US20100005749A1 - Steel building frame system - Google Patents

Steel building frame system Download PDF

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Publication number
US20100005749A1
US20100005749A1 US12/498,420 US49842009A US2010005749A1 US 20100005749 A1 US20100005749 A1 US 20100005749A1 US 49842009 A US49842009 A US 49842009A US 2010005749 A1 US2010005749 A1 US 2010005749A1
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United States
Prior art keywords
rafter
plate
brace
column
element
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Abandoned
Application number
US12/498,420
Inventor
George Abdel-Sayed
Gary J. Bonacci
Arnold A. Davis
Sara E. Ohler-Schmitz
Phillip Ostrowski
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KING SOLOMON CREATIVE ENTERPRISES CORP
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KING SOLOMON CREATIVE ENTERPRISES CORP
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Priority to US7932808P priority Critical
Application filed by KING SOLOMON CREATIVE ENTERPRISES CORP filed Critical KING SOLOMON CREATIVE ENTERPRISES CORP
Priority to US12/498,420 priority patent/US20100005749A1/en
Assigned to King Solomon Creative Enterprises Corp. reassignment King Solomon Creative Enterprises Corp. ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: ABDEL-SAYED, GEORGE, BONACCI, GARY J., DAVIS, ARNOLD A., OHLER-SCHMITZ, SARA E., OSTROWSKI, PHILLIP
Publication of US20100005749A1 publication Critical patent/US20100005749A1/en
Application status is Abandoned legal-status Critical

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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/18Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons
    • E04B1/24Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons the supporting parts consisting of metal
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/18Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons
    • E04B1/24Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons the supporting parts consisting of metal
    • E04B1/2403Connection details of the elongated load-supporting parts
    • E04B2001/2415Brackets, gussets, joining plates
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/18Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons
    • E04B1/24Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons the supporting parts consisting of metal
    • E04B1/2403Connection details of the elongated load-supporting parts
    • E04B2001/2439Adjustable connections, e.g. using elongated slots or threaded adjustment elements
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/18Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons
    • E04B1/24Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons the supporting parts consisting of metal
    • E04B1/2403Connection details of the elongated load-supporting parts
    • E04B2001/2448Connections between open section profiles
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/18Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons
    • E04B1/24Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons the supporting parts consisting of metal
    • E04B1/2403Connection details of the elongated load-supporting parts
    • E04B2001/2457Beam to beam connections
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/18Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons
    • E04B1/24Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons the supporting parts consisting of metal
    • E04B2001/2466Details of the elongated load-supporting parts
    • E04B2001/2469Profile with an array of connection holes
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/18Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons
    • E04B1/24Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons the supporting parts consisting of metal
    • E04B2001/2466Details of the elongated load-supporting parts
    • E04B2001/2472Elongated load-supporting part formed from a number of parallel profiles
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/18Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons
    • E04B1/24Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons the supporting parts consisting of metal
    • E04B2001/2487Portico type structures

Abstract

A frame assembly for a wide span steel building is disclosed. The assembly employs columns and rafters formed from two pieces of webbed channel stock that are joined together at their webs. A pre-drilled haunch plate connects the column and rafter. A brace formed from two lengths of channel stock joined together at their webs extends at an angle between the columns and rafters and each respective end of the brace is connected to the respective column and rafter via a brace plate. The brace provides increased strength in the frame assembly and enables the construction of wide span steel building from channel stock.

Description

    CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION
  • This application claims priority under 35 U.S.C. §119(e) to U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 61/079,328, filed on Jul. 9, 2008 and entitled “IMPROVED STEEL BUILDING FRAME SYSTEM,” which is hereby incorporated by reference herein in its entirety.
  • TECHNICAL FIELD
  • The present invention generally relates to a steel frame building system, and more specifically to systems for connecting structural members of a steel frame.
  • BACKGROUND
  • Building systems using steel members tend to be preferred for many construction applications such as, for example, small factory buildings, garages, and aircraft hangers. Steel members such as rafters and beams are stronger than their wood counterparts, and thus, a smaller steel member can be used in place of a wooden structural member. In addition, the use of steel members allows for designs that would not be possible with wood members. Steel members may also be more durable and resistant to problems such as infestation and rot. Further, steel building systems can be provided as prefabricated components that can be assembled on site.
  • Traditionally, in order to provide a steel building having a wide span, i.e. a span between side walls of the building of more than approximately 25 feet, cast steel members had to be used for the columns and rafters. Although cast steel members allow for wide span buildings, using cast members has several disadvantages. Cast steel members (e.g. structural I-beams) are heavy, which can increase the cost and difficulty of transporting, off-loading, and handling. Cranes are often required to move cast members such as I-beams within the manufacturing facility. In addition to their weight, cast steel members require high levels of raw material, which increases their cost. Further, the lengthy casting fabrication process can increase the time period between receipt of an order and shipment of a steel frame building.
  • In view of the problems with cast steel members, there has been a tendency to form steel building components by bending lighter gauge steel and to use these components as construction members in steel frame buildings. These light gauge channel members weigh less than cast members thereby reducing material and transportation costs. One folded steel member that is widely used is folded into a C-shaped cross-section and is referred to in the trade as a C-channel member. Buildings constructed with such members are often referred to as C-channel buildings. The advantages of using C-channel construction members as the framing components include for example, lighter weight, making them easily transportable, and easier handling on the construction site. These advantages make such components preferred building materials.
  • Although C-channel frame structures offer significant savings in weight and material costs, it has generally been difficult to employ them in construction of wide span (width) buildings. Conventional C-channel steel building systems are limited to a span (i.e., width of the building) of approximately 25 feet because the lighter gauge C-channel members used in conventional frame designs are typically not strong enough to support the building under design wind and snow loads safely. However, it would be desirable to provide wide span light gauge steel buildings, for example having spans more than 25 feet and up to 50 feet, well beyond the limits of customary light gauge steel building systems.
  • There have been some attempts at providing wide span (width) light gauge steel buildings. One such steel building system employing light gauge C-channel steel members is disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,342,177 of Smith. The frames of the building include a pair of columns and a pair of beams. Smith discloses that the frames between the end walls have back to back steel members in which the webs of two C-channel members are bolted together to form a column or beam. The column-beam connections are provided by a flat plate that is sandwiched between the two C-channel members of the column and beam, respectively. Referred to as a haunch plate, this component has an angled portion that extends between the column and beam. The angled portion forms a web that occupies the corner of the frame. The web increases the weight of the haunch plate, making it more difficult to transport and install.
  • The Smith haunch plate design requires extra material to form the web portion, which increases the weight of the plate and the material costs. Also, the need to form the haunch plate with the web portion results in a plate with a more complicated shape, making manufacturing of the plate more difficult and costly. Further, the web portion of the haunch plate requires additional reinforcement from two separate stiffener angles that are attached to each side of the web portion of the haunch plate. Thus, the complex shape of the haunch plate and the need to connect additional reinforcements to the haunch plate makes this type of haunch plate more costly and difficult to install.
  • While Smith discloses that his construction system can be used to form a steel frame building having a span (width) greater than 25 feet, in order to achieve this objective, the haunch plate having the web portion discussed above is required. The Smith haunch plate is not configured to fit within the profile of the column and beam, but requires an angled web portion that extends out beyond the edges of the column and beam and occupies the corner of the frame, and thereby is considerably heavier and more costly to make.
  • It would be advantageous to provide an improved frame and corner connection system that would allow the use of light gauge C-channel steel members, avoid the use of cast metal components, and would permit construction of steel frame buildings having a span greater than about twenty-five feet wide.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • The present invention overcomes the drawbacks of prior art systems by providing a steel frame construction system that enables construction of wide span C-channel steel frame structures. (As used herein, the term wide span means a building span (width) of between twenty-five and about fifty feet.) According to one aspect of the present invention, a frame system for a metal frame building made of formed metal channel stock components includes metal columns, rafters, a haunch plate configured to fit substantially within the profile of the column and rafter, and a brace extending between each column and rafter.
  • In a further aspect of the present invention, each column of the steel frame system comprises two lengths of formed metal channel stock, each length having a web, two flanges, and two lips. The two lengths of channel stock of the column have their webs fastened together to form the column. Each rafter comprises two lengths of formed channel stock, each having a web, two flanges, and two lips. The two lengths of channel stock have their webs fastened together to form each rafter. The rafter is positioned above the column and the haunch plate is disposed between the two lengths of formed channel stock of the column and the two lengths of formed channel stock of the rafter at adjacent ends of the column and the rafter.
  • In a further aspect of the present invention, each brace comprises two lengths of formed channel stock, each having a web, two flanges, and two lips. The two lengths of channel stock have their webs fastened together to form each brace. A first brace connection plate is disposed at one end of the brace between the two lengths of channel stock of the column and the two lengths of channel stock of the brace. At the other end of the brace a second brace connection plate is disposed between the two lengths of channel stock of the rafter and the two lengths of channel stock of the brace. The brace, columns, and rafters formed of channel stock are employed together with the haunch plate of the invention to fabricate a wide span steel frame building. Thus, the invention provides a frame system for a wide span steel building comprising a brace, haunch plate, and columns and rafters.
  • In further aspect of the present invention, the column, rafter, and brace are all fabricated from C-channel stock.
  • According to another aspect, the present invention comprises a brace plate for connecting a structural member, which includes a column or rafter, and a brace that extends at an angle with respect to the structural member. The brace and structural member each comprise a length of formed channel stock having a web and two flanges. The brace plate includes first and second portions. The first portion of the brace plate has a first set of mounting holes and is adapted to be attached to the web of the structural member. The second portion of the brace plate has a second set of mounting holes arranged in an angled configuration with respect to the first set of mounting holes and is adapted to be attached to the web of the brace. The second portion of the brace plate extends at the same angle at which the brace extends with respect to the structural member. The brace plate also includes a flange that extends at an angle from the second portion of the plate. The flange of the plate is adapted to align with a flange of the brace.
  • Further aspects and features of the steel frame building system disclosed herein can be appreciated from the appended Figures and accompanying written description.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • The foregoing and other features of the present invention will be more readily apparent from the following detailed description and drawings of illustrative embodiments of the invention in which:
  • FIG. 1 is an exploded perspective view of a frame assembly in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 2 is a perspective view thereof;
  • FIG. 3 is a front view thereof;
  • FIG. 4 is a cross-sectional view taken along line 4-4 of FIG. 3;
  • FIG. 5 is a close-up view of the corner section of the frame assembly of FIG. 2;
  • FIG. 6 is a plan view of a column channel member of the frame assembly in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 7 is a plan view of a rafter channel member of the frame assembly in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 8 is a plan view of a haunch plate in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 9 is a cross-sectional view taken along line 9-9 of FIG. 3;
  • FIG. 10 is a plan view of a brace channel member of the frame assembly in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 11 is a plan view of a brace plate in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 12 is an isometric view of a spacer in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 13 is a close-up view of the peak connection of the frame assembly of FIG. 2;
  • FIG. 14 is a plan view of a peak plate in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 15 is an isometric view of a base clip in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 16 depicts a steel frame building construction in accordance with the present invention;
  • FIG. 17 is a side view of a column of the frame assembly in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 18 is a side view of a rafter of the frame assembly in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 19 is an isometric view of a reinforcing plate in accordance with the present invention;
  • FIG. 20 is a cross-sectional view of a flange brace extending between a rafter and a purlin in accordance with the present invention;
  • FIG. 21 is an isometric view of a flange brace in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention; and
  • FIG. 22 is a a view of the corner section of the frame assembly of FIG. 2, including reinforcing nesting elements;
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
  • Referring now to FIGS. 1-3, there is shown an embodiment of a steel frame assembly 10 for use in a steel frame building. The frame assembly 10 can be used in the construction of a prefabricated C-channel steel building system. The frame assembly 10 includes left and right corner connection assemblies 40 and 41. The left corner connection assembly 40 includes left column 12, left rafter 16, a haunch plate 42, and a brace 72. The right corner connection assembly 41 includes right column 14, right rafter 18, a haunch plate 42, and a brace 72. This arrangement enables the construction from C-channel stock of wide span steel frame buildings having a roof span of up to 50 feet or more. The frame assembly 10 with corner connection assemblies 40 and 41, having their particular combination of structural members that is further described below, surprisingly allows for the use of light gauge steel formed members that can be used to fabricate wide span steel frame buildings.
  • Each column 12 and 14 comprises two lengths of channel stock 20. As can best be seen in FIG. 4, the lengths of channel stock 20 are formed into a C shape channel (sometimes referred to in the trade as C-channel or Cee-channel). Each length of channel stock 20 has a web 22, two flanges 24 at substantially right angles to the web 22, and two lips 26 at substantially right angles to the flanges 24. Each column 12 and 14 is formed by joining the webs 22 of the two lengths of channel stock 20 together, as further described below.
  • Similarly, each rafter 16 and 18 comprises two lengths of channel stock 30. The channel stock 30 is also formed, preferably into a C-channel shape. As can best be seen in FIG. 13, each length of channel stock 30 has a web 32, two flanges 34 at substantially right angles to the web 32, and two lips 36 at substantially right angles to the flanges 34. Each rafter 16 and 18 is formed by joining the webs 32 of the two lengths of channel stock 30 together, as further described below.
  • The channel stock members 20 and 30 are made from formed light gage steel sheets. Typical members are formed of steel between 16 gauge and 10 gauge. The gauge thickness is selected depending on the designed wind load, snow load, and span of the building. Heavier (thicker) gauge materials are used to construct buildings requiring the ability to withstand heavier wind or snow loads. In one embodiment, the channel stock members 20 and 30 are formed from 10 gauge steel. Steel, sold under the trade designations A653, A570, or A792 may be used in constructing the frame members of the present invention. In one embodiment, channel stock members 20 and 30 conform to the requirements of ASTM A-653 with a minimum yield point of 55 ksi. The channel stock for the columns and rafters can have the same profile shape and size. In other embodiments, the shape of the columns and rafters is not limited to Cee-channels, and other shapes, such as U-channels, may be used.
  • Referring now to FIGS. 1 and 5, the left column-rafter connection assembly 40 is shown. FIG. 5 illustrates the connection of the left column 12 and left rafter 16. For ease of description, the connection is described with respect to the left column 12 and rafter 16 although the connection assembly 41 on the right side of the frame assembly 10 is constructed in a similar manner but in the mirror image. Referring to FIGS. 5 and 8, left column 12 and left rafter 16 are joined together by a haunch plate 42. Haunch plate 42 is pre-drilled with a pattern of seven holes 44 at one end and a pattern of seven holes 46 at the other end (FIG. 8). Each web 22 of the two channel stock members 20 that form the column 12 is provided with a pattern of seven column-haunch connection holes 52 at one end (FIG. 6) that correspond to the holes 44 provided in the lower portion of the haunch plate 42. The haunch plate 42 is placed between the webs 22 of the two channel stock members 20 that form the column 12. The pattern of seven column-haunch connection holes 52 on each of the two channel stock members 20 of the column 12 accepts a group of seven fasteners 68, which also pass through the holes 44 in the haunch plate 42 to join the column 12 to the haunch plate 42 (FIGS. 3 and 5). Similarly, each web 32 of the two channel stock members 30 that form the rafter 16 is provided with a pattern of seven rafter-haunch connection holes 60 (FIG. 7) that correspond to the holes 46 provided in the upper portion of the haunch plate 42. The haunch plate 42 is also positioned between the webs 32 of the two channel stock members 30 that form the rafter 16. The pattern of seven rafter-haunch connection holes 60 on each of the two channel stock members 30 of the rafter 16 accepts a group of seven fasteners 70, which also pass through holes 46 in the haunch plate 42 (FIG. 5). With the fasteners 68 and 70 in place, the adjacent ends of the column 12 and rafter 16 are connected via the haunch plate 42.
  • The haunch plate 42 is formed from solid steel plate. In one embodiment, the haunch plate 42 is formed from ¼ inch thick steel; however, the thickness of the plate can range between about 3/16 inch to about ¼ inch. Referring to FIG. 8, the pattern of holes 46 is arranged on the upper part of haunch plate 42 at an acute angle to the bottom edge 45 of the lower part of the haunch plate 42. This acute angle corresponds to the angle at which the rafter 16 extends from column 12 above the horizontal. Arranging the pattern of holes 46 at an angle enables rafter 16 to be mounted at an angle with respect to the column 12 without having to form the rafter-haunch connection holes 60 at an angle with respect to the flange edges of the webs 32 (the edges of the web 32 from which the flanges 34 extend) of the channel stock 30 of the rafter 16 after the components have been configured in the frame construction. Forming the rafter-haunch connection holes 60 in a rectangular pattern that is aligned with the flange edges of the webs 32 permits the rafter-haunch connection holes 60 to be positioned at a uniform distance from the flange edges of the webs 32 of the channel stock members 30 of rafter 16. The haunch plate 42 also includes a section that is bent up at approximately 90 degrees with respect to the flat portion 43 of the haunch plate 42 along bend line 48 to form a flange 50, as shown in FIG. 5. The flange 50 helps to reinforce the haunch plate 42. The flange 50 also assists with the proper positioning of the haunch plate 42 between the webs of the channel stock 20 and 30 of the column 12 and rafter 16. The haunch plate 42 is configured to fit substantially within the profile of the column 12 and rafter 16 and does not extend out beyond the edges of the column 12 or the rafter 16. Only the flange 50, which is disposed along side the column 12 as can be seen in FIG. 5, extends beyond the edges of the column 12 and rafter 16 towards the corner area 38.
  • In addition to connection via the haunch plate 42, the column-rafter connection assembly 40 also includes a brace 72. The brace 72 extends at an angle between the column 12 and rafter 16. The brace 72 extends at an acute angle A with respect to column 12 and at an acute angle B with respect to rafter 16, as shown in FIG. 3. Preferably the angle A between the brace 72 and the column 12 and the angle B between the brace 72 and the rafter 16 are equal. In a preferred embodiment, the angle A between the brace 72 and the column 12 and the angle B between the brace 72 and the rafter 16 are equal to one half of the angle of 90 degrees minus the angle at which the rafter 16 extends above the horizontal, i.e., ½(90−angle at which rafter 16 extends above the horizontal). As can be seen in FIG. 3, the rafter 16 extends at an angle above the horizontal. Thus, the angles A and B at which the brace 72 extends from the rafter 16 and column 12 are equal to ½(90−arctan(rise of rafter/run of rafter)). In one embodiment the rise over run of the rafter 16 is approximately 2/12 (inches/inches), and thus the angles A and B of the brace 72 are ½(90−arctan( 2/12)), which equals approximately 40 degrees with respect to the column 12 and rafter 16.
  • Referring to FIG. 9, it can be seen that the brace 72 comprises two lengths of C-channel stock 74. Each length of C-channel stock 74 has a web 76, two flanges 78 at substantially right angles to the web 76, and two lips 80 at substantially right angles to the flanges 78. The C-channel stock 74 forming the brace 72 is smaller than the channel stock 20 and 30 that forms the columns 12 and rafters 16. The channel stock 74 of the brace 72 need not be the same size and shape as the channel stock 20 and 30 of column 12 and rafter 16. In one embodiment, the channel stock member 74 is formed from 12 gauge steel.
  • Referring to FIGS. 1 and 5, one end of the brace 72 and column 12 are joined together by a brace plate 83. As can be seen in FIGS. 3 and 5, the brace plate 83 is positioned along an upper portion of the column 12 to connect one end of the brace 72 to the upper portion of the column 12. As shown in FIG. 11, the brace plate 83 is pre-drilled with a pattern of eight holes 86 in angled portion 87 of the brace plate 83 and a pattern of eight holes 88 in non-angled portion 81 of the brace plate 83. As shown in FIG. 10, each web 76 of the two channel stock members 74 that form the brace 72 is provided with a pattern of eight brace connection holes 82 at one end that correspond to the holes 86 arrayed in the angled portion 85 of the brace plate 83. As shown in FIGS. 1, 5, and 9, the brace plate 83 is placed between the webs 76 of the two channel stock members 74 that form the brace 72. The pattern of eight brace connection holes 82 in each of the two channel stock members 74 of the brace 72 accepts a group of eight fasteners 92, which also pass through the holes 86 in the brace plate 83 to join the brace 72 to the brace plate 83 (FIGS. 3 and 5). Referring to FIG. 6, each web 22 of the two channel stock members 20 that form the column 12 is provided with a pattern of eight column-brace connection holes 54 that correspond to holes 88 provided in the non-angled portion 81 of the brace plate 83. As shown in FIGS. 1, 5, and 9, the brace plate 83 is disposed between the webs 22 of the two channel stock members 20 that form the column 12. The column-brace connection holes 54 accept a group of eight fasteners 90, which also pass through holes 88 in the brace plate 83. Thus, with the fasteners 90 and 92 in place, one end of the brace 72 is connected to the column 12.
  • Referring to FIG. 22, each column 12 may be reinforced with a set of reinforcing nesting elements 165. Each nesting element has a web 168 and two flanges 169 at substantially right angles to the web 168. Each nesting element 165 is pre-drilled with a pattern of eight holes 166 that correspond to the column-brace connection holes 54 provided in each of the two channel stock members 20. Additional holes 167 are provided in each nesting element 165 that correspond to the additional holes 56 provided in the webs 22 of the channel stock members 20.
  • If nesting elements are included, each nesting element 165 is positioned within the channel created by the flanges 24 (FIG. 4) of the corresponding channel stock member 20 so that the web 168 of the nesting element 165 is located adjacent the web 22 of the channel stock member 20. The flanges 169 of each nesting element 165 are thereby located adjacent the flanges 24 of the corresponding channel stock member 20 and the lips 26 (FIG. 4) of the channel stock member 20 cover the ends of the flanges 169 of the nesting element 165. Additionally, each nesting element 165 is positioned so that the pattern of eight holes 166 lines up with the column-brace connection holes 54 provided in the corresponding channel member 20, and the additional holes 167 provided in the nesting element line up with the additional holes 56 provided in the web 22 of the corresponding channel member 20. The fasteners 90 (FIG. 5), which connect the one end of the brace 72 to the column 12, along with the fasteners 102 (FIG. 5) that join the webs 22 of the channel members 20 also secure the nesting elements 165 to the channel stock members 20.
  • Referring to FIG. 5, the opposite end of the brace 72 is connected to the rafter 16 in a similar manner. A second brace plate 84 is positioned along the portion of the rafter 16 that is proximate to the haunch plate 42. The second brace plate 84 is positioned between the webs 76 of the two channel stock members 74 of brace 72 and the webs 32 of the two channel stock members 30 of rafter 16. Brace plate 84 is similar to brace plate 83 but is rotated so that it can join the opposite end of brace 72 and rafter 16. The webs 76 of the channel stock members 74 of the brace 72 are provided with a pattern of eight brace connection holes 91 at the other end. The webs 32 of the channel stock members 30 of the rafter 16 are provided with a pattern of eight rafter brace connection holes 62. The holes 91 of the brace 72 and the holes 62 of the rafter 16 correspond to holes 86 and 88 in brace plate 84, respectively. Holes 91 accept a group of eight fasteners 94, which also pass through holes 86 in the angled portion 85 in the brace plate 84 to join the brace 72 to the brace plate 84. Holes 62 of the rafter 16 accept a group of eight fasteners 96, which also pass through holes 88 in the non-angled portion 81 in the brace plate 84 to join the rafter 16 to the brace plate 84. Thus, the brace 72 is joined to the rafter 16 via brace plate 84. In addition, the fasteners 92 and 94 that connect brace 72 to brace plates 83 and 84 also function to join the webs 76 of the two individual lengths of channel stock 74 forming brace 72 together.
  • Referring to FIG. 22, each rafter 16 may be reinforced with a set of reinforcing nesting elements 170. Each nesting element has a web 173 and two flanges 174 at substantially right angles to the web 173. Each nesting element 170 is pre-drilled with a pattern of eight holes 171 that correspond to the rafter brace connection holes 62 provided in each of the two channel stock members 30. Additional holes 172 are provided in each nesting element 170 that correspond to the additional holes 66 provided in the webs 32 of the channel stock members 30.
  • If nesting elements are included in the rafter 16, each nesting element 170 is positioned within the channel created by the flanges 34 (FIG. 13) of the corresponding channel stock member 30 so that the web 173 of the nesting element 170 is located adjacent the web 32 of the channel stock member 30. The flanges 174 of each nesting element 170 are thereby located adjacent the flanges 34 of the corresponding channel stock member 30 and the lips 36 (FIG. 13) of the channel stock member 30 cover the ends of the flanges 174 of the nesting element 170. Additionally, each nesting element 170 is positioned so that the pattern of eight holes 171 lines up with the rafter brace connection holes 62 provided in the corresponding channel member 30, and the additional holes 172 provided in the nesting element line up with the additional holes 66 provided in the web 32 of the corresponding channel member 30. The fasteners 96 (FIG. 5), which join the rafter 16 to the brace plate 84, along with the fasteners 102 (FIG. 5) that join the webs 32 of the channel stock members 30 secure the nesting elements 170 to the channel stock members 30.
  • Referring to FIG. 11, a detailed view of brace plate 83, which is formed from steel plate can be seen. In one embodiment, brace plate 83 is formed from ¼ inch thick steel; however, the thickness of the plate can range between about 3/16 inch to about ¼ inch. Section 85 of brace plate 83 is disposed at an angle to bottom edge 89 of brace plate 83 and holes 86 in section 85 are arranged in a pattern at an angle to bottom edge 89. The holes 86 are arranged at an angle so that brace 72, to which the brace plate 83 is joined, can be mounted at an angle with respect to the column 12 without having to form holes 82 in the webs 76 of the channel stock members 74 of brace 72 in a pattern at an angle with respect to the flange edges of the webs 76. Forming the holes 82 in a rectangular pattern that is aligned with the flange edges of the webs 76 permits the holes 82 to be positioned at a uniform distance from the flange edges of the webs 76 of the channel stock members 74 of brace 72. As can be seen in FIG. 3, when brace plates 83 and 84 are positioned on column 12 and rafter 16 such that brace 72 connects to column 12 and rafter 16 at the same angle (i.e., when angle A and B are the same), brace plates 83 and 84 have the same shape. As stated above, brace plate 84 is similar to brace plate 83 but is rotated. As shown in FIGS. 5 and 11, brace plates 83 and 84 also include a portion that is bent up from flat angled portion 87 at approximately 90 degrees along bend line 98 to form a flange 100. Flange 100 helps to reinforce the brace plates 83 and 84 and also assists with proper positioning of brace plates 83 and 84 between the webs 76 of the channel stock members 74 of brace 72.
  • Use of brace 72 results in an improved reinforcement for the column 12 and rafter 16. The attachment points for brace 72 can be changed without significantly altering the design of brace 72 by moving the attachment point of brace plate 83 vertically along column 12 and brace plate 84 laterally along rafter 16. The ability to change the attachment points of brace 72 affords improved flexibility in design, permitting the brace 72 to be optimally positioned based on the design loads of the structure created with the framing system of the present invention. Also brace 72 eliminates the need for an angled haunch plate that includes a web portion and also eliminates the haunch plate material that would occupy the corner between the column 12 and rafter 16. As can be seen in FIG. 3, with the use of brace 72 to provide reinforcement corner area 38 is left open. Haunch plate 42 does not extend out beyond the edges of the column 12 or the rafter 16 into corner area 38 except for small flange 50 that extends along side the column 12. This design of haunch plate 42 affords a considerable savings in the steel material needed to fabricate the haunch plate 42.
  • Surprisingly, the inclusion of brace 72 in the frame assembly 10, which includes columns 12 and 14, rafters 16 and 18, and haunch plates 42, permits the construction of buildings having spans of up to 50 feet or more. Thus, a frame assembly 10 that includes brace 72 permits the construction of wide span steel buildings using C-channel members. C-channel steel frame buildings of similar construction but without the brace 72 of the present invention are generally limited in the distances that they can span. A typical C-channel steel building constructed without the brace 72 of the present invention is limited to a roof span (width) of about 25 feet. Such a building is customarily designed with bays of 15 feet, snow loading of about 30 pounds per square foot, and wind loads of about 90 mph. A similar steel building that includes the brace 72 of the present invention can achieve much larger spans, for example a 40 foot span with bays of 15 feet, and will withstand snow loads and wind loads equal to or greater than that of the smaller span building. Thus, a corner connection 40 that includes a haunch plate 42 and brace 72 as described above permits construction of buildings with larger roof spans designed to withstand equivalent snow and wind loading characteristics without significantly increasing the cost or difficulty of manufacturing.
  • Referring now to FIGS. 1, 3, and 13, the left rafter 16 and the right rafter 18 are joined together via a peak plate 106 to form a complete frame assembly 10. Rafter sections 16 and 18 are joined at their adjacent ends to form a roof peak element 147. Rafters 16 and 18 are joined at an obtuse angle C with respect to each other. Rafters 16 and 18 are preferably joined at an angle between approximately 143 and 175 degrees, and even more preferably at approximately 161 degrees. Peak plate 106 is disposed between the webs 32 of the channel stock members 30 that form each of the rafters 16 and 18. The peak plate 106, as shown in FIG. 14, is pre-drilled with two hole patterns, one on each side of the peak plate 106, each consisting of nine holes 108 disposed at an angle to the horizontal. Webs 32 of the rafters 16 and 18 are each provided with a pattern of nine peak plate fastening holes 64 that correspond to holes 108 in peak plate 106 (FIG. 7). Each pattern of nine peak plate fastening holes 64 in each rafter 16 and 18 accept a group of nine fasteners 109, which pass through the holes 108 in the peak plate 106 to join adjacent ends of the rafters 16 and 18 (FIG. 13). Thus, rafters 16 and 18 are joined via peak plate 106.
  • Peak plate 106 is formed from steel plate which can range in thickness between about 3/16 inch to about ¼ inch. Peak plate 106, brace plates 83 and 84, and haunch plate 42 should preferably be the same thickness in order to maintain uniform spacing between the channel stock members 20 and 30 of the columns 12 and 14 and rafters 16 and 18. As shown in FIG. 14, the two hole patterns each consisting of nine holes 108 in the peak plate 106 are disposed at an angle to the horizontal. This angle corresponds to the angle at which the rafters 16 and 18 extend. This permits rafters 16 and 18 to be connected to peak 106 without the need to form the holes 64 in the webs 32 of the channel stock of the rafters 16 and 18 in an angled pattern with respect to the flange edges of the webs 32. Forming the holes 64 in a rectangular pattern that is aligned with the edges of the webs 32 permits the holes 64 to be positioned at a uniform distance from the flange edges of the webs 32 of the channel stock members 30 of rafters 16 and 18. Referring to FIGS. 13 and 14, peak plate 106 also includes two portions that are bent up at approximately 90 degrees from flat portion 107 along bend lines 110 and 112 to form flanges 114 and 116. Flanges 114 and 116 help to reinforce the peak plate 106 and also assist with the proper positioning of the peak plate 106 between the webs 32 of the two channel stock members 30 of each rafter 16 and 18.
  • As discussed above and depicted in FIG. 1, column 12 is formed from two lengths of channel stock 20 joined together by their webs 22 and rafter 16 is formed from two lengths of channel stock 30 joined together by their webs 32. As shown in FIGS. 3, 5, and 13, the fastener groups 68, 70, 90, 96, and 109, also provide connection between the webs 22 and 32 of each of the two lengths of channel stock 20 and 30 that form the column 12 and rafter 16, respectively. In addition to fastener groups 68, 70, 90, 96, and 109, fasteners 102 are employed to join the webs 22 and 32 of each of the two length of channel stock 20 and 30 that form the column 12 and rafter 16, respectively. Additional holes 56 and 66 are provided in the webs 22 and 32 of the channel stock 20 and 30 (FIGS. 6 and 7). As shown in FIG. 12, spacers 104 are also provided with pre-drilled holes 105 that correspond to the holes 56 and 66 in the webs 22 and 32. Spacers 104 are disposed between the webs 22 and 32 of channel stock members 20 and 30 and have the same thickness as the haunch plate 42, brace plates 83 and 84, and peak plate 106. This allows webs 22 and 32 to be connected without deforming channel stock members 20 and 30 of the column 12 and rafter 16. Fasteners 102 are passed through the holes 56 and 66 in the webs 22 and 32 and the holes 105 in spacers 104 to join these components together. Thus, the webs 22 and 32 of each of the two lengths of channel stock 20 and 30 are joined to form the columns 12 and 14 and rafter 16 and 18, respectively.
  • In one embodiment, depicted in FIGS. 1, 4, 9, and 13, all main frame connections are provided with fasteners such as bolts 160 with nuts 164 and two washers 162 in which one washer is on the bolt side and the other is on the nut side. The bolts 160 can be high strength bolts and the nuts 164 are hex nuts. Further, all the holes in the channel stock 20, 30, and 74 of the columns 12 and 14, rafters 16 and 18, and braces 72, respectively, can be pre-drilled so that the frame assembly 10 can be easily constructed on a job site.
  • Referring now to FIGS. 1, 15, and 16, base clips 118 attach the columns 12 and 14 to a support surface 126. Two base clips 118, one on each side of columns 12 and 14, are provided. Four fastening holes 120 are pre-drilled in the upper portion of each base clip 118, which correspond to holes 58 (FIG. 6) in each web 22 of the channel stock 20 of each column 12 and 14. Fastening holes 120 also correspond to the holes provided in the column spacers 124, so that fasteners can be passed through the holes to secure the base clips 118 to columns 12 and 14. The lower portion 123 of base clips 118, which is substantially at a right angle to the upper portion 121, has pre-drilled holes 122 to enable the base clips 118 to be fastened to support surface 126. The support surface 126 (which may, for example, be a concrete slab or cinder block foundation) serves as a foundation upon which a building can be erected.
  • As shown in FIG. 16, the frame assembly 10 forms a part of steel building 130. The steel building 130 may include multiple frame assemblies 10 spaced along the length of the building depending on the overall length of the building. End walls 132 of the building 130 comprise a frame that has rafters 134 and columns 136, each formed from a single length of channel stock. A double channel stock design is not needed for the end walls because extra support is provided by intermediate columns 138.
  • Girts 140 are provided on the outside of columns 12 and 14 to structurally reinforce the building and to provide support for the outer wall sheathing 142. The girts 140 and outer wall sheathing 142 join the columns 12 and 14 to the two end walls 132. The girts 140 are attached to the columns 12 and 14 via holes 144 provided in the flanges 24 of the columns (FIG. 17). Purlins 146 are attached to the rafters 16 and 18 via holes 148 provided in the flanges 34 of the rafters (FIG. 18). The purlins 146 provide support and the roof sheathing 150 is attached to the purlins 146. The purlins 146 and roof sheathing 150 join the rafters 16 and 18 of the roof peak element 147 to the end walls 132. In one embodiment, the sheathing panels 142 and 150 are attached to the girts 140 and purlins 146 using screws (for example No. 12 self-drilling screws) and are located adjacent major ribs in the panel. The sheathing panels 142 and 150 preferably have major ribs spaced twelve inches apart and minor ribs spaced four inches apart.
  • Referring now to FIGS. 16, 20, and 21, compression flange stabilizers 141 (also known as flange braces) may be used to connect the columns 12 and 14 to the girts 140. Flange stabilizers 141 may also be employed to connect the rafters 16 and 18 to the purlins 146. The flange stabilizers 141 serve to stabilize the structural elements (columns 12 and 14 and rafters 16 and 18). The flange stabilizers 141 may be formed from bent right angle stock or rolled angle stock. The right angle stock can be ⅛ inch thick steel. One flange at each end 151 and 153 of the flange stabilizer 141 is cut short, leaving the other flange longer to form a tab 143. The tab 143 at the end of the flange stabilizer 141 that connects to the rafter 16 is bent to mate with the rafter 16 as shown in FIG. 20. A hole 149 is provided in the tab 143 at end 151 so that the flange stabilizer 141 may be attached to rafter 16 using fasteners. A hole 145 is also provided in the flange at the opposite end 153 of the flange stabilizer 141 so that the flange stabilizer 141 can be attached to the purlin 146 with fasteners (not shown). In one embodiment, the flange stabilizers 141 are connected a with bolt 160, two washers 162, and a nut 164. The flange stabilizers 141 extending between the rafters 16 and 18 and the purlins 146 are connected between the holes 66 in the rafters closest to the inside (compression) flange at one end 151 and to holes 155 in the purlins at the other end 153. The flange stabilizers 141 extending between the columns 12 and 14 and the girts 140 are connected between the holes 56 in the columns closest to the inside (compression) flange at one end 151 and to holes in the girts at the other end 153. The flange stabilizers 141 are connected at approximately 45 degree angles. Flange stabilizers 141 are located as needed by design and limit the out of plane displacement along the length of the member. This increases the load carrying capacity of the columns 12 and 14 and rafters 16 and 18.
  • In one embodiment, the wall sheathing panels 142 and the roof panels 150 attached to the girts 140 and purlins 146 are 26 or 29 gage structural roof and wall panel (known in the trade as PBR panel). PBR panels are formed with transverse major (large ribs which may be 1½ inches high) and minor (small which may be 3/16 inches high). Known in the trade as “through-fastened panels,” panels 142 and 150 are fabricated from cold-formed steel.
  • Referring to FIGS. 5, 8, 13, and 14, slots 152 are provided in the main frame members (columns, rafters, haunch plates, and peak plate) of the structure so that building 130 can be reinforced with cables or rods. Longitudinal stability of building 130 is provided by cable or rod bracing (not shown) in the plane of the rafters and in the wall planes. These are respectively known as roof bracing and sidewall bracing. The cables or rods of the bracing comprises tension members which transfer wind and earthquake forces to the foundation 126. Such cable or rod bracing can be provided in the form of cross-bracing (not shown). Slots 152 are provided in the webs 22 and 32 of the channel stock members 20 and 30 of the columns 12 and 14 and rafters 16 and 18 of the frame assembly 10. Corresponding slots 152 are provided in the haunch plates 42, peak plate 106, and reinforcing plates 154. The slots 152 in the haunch plates 42 and the peak plate 106 allow passage of the cable from one side of the column or rafter to the other. The haunch plate 42 and peak plate 106 also function to distribute the load applied to the web of the channel stock of the column and rafter from the cables or rods. The plates 42 and 106 increase the resistance to the cables or rods damaging the webs 22 and 32 of the columns 12 and 14 and rafters 16 and 18. Where slots 152 are provided in the webs 22 and 32 of the channel stock members 20 and 30 in locations that do not have haunch or peak plates, reinforcing plates 154 are provided. The reinforcing plates 154 function in a similar manner as the haunch and peak plates to increase the resistance to failure of the webs of the channel stock members. In addition, the columns and rafters of the end walls 132 have slots 152 and reinforcing plates 154 for attachment of cables or rods.
  • The steel framing system of the present invention permits the design and construction of wide span metal frame buildings using lightweight, inexpensive C-channel stock. The wide span structures constructed with the framing system of the invention can withstand wind and snow loads at least equal to those of structures having narrower spans while utilizing inexpensive lightweight materials that are inexpensive to fabricate, transport, and install.
  • While the invention has been particularly shown and described with reference to preferred embodiments thereof, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that various changes in form and details may be made therein without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.

Claims (27)

1. A steel frame building, comprising:
a plurality of generally vertical C-channel columns;
at least one roof peak element comprising C-channel rafter elements joined at a first end of each rafter element to form an oblique angle;
a haunch plate joining a second end of each of the rafter elements to the upper portion of a respective one of said plurality of columns;
a C-channel brace connected between an upper half of each of said vertical columns and a portion of each of the rafter elements that is proximate to the haunch plate;
two end wall frames located at opposite ends of said building and on opposite sides of said columns;
a roof comprising steel roof panels connecting the roof peak element and the end wall frames;
side walls comprising steel wall panels connecting each column and the end wall frames; and
front and rear end walls at opposite ends of said building comprising steel wall panels provided on the two end wall frames.
2. The steel frame building according to claim 1, wherein the oblique angle is between 143 and 175 degrees.
3. The steel frame building according to claim 1, further comprising:
a brace plate joining each end of each brace to each column and rafter element, respectively.
4. The steel frame building according to claim 1, further comprising:
a peak plate connecting the first ends of the two rafter elements that comprise the roof peak element.
5. The steel frame building according to claim 1, further comprising:
a plurality of girts extending between each column and the two end wall frames and joining each column and the steel wall panels; and
a plurality of purlins extending between the roof peak element and the end wall frames and joining the steel roof panels and the roof peak element.
6. The steel frame building according to claim 5, further comprising:
a plurality of flange stabilizers extending between the columns and girts, and the rafters elements and purlins.
7. The steel frame building according to claim 1, wherein each of the columns, rafter elements, and brace comprise two C-channel members each having a web and the webs of the two C-channel members are joined together.
8. The steel frame building according to claim 7, wherein the haunch plate is disposed between the webs of the two C-channel members of each column and the two C-channel members of each rafter element.
9. The steel frame building according to claim 8, wherein the haunch plate includes a first portion that is narrower than the width of the column, and a flange extending from the first portion, the flange being disposed along a side of the column when the first portion of the haunch plate is disposed between the webs of the two C-channel members of each column.
10. The steel frame building according to claim 9, wherein the building has a span of between twenty-five and fifty feet.
11. The steel building according to claim 8, further comprising:
brace plates joining each end of each brace to each column and rafter, respectively;
one of the brace plates being disposed between the webs of the two C-channel members of the column and the webs of the two C-channel members of the brace, and another one of the brace plates being disposed between the webs of the two C-channel members of the rafter element and the webs of the two C-channel members of the brace; and
a peak plate joining together the first end of each rafter element, and located between the webs of the two C-channel members of each rafter element.
12. The steel frame building according to claim 11, wherein the haunch plate is predrilled with a pre-determined hole pattern.
13. The steel frame building according to claim 7, further comprising:
reinforcing column nesting elements, each reinforcing column nesting element being joined to the web of one of the two C-channel members of each column such that the webs of the two C-channel members of each column are disposed between the reinforcing column nesting elements; and
reinforcing rafter nesting elements, each reinforcing rafter nesting element being joined to the web of one of the two C-channel members of each rafter such that the webs of the two C-channel members of each rafter are disposed between the reinforcing rafter nesting elements.
14. A metal construction frame for a wide span metal building, comprising:
a first generally vertical C-channel column connected at one end to a first haunch plate;
a first C-channel rafter element connected at one end to the first haunch plate at an oblique angle to the horizontal;
a first C-channel brace connected between an upper half of the first column and a portion of the first rafter element that is proximate to the first haunch plate;
a second generally vertical C-channel column connected at one end to a second haunch plate;
a second C-channel rafter element connected at one end to the second haunch plate at the same oblique angle to the horizontal as the first rafter element;
a second C-channel brace connected between an upper half of the second column and a position on the second rafter element that is proximate to the second haunch plate;
a peak plate connecting, at an obtuse angle, the first and second rafter elements at an end of each rafter element that is opposite the end connected to the haunch plates.
15. The metal construction frame according to claim 14, wherein the obtuse angle is between 143 and 175 degrees.
16. The metal construction frame according to claim 14, wherein the first and second braces are connected to the first and second columns at an acute angle.
17. The metal construction frame according to claim 16, wherein the acute angle is equal to ½(90°−arctan(the oblique angle to the horizontal)).
18. The metal construction frame according to claim 14, further comprising:
a first brace plate at an end of each of the first and second braces connecting the end of each of the braces to the column; and
a second brace plate at an opposite end of each of the first and second braces connecting the opposite end of each of the braces to the rafter element.
19. The metal construction frame according to claim 18, wherein the first and second columns, first and second rafter elements, and first and second braces each comprise two C-channel members each having a web, wherein the webs of the two C-channel members are joined.
20. The metal construction frame according to claim 19, wherein each haunch plate is disposed between the webs of the two C-channel members of the column and rafter element joined together by such haunch plate, each first brace plate is disposed between the webs of the two C-channel members of the column and brace joined together by such first brace plate, each second brace plate is disposed between the webs of the two C-channel members of the rafter element and brace joined together by such second brace plate, and the peak plate is disposed between the webs of the two C-channel members of the rafter elements joined together by such peak plate.
21. The metal construction frame according to claim 19, wherein the columns and rafter elements are formed of 16 to 10 gauge steel.
22. The metal construction frame according to claim 19, wherein each haunch plate contains two patterns of pre-drilled holes that pass through the haunch plate, one of said hole patterns arrayed at an acute angle to the other of said hole patterns.
23. The metal construction frame according to claim 19 comprising A653 steel.
24. The metal construction frame according to claim 19, comprising 10 gauge steel.
25. The metal construction frame according to claim 19, wherein the first and second columns each comprise two reinforcing column nesting elements, each reinforcing column nesting element being joined to the web of one of the two C-channel members of each column such that the webs of the two C-channel members of each column are disposed between the reinforcing column nesting elements, and
wherein the first and second rafters elements each comprise two reinforcing rafter nesting elements, each reinforcing rafter nesting element being joined to the web of one of the two C-channel members of each rafter such that the webs of the two C-channel members of each rafter are disposed between the reinforcing rafter nesting elements.
26. A brace plate for connecting a structural member and a brace that extends at an angle with respect to the structural member, wherein the structural member and the brace each comprise a length of formed metal C-channel stock having a web and two flanges and the structural member is a member selected from the group consisting of a column and a rafter, the brace plate comprising:
a plate element having first and second portions;
the first portion of the plate element having a first set of mounting holes and being adapted to be attached to the web of the structural member;
the second portion of the plate element having a second set of mounting holes and being adapted to be attached to the web of the brace, the second portion having an angled edge that extends at an angle complimentary to the angle at which the brace extends; and
a flange that extends at a angle from the angled edge of the second portion of the plate element, wherein the flange of the plate element is adapted to align with a flange of the brace.
27. The brace plate according to claim 26, wherein the angle at which the flange of the plate element extends is a right angle.
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