired orientation. An additional amount of the cementitious slurry can then be added on top of the foam core so as to at least partially encapsulate the foam insert, especially in the region where any mounting members have been inserted. Alternatively, the optional foam core could be left exposed. An optional top mold surface can be employed to ensure that the foam core does not float out of the cementitious slurry. During one or more of the aforementioned stages, the mold can be vibrated and force/pressure applied. After an appropriate curing or drying time, the product (e.g., a siding system) is removed from the mold and is ready for immediate use and/or further processing.
  • Alternatively, relative to certain siding system and roof shingle system embodiments, a continuous method is also provided for producing relatively long lengths thereof that can be cut to an appropriate size, without the need to produce individual siding systems or roof shingle systems of limited size.
  • Further areas of applicability of the present invention will become apparent from the detailed description provided hereinafter. It should be understood that the detailed description and specific examples, while indicating preferred embodiments of the invention, are intended for purposes of illustration only and are not intended to limit the scope of the invention.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • Other advantages of the present invention will be readily appreciated as the same becomes better understood by reference to the following detailed description when considered in connection with the accompanying drawings wherein:
  • FIG. 1 is an elevational view of a dwelling having a board-type cementitious siding system, in accordance with a first embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 2 is a partial elevational view of a dwelling having an alternative board-type cementitious siding system, in accordance with a second embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 3 is an elevational view of a dwelling having a log-shaped cementitious siding system, in accordance with a third embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 4 is a perspective view of a board-type cementitious siding member or siding system, in accordance with a fourth embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 5 is a perspective view of an alternative board-type cementitious siding member or siding system, in accordance with a fifth embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 6 is a perspective view of a log-shaped cementitious siding member or siding system, in accordance with a sixth embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 7 is a partial perspective view of a dwelling having a cementitious roof shingle system, in accordance with a seventh embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 8 is a perspective view of a cementitious roof shingle member or roof shingle system, in accordance with an eighth embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 9 is a perspective view of a mold surface member of a molding system for forming a board-type cementitious siding member or siding system, in accordance with a ninth embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 10 is a perspective view of a mold surface member of a molding system for forming an alternative board-type cementitious siding member or siding system, in accordance with a tenth embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 11 is a perspective view of a mold surface member of a molding system for forming a log-shaped cementitious siding member or siding system, in accordance with an eleventh embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 12 is a perspective view of a mold surface member of a molding system for forming a cementitious roof shingle member or roof shingle system, in accordance with a twelfth embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 13 is an exploded view of a mold surface member and a lower or bottom mold retainer support of a molding system for forming a board-type cementitious siding member or siding system, in accordance with a thirteenth embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 14 is an exploded view of a mold surface member and a lower or bottom mold retainer support of a molding system for forming a log-shaped cementitious siding member or siding system, in accordance with a fourteenth embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 15 is an exploded view of a mold surface member and a lower or bottom mold retainer support of a molding system for forming a cementitious roof shingle member or roof shingle system, in accordance with a fifteenth embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 16 is a perspective view of a lower or bottom mold retainer support and a conveyor system of a molding system for forming cementitious siding or roof shingle members or systems, in accordance with a sixteenth embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 17 is an exploded view of a mold surface member being placed in a lower or bottom mold retainer support on a conveyor system of a molding system for forming a board-type cementitious siding member or siding system, in accordance with a seventeenth embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 18 is an exploded view of a mold surface member being placed in a lower or bottom mold retainer support on a conveyor system of a molding system for forming a log-shaped cementitious siding member or siding system, in accordance with an eighteenth embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 19 is an exploded view of a mold surface member being placed in a lower or bottom mold retainer support on a conveyor system of a molding system for forming a cementitious roof shingle member or roof shingle system, in accordance with a nineteenth embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 20 is an exploded view of a reinforcement material being placed into the mold surface member of FIG. 17, in accordance with a twentieth embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 21 is an exploded view of a reinforcement material being placed into the mold surface member of FIG. 18, in accordance with a twenty-first embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 22 is an exploded view of a reinforcement material being placed into the mold surface member of FIG. 19, in accordance with a twenty-second embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 23 is a perspective view of cementitious slurry being added onto the reinforcement material in the mold surface member of any of FIGS. 20-22, in accordance with a twenty-third embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 24 is an exploded view of an optional foam core material being placed into cementitious slurry previously added to the mold surface member of any of FIGS. 20-22, in accordance with a twenty-fourth embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 25 is a perspective view of the optional foam core material of FIG. 24 placed in the cementitious slurry and mold surface member prior to an optional additional quantity of cementitious slurry being added to the mold surface member, in accordance with a twenty-fifth embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 26 is an exploded view of a mold surface member containing a formed cementitious siding or roof shingle member or system being removed from a lower or bottom mold retainer support, in accordance with a twenty-sixth embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 27 is an exploded view of a finished board-type cementitious siding member or siding system being separated from its mold surface member, in accordance with a twenty-seventh embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 28 is an exploded view of a finished log-shaped cementitious siding member or siding system being separated from its mold surface member, in accordance with a twenty-eighth embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 29 is an exploded view of a finished cementitious roof shingle member or roof shingle system being separated from its mold surface member, in accordance with a twenty-ninth embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 30 is a schematic view of a first alternative system for continuously producing cementitious siding or roof shingle members or systems of the present invention, in accordance with a thirtieth embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 31 is a schematic view of a second alternative system for continuously producing cementitious siding or roof shingle members or systems of the present invention that include a foam core, in accordance with a thirty-first embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 32 is an exploded view of an alternative molding system for forming a log-shaped cementitious siding member or siding system, in accordance with a thirty-second embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 33 is a partial sectional view of the molding system of FIG. 32, in accordance with a thirty-third embodiment of the present invention; and
  • FIG. 34 is a partial sectional view of the molding system of FIG. 32 wherein an optional foam core or insert is shown for inclusion in the formed log-shaped cementitious siding member or siding system, in accordance with a thirty-fourth embodiment of the present invention.
  • Corresponding reference characters indicate the same or corresponding parts throughout the several views. Moreover, it is to be noted that the Figures are not necessarily drawn to scale and or drawn to the same scale. In particular, the scale of some of the elements of the Figures is greatly exaggerated to emphasize characteristics of the elements. Elements shown in more than one Figure that may be similarly configured have been indicated using the same reference numerals.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  • The following description of the preferred embodiment(s) is merely exemplary in nature and is in no way intended to limit the invention.
  • Referring to the Figures generally, and specifically to FIGS. 1-8, cementitious siding systems and roof shingle systems are generally disclosed at 10. By “system,” as that term is used herein, it is meant at least one siding member which each may, for example, simulate the appearance of one or more wall-siding boards, shakes, shingles or logs, or at least one roof shingle member which each may, for example, simulate the appearance of one or more asphalt, natural slate or cedar roof shingles or roof tiles, each member of either type is generally designated 12. Each cementitious siding member or roof shingle member 12 is a separate, individual unit a siding or roof shingle system 10.
  • Each cementitious siding member 12 may itself represent a cementitious siding system 10 as explained above, and a cementitious siding system 10 may include one or a plurality of individual siding members 12. Further, each cementitious siding member 12 may simulate a singular traditional siding element. For example, a siding member 12 may simulate a single wooden shake, or a single log. Alternatively, each siding member 12 may simulate two or more such singular siding elements in a single, integrally-formed unit. For example, a siding member 12 may simulate a plurality of adjacently positioned wooden shakes, or a plurality of adjacently positioned logs.
  • Similarly, each cementitious roof shingle member 12 may itself represent a cementitious roof shingle system 10 as explained above, and a cementitious roof shingle system 10 may include one or a plurality of individual roof shingle members 12. Further, each cementitious roof shingle member 12 may simulate a singular traditional roof shingle element. For example, a roof shingle member 12 may simulate a single natural slate roof tile, or a single asphalt roof shingle tab. Alternatively, each roof shingle member 12 may simulate two or more such singular roof shingle elements in a single, integrally-formed unit. For example, a roof shingle member 12 may simulate a plurality of adjacently positioned natural slate tiles, or a plurality of adjacently positioned asphalt roof shingle tabs (thus configured like a conventional multi-tab asphalt roof shingle). In the discussion that follows, and in the drawings, the exemplary cementitious siding and roof shingle systems 10 and cementitious siding and roof shingle members 12, and their associated mold surface members 204, are provided with a letter suffix A, B, C, D generally associated with the system or member embodiment or molding system being discussed.
  • Although the present invention will be described with primary reference to siding systems and roof shingle systems, it should be appreciated that the present invention can be practiced with any type of architectural and exterior/interior decorative element, especially those having a foam core or insert, regardless of whether the foam core or insert is partially or fully enveloped by a cementitious slurry and/or the like.
  • The siding system or roof shingle system 10 can be mounted, either permanently or temporarily to a dwelling, such as a residential or commercial building. In the examples illustrated in FIGS. 1-3 and 7, the cementitious siding or roof shingle systems are mounted to a house 11. The siding systems 10 are rigidly secured to the exteriors walls of house 11 by appropriate securing devices, such as but not limited to nails, bolts, screws, and/or the like. By way of a non-limiting example, the siding systems 10 can be formed with apertures provided therein for receiving the securing devices.
  • With specific reference to FIGS. 1 and 4, a board-type cementitious siding system 10A can simulate wooden board siding, such as lap or clapboard siding. As used herein, “board-type” refers to the general configuration of the cementitious siding member 12, rather than to the type of traditional siding element(s) simulated thereby. Generally, board-type siding members 12 are flat or planar, and may also be elongate. In the illustrated embodiment, cementitious siding system 10A is a single cementitious siding member 12A, or a plurality thereof. Each member 12A simulates a singular wooden board, a cross section of which taken normal to its longitudinal direction is substantially rectangular (as shown in FIG. 4) but may instead be slightly tapering from its bottom edge to its top edge. Surface texture 14A is molded into the exposed exterior surfaces of member 12A, providing a three-dimensional, simulated wood grain.
  • With specific reference to FIGS. 2 and 5, an alternative board-type cementitious siding system 10B of the present invention can include, without limitation, a “cedar shake” or “cedar shingle” like appearance. In this view, the alternative board-type cementitious siding system 10B is a single cementitious siding member 12B, or a plurality thereof. Each member 12B includes in its surface texture 14B a plurality of simulated, adjacently positioned shake elements integrally formed side by side with one another, each simulated shake element having a three-dimensional simulated wood grain.
  • It should be appreciated that both siding systems 10A, 10B can be cut (e.g., with a circular saw, table saw, tile saw, and/or the like) into individual siding members 12A, 12B, respectively, or portions thereof. Additionally, the cementitious siding systems 10 of the present invention can be installed in any number of patterns, e.g., the ground level can include siding system 10A and the second level or eaves can include siding system 10B. Furthermore, any number of complex shapes can be formed in accordance with the teachings of the present invention, including objects that have intricate curved patterns and those with highly complex three-dimensional shapes.
  • With specific reference to FIGS. 3 and 6, a log-shaped cementitious siding system 10C can simulate a wall formed of logs. Generally, log-shaped siding members 12 have an exposed exterior surface that is cylindrically curved, and a reverse surface that is substantially planar. In the illustrated embodiment, cementitious siding system 10C is a single cementitious siding member 12C, or a plurality thereof. Each member 12C simulates a singular wooden log, a cross section of which taken normal to its longitudinal direction is substantially semi-circular (as shown in FIG. 6). Other embodiments of log-shaped siding members 12 may simulate two or more adjacently positioned logs, each simulated log having a cylindrically curved exposed exterior surface, the integrally-formed “logs” of such log-shaped cementitious siding members 12 having a common, substantially planar reverse surface. It should be appreciated that a log-shaped cementitious siding system 10 formed of siding members 12 that each simulates a plurality of adjacently positioned logs would reduce the installation time considerably.
  • Log-shaped cementitious siding member 12C of the present invention can include, without limitation, a tongue portion 30 and/or a groove portion 32 (formed on either the top side/bottom side and/or the left side/right side of the log-shaped siding system 10C) to provide a relatively easy installation methodology (e.g., similar to that employed when installing flooring systems available at home centers). Additionally, the exposed exterior surface of the log-shaped siding system 10C is provided with a surface texture 14C molded therein, that is intended to mimic the appearance of a conventional log, including a three-dimensional wood grain appearance.
  • It should also be noted that the log-shaped siding system 10C can be cut (e.g., with a circular saw, table saw, tile saw, and/or the like) into individual log-shaped siding members 12C or portions thereof. Additionally, the log-shaped cementitious siding system 10 of the present invention can be installed in any number of patterns to either mimic the appearance of a conventional log wall and/or the like. Furthermore, any number of complex shapes can be formed in accordance with the teachings of the present invention, including objects that have intricate curved patterns and those with highly complex three-dimensional shapes. After installation of a log-shaped cementitious siding system 10, a caulking material can be applied over the seams of the adjacent log-shaped cementitious siding members 12 to mimic a “chinking” effect found on conventional log cabins.
  • With specific reference to FIGS. 7 and 8, the cementitious roof shingle system 10D of the present invention can simulate traditional roofing shingles or tiles. Generally, the cementitious roof shingle members 12 are flat or planar, and may also be elongate. In the illustrated embodiment, cementitious roof shingle system 10D is a single cementitious roof shingle member 12D, or a plurality thereof. Each member 12D simulates a plurality of adjacently positioned tiles, and a cross section taken normal to its longitudinal direction is substantially rectangular, but may have beveled lower edges (as shown in FIG. 8). Each tile element represented in roof shingle member 12D is simulated by a tabbed portion 40. The adjacent tabbed portions 40 formed side by side with one another in member 12D are each defined in part by a notched portion 42 to mimic the appearance of conventional asphalt shingles and/or slate tiles. Each tabbed portion 40 in roof shingle member 12D may be further defined by including deeply formed lines, divisions, slots, and/or gaps 44 therebetween, which better mimic the look of a conventional slate tile. If desired, a surface texture may be optionally molded into the exposed exterior surfaces of member 12D to provide further distinction to the cementitious roof shingle system 10D.
  • It should be appreciated that the cementitious roof shingle system 10D can be cut (e.g., with a circular saw, table saw, tile saw, and/or the like) into individual roof shingle members 12D or portions thereof. Additionally, the cementitious roof shingle system 10 of the present invention can be installed in any number of patterns to either mimic the appearance of a conventional asphalt tile roof, a conventional slate tile roof, and/or the like. Furthermore, any number of complex shapes can be formed in accordance with the teachings of the present invention, including objects that have intricate curved patterns and those with highly complex three-dimensional shapes.
  • The cementitious siding systems and roof shingle systems 10 of the present invention preferably include a mat or fabric of reinforcement material 50, such as but not limited to fibers, scrims, netting, meshes, and/or the like, that can be added during formation or manufacture of the siding systems or roof shingle systems 10. By way of a non-limiting example, the cementitious slurry can be permitted to infiltrate through the various crevices, apertures, or spaces, if present, formed in the reinforcement material 50 such that the reinforcement material 50 is completely surrounded and enveloped by the cementitious slurry. The reinforcement material 50 can aid in imparting increased strength, fracture resistance, and/or flexibility to the siding systems and roof shingle systems 10.
  • The siding systems and roof shingle systems 10 can also optionally include a foam insert or core 100 that is completely or at least partially or substantially completely enveloped or surrounded by the cementitious slurry. The foam core 100 can aid in the reduction of the overall weight of the cementitious siding systems and roof shingle systems 10, as well as providing increased flexibility thereto.
  • In accordance with one aspect of the present invention, the cementitious shell 102 of a siding system or roof shingle system 10 is formed from a cementitious or cement slurry. The cementitious shell 102 of siding member 12A, 12B and 12C and roof shingle member 12D is respectively indicated in FIGS. 4, 5, 6, and 8. The slurry can include hydraulic cement including, but not limited to, Portland, sorrel, slag, fly ash, or calcium alumina cement. Additionally, the cement can include a calcium sulfate alpha hemihydrate or calcium sulfate beta hemihydrate. The slurry can also utilize natural, synthetic, or chemically modified beta gypsum or alpha gypsum cement. The cementitious slurry preferably includes gypsum cement and a sufficient amount of water added thereto to produce a slurry having the desired consistency, i.e., not too dry nor not too watery. In accordance with one aspect of the present invention, the water is present in combination with a latex material, such that the powdered gypsum material is combined with the latex/water mixture to form the cementitious slurry.
  • Gypsum is a naturally occurring mineral, calcium sulfate dihydrate, CaSO4.2H2O (unless otherwise indicated, hereafter, “gypsum” will refer to the dihydrate form of calcium sulfate). After being mined, the raw gypsum is thermally processed to form a settable calcium sulfate, which can be anhydrous, but more typically is the hemihydrate, CaSO4.½H2O, e.g., calcined gypsum. For the familiar end uses, the settable calcium sulfate reacts with water to solidify by forming the dihydrate (gypsum). The hemihydrate has two recognized morphologies, alpha and beta hemihydrate. These are selected for various applications based on their physical properties. Upon hydration, alpha hemihydrate is characterized by giving rise to rectangular-sided crystals of gypsum, while beta hemihydrate is characterized by hydrating to produce needle-shaped crystals of gypsum, typically with large aspect ratio. In the present invention, either or both of the alpha or beta forms can be used, depending on the mechanical performance required. The beta form generates less dense microstructures and is preferred for low density products. Alpha hemihydrate could be substituted for beta hemihydrate to increase strength and density or they could be combined to adjust the properties.
  • The cementitious slurry can also include other additives. The additives can include, without limitation, accelerators and set preventers or retarders to control the setting times of the slurry. For example, appropriate amounts of set preventers or retarders can be added to the mixture to increase the shelf life of the resulting slurry so that it does not cure prematurely. When the slurry to be used in molding operations, a suitable amount of an accelerator can be added to the slurry, either before or after the pouring operation, so as to increase the drying and/or curing rate of the slurry. Suitable accelerators include aluminum sulfate, potassium sulfate, and Terra Alba ground gypsum. Additional additives can be used to produce colored siding systems and roof shingle systems 10, such as dry powder metallic oxides such as iron and chrome oxide and pre-dispersed pigments used for coloring latex paints.
  • In accordance with one aspect of the present invention, a reinforcing material can also be disposed within the cementitious slurry, either prior to or after the introduction of the water thereto. The reinforcing material can include, without limitation, fibers, e.g., either chopped or continuous fibers, comprising at least one of polypropylene fibers, polyester fibers, glass fibers, and/or aromatic polyamide fibers. By way of a non-limiting example, the reinforcing material can include a combination of the fibers, such as the polypropylene fibers and the glass fibers or the polyester fibers and the glass fibers or a blend of the polypropylene fibers and the polyester fibers and the glass fibers. If included in the fiber composition, the aromatic polyamide fibers are formed from poly-paraphenylene terephthalamide, which is a nylon-like polymer commercially available as KEVLAR® from DuPont of Wilmington, Del. Of course, aromatic polyamide fibers other than KEVLAR® are suitable for use in the fiber composition of the present invention.
  • The cementitious slurry can then be mixed, either manually or automatically, so as to adequately combine the various ingredients thereof and optionally can also be agitated, e.g., by a vibrating table, to remove or lessen any air bubbles that formed in the cementitious slurry.
  • In accordance with one aspect of the present invention, the cementitious slurry includes a gypsum cement material, such as but not limited to calcined gypsum (e.g., calcium sulfate hemihydrate), also commonly referred to as plaster of Paris. One source of a suitable gypsum cement material is readily commercially available from United States Gypsum Company (Chicago, Ill.) and is sold under the brand name HYDROCAL® FGR 95. According to the manufacturer, HYDROCAL® FGR 95 includes more than 95 wt. % plaster of Paris and less than 5 wt. % crystalline silica.
  • The gypsum cement material should include an approximate 30% consistency rate. That is, for a 10 lb. amount of gypsum cement material, approximately 3 lbs. of water of would be needed to properly activate the gypsum cement material. If a latex/water mixture is being used to create the cementitious slurry, and the mixture contains approximately 50 wt. % latex solids, then approximately 6 lbs. of the latex/water mixture would be needed, as the latex/water mixture only contains approximately 50 wt. % water, the remainder being the latex solids themselves.
  • In accordance with another aspect of the present invention, the cementitious slurry includes a melamine resin, e.g., in the dry form, which acts as a moisture resistance agent. The melamine resin is present in an amount of about 10% of the weight of the gypsum cement material. For example, if 10 lbs. of gypsum cement material are used, then approximately 1 lb. of the melamine resin would be used. One source of a suitable melamine resin is readily commercially available from Ball Consulting Ltd. (Ambridge, Pa.).
  • In accordance with still another aspect of the present invention, the cementitious slurry includes a pH adjuster, such as but not limited to ammonium chloride, a crystalline salt, which acts to ensure proper cross-linking of the latex/water mixture with the dry ingredients, especially the melamine resin. The ammonium chloride is present in an amount of about 1% of the weight of the gypsum cement material. For example, if 10 lbs. of gypsum cement material are used, then approximately 0.1 lbs. of the ammonium chloride would be used. One source of a suitable ammonium chloride is readily commercially available from Ball Consulting Ltd. (Ambridge, Pa.).
  • In accordance with yet another aspect of the present invention, the cementitious slurry includes a filler such as but not limited to fly ash (e.g., cenosphere fly ash), which acts to reduce the overall weight and/or density of the slurry. The fly ash is present in an amount of about 30% of the weight of the gypsum cement material. For example, if 10 lbs. of gypsum cement material are used, then approximately 3 lbs. of the fly ash would be used. One source of a suitable fly ash is readily commercially available from Trelleborg Fillite Ltd. (Runcorn, England).
  • Several of the wet and/or dry components of the cementitious slurry of the present invention are readily commercially available in kit form from the United States Gypsum Company under the brand name REDI-ROCK®. Additional information regarding several suitable components of the cementitious slurry of the present invention can be found in U.S. Pat. No. 6,805,741, the entire specification of which is expressly incorporated herein by reference.
  • One or more of the dry ingredients are to be combined with the liquid portion of the cementitious slurry, i.e., the latex/water mixture. If the latex/water mixture includes 50 wt. % latex solids, with the rest being water, then the latex/water mixture is present in an amount of about 60% of the weight of the gypsum cement material. For example, if 10 lbs. of gypsum cement material are used, then approximately 6 lbs. of the latex/water mixture would be used. One source of a suitable latex/water mixture is readily commercially available from Ball Consulting Ltd. (Ambridge, Pa.) under the brand name FORTON® VF-812. According to the manufacturer, FORTON® VF-812 is a specially formulated, all acrylic co-polymer (50% solids) which cross-links with a dry resin to make the system moisture resistant and UV stable.
  • The resulting cementitious slurry of the present invention should possess the following attributes: (1) it should stay wet or flowable for as long as possible, e.g., days, weeks, months, as circumstances warrant; (2) it should self level, i.e., the slurry should level by itself without intervention from the user when introduced into or onto a mold face surface; and (3) it should contain a limited water content (e.g., compared to conventional gypsum cement slurries), i.e., it should not be so wet so as to take a very long time (e.g., several hours or even days) to dry or cure.
  • Referring to FIGS. 9-29, according to one illustrative system and method according to the present invention, the above-described cementitious siding systems 10A, 10B, and 10C, and cementitious roof shingle system 10D may be formed in a substantially open mold system 200 having a lower or bottom mold retainer support 202 in which a mold surface member 204 is removeably disposed. Each cementitious siding or roof shingle system 10A, 10B, 10C, and 10D is respectively defined primarily by the comparatively unique features of mold surface members 204A, 204B, 204C, and 204D, respectively shown in FIGS. 9-12, each having a different mold face 205A, 205B, 205C, and 205D that characterizes the different systems 10A, 10B, 10C, and 10D.
  • The face 205A, 205B, 205C, 205D of the respective mold surface member 204A, 204B, 204C, 204D is essentially a negative image of the desired exposed exterior surface texture 14 and the shape of a particular type or design of a cementitious siding system or roof shingle system 10. Additionally, the mold surface member 204 preferably includes a peripheral lip member 208 to aid in grasping the mold surface member 204, e.g., when it is desired to remove the mold surface member 204 from the cavity 206 of lower mold retainer support 202.
  • Notably, the molding system 200 for forming a particular one of cementitious siding or roof shingle systems 10A, 10B, 10C, 10D may include a plurality of generally similar but slightly dissimilar mold surface members 204 that differ from each other primarily in their specific surface texture-imparting features, so that all cementitious siding or roof shingle members 12 comprising a particular system 10A, 10B, 10C, 10D are not identical. For instance, there may be several individual and unique mold surface members 204A in the molding system for forming cementitious siding systems 10A, each having a slightly different wood grain design in its mold face 205A.
  • It should be understood that the methodologies disclosed herein for board-type cementitious siding system 10A are equally applicable to the production of board-type cementitious siding system 10B (provided that mold surface member 204B having face 205B is employed). Therefore, in the following discussion and Figures mentioned therein, board-type cementitious siding systems 10A, 10B and members 12A, 12B, and molding processes therefor, are both represented with reference only to system 10A and member 12A, and its associated mold surface member 204A.
  • Referring specifically to FIGS. 13-15, a mold surface member 204A, 204C or 204D (referenced generally as 204) is preferably disposed within a cavity 206 formed in the lower or bottom mold retainer support 202. Although the lower or bottom mold retainer support 202 is shown as being an open shell having a substantially rectangular configuration, the lower or bottom mold retainer support 202 can have any number of various configurations. The mold surface member 204 can be formed of any type of material, such as rigid or flexible materials; however, preferably the mold surface member 204 is formed from a suitably flexible material that, e.g., can be removed from the cavity 206 (e.g., rubber, silicone, urethane and/or the like) and easily release the cured cementitious slurry.
  • Referring specifically to FIGS. 16-19, because of the weights involved of the various components, as well as the cementitious slurry, a transport device, such as a conveyor system 350, either manually or automatically operated, can be employed to guide the mold system 200 along during the manufacturing process, e.g., from an initial processing station, to a curing station, and finally to a product removal station. In this manner, many cementitious siding or roof shingle systems 10 can be produced sequentially and rapidly (e.g., in an assembly line process) without having to wait for each individual siding or roof shingle system to be finally and completely manufactured.
  • As previously noted, in order to provide cementitious siding systems or roof shingle systems 10 of various colors to satisfy consumer demand, the cementitious slurry can contain colorants dispersed therethrough, or alternatively, the face 205 of the mold surface member 204 can be coated with a colorant, or in the case of a “natural cedar shake” effect, a series of colorants can be provided to produce a multi-colored and/or variegated siding system or roof shingle system 10. Furthermore, it should be noted that paints, stains, sealants, and/or the like can also be applied to the face 205 of the mold surface member 204 before the introduction of the cementitious slurry, or alternatively, they can be applied to the finished product 10 after removal from the mold surface member 204. This process can be done in a factory setting or at a worksite, by either the installer or the homeowner.
  • Referring specifically to FIGS. 20-22, a mat or fabric of reinforcement material 50 can be placed in the mold surface member 204, e.g., in proximity to the face 205 of the mold surface member 204. Because it is desired that the cementitious slurry be allowed to infiltrate through the reinforcement material 50, it is desirable to leave a space between the reinforcement material 50 and the face 205 of the mold surface member 204 such that the flowing cementitious slurry can fill the area therebetween and prevent any “read through” of the reinforcement material 50 on the finished surface of the siding system or roof shingle system 10.
  • Referring specifically to FIG. 23, after the cementitious slurry has been prepared as described above, the cementitious slurry, preferably when still wet, is then sprayed or poured into the mold surface member 204, either manually or mechanically, such that it contacts and fills the mold surface member 204 to a desired depth. By way of a non-limiting example, the cementitious slurry is poured onto the mold surface member 204 until it reaches a depth of about one-half way up the exterior wall of the mold surface member 204. Alternatively, the amount of the cementitious slurry could be added on the basis of weight, as opposed to volume. However, it should be appreciated that either less than or more than this amount (e.g., volume and/or weight) of the cementitious slurry can be used, e.g., depending on the specific application.
  • Referring specifically to FIGS. 24 and 25, once a sufficient amount of the cementitious slurry is disposed onto the mold surface member 204, the optional foam core or insert 100 is then placed onto the cementitious slurry and is properly positioned in the mold in a desired orientation. At this point, additional amounts of the cementitious slurry is added, preferably on top of the foam core or insert 100 if a fully encapsulated final product is desired, or alternatively, the additional amount of the cementitious slurry is placed around the periphery of the foam core or insert 100 if a partially encapsulated final product is desired. An optional vibratory force can be applied to the mold system 200, e.g., to remove any residual air bubbles in the cementitious slurry, e.g., either before or after the foam core or insert 100 is placed therein.
  • The cementitious slurry is then allowed to dry, harden or cure for a sufficient amount of time, which may depend, at least in part, on the specific composition of the cementitious slurry used. The mold system 200 can also be shuttled off of the conveyor system 350 and stored in a storage area (not shown) so that other siding systems or roof shingle systems 10 can be made in the interim.
  • Referring specifically to FIGS. 26-29, once the cementitious slurry has dried, hardened or cured, the siding system or roof shingle system 10 can then be removed from the mold system 200. For example, the mold surface member 204 can then be removed from the cavity 206 by grabbing the peripheral lip member 208 and lifting the mold surface member 204 upwardly and out of the cavity 206. The mold surface member 204 is then separated from the siding system or roof shingle system 10, thus exposing the finished product, which is preferably allowed to dry to a suitable extent, after which time it can then be used immediately or further processed.
  • Referring specifically to FIG. 30, there is shown a schematic view of a first alternative system 300 for producing certain embodiments of the cementitious siding systems and roof shingle systems of the present invention, i.e., those siding systems and roof shingle systems 10 that are generally flat or planar. Of the embodiments disclosed herein, system 300 best lends itself to the manufacture of board-type cementitious siding systems 10A and 10B, and cementitious roof shingle system 10D. System 300 provides a continuous method for producing relatively long lengths of the siding systems and roof shingle systems that can be cut to an appropriate size, without the need to produce individual siding systems or and roof shingle systems of limited size. The system 300 primarily includes a reinforcement material feed roller system 302 (including first and second material feed rollers 302 a and 302 b), a cementitious slurry feed system 304, a slotted roller 306, a top roller system 308 (including first and second top rollers 308 a and 308 b), and a bottom roller system 310 (including first and second bottom rollers 310 a and 310 b).
  • Initially, a length of the reinforcement material 50 is fed via reinforcement material feed roller system 302 onto the surface 310 c of bottom roller system 310. An appropriate amount of the cementitious slurry is placed onto the reinforcement material 50 via the cementitious slurry feed system 304. The slotted roller 306 (or other appropriate roller or other device) rotates over the cementitious slurry to force the cementitious slurry against reinforcement material 50, to infiltrate the slurry completely through the reinforcement material 50. As the combined cementitious slurry/reinforcement material 50 combination travels through the top roller system 308 and bottom roller system 310, the cementitious slurry is contacted by a textured face 310 d formed on the surface 310 c of the bottom roller system 310. The textured face 310 d includes a pattern that is operable to impart the appropriate siding or roof shingle surface texture or pattern to the adjacent surface of the cementitious slurry. The finished siding system or roof shingle system then passes out through the top roller system 308 and bottom roller system 310 and can be cut by an optional cutting device 312 (e.g., a transverse saw) into siding systems or roof shingle systems of appropriate length (e.g., the desired length of a particular roof shingle member design may be three “tab lengths” and/or the like), whereupon the cut siding systems or roof shingle systems can be fed onto an optional conveyor system 314 for packaging or shipment purposes.
  • Referring specifically to FIG. 31, there is shown a schematic view of a second alternative system 400 for producing other certain embodiments of the cementitious siding systems and roof shingle systems of the present invention, i.e., those siding systems and roof shingle systems 10 that are generally flat or planar and include a foam insert or core. Of the embodiments disclosed herein, system 400 best lends itself to the manufacture of board-type cementitious siding systems 10A and 10B, and cementitious roof shingle system 10D. System 400, like system 300, also provides a continuous method for producing relatively long lengths of the siding systems and roof shingle systems that can be cut to an appropriate size, without the need to produce individual siding systems or roof shingle systems of limited size. The system 400 is very similar to system 300 depicted in FIG. 30, and likewise includes a reinforcement material feed roller system 302 (including first and second material feed rollers 302 a and 302 b), a cementitious slurry feed system 304, a slotted roller 306, a top roller system 308 (including first and second top rollers 308 a and 308 b) and a bottom roller system 310 (including first and second bottom rollers 310 a and 310 b). However, system 400 differs by inclusion of a foam core feed system 402 (including first and second foam core feed rollers 402 a and 402 b).
  • As with the system 300 depicted in FIG. 30, a length of the reinforcement material 50 is fed via reinforcement material feed roller system 302 onto the surface 310 c of bottom roller system 310. An appropriate amount of the cementitious slurry is placed onto the reinforcement material 50 via the cementitious slurry feed system 304. The slotted roller 306 (or other appropriate roller or other device) rotates over the cementitious slurry to force the cementitious slurry against reinforcement material 50, to infiltrate the slurry completely through the reinforcement material 50. However, in this embodiment, an appropriate or a continuous length of a foam core material 100 is fed via foam core feed system 402 onto the “back” surface of the cementitious slurry. As the combined cementitious slurry/reinforcement material 50/foam core material 100 combination travels through the top roller system 308 and bottom roller system 310, the cementitious slurry is contacted by the textured face 310 d formed on the surface 310 c of the bottom roller system 310. The textured face 310 d includes a pattern that is operable to impart the appropriate siding or roof shingle surface texture or pattern to the adjacent surface of the cementitious slurry. The finished siding system or roof shingle system then passes out through the top roller system 308 and bottom roller system 310 and can be cut by an optional cutting device 312 (e.g., a transverse saw) into siding systems or roof shingle systems of appropriate length (e.g., the desired length of a particular roof shingle member design may be three “tab lengths” and/or the like), whereupon the cut siding systems or roof shingle systems can be fed onto an optional conveyor system 314 for packaging or shipment purposes.
  • Referring to FIGS. 32-34, an alternative system and method of forming the log-shaped siding system 10C of the present invention is shown by which the log-shaped siding members 12C are formed in a substantially closed mold system 500. System 500 is similar to and adapted to work with elements of open mold system 200; however system 500 includes an upper mold member 502 that is intended to cooperate with and/or engage the lower mold retainer support 202 and/or mold surface member 204C disposed therein. Upper mold member 502 may be provided within an upper mold retainer 514 which, by way of a non-limiting example, can be separably attached to the lower mold retainer support 202 to firmly close mold system 500. Upper mold member 502 can be formed of any type of material, such as rigid or flexible materials; however, preferably the upper mold member 502 is formed from a suitably flexible material that, e.g., can be removed from the upper mold retainer 514 (e.g., rubber, silicone, urethane and/or the like) and easily release the cured cementitious slurry.
  • Lower mold retainer support 202 may be adapted to include engagement members 504 that can selectively engage engagement members 506 provided on the outer surface of the upper mold retainer 514. The upper mold member 502 can also include a opening 508 accessible through the top of upper mold retainer 514 and suitable for permitting the introduction of the cementitious slurry into enclosed mold cavity 516, e.g., through a nozzle 510 inserted into opening 508. Although not shown, an operator would hold nozzle 510 sealingly inserted into opening 508 as cementitious slurry is injected into enclosed mold cavity 516, thus providing pressurized delivery of the slurry into closed mold system 500. In this manner, the cementitious slurry can infiltrate the reinforcement material 50 and substantially fill the enclosed mold cavity 516 defined by mold surface member 204C and upper mold member 502, and force any air in the enclosed mold cavity 516 out through the seam 512 formed between the upper mold member 502, the mold surface member 204C, the upper mold retainer 514, and the lower mold retainer support 202.
  • In FIG. 33, the reinforcement material 50 is shown as being larger than the area of the enclosed mold cavity 516, and is maintained in place relative to enclosed mold cavity 516 by being held within the seam 512 to prevent the reinforcement material 50 from excessive sagging and bunching when the cementitious slurry is introduced into the enclosed mold cavity 516. Allowing reinforcement material 50 to overlap and extend between and beyond the superposed perimeter edges of upper mold member 502 and mold surface member 204C, will also allow air within enclosed mold cavity 516 to be vented therefrom by flowing through the thickness of the reinforcement material 50 as the cementitious slurry is introduced into the enclosed mold cavity 516. Once log-shaped cementitious siding system 10C is removed from closed mold system 500, it is trimmed of flash produced in seam 512, which will typically include portions of reinforcement material 50 and cured cementitious slurry.
  • FIG. 34 shows closed mold system 500 with a foam core or insert 100 provided in enclosed mold cavity 516, above the reinforcement material 50. As shown in FIG. 34, instead of being substantially planar as shown in FIG. 24, foam insert or core 100 may have a shape that is somewhat similar to that of the resulting log-shaped cementitious siding member 12C. With reference to FIG. 6, core 100 could be substantially semi-cylindrical. Regardless of its shape, foam insert or core 100 used in closed mold system 500 preferably has an aperture 518 formed therein that is aligned with opening 508 and provides a passage through which slurry introduced into enclosed mold cavity 516 flows through the foam core 100, to and through the reinforcement material 50, and to the face 205C of mold surface member 204C. Slurry that has flowed downwardly through the passage formed by aperture 518 and to generally cylindrical face 205C then flows horizontally therealong and upwardly along its curved, textured profile and its opposite axial ends, toward upper mold member 502 and optionally into a space 520 located vertically between the uppermost surface of foam insert 100 and the superposed, downwardly-facing surface of upper mold member 502. Thus the foam insert 100 is at least partially, and optionally is fully, enveloped by the slurry and the resulting cementitious shell 102 of the log-shaped cementitious siding member 12C formed using closed molding system 500.
  • Closed mold system 500 may similarly be used to form the above-described board-type cementitious siding members 12A, 12B, or cementitious roof shingle member 12D, with or without a foam core 100, and is expected to more completely and uniformly fill the cavity of mold surface member 204 and impregnate reinforcement material 50 vis-à-vis the open mold system 200, due to the pressurized injection of cementitious slurry into enclosed mold cavity 516.
  • While the invention is susceptible to various modifications and alternative forms, specific embodiments thereof are shown by way of example in the drawings and may herein be described in detail. It should be understood, however, that the drawings and detailed description therefore are not intended to limit the invention to the particular forms disclosed, but on the contrary, the intention is to cover all modifications, equivalents and alternatives falling within the spirit and scope of the present invention as defined by the appended claims.

Claims (16)

1. A siding system or roof shingle system configured to simulate, and intended to be a substitute for, traditional siding or roof shingles, respectively, said system comprising:
at least one member of a plurality of members adapted for being mounted to a dwelling, said member comprising:
a cementitious material defining a first surface exposed relative to a dwelling to which said plurality of members is adapted for being mounted, said first surface configured to simulate the appearance of at least one singular traditional siding element or roof shingle element;
a reinforcement material encapsulated by said cementitious material and proximately disposed beneath said first surface, said reinforcement material extending substantially over the area of said first surface; and
a second surface opposed to said first surface, said second surface defining a reverse surface that faces the dwelling surface to which said plurality of members is adapted for being mounted;
wherein said member first surface is configured to simulate the appearance of at least one singular traditional siding or roof shingle element.
2. A siding system or roof shingle system according to claim 1, wherein said first surface is configured to simulate the appearance of a singular traditional siding or roof shingle element selected from the group consisting of: a wooden board, a wooden shake, a wooden shingle, a log, a slate roof tile, and an asphalt roof shingle.
3. A siding system or roof shingle system according to claim 1, wherein each of said plurality of members is generally flat.
4. A siding system or roof shingle system according to claim 3, wherein each of said plurality of members is elongate.
5. A siding system or roof shingle system according to claim 4, wherein each of said plurality of members simulates the appearance of wooden board siding.
6. A siding system or roof shingle system according to claim 4, wherein each of said plurality of members simulates the appearance of a plurality of adjacently positioned wooden shakes.
7. A siding system or roof shingle system according to claim 1, wherein each of said plurality of members has a said first surface that is cylindrically curved and a said second surface that is substantially planar.
8. A siding system or roof shingle system according to claim 1, wherein said member first surface has a three-dimensional pattern molded thereinto.
9. A siding system or roof shingle system according to claim 1, wherein said member further comprises an optional foam core at least partially enveloped by said cementitious shell and disposed on the side of reinforcement material opposite said first surface.
10. A siding system or roof shingle system according to claim 9, wherein said optional foam core defines at least a portion of said second surface.
11. A siding system or roof shingle system according to claim 9, wherein said second surface is completely defined by said cementitious shell.
12. A siding system or roof shingle system according to claim 9, wherein said optional foam core has a shape that is one of substantially planar and substantially semi-cylindrical.
13. A siding system or roof shingle system according to claim 9, wherein said optional foam core has an aperture extending therethrough and defining a passage in which cementitious material is disposed.
14. A siding system or roof shingle system according to claim 1, wherein said member first surface is exteriorly exposed relative to a dwelling to which said plurality of members is adapted for being mounted.
15. A siding system or roof shingle system according to claim 1, wherein said system comprises a single said member.
16. A siding system or roof shingle system according to claim 1, wherein said cementitious material comprises a mixture of gypsum cement and latex.
US12/567,494 2008-09-25 2009-09-25 Siding system or roof shingle system comprising cementitious material, and systems and methods for manufacturing the same Abandoned US20100101169A1 (en)

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US20100304122A1 (en) * 2009-06-01 2010-12-02 Tapco International Corporation Cementitious siding having encapsulated foam core, and system and method for making the same
US20100307091A1 (en) * 2009-06-08 2010-12-09 NEHEMIAH ELITE WALL SYSTEMS, INC., an Arizona Corporation Plaster panel and method of using same
US20110078966A1 (en) * 2009-10-06 2011-04-07 Dina Pauline Herman Log look log

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US10087631B2 (en) * 2005-09-17 2018-10-02 Carlos Torres Roof tiles and roof tile structures and methods of making same
US20180371757A1 (en) * 2005-09-17 2018-12-27 Carlos Torres Roof Tiles and Roof Tile Structures and Methods of Making Same
US20080292868A1 (en) * 2007-05-21 2008-11-27 Logan J Richard Foam core gypsum shutter
US20100183840A1 (en) * 2009-01-19 2010-07-22 Tapco International Corporation Molded siding having longitudinally-oriented reinforcement fibers, and system and method for making the same
US20100304122A1 (en) * 2009-06-01 2010-12-02 Tapco International Corporation Cementitious siding having encapsulated foam core, and system and method for making the same
US8215082B2 (en) * 2010-08-13 2012-07-10 Alejandro Stein Flat roof that sheds rain
US8341898B1 (en) 2011-06-30 2013-01-01 Grand Log Homes LLC Modular log assembly system
US20160222667A1 (en) * 2015-02-04 2016-08-04 Building Materials Investment Corporation Roofing panels

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