US20100086239A1 - Dual pack - Google Patents

Dual pack Download PDF

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Publication number
US20100086239A1
US20100086239A1 US12247775 US24777508A US2010086239A1 US 20100086239 A1 US20100086239 A1 US 20100086239A1 US 12247775 US12247775 US 12247775 US 24777508 A US24777508 A US 24777508A US 2010086239 A1 US2010086239 A1 US 2010086239A1
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Prior art keywords
compartment
pouch
sealed
tear
compartments
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
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US12247775
Inventor
Jean-Yves Latour
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Dannon Co Inc
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Dannon Co Inc
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B65CONVEYING; PACKING; STORING; HANDLING THIN OR FILAMENTARY MATERIAL
    • B65DCONTAINERS FOR STORAGE OR TRANSPORT OF ARTICLES OR MATERIALS, e.g. BAGS, BARRELS, BOTTLES, BOXES, CANS, CARTONS, CRATES, DRUMS, JARS, TANKS, HOPPERS, FORWARDING CONTAINERS; ACCESSORIES, CLOSURES, OR FITTINGS THEREFOR; PACKAGING ELEMENTS; PACKAGES
    • B65D31/00Bags or like containers made of paper and having structural provision for thickness of contents
    • B65D31/12Bags or like containers made of paper and having structural provision for thickness of contents with two or more compartments
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B65CONVEYING; PACKING; STORING; HANDLING THIN OR FILAMENTARY MATERIAL
    • B65DCONTAINERS FOR STORAGE OR TRANSPORT OF ARTICLES OR MATERIALS, e.g. BAGS, BARRELS, BOTTLES, BOXES, CANS, CARTONS, CRATES, DRUMS, JARS, TANKS, HOPPERS, FORWARDING CONTAINERS; ACCESSORIES, CLOSURES, OR FITTINGS THEREFOR; PACKAGING ELEMENTS; PACKAGES
    • B65D75/00Packages comprising articles or materials partially or wholly enclosed in strips, sheets, blanks, tubes, or webs of flexible sheet material, e.g. in folded wrappers
    • B65D75/52Details
    • B65D75/58Opening or contents-removing devices added or incorporated during package manufacture
    • B65D75/5816Opening or contents-removing devices added or incorporated during package manufacture for tearing a corner or other small portion next to the edge, e.g. a U-shaped portion
    • B65D75/5822Opening or contents-removing devices added or incorporated during package manufacture for tearing a corner or other small portion next to the edge, e.g. a U-shaped portion and defining, after tearing, a small dispensing spout, a small orifice or the like

Abstract

A side-by-side or dual pouch comprising a pair of parallel longitudinal compartments each compartment including sealed top, bottom and medial margins with the medial margins in sealed abutment and providing a sealed longitudinal strip separating the compartments. Each compartment may contain different components, such as different types of food products. A tear-promoting element appears at the outer top corner of each compartment to facilitate separate opening of each compartment and controlled dispensing of the contents.

Description

    CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • This application claims priority to U.S. Design Application Nos. 29/318,551, filed May 22, 2008 and 29/318,552, filed May 22, 2008, which are hereby incorporated by reference.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • 1. Field of the Invention
  • Sealed packaging comprising two side-by-side compartments that can be separately opened and which allow for controllable dispensing of the contents of each compartment.
  • 2. Description of the Related Art
  • Three-side pouches having parallel and symmetric longitudinally extending compartments have been described by Möbs, et al. in U.S. Pat. No. 6,789,945. This patent describes a three-sided pouch having two parallel longitudinally extending chambers with a medial widened portion having tearing aid for opening both chambers at the same time. Möbs, et al., U.S. Pat. No. 6,352,364 describes tubular bag packaging containing tearing notches or grooves to remove impediments to tearing open the top of the bag. Tubular packaging is also used in popular yogurt products such as Go-Gurt®, but once opened it is difficult to control or meter consumption of such products. Methods and machines useful for making three-sided pouches are described by Davis, et al. in U.S. Pat. No. 6,006,501. However, a need has developed for side-by-side packaging that permits a user to open and control the dispensing of the contents of separate compartments without having to tear off the entire top of the package or open both compartments of a side-by-side pouch at the same time. Moreover, users now demand a way to easily dispense the contents of dual packaging in a controlled manner to reduce waste and mess associated with uncontrolled opening of the compartments of side-by-side packaging and to pace consumption, use, or expression of the contents of each compartment. Additionally, consumers wish to be able to control the organoleptic properties of foods, for example, by mixing different food components to their individual tastes. With these objectives in mind the inventor has developed the present invention.
  • BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • The present invention solves these problems by providing for side-by-side, dual-pouch packaging which permits separate opening of each compartment, allowing the contents of one compartment to be saved for later use, or shared or separately dispensed to different individuals, as well as for the controlled release of the contents of each compartment without the mess associated with tearing off the entire top of each compartment. The invention also provides users a way to control the organoleptic properties, such as taste, texture, and color of their foods by allowing for controlled mixing of different amounts of the contents of each compartment. The invention provides a high level of convenience and control absent from prior art products.
  • One aspect of the invention is a side-by-side pouch, or dual pouch, comprising a pair of parallel longitudinal compartments (1); each compartment including a neck (2) for dispensing its contents, sealed top (3), medial (4) and bottom (5) margins with the medial margins in sealed abutment and providing a sealed longitudinal strip separating the compartments; and each compartment having a top corner including a tear-promoting element. Each compartment may have a different height and/or width so as to provide different volumetric capacities. To maintain the overall rectangular shape of the dual pouch, the sealed bottom margin of the shorter compartment may be extended upward. In a preferred embodiment, both compartments have the same height and width and symmetrical top and bottom margins.
  • In a preferred embodiment each compartment of the dual pouch is configured to have a widened sealed portion extending across a portion of the top margin at each top corner and the tear-promoting elements (5) disposed slanted upward toward the medial margin in respect to said widened sealed portions. The tear promoting area containing the tear strip is generally in a horizontally corrugated area contiguous with corrugations forming the upper sealed margin. While the tearing aid may be of any configuration, such as a horizontal, diagonal, S-shaped, or Z-shaped slit, line of weakness, perforation line, notch, or perforation, an S-shaped (and on the adjoining symmetrical compartment a reverse-S-shaped) configuration is preferred. This configuration is depicted in FIGS. 1, 2, 7 and 8 and contains a lower diagonal arm slanting upward (5A), an elbow (5B), forearm and horizontal hand (5C). The hand portion is oriented toward the neck through which the contents of the compartment will be released once the tear promoting means is activated. If desired more than one tear promoting means may be provided for each or both compartments. A tear-promoting or tear-inhibiting means (6) may also be provided at the top of the medial sealed margin (4).
  • In another embodiment, each compartment of the dual pouch will contain the same or different food products, such as liquid or semisolid foods having viscosities within the range of 1,000-2,500 mPa.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • FIG. 1 is a front elevational view of a first embodiment of the Dannon Dual Pack having equal sized compartments.
  • FIG. 2 is a rear elevational view thereof;
  • FIG. 3 is a right side elevational view thereof;
  • FIG. 4 is a left side elevational view thereof;
  • FIG. 5 is a top plan view thereof; and
  • FIG. 6 is a bottom plan view thereof.
  • FIG. 7 is a front elevational view of a first embodiment of the Dannon Dual Pack having unequal sized compartments.
  • FIG. 8 is a rear elevational view thereof;
  • FIG. 9 is a left side elevational view thereof;
  • FIG. 10 is a right side elevational view thereof;
  • FIG. 11 is a top plan view thereof;
  • FIG. 12 is a bottom plan view thereof;
  • FIG. 13 is a front elevational view of a second embodiment of the Dannon Dual Pack, showing the design thereof;
  • FIG. 14 is a rear elevational view thereof;
  • FIG. 15 is a left side elevational view thereof;
  • FIG. 16 is a right side elevational view thereof;
  • FIG. 17 is a top plan view thereof; and
  • FIG. 18 is a bottom plan view thereof.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  • The side-by-side pouch, or dual pouch, of the invention generally comprises a pair of parallel longitudinal compartments or pouches; each compartment including a neck for dispensing its contents, sealed top, bottom and medial margins with the medial margins in sealed abutment and providing a sealed longitudinal strip separating the compartments; and each compartment having a top corner including a tear-promoting element.
  • The bottom margin of each compartment of the dual pouch may be of the same width, but have a different height, so as to form compartments of different lengths and different packaging capacities (FIGS. 7 and 8). For example, one compartment of the dual pouch may have a volumetric capacity of 50 to <100% of the volume of the other compartment. This variable capacity includes all intermediately values and subranges, such as 50, 51, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 82.5, 85, 90, 95 and 99% of the capacity of the adjoining compartment or pouch. Preferably, the sealed bottom margin of the shorter compartment having less capacity will be taller than that of the longer compartment thus preserving the overall rectangular appearance of the dual pouch as shown in FIGS. 7 and 8.
  • Generally, each side of the dual pouch will have the same or similar width and same height providing compartments with equal volumetric capacities (FIGS. 1 and 2). However, each compartment may be designed to have a different width or differing heights. Side-by-side compartments with different volumetric capacities can be produced by varying the width of one compartment. For example, the narrower compartment may have 25 to <100% the width of the wider compartment. This range in compartment width includes all intermediate values and subranges, such as a narrower compartment having a width of 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 72.5, 75, 80, 85, 90, and 95% of the width of the wider compartment. By keeping the height of each compartment uniform, different volumetric capacities are provided. Care must be taken that the width of each compartment is sufficient to provide for necks of an appropriate size for dispensing the contents of each compartment as well as for the tear promoting means at the outer upper corners of each compartment.
  • The width of dual pack taking into account the width of both compartments, preferably ranges from 2.0 to 6.0 inches, more preferably, about 3.0 to 4.5 inches, and most preferably about 2.75 to 3.25 inches or about 3 inches in width. These ranges include all intermediate subranges and values, such as 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.25, 4.0, 4.5, 5.0, 5.5, and 6.0 inches.
  • The volumetric capacity of each compartment preferably ranges from 0.5 to 3.5 oz., more preferably about 0.75 to 1.5 oz, for example, a capacity about 0.5, 0.75, 0.95, 1.0, 1.1, 1.25 or 1.50 oz as well as all intermediate subranges and values. The overall height of the dual pack preferably ranges from about 4 to 10 inches in length, such as 4, 5, 6, 7, 7.5, 8, 9, 9.5 or 10 inches as well as all intermediate subranges and values.
  • Each compartment has an upper neck (2) formed between the medial sealed margin (4) separating the two compartments (1) and the tear promoting area at the upper outer corner of each compartment. The width of each neck permits controlled release of the contents of each compartment. The necks of each compartment define the aperture size through which the product is removed once the compartment is torn open. While any neck size less than the width of each compartment may be selected depending on the nature of the contents, preferably, the necks will be about 10% to 50% of the width of each compartment, more preferably from about 20% to 30% of the width of each compartment. These ranges include all intermediate values and subranges, for example, the neck width may be 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 47.5 and 50% of the internal or external width of each compartment. For example, a compartment having an external width of about 1.6″ (4 cm) may employ a neck having a width of about 0.4″ (1 cm) at the upper margin. When torn open, the about 0.4″ aperture formed across the torn neck permits the contents of the 1.6″ wide compartment to be released in a controlled fashion. In contrast, an otherwise similar, but neckless compartment, when torn open would release its contents in an uncontrolled fashion through a 1.6″ wide opening.
  • Generally, the necks of each compartment will be symmetric and form similar sized openings for product release (FIGS. 1, 2, 7 and 8). However, if desired, the necks may be of different widths to permit the contents of one side to be released at a different rate than those of the other. When the contents of one compartment have a higher viscosity or contain particulate matter that impedes release compared to the contents of the other compartment, the neck size may be adjusted to provide for release of both products at the same rate or at any differential rate.
  • Preferably, both the top and bottom margins have horizontal corrugations of about 0.5-2.0 mm in height, such as 1 mm corrugations, although either margin may also be sealed to form a smooth margin without corrugations.
  • The dual pouch may also have a fold line, crease, or line of weakness down the medial sealed margin between the compartments to facilitate folding and alignment of the compartments over one another. Alternatively, the medial margin may be sealed or reinforced in a manner to prevent folding.
  • The upper margin of the dual pack contains a tear-promoting feature for each compartment. The dual tear promoting features permit each compartment to be separately opened by application of force to the element so as to tear across the neck. Once torn, the contents of the compartment may be easily directed outward through the thus formed aperture having the size defined by the width of the neck.
  • In one embodiment, the tear promoting element will angle diagonally upward toward the upper margin of the compartment, and have an elbow and a small tear line at its hand pointed toward the inner neck of the compartment as shown in FIG. 1.
  • In another embodiment, the tear promoting element may have multiple horizontal tear lines providing tear lines across the neck of the compartment at different points. Multiple tear lines may be used when the neck of the pouch is tapered, and provide a choice of tear points that define different aperture sizes.
  • A medial tear promoting area may also be provided on the longitudinal strip separating the two compartments to facilitate opening the necks of both compartments at the same time. This may be a small slit horizontally aligned with each neck or one or more perforations. Alternatively, the medial longitudinal area between the necks of the two compartments may be configured to inhibit tearing across the medial margin (4). A vertical slit or reinforcement, such as a reinforced seal, vertical corrugations, or thickened plastic bead may be placed at (6) or along (4) to prevent the tearing open of both compartments at one time.
  • The necks of each compartment will generally have the same width along their entire height and be aligned with the tear feature as to provide a standard sized aperture when the tear feature is activated. However, the necks may also be tapered in conjunction with a tear feature that offers several alternative tear lines. This permits a use to select a tear line that provides a select aperture size. For example, a compartment having a width of about 1.6″ (4 cm) may have a neck which tapers from about 0.4″ (1 cm) at its base to about 0.1″ (0.25 cm) at its top. A corresponding tear promoting element would have multiple tear lines aligned with the base, middle and top of the neck, which when torn open would provide apertures ranging from about 1 cm at the base, 0.2″ (0.5 cm) in the middle, and 0.1″ (0.25 cm) at the top of the neck.
  • Various products may be contained in the dual pack, especially products in which dual dispensing or controlled mixing of separate components is desired. It is especially useful for containing food products, such as semi-solid or semi-liquid products having viscosities ranging from 1,000 mPa to 2,500 mPa. These products include dairy products and corresponding vegetable-based products, such as yogurt, yogurt-like products, ice cream, sour cream, semisoft cheeses, soy-yogurt, tofu, and tofu-based products, and products containing oils, including salad dressings and mayonnaise, fruit purees, jellies and preserves, puddings, gravies, sauces, soups, syrups, drink mixes, condiments, and baby foods. The dual pack format is useful for complementary food products, such as combinations of different yogurt flavors, yogurt and fruit puree, or multicomponent foods which must be mixed immediately before preparation or consumption. The contents of each compartment may be prepared using conventional food processing technologies, such as those described in the Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, 5th edition, “Food Processing”. For example, package contents may be heat-treated or irradiated as described by any of the processes described by sections 4.3, 4.4 and 4.6-4.8 of this reference and which are hereby specifically incorporated by reference. Non-food products may also be separately packaged using the dual pack package of the invention.
  • The viscosity of the contents of the dual pack compartments may range from about 1,000 mPas to about 2,500 mPas. If the contents of the compartments have a viscosity below 1,000 it becomes difficult to control the release of the contents and it becomes more difficult to remove the product through the dual pack aperture when viscosity is higher than 2,500 mPas. Viscosity may be determined using a Rheomat 180, 2-2 system at 64 rpm and 10 sec.
  • If the contents contain particles, such as fruit, nut, cereal, fiber, vegetable, or confectionary particles, the average diameter of the particles may range from >0 to 5 mm, preferably less than 3 mm, and more preferably less than 1 or 2 mm. While larger particles up to the width of the neck of each compartment, such as particles up to 1 cm in diameter, may be accommodated by the dual pack compartments, such particles may agglomerate and interfere with smooth release of the product.
  • The dual compartments may contain the same type of product, such as two fermented yogurt products, which may be the same flavor and color or different flavors and colors, or may contain different types of food products, such as a yogurt product on one side and a fruit component on the other side.
  • If desired, a user of the dual pack may separately tear open each compartment and remove the contents of each side simultaneously, for example, by folding a dual pack designed to be folded along its longitudinal axis (4), and squeezing both compartments together. This process provide simultaneous controlled release of the contents of the doubled-over compartments through their respective necks.
  • In another embodiment, each compartment will have a different length. This permits the quantity of product on each side to be optimized. For example, when it is desired to provide a yogurt and fruit puree mixture in a ratio of 2:1, each compartment may have the same width, but the yogurt containing compartment may be twice as long as the fruit puree containing compartment. To maintain the overall rectangular shape of a dual pack the bottom sealed margin of the shorter compartment may be extended upward or this area may be used to provide labeling, an embossed logo, removable stickers, punch out areas, holes to facilitate dispensing or binding of multiple dual packs together, or other useful features.
  • In addition to a foldable configuration, the dual pack may also be formulated to be tearable along its medial axis (4), for example, by inclusion of a crease, groove or perforations along the medial longitudinal strip so as to permit a user to remove or separate one compartment from the other either before or after its use.
  • The dual pack may be produced using various machines or apparatuses known in the art, for example, machines such as those described by Davis, et al. in U.S. Pat. No. 6,006,501 and the other art described in the Background section which are hereby incorporated by reference with respect to how to make side-by-side pouches. However, the machines must be configured so as to provide the unique features of the dual pack, such as the necks through which product is dispensed and the tear promoting area and tear features. These features are provided by unique heat sealing means, such as novel jaws or stamps, as well as by cutting means, such as one or more punch knives or blades designed to provide the tear promoting means of the invention, such as those illustrated in the figures.
  • The dual pack may be produced from a barrier or non-barrier type plastic film, such as poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) or other non-toxic plastics or thermoplastics known in the art and which are also incorporated by reference to Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, 5th edition, vol. 18, “Packaging Food”, section 4 “Plastic Packaging”. The properties and characteristics of PET are specifically incorporated by reference to page 18 “Polyester” of the above reference and one example is a 1.8 mil, 48 guage WINPAC PET. The packaging material will be non-toxic and have a tensile strength suitable for commercial packaging and distribution of foods and preferably will be a printable plastic. Other plastic packaging materials such as those described by Table 1 of Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, 5th edition, vol. 18 in laminated or unlaminated forms may be used. These materials and their properties are incorporated by reference to Table 1 of the above reference.
  • EXAMPLES Example 1 Dual Pack Production Method
  • A single roll of film is fed into a form fill seal machine. The web width is cut in as many bands as dual pouches to form. Each band undergoes a folding pattern when passing through rigid guides. Once the tubes are formed, a unique design jaw mechanism presses heating pad onto the film and seals the top margin of pre-filled dual pouches and the center seam and bottom margin of the next set of dual pouches. A unique heat seal in the shape depicted in FIG. 1 is produced. Blades are used to cut along the length of this heat seal, thus forming the tearable feature of the dual pack, to produce a medial tear or perforation, and to separate each pair of filled dual pack units. The machine releases the finished pouches onto a conveyer or into another container and cycles the forming of another set of pouches. The filling of product is accomplish during the cycling of the machine between the sealing jaw compression time. Product(s) are filled into each side of the pouch with filling tubes.
  • Example 2 Dual Pack Containing Different Types of Yogurt
  • A dual pack approximately 10 inches tall, and 3 inches wide was produced from a single roll of PET film, having a gauge of 1.8 mil obtained from WINPAC.
  • Each compartment had a internal diameter measured from the medial longitudinal seal to the outer edge of about 1.375″ (3.5 cm) and symmetrical necks having a width of about 0.5″ (1.5 cm). One compartment is filled with about 1.5 oz of a yogurt product and the other is filled with about 1.5 oz of a fruit puree having a viscosity of about 1,500 mPa.

Claims (23)

  1. 1. A pouch comprising:
    a pair of parallel longitudinal compartments;
    each compartment including sealed top, bottom and medial margins with the medial margins in sealed abutment and providing a sealed longitudinal strip separating the compartments; and
    each compartment having an external top corner including a tear-promoting element.
  2. 2. The pouch of claim 1, wherein sealed bottom margin of one compartment is longer than that of the other compartment.
  3. 3. The pouch of claim 2, wherein one compartment has 50-99% of the volume of the other compartment.
  4. 4. The pouch of claim 2, wherein one compartment has less than 50% of the volume of the other compartment.
  5. 5. The pouch of claim 1, wherein the sealed bottom margins of the compartments have the same length and the same width, thus providing compartments having the same volume.
  6. 6. The pouch of claim 1, wherein the compartments are symmetrical and of equal volume.
  7. 7. The pouch of claim 1, wherein each compartment contains a upper neck that ranges from 25-50% the width of the compartment between the medial sealed margin and an external upper sealed portion containing the tear promoting element.
  8. 8. The pouch of claim 1, comprising:
    each compartment having a widened sealed portion extending across a portion of the top margin at each top corner;
    the tear-promoting elements disposed slanted upward toward the medial margin in respective of said widened sealed portions.
  9. 9. The pouch of claim 8, wherein the tear-promoting element is a tear-strip.
  10. 10. The pouch of claim 9, wherein each tear-strip is a diagonal tear strip upwardly oriented toward the sealed medial margin and having a horizontal hand oriented toward the inner neck of each compartment.
  11. 11. The pouch of claim 1, further comprising a second tear-promoting element across the sealed longitudinal strip.
  12. 12. The pouch of claim 11, wherein the second tear-promoting element consists of one or more horizontal slits.
  13. 13. The pouch of claim 11, wherein the second tear-promoting element consists of one or more perforations.
  14. 14. The pouch of claim 1, wherein the upper and bottom margins comprise horizontal sealing corrugations.
  15. 15. The pouch of claim 1, wherein the sealed longitudinal strip comprises a fold line rendering the two compartments foldable or separable.
  16. 16. The pouch of claim 1, in which one compartment is wider than the other.
  17. 17. The pouch of claim 2, in which one compartment is wider than the other.
  18. 18. The pouch of claim 1, in which both compartments are the same width.
  19. 19. The pouch of claim 1, which is made from a single sheet or from a roll of plastic.
  20. 20. The pouch of claim 1, which is made from a single sheet of plastic suitable for use in a food product.
  21. 21. The pouch of claim 1, wherein at least one compartment contains a food product.
  22. 22. The pouch of claim 1, wherein one compartment contains a fermented dairy product and the other compartment contains a food product that may be mixed with or consumed along with the fermented dairy product.
  23. 23. The pouch of claim 1, wherein each compartment contains a fermented diary product which may be the same or different, and which have viscosities ranging from 1,000 mPas to 2,500 mPas.
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Cited By (10)

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US20100254633A1 (en) * 2009-04-01 2010-10-07 Andochick Scott E Method and apparatus for material storage and transport
US20110170806A1 (en) * 2010-01-14 2011-07-14 The Dannon Company, Inc. Dual pack
US20110170804A1 (en) * 2010-01-13 2011-07-14 Marc Mamiye Slide dispensing sealed pouch
US8381941B2 (en) 2010-05-05 2013-02-26 Barton Group, Inc. Flexible container with integral dispensing tube
US8672544B2 (en) 2009-04-01 2014-03-18 Scott E. Andochick Method and apparatus for water storage and transport
USD787949S1 (en) 2009-04-01 2017-05-30 Scott E. Andochick Water bag
US9758284B2 (en) 2013-09-27 2017-09-12 Barton Group, Inc. Flexible container with integral extended internal dispensing tube in a stand-up configuration
US9809369B2 (en) 2009-04-01 2017-11-07 Scott E. Andochick Method and apparatus for material storage, transport and dispensation
US9815606B2 (en) 2015-04-29 2017-11-14 Barton Group, Inc. Flexible stand-up pouch container for flowable products
US10059498B2 (en) 2015-10-02 2018-08-28 Barton Group, Inc. Thermoformed flexible dispensing container with integrally formed flat bottom for a stand-up configuration

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