US20090269634A1 - System for purging non-fuel material from fuel cell anodes - Google Patents

System for purging non-fuel material from fuel cell anodes Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US20090269634A1
US20090269634A1 US12322337 US32233709A US20090269634A1 US 20090269634 A1 US20090269634 A1 US 20090269634A1 US 12322337 US12322337 US 12322337 US 32233709 A US32233709 A US 32233709A US 20090269634 A1 US20090269634 A1 US 20090269634A1
Authority
US
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
fuel
purge
cell
valve
system
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US12322337
Inventor
Tibor Fabian
Tobin J. Fisher
Daniel Braithwaite
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Ardica Technology Inc
Original Assignee
Ardica Technology Inc
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M8/00Fuel cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M8/04Auxiliary arrangements, e.g. for control of pressure or for circulation of fluids
    • H01M8/04298Processes for controlling fuel cells or fuel cell systems
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M8/00Fuel cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M8/02Details
    • H01M8/0271Sealing or supporting means around electrodes, matrices or membranes
    • H01M8/0273Sealing or supporting means around electrodes, matrices or membranes with sealing or supporting means in the form of a frame
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M8/00Fuel cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M8/24Grouping of fuel cells, e.g. stacking of fuel cells
    • H01M8/2465Details of groupings of fuel cells
    • H01M8/247Arrangements for tightening a stack, for accommodation of a stack in a tank or for assembling different tanks
    • H01M8/2475Enclosures, casings or containers of fuel cell stacks
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M2250/00Fuel cells for particular applications; Specific features of fuel cell system
    • H01M2250/30Fuel cells in portable systems, e.g. mobile phone, laptop
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M8/00Fuel cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M8/04Auxiliary arrangements, e.g. for control of pressure or for circulation of fluids
    • H01M8/04007Auxiliary arrangements, e.g. for control of pressure or for circulation of fluids related to heat exchange
    • H01M8/04067Heat exchange or temperature measuring elements, thermal insulation, e.g. heat pipes, heat pumps, fins
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M8/00Fuel cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M8/04Auxiliary arrangements, e.g. for control of pressure or for circulation of fluids
    • H01M8/04082Arrangements for control of reactant parameters, e.g. pressure or concentration
    • H01M8/04089Arrangements for control of reactant parameters, e.g. pressure or concentration of gaseous reactants
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M8/00Fuel cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M8/10Fuel cells with solid electrolytes
    • H01M8/1097Fuel cells applied on a support, e.g. miniature fuel cells deposited on silica supports
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02BCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO BUILDINGS, e.g. HOUSING, HOUSE APPLIANCES OR RELATED END-USER APPLICATIONS
    • Y02B90/00Enabling technologies or technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02B90/10Applications of fuel cells in buildings
    • Y02B90/18Fuel cells specially adapted to portable applications, e.g. mobile phone, laptop

Abstract

A fuel cell gas purge system is provided that includes at least one fuel cell, such as a fuel cell stack or a fuel cell array, a fuel supply, and an adjustable fuel cell current load. The system further includes at least one passive purge valve disposed to purge accumulated non-fuel matter in the fuel cell, and operates according to a pressure differential across the valve. The valve can be a passive bi-directional valve, such as a dome valve, or a passive unidirectional valve. Further included is a purge management module that has a purge request module to determine when to increase the pressure of the hydrogen fuel to initiate the purge, and a purge complete module to determine when to adjust the pressure of the hydrogen fuel to complete the purge. The non-fuel matter can include non-fuel gases or condensed water.

Description

    CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • [0001]
    This application is cross-referenced to and claims the benefit from U.S. Provisional Application 61/062,961 filed Jan. 29, 2008, and which are hereby incorporated by reference.
  • STATEMENT REGARDING FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH OR DEVELOPMENT
  • [0002]
    N/A
  • FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • [0003]
    The invention relates generally fuel cells. More particularly, the invention relates to a system for purging hydrogen fuel cells and determining when the purge is necessary and when it is complete.
  • BACKGROUND
  • [0004]
    Fuel cell systems where oxygen is supplied from ambient air accumulate the non-reactive components of air (primarily nitrogen and some water vapor or condensation) in the fuel stream due to finite diffusion rates of gases through the fuel cell electrolyte. The inert gas accumulation eventually lowers the fuel cell output voltage due to drop of fuel concentration. As a consequence, continuous operation requires periodic purging of the fuel compartment. Additionally, fuel cell systems often employ safety valves that allow gas to escape if the internal pressure or vacuum builds to unsafe levels, preventing damage to the device and/or hazards to users. Two types of methods for addressing these issues include active and passive purge valves. In active purge systems, an electrically or mechanically controlled valve is employed at the outlet of the fuel gas flow path to allow the fuel and accumulated nitrogen to escape when necessary. In smaller micro-fuel cell systems, miniature valves are often used when minimum size and weight is desired, such as the X-Valve available from Parker Hannefin. These active valves suffer from a number of problems including high cost and high power consumption. Additionally, they are unreliable as a safety purge valve, as they require proper external control in order to function properly. Passive purge valve systems allow gas pressure or vacuum to be released at a specified pressure. Accumulated non-reactive gases can be purged by increasing the operating pressure of the system above the purge pressure of the valve, allowing gas to escape. These valves tend to be less expensive than active valves and do not require external control, making them more reliable. These passive valves include poppet valves, like those available from Smart Products and duck bill valves, like those available from Vernay. Nevertheless a purge system that is based on passive valves requires a good control of the pressure upstream of the purge valve to avoid fuel loss as well as excessive purging. In many hydrogen fuel cell systems, for example, hydrogen is generated on demand such as using binary chemical reactions. The response time of such systems is often characterized by latency and long time constants that are due to finite thermal mass and mass transfer limitations of the chemical hydrogen reactor systems. These limitations make frequent rapid pressure changes impossible and thus purging based on passive purge valves impractical.
  • [0005]
    Additionally, the current purge methods do not allow for detecting when all of the accumulated non-fuel gases have been purged from the system. To compensate for this ambiguity, systems with passive purge valves either need to purge excess fuel, creating a safety hazard and/or wasting fuel, or risk unsuccessful purges, resulting in reduced system power output and/or erratic performance.
  • [0006]
    Accordingly, there is a need to develop a simple, low-cost and effective purge system for fuel cells that minimizes system complexity while it maintains high fuel utilization.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • [0007]
    The present invention provides a fuel cell gas purge system. The gas purge system includes at least one fuel cell, a fuel supply, and an adjustable fuel cell current load. The gas purge system further includes at least one passive purge valve disposed to purge accumulated non-fuel matter in the fuel cell, where the passive purge valve operates according to a pressure differential across the passive purge valve and a purge management module, where the purge management module includes a purge request module and a purge complete module. The purge request module determines when to increase the pressure of the fuel to initiate the purge and the purge complete module determines when to decrease the pressure of the hydrogen fuel to complete the purge.
  • [0008]
    In one aspect of the invention, the fuel cell can include a hydrogen fuel cell, a propane fuel cell, a butane fuel cell or a methane fuel cell.
  • [0009]
    In one aspect of the invention, the at least one fuel cell can be a single fuel cell, a fuel cell stack, a fuel cell array or any combination thereof.
  • [0010]
    In a further aspect of the invention, the non-fuel matter can include non-fuel gases or condensed water.
  • [0011]
    According to another aspect of the invention, when not purging, the adjustable fuel cell load is adjusted to keep the pressure upstream of the passive purge valve below a cracking pressure of the passive purge valve, while during the purge, the adjustable fuel cell load is adjusted to increase the pressure upstream of the passive purge valve above the cracking pressure.
  • [0012]
    In another aspect, the adjustable fuel cell load includes a battery charger circuit attached to a battery, where a charging current of the battery can be adjusted.
  • [0013]
    In yet another aspect, the passive purge valve can include a passive bi-directional valve or a passive unidirectional valve. Here, the bi-directional valve can include a dome valve.
  • [0014]
    According to one aspect, a cracking pressure of the passive purge valve is as low as 1 PSI.
  • [0015]
    In a further aspect of the invention, the passive purge valve is disposed at a distal end of at least two fuel cells having the fuel connected in series, where a source of the fuel is disposed at a proximal end of the array.
  • [0016]
    According to one aspect, the purge request module determines when the non-fuel matter needs to be purged by sensing when a voltage of any of the fuel cells drop below a predetermined threshold. Here, the purge request module can determine when the non-fuel matter needs to be purged by sensing when a voltage in the fuel cell that is most proximal to the passive purge valve drops below a predetermined threshold.
  • [0017]
    In another aspect of the invention, the purge complete module determines when the non-fuel material has been purged from at least one fuel cell by sensing when the purge gas is primarily the fuel gas.
  • [0018]
    In a further aspect of the invention, the purged non-fuel matter from the passive purge valve is directed across a cathode of one the fuel cells in an array of fuel cells, where the purge complete module determines when the non-fuel matter has been purged by sensing when a voltage of the one fuel cell drops below a threshold voltage.
  • [0019]
    In yet another aspect, the purged non-fuel matter from the passive purge valve is directed to a catalyst bed in the presence of ambient air, where the purge complete module determines when the non-fuel matter has been purged by sensing when a temperature of the catalyst bed exceeds a threshold level. Here the catalyst can include Platinum, Palladium, Ruthenium, Manganese oxide, Silver oxide and Cobalt oxide.
  • [0020]
    According to another aspect, the purge complete module determines when the non-fuel material has been purged by using a timer. Here, a duration of the timer is determined according to a current load in one of the fuel cells before the purge was initiated.
  • [0021]
    In a further aspect, the purged non-fuel matter from the passive purge valve is directed to the anode of an auxiliary fuel cell, where the purge complete module determines when the non-fuel matter has been purged by sensing when the output of the fuel cell exceeds a threshold level, where the output can be either voltage or current.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES
  • [0022]
    The objectives and advantages of the present invention will be understood by reading the following detailed description in conjunction with the drawing, in which:
  • [0023]
    FIG. 1 shows a fuel cell gas purge system having detection for a completed purge based on a timer, according to the current invention.
  • [0024]
    FIG. 2 shows a fuel cell gas purge system having completed purge detection according to the present invention.
  • [0025]
    FIG. 3 shows a multiple discrete cell system that has the purge exhaust routed to one or more different cells in the system according to the present invention.
  • [0026]
    FIG. 4 shows a flow diagram of a software algorithm to monitor the system and use the voltage data from the purge cell to determine when a purge has been effectively completed, according to the current invention.
  • [0027]
    FIG. 5 shows a fuel cell gas purge system that has the purge exhaust routed to an anode of an auxiliary fuel cell, according to the current invention.
  • [0028]
    FIG. 6 shows a fuel cell gas purge system that has the purge exhaust routed to a catalyst bed in the presence of ambient air, according to the current invention.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  • [0029]
    Although the following detailed description contains many specifics for the purposes of illustration, anyone of ordinary skill in the art will readily appreciate that many variations and alterations to the following exemplary details are within the scope of the invention. Accordingly, the following preferred embodiment of the invention is set forth without any loss of generality to, and without imposing limitations upon, the claimed invention.
  • [0030]
    Referring to the figures, FIG. 1 shows a timer-based fuel cell purge system 100 according one embodiment of the current invention. A hydrogen fuel cell 102 is shown that uses an air source 104 for oxygen input to the cathodes (not shown) and exhausted through an air output 106 in the form of humidified air, where the air source can be driven by a fan, for example. Here an exemplary hydrogen fuel cell 102 is shown, but it is understood throughout this description that the hydrogen fuel cell 102 can be any one of the many types of gas fuel cells, for example a propane fuel cell, a butane fuel cell or a methane fuel cell. It is further understood that the fuel cell can be a single fuel cell a fuel cell stack, an array of fuel cells or any combination thereof. The present embodiment is a hydrogen fuel cell gas purge system 100 that includes at least one hydrogen fuel cell 102. The system 100 further includes a hydrogen fuel supply 108, and an adjustable hydrogen fuel cell current load 116. The gas purge system 100 further includes at least one passive purge valve 112 disposed to purge accumulated non-fuel matter 110 in the fuel compartment of the hydrogen fuel cell 102, where the passive purge valve 112 operates according to a pressure differential across the passive purge valve 112. It is understood throughout this document that the non-fuel matter 110 can include non-fuel gases or condensed water. It is further understood in this document that the passive purge valve 112 can be a passive bi-directional valve, such as a dome valve, or a passive unidirectional valve. Further included is a purge management module 118 that includes a purge request module 120 and a purge complete module 122. The purge request module 120 determines when to increase the pressure of the hydrogen fuel to initiate the purge, and the purge complete module 122 determines when to decrease the pressure of the hydrogen fuel to complete the purge. Here, the non-fuel matter 110 can include non-fuel gases or condensed water. According to the current invention many methods exist to determine when purge gases comprise primarily the fuel. In the current embodiment, the purge complete module 122 can determine when the non-fuel material 110 has been purged, by using a timer 124. Here, the duration of the timer 124 is determined according to a current load in one hydrogen fuel cell before the purge was initiated. The current load before purge is indicative of the hydrogen flow-rate before purge occurred. Based on the hydrogen flow-rate and known volume of fuel cell anode, the necessary duration of the purge can be determined.
  • [0031]
    FIG. 2 shows a hydrogen fuel cell gas purge system having detection for a completed purge 200. The end of purge detection fuel cell gas purge system 200 includes at least one hydrogen fuel cell 102, a hydrogen fuel supply 108, and an adjustable hydrogen fuel cell current load 116. The system 200 further includes at least one passive purge valve 112 disposed to purge accumulated non-fuel matter 110 in the hydrogen fuel cell 102. Further included is a purge management module 118 that includes a purge request module 120 and a purge complete module 122. The purge request module 120 determines when to increase the pressure of the hydrogen fuel to initiate the purge, and the purge complete module 122 determines when to decrease the pressure of the hydrogen fuel to complete the purge. According to the current embodiment, the purge request module 120 determines when the non-fuel matter 110 needs to be purged by sensing when a voltage in the fuel cell 102, for example the voltage of one fuel cell of a fuel cell stack, drops below a predetermined threshold.
  • [0032]
    While not purging, the adjustable hydrogen fuel cell load 116 is adjusted to keep the pressure that is upstream of the passive purge valve 112 below its cracking pressure, effectively matching the fuel flow-rate consumed by the fuel cell 102 to the fuel flow-rate of the fuel generator 108, while during the purge, the adjustable hydrogen fuel cell load 116 is adjusted to increase the pressure upstream of the passive purge valve 112 above the cracking pressure. This can be done by decreasing the fuel consumption by the fuel cell 102 (reducing the fuel cell load current) while keeping the generated fuel flow-rate constant, which leads to fuel pressure buildup. The adjustments of the current load can be done rapidly, and thus rapid variations of the fuel pressure are possible, which means that quick, controlled purges are possible.
  • [0033]
    According to the embodiment shown in FIG. 2, the passive purge valve 112 is disposed at the distal end of the fuel cell stack 102 having the hydrogen fuel 108 connected in parallel, where hydrogen fuel source 108 is disposed at a proximal end of the fuel stack 102. Here, the purge request module 120 determines when the non-fuel material 110 needs to be purged by sensing when a voltage of any of the fuel cells in the stack 102 drop below a predetermined threshold when under a load. For example, the purge request module 120 can determine when the non-fuel matter 110 needs to be purged by sensing when a voltage in the fuel cell 102 that is most proximal to the passive purge valve 112 drops below a predetermined threshold.
  • [0034]
    FIG. 2 shows a hydrogen fuel cell gas purge system 200 having purge detection, where the purge valve outlet 202 is routed over the cathode (not shown) of one or more of the cells 102 in the fuel cell system 200, having an adjustable load 116. Initially, when inert gas and other non-fuel matter 110 such as water vapor/condensation, is being purged over the cell cathode the cell voltage is minimally affected, in particular at low or no loads. Once all of the non-fuel matter 110 has been purged and instead pure hydrogen is being purged, it catalytically reacts with the air-present oxygen at the cathode catalyst layer; effectively starving the cell of oxygen. This creates a detectable decrease in cell voltage particularly in passive natural convection driven cathode flow systems (see FIG. 3), which can be used to confirm that a successful purge occurred, as hydrogen will only be released after the accumulated non-fuel matter 110 is purged, where nitrogen, for example, tends to collect at the end of the flow path. Purging hydrogen over the cell cathode also has beneficial effects on the operation of the cell 102, since hydrogen reduces catalyst contaminants such as oxides.
  • [0035]
    According to one embodiment, the purge exhaust 202 can be directed over the open cathode of the fuel cell 102 by a variety of means included but not limited to tubing routing the gas from the purge valve 112 to the surface of the cell 102 or positioning the purge valve 112 such that the exhaust 202 directed over the cell 102 is used for detecting purges.
  • [0036]
    The output of the purge valve 202 placed over the cathode of the fuel cell 102 can be placed in many positions over the cathode including on the center of the cell and closer to the edges. When the exhaust is placed closer to the edge of a cell 102, it is less sensitive to detecting purges, as the purged fuel gas can escape more readily. This can be advantageous in cases when there is limited control of the pressure of the fuel gas, potentially leading to excessive amounts of gas to be purged over the cell 102, and thus limiting the power output of that cell 102.
  • [0037]
    FIG. 3 shows a multiple discrete cell system 300, according to the current invention, that has the purge exhaust 202 routed to one or more different cells 304 in the system 300. In many fuel cell systems, such as with a fuel cell array 102, multiple cells are connected with serial fuel-gas flow 302, with a pressure sensor 310, and have a natural convection driven cathode flow systems. When the purged non-fuel matter 110 from the passive purge valve 112 is directed across one fuel cell 304 in the array 102 that is upstream from the passive purge valve 112, the purge complete module 118 determines when the non-fuel matter 110 has been purged by sensing when a voltage of the upstream fuel cell 304 drops below a threshold voltage. As shown, the passive purge valve 112 is disposed at a distal end of at least two hydrogen fuel cells 102 having the hydrogen fuel connected in series, where a source 108 of the hydrogen fuel is disposed at a proximal end of the array. In the types of systems shown in FIG. 3, nitrogen gas will accumulate in the last cell 306 over time, eventually causing its voltage and power output to fall. As a result, routing the purge exhaust 202 over the last cell 306 in the array 102 can be problematic, as the purge detection module cannot distinguish between a voltage drop due to needing a purge (due to accumulated nitrogen on the anode side) or having successfully completed a purge (due to catalytic oxygen starvation a the air side). According to one embodiment, it is preferable to use one of the first cells 304 in the array 102 (in order of receiving gas flow).
  • [0038]
    According to one embodiment, the adjustable hydrogen fuel cell load 116 can include a battery charger circuit attached to a battery 308, where a charging current of the battery 308 can be adjusted. One aspect here is that the battery 308 is not charged based on what it should be charged, for example with constant current etc., rather based on how much hydrogen is generated. Here, the battery 308 serves as a readily available energy storage needed to keep the pressure upstream of the purge valve 112 below cracking pressure as well as a hybridizing device that can support continuous (no power output interrupts during purges) as well as peak power output from the fuel cell system to an external user load.
  • [0039]
    According to the current invention, a number of methods exist for detecting the presence of hydrogen gas over the cathode of a fuel cell, a fuel cell stack or a fuel cell array. One method involves measuring the voltage of one cell and comparing it to surrounding cells. When the voltage of the cell receiving the purge output is substantially lower than its neighboring cells and the system pressure is within the range in which a purge is expected, it can be reliably concluded that the purge was successful.
  • [0040]
    One scheme for using the output of the purge detection method disclosed is to use a software algorithm to monitor the system and use the voltage data from the purge cell to determine when a purge has been effectively completed. One possible control scheme, without limitation, is the flow diagram 400 shown in FIG. 4. In this scheme the system CPU would first detect the need for a purge 402, generally looking for a voltage decrease in the last cell. The system CPU would then increase the system pressure 404. The means for doing this vary with the type of system. In one representative hydrogen fueled system, in which the hydrogen is produced on demand using a binary chemical reaction between a liquid and a solid, the system pressure can be increased by increasing the rate with which the hydrogen is produced, which is in turn done by increasing the rate that the fluid is pumped into the chamber containing the reactive solid. Alternatively, the system pressure can be increased by keeping the rate of hydrogen production constant, and decreasing the rate with which the hydrogen is consumed by reducing the load on the fuel cell system, which is accomplished with the adjustable load 116 shown in FIG. 2 and FIG. 3. In systems where there is a significant degree of latency in the hydrogen production rate, reducing the load to increase system pressure is the preferred embodiment. Once the pressure has increased above a minimum threshold purge pressure, the system CPU waits to see a voltage drop 406 in the purge detection cell, indicating a successful purge. The system can then either reduce the pumping rate or increase the load on the fuel cells to bring the system pressure back 408 below the purge pressure in order to prevent the purging of excess hydrogen.
  • [0041]
    The present invention uses at least one passive valve that allows flow in two directions at predetermined pressures. In one possible embodiment, a dome type valve is used as a passive purge valve in the fuel cell system. Dome valves allow flow in both directions once predetermined pressure thresholds are reached, enabling a single valve to be used for pressure relief, purging, and vacuum relief. A preferred cracking pressure for purging can be as low as 1 PSI.
  • [0042]
    The purge valve assembly can be a standalone part or integrated into another assembly. In one embodiment, the dome valve could be a silicone quadricuspid dome valve. These valves offer the additional benefits of being low cost and sealing reliably at very low pressures. Dome valves offer an additional benefit of some hysteresis in closing. This enables more rapid purges, which can be beneficial in fuel cell systems with parallel flow field structures.
  • [0043]
    FIG. 5 shows an auxiliary fuel cell embodiment 500 that includes a purge exhaust 202 routed to an anode of an auxiliary fuel cell 502, while the cathode of the auxiliary fuel cell 502 is supplied with oxygen by air, either from an active air-move 506 such as a fan or preferably passively by diffusion. The purge exhaust 202 from the passive purge valve 112 is directed to a hydrogen sensor such as an anode of an auxiliary fuel cell 502, where the purge complete module 122 determines when the non-fuel matter 110 has been purged by sensing when the output 504 of the auxiliary fuel cell 502 exceeds a threshold level, where the output 504 can be either voltage or current. Initially when inert gas and other non-fuel matter 110 such as water vapor/condensation, is being purged into the anode the open cell voltage of the auxiliary fuel cell 502 is low and cell current when loaded is minimal. Once all of the inert gas 110 has been purged and instead pure hydrogen is being purged the open cell voltage of the auxiliary cell 502 increases and the cell current under load increases appreciably. Comparing the load current of the auxiliary cell 502 to a threshold value can indicate hydrogen purity in the purge stream.
  • [0044]
    According to another embodiment FIG. 6 shows a catalyst bed embodiment 600 that includes a purge exhaust 202 routed to a catalyst bed 602 in the presence of ambient air 604. Here the purge complete module 122 determines when the non-fuel matter 110 has been purged by sensing when the temperature 606 of the catalyst bed 602 exceeds a threshold level. The structure of the catalyst bed allows mixing of the purge exhaust 202 with ambient air 604 e.g. by diffusion, or venturi entraining. Initially, when inert gas and other non-fuel matter 110 such as water vapor/condensation, is being purged into the catalyst bed the gases pass through the catalyst bed without any reaction. Once all of the inert gas 110 has been purged and instead pure hydrogen is being purged, the hydrogen mixed with oxygen from ambient air catalytically combust at the catalyst bed, releasing heat and water vapor. The measured temperature increase 606 of the catalyst bed 602 is a good indication of hydrogen purity in the purge stream. The catalysts suitable for this method are selected from the Platinum group, oxides of silver, cobalt, manganese or any other catalyst with suitable catalytic reactivity at room temperature.
  • [0045]
    The present invention has now been described in accordance with several exemplary embodiments, which are intended to be illustrative in all aspects, rather than restrictive. Thus, the present invention is capable of many variations in detailed implementation, which may be derived from the description contained herein by a person of ordinary skill in the art. All such variations are considered to be within the scope and spirit of the present invention as defined by the following claims and their legal equivalents.

Claims (19)

  1. 1. A fuel cell purge system comprising:
    a. at least one fuel cell;
    b. a fuel supply;
    c. an adjustable fuel cell current load;
    d. at least one passive purge valve disposed to purge accumulated non-fuel matter in said fuel cell, wherein said passive purge valve operates according to a pressure differential across said passive purge valve; and
    e. a purge management module, wherein said purge management module comprises a purge request module and a purge complete module, wherein said purge request module determines when to increase a pressure of said fuel to initiate said purge and said purge complete module determines when to decrease said pressure of said fuel to complete said purge.
  2. 2. The fuel cell purge system of claim 1, wherein said fuel cell is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen fuel cell, propane fuel cell, butane fuel cell and methane fuel cell.
  3. 3. The fuel cell purge system of claim 1, wherein said at least one fuel cell is selected from the group consisting of a single fuel cell, a fuel cell stack and a fuel cell array.
  4. 4. The fuel cell purge system of claim 1, wherein said non-fuel matter is selected from the group consisting of non-fuel gases and condensed water.
  5. 5. The fuel cell purge system of claim 1, wherein during normal operation said adjustable fuel cell load is adjusted to keep said pressure that is upstream of said passive purge valve below a cracking pressure of said passive purge valve, wherein during said purge said adjustable fuel cell load is adjusted to increase said pressure upstream of said passive purge valve above said cracking pressure.
  6. 6. The fuel cell purge system of claim 1, wherein said adjustable fuel cell load comprises a battery charger circuit attached to a battery, wherein a charging current of said battery can be adjusted.
  7. 7. The fuel cell purge system of claim 1, wherein said passive purge valve is selected from the group consisting of a passive bi-directional valve and a passive unidirectional valve.
  8. 8. The fuel cell purge system of claim 7, wherein said bi-directional valve comprises a dome valve.
  9. 9. The fuel cell purge system of claim 1, wherein a cracking pressure of said passive purge valve is as low as 1 PSI.
  10. 10. The fuel cell purge system of claim 1, wherein said passive purge valve is disposed at a distal end of at least two said fuel cells having said fuel connected in series, wherein a source of said fuel is disposed at a proximal end of said array.
  11. 11. The fuel cell purge system of claim 1, wherein said purge request module determines when said non-fuel matter needs to be purged by sensing when a voltage of any of said fuel cells drop below a predetermined threshold.
  12. 12. The fuel cell purge system of claim 11, wherein said purge request module determines when said non-fuel matter needs to be purged by sensing when a voltage in said fuel cell that is most proximal to said passive purge valve drops below a predetermined threshold.
  13. 13. The fuel cell purge system of claim 1, wherein said purge complete module determines when said non-fuel material has been purged from at least one said fuel cell by sensing when said purge comprises primarily said fuel.
  14. 14. The fuel cell purge system of claim 1, wherein said purged non-fuel matter from said passive purge valve is directed across a cathode of one said fuel cell in an array of said fuel cells, wherein said purge complete module determines when said non-fuel matter has been purged by sensing when a voltage of said upstream fuel cell drops below a threshold voltage.
  15. 15. The fuel cell purge system of claim 1, wherein said purged non-fuel matter from said passive purge valve is directed to a catalyst bed in the presence of ambient air, wherein said purge complete module determines when said non-fuel matter has been purged by sensing when a temperature of said catalyst bed exceeds a threshold level.
  16. 16. The fuel cell purge system of claim 15, wherein said catalyst is selected from the group consisting of Platinum, Palladium, Ruthenium, Manganese oxide, Silver oxide and Cobalt oxide.
  17. 17. The fuel cell purge system of claim 1, wherein said purge complete module determines when said non-fuel material has been purged by using a timer.
  18. 18. The fuel cell purge system of claim 17, wherein a duration of said timer is determined according to a current load in one said fuel cell before said purge was initiated.
  19. 19. The fuel cell purge system of claim 1, wherein said purged non-fuel matter from said passive purge valve is directed to the anode of an auxiliary fuel cell, wherein said purge complete module determines when said non-fuel matter has been purged by sensing when an output of said fuel cell exceeds a threshold level, wherein said output comprises a current or a voltage.
US12322337 2008-01-29 2009-01-29 System for purging non-fuel material from fuel cell anodes Abandoned US20090269634A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US6296108 true 2008-01-29 2008-01-29
US12322337 US20090269634A1 (en) 2008-01-29 2009-01-29 System for purging non-fuel material from fuel cell anodes

Applications Claiming Priority (5)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US12322337 US20090269634A1 (en) 2008-01-29 2009-01-29 System for purging non-fuel material from fuel cell anodes
US12583925 US9034531B2 (en) 2008-01-29 2009-08-26 Controller for fuel cell operation
US13286025 US20120189876A1 (en) 2009-01-29 2011-10-31 Fuel cell purge system
US13852707 US20130224611A1 (en) 2008-01-29 2013-03-28 System for purging non-fuel material from fuel cell anodes
US14678608 US20150214562A1 (en) 2008-01-29 2015-04-03 Controller for Fuel Cell Operation

Related Child Applications (3)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US12583925 Continuation-In-Part US9034531B2 (en) 2008-01-29 2009-08-26 Controller for fuel cell operation
US13286025 Continuation-In-Part US20120189876A1 (en) 2008-01-29 2011-10-31 Fuel cell purge system
US13852707 Continuation US20130224611A1 (en) 2008-01-29 2013-03-28 System for purging non-fuel material from fuel cell anodes

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20090269634A1 true true US20090269634A1 (en) 2009-10-29

Family

ID=40473726

Family Applications (3)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US12322352 Active 2031-04-08 US8192890B2 (en) 2008-01-29 2009-01-29 Fuel cell air exchange apparatus
US12322337 Abandoned US20090269634A1 (en) 2008-01-29 2009-01-29 System for purging non-fuel material from fuel cell anodes
US13852707 Abandoned US20130224611A1 (en) 2008-01-29 2013-03-28 System for purging non-fuel material from fuel cell anodes

Family Applications Before (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US12322352 Active 2031-04-08 US8192890B2 (en) 2008-01-29 2009-01-29 Fuel cell air exchange apparatus

Family Applications After (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US13852707 Abandoned US20130224611A1 (en) 2008-01-29 2013-03-28 System for purging non-fuel material from fuel cell anodes

Country Status (6)

Country Link
US (3) US8192890B2 (en)
EP (1) EP2248213A1 (en)
JP (1) JP2011511416A (en)
CN (1) CN101971402A (en)
CA (1) CA2713022A1 (en)
WO (2) WO2009097149A1 (en)

Cited By (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20100173214A1 (en) * 2008-01-29 2010-07-08 Tibor Fabian Controller for fuel cell operation
US20110070151A1 (en) * 2009-07-23 2011-03-24 Daniel Braithwaite Hydrogen generator and product conditioning method
US20110200495A1 (en) * 2009-07-23 2011-08-18 Daniel Braithwaite Cartridge for controlled production of hydrogen
WO2012118533A2 (en) * 2010-10-29 2012-09-07 Ardica Technolgies Fuel cell purge system
DE102012007374A1 (en) 2012-04-12 2013-10-17 Daimler Ag A method of operating a fuel cell system
US8752566B2 (en) 2012-03-02 2014-06-17 Uop Llc Method for rotary valve operation to reduce seal sheet wear
US8795926B2 (en) 2005-08-11 2014-08-05 Intelligent Energy Limited Pump assembly for a fuel cell system
US8940458B2 (en) 2010-10-20 2015-01-27 Intelligent Energy Limited Fuel supply for a fuel cell
US9169976B2 (en) 2011-11-21 2015-10-27 Ardica Technologies, Inc. Method of manufacture of a metal hydride fuel supply

Families Citing this family (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CA2899000A1 (en) * 2013-01-23 2014-07-31 Icu Medical, Inc. Pressure-regulating vial adaptors
GB201421699D0 (en) * 2014-12-05 2015-01-21 Intelligent Energy Ltd Fuel cell sytem

Citations (91)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3262801A (en) * 1963-01-30 1966-07-26 Nopco Chem Co Process of preparing finely divided silicas of varied properties
US3744589A (en) * 1972-06-09 1973-07-10 Gen Motors Corp Swirling flow muffler
US3774589A (en) * 1971-08-30 1973-11-27 Chem E Watt Corp Self contained electrochemical heat source
US4042528A (en) * 1974-03-29 1977-08-16 Shin-Etsu Chemical Co., Ltd. Water-soluble defoaming agents
US4261956A (en) * 1979-06-13 1981-04-14 Engelhard Minerals & Chemicals Corporation Cartridge for gas generator
US4419457A (en) * 1981-10-06 1983-12-06 Dai-Ichi Kogyo Seiyaku Co., Ltd. Production of polyurethane foams
US4846176A (en) * 1987-02-24 1989-07-11 Golden Theodore A Thermal bandage
US4846173A (en) * 1987-09-10 1989-07-11 Davidson Todd W Anterior-lateral "off-axis bite block system" for radiation therapy
US5182046A (en) * 1990-12-05 1993-01-26 Morton International, Inc. Sodium borohydride composition and improved method of producing compacted sodium borohydride
US5804329A (en) * 1995-12-28 1998-09-08 National Patent Development Corporation Electroconversion cell
US5817157A (en) * 1996-01-02 1998-10-06 Checketts; Jed H. Hydrogen generation system and pelletized fuel
US5948558A (en) * 1997-03-27 1999-09-07 National Patent Development Corporation High energy density boride batteries
US6250078B1 (en) * 2000-04-27 2001-06-26 Millennium Cell, L.L.P. Engine cycle and fuels for same
US6326097B1 (en) * 1998-12-10 2001-12-04 Manhattan Scientifics, Inc. Micro-fuel cell power devices
US6375638B2 (en) * 1999-02-12 2002-04-23 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. Incremental motion pump mechanisms powered by shape memory alloy wire or the like
US6392313B1 (en) * 1996-07-16 2002-05-21 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Microturbomachinery
US6433129B1 (en) * 2000-11-08 2002-08-13 Millennium Cell, Inc. Compositions and processes for synthesizing borohydride compounds
US6468694B1 (en) * 1997-03-27 2002-10-22 Millennium Cell, Inc. High energy density boride batteries
US20020182459A1 (en) * 2001-06-01 2002-12-05 Hockaday Robert G. Fuel generator with diffusion ampoules for fuel cells
US20030009942A1 (en) * 2001-07-11 2003-01-16 Millennium Cell Inc. Differential pressure-driven borohydride based generator
US20030022034A1 (en) * 2001-07-24 2003-01-30 Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. Apparatus for controlling electric power from fuel cell
US20030027487A1 (en) * 2001-08-06 2003-02-06 Haug Jill A. Method of closing a stuffed toy
US6524542B2 (en) * 2001-04-12 2003-02-25 Millennium Cell, Inc. Processes for synthesizing borohydride compounds
US20030037487A1 (en) * 2001-07-06 2003-02-27 Amendola Steven C. Portable hydrogen generator
US6534033B1 (en) * 2000-01-07 2003-03-18 Millennium Cell, Inc. System for hydrogen generation
US6544679B1 (en) * 2000-04-19 2003-04-08 Millennium Cell, Inc. Electrochemical cell and assembly for same
US6544400B2 (en) * 2000-03-30 2003-04-08 Manhattan Scientifics, Inc. Portable chemical hydrogen hydride system
US20030077494A1 (en) * 2001-09-25 2003-04-24 Ballard Power Systems Ag Method and apparatus for operating a fuel cell system
US20030082427A1 (en) * 2001-10-29 2003-05-01 Ravi Prasad Fuel supply for a fuel cell
US20030091879A1 (en) * 2001-11-09 2003-05-15 Ali Rusta-Sellehy Chemical hydride hydrogen generation system and an energy system incorporating the same
US6579068B2 (en) * 2000-08-09 2003-06-17 California Institute Of Technology Method of manufacture of a suspended nitride membrane and a microperistaltic pump using the same
US6586563B1 (en) * 2001-12-18 2003-07-01 Millennium Cell, Inc. Processes for synthesizing alkali metal borohydride compounds
US20030138679A1 (en) * 2002-01-22 2003-07-24 Ravi Prased Fuel cartridge and reaction chamber
US20030198558A1 (en) * 2002-04-22 2003-10-23 Nason Clyde K. Shape memory alloy wire driven positive displacement micropump with pulsatile output
US6660685B1 (en) * 1997-10-02 2003-12-09 Ballard Power Systems Ag Device for carrying out a heterogenously catalysed reaction and method for producing a catalyst
US20030235724A1 (en) * 2002-06-21 2003-12-25 Ord Jason S. Hydrogen generating apparatus
US6670444B2 (en) * 2000-11-08 2003-12-30 Millennium Cell, Inc. Processes for synthesizing borohydride compounds
US20040011662A1 (en) * 2002-03-15 2004-01-22 Millennium Cell, Inc. Hydrogen-assisted electrolysis processes
US20040013923A1 (en) * 2002-02-19 2004-01-22 Trent Molter System for storing and recoving energy and method for use thereof
US20040048132A1 (en) * 2001-09-26 2004-03-11 Yuichi Takai Fuel cell and electronic device using fuel cell
US20040048115A1 (en) * 2002-09-06 2004-03-11 Devos John A. Hydrogen generating apparatus
US6706909B1 (en) * 2003-05-12 2004-03-16 Millennium Cell, Inc. Recycle of discharged sodium borate fuel
US20040052704A1 (en) * 2002-09-16 2004-03-18 Devos John A. Gas generation system
US6713201B2 (en) * 2001-10-29 2004-03-30 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. Systems including replaceable fuel cell apparatus and methods of using replaceable fuel cell apparatus
US20040062965A1 (en) * 2002-09-30 2004-04-01 The Regents Of The University Of California Bonded polyimide fuel cell package and method thereof
US20040062978A1 (en) * 2002-10-01 2004-04-01 Graftech, Inc. Fuel cell power packs and methods of making such packs
US6723072B2 (en) * 2002-06-06 2004-04-20 Insulet Corporation Plunger assembly for patient infusion device
US20040089415A1 (en) * 2002-11-07 2004-05-13 Byun Young Sang Structure for loading substrate in substrate bonding apparatus for fabricating liquid crystal display device
US20040096721A1 (en) * 2002-07-03 2004-05-20 Ohlsen Leroy J. Closed liquid feed fuel cell systems and reactant supply and effluent storage cartridges adapted for use with the same
US6745801B1 (en) * 2003-03-25 2004-06-08 Air Products And Chemicals, Inc. Mobile hydrogen generation and supply system
US6746496B1 (en) * 2002-01-15 2004-06-08 Sandia Corporation Compact solid source of hydrogen gas
US20040131903A1 (en) * 2002-02-28 2004-07-08 Masaharu Shioya Power generation type power supply and electronic device
US20040136156A1 (en) * 2002-12-26 2004-07-15 Shingo Nakamura Information processing apparatus
US20040148857A1 (en) * 2003-02-05 2004-08-05 Michael Strizki Hydrogen gas generation system
US6796898B1 (en) * 2001-02-15 2004-09-28 Mike Timpano Method for providing a blackjack insurance wager
US20040197214A1 (en) * 2003-04-07 2004-10-07 Arthur Alan R. Pump having shape memory actuator and fuel cell system including the same
US20040202548A1 (en) * 2003-04-09 2004-10-14 Xunhu Dai Micropump with integrated pressure sensor
US6808833B2 (en) * 2002-01-22 2004-10-26 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. Fuel supply for a fuel cell
US20040211054A1 (en) * 2002-04-24 2004-10-28 Morse Jeffrey D. Microfluidic systems with embedded materials and structures and method thereof
US6818334B2 (en) * 2002-06-06 2004-11-16 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. Accelerated hydrogen generation through reactive mixing of two or more fluids
US20040229101A1 (en) * 2003-05-15 2004-11-18 Davis Stuart M. Fuel consuming agent
US6821499B2 (en) * 2002-10-11 2004-11-23 General Motors Corporation Method of generating hydrogen by reaction of borohydrides and hydrates
US20040253500A1 (en) * 2003-06-13 2004-12-16 Bourilkov Jordan T. Fuel cartridge interconnect for portable fuel cells
US6834623B2 (en) * 2001-08-07 2004-12-28 Christopher T. Cheng Portable hydrogen generation using metal emulsions
US6834632B2 (en) * 2003-02-13 2004-12-28 Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha Stop and start control apparatus of internal combustion engine
US20050003725A1 (en) * 2001-06-29 2005-01-06 The Procter & Gamble Company Absorbent article
US6840955B2 (en) * 2000-01-27 2005-01-11 Robert J. Ein Therapeutic apparatus
US6849351B2 (en) * 2000-12-20 2005-02-01 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Low-temperature fuel cell
US20050023236A1 (en) * 2003-07-29 2005-02-03 Paul Adams Fuel cartridge with flexible liner
US20050031931A1 (en) * 2003-08-05 2005-02-10 Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd. Fuel cell system and fuel feeder
US20050037252A1 (en) * 2004-08-06 2005-02-17 Pham Ai Quoc Tubular solid oxide fuel cells
US20050036941A1 (en) * 2003-08-14 2005-02-17 Bae In Tae Hydrogen generator
US20050074641A1 (en) * 2003-10-06 2005-04-07 Honda Motor Co., Ltd. Stop method for fuel cell system
US20050089415A1 (en) * 2003-09-12 2005-04-28 Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. Diaphragm air pump
US6887596B2 (en) * 2002-01-22 2005-05-03 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. Portable disposable fuel-battery unit for a fuel cell system
US6893755B2 (en) * 2002-10-28 2005-05-17 Cellex Power Products, Inc. Method and system for controlling the operation of a hydrogen generator and a fuel cell
US6916159B2 (en) * 2002-10-09 2005-07-12 Therasense, Inc. Device and method employing shape memory alloy
US20050158595A1 (en) * 2003-11-14 2005-07-21 Integrated Fuel Cell Technologies, Inc. Self-regulating gas generator and method
US20050181250A1 (en) * 2002-02-19 2005-08-18 Mti Microfuel Cells, Inc. Methods and apparatuses for managing fluids in a fuel cell system
US6939529B2 (en) * 2002-10-03 2005-09-06 Millennium Cell, Inc. Self-regulating hydrogen generator
US20050238573A1 (en) * 2004-04-14 2005-10-27 Qinglin Zhang Systems and methods for hydrogen generation from solid hydrides
US20060059778A1 (en) * 2003-06-11 2006-03-23 Trulite, Inc. Hydrogen generator cartridge
US20060127734A1 (en) * 2004-07-21 2006-06-15 Angstrom Power Incorporated Flexible fuel cell structures having external support
US20060196112A1 (en) * 2005-03-02 2006-09-07 Grant Berry Borohydride fuel compositions and methods
US20060275645A1 (en) * 2005-06-03 2006-12-07 Gallagher Emerson R Electrochemical fuel cell stack with integrated anode exhaust valves
US20070020171A1 (en) * 2005-07-25 2007-01-25 Shinichi Waki Manganese dioxide, method and apparatus for producing the same, and battery active material and battery prepared by using the same
US20070042244A1 (en) * 2005-08-19 2007-02-22 John Spallone Hybrid hydrogen fuel systems and methods
US20070120872A1 (en) * 2001-03-06 2007-05-31 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Image processing device and method therefor and program codes, storing medium
US7645536B2 (en) * 2003-12-12 2010-01-12 Nec Corporation Fuel cell, fuel cartridge and fuel cell system
US7666386B2 (en) * 2005-02-08 2010-02-23 Lynntech Power Systems, Ltd. Solid chemical hydride dispenser for generating hydrogen gas
US20100150824A1 (en) * 2008-11-21 2010-06-17 Lynntech, Inc. Hydrogen generator with reactant dilution scheme

Family Cites Families (13)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPH02234358A (en) * 1989-03-07 1990-09-17 Nippon Soken Inc Fuel cell
US6627669B2 (en) 2000-06-06 2003-09-30 Honeywell International Inc. Low dielectric materials and methods of producing same
JP2002234358A (en) 2001-02-07 2002-08-20 Honda Motor Co Ltd Follow-up traveling control device for vehicle
JP2002373682A (en) * 2001-06-15 2002-12-26 Honda Motor Co Ltd Fuel cell system
US6960401B2 (en) * 2001-07-25 2005-11-01 Ballard Power Systems Inc. Fuel cell purging method and apparatus
US6861167B2 (en) * 2001-07-25 2005-03-01 Ballard Power Systems Inc. Fuel cell resuscitation method and apparatus
CN1675473A (en) 2002-06-19 2005-09-28 远程接合技术公司 Fixing and release systems
JP2004071471A (en) * 2002-08-08 2004-03-04 Matsushita Electric Ind Co Ltd Fuel cell system
US20050037245A1 (en) 2003-08-11 2005-02-17 Evogy, Inc. Method for hydrogen and electricity production using steam-iron process and solid oxide fuel cells
JP4665436B2 (en) * 2004-05-19 2011-04-06 トヨタ自動車株式会社 The fuel cell system
US20060093878A1 (en) * 2004-11-03 2006-05-04 Adam Paul K Fuel cell test station gas-purge system and method
US20080160360A1 (en) * 2006-04-13 2008-07-03 Fennimore Keith A Fuel cell purge cycle apparatus and method
US20070275275A1 (en) * 2006-05-23 2007-11-29 Mesa Scharf Fuel cell anode purge systems and methods

Patent Citations (99)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3262801A (en) * 1963-01-30 1966-07-26 Nopco Chem Co Process of preparing finely divided silicas of varied properties
US3774589A (en) * 1971-08-30 1973-11-27 Chem E Watt Corp Self contained electrochemical heat source
US3744589A (en) * 1972-06-09 1973-07-10 Gen Motors Corp Swirling flow muffler
US4042528A (en) * 1974-03-29 1977-08-16 Shin-Etsu Chemical Co., Ltd. Water-soluble defoaming agents
US4261956A (en) * 1979-06-13 1981-04-14 Engelhard Minerals & Chemicals Corporation Cartridge for gas generator
US4419457A (en) * 1981-10-06 1983-12-06 Dai-Ichi Kogyo Seiyaku Co., Ltd. Production of polyurethane foams
US4846176A (en) * 1987-02-24 1989-07-11 Golden Theodore A Thermal bandage
US4846173A (en) * 1987-09-10 1989-07-11 Davidson Todd W Anterior-lateral "off-axis bite block system" for radiation therapy
US5182046A (en) * 1990-12-05 1993-01-26 Morton International, Inc. Sodium borohydride composition and improved method of producing compacted sodium borohydride
US5804329A (en) * 1995-12-28 1998-09-08 National Patent Development Corporation Electroconversion cell
US6497973B1 (en) * 1995-12-28 2002-12-24 Millennium Cell, Inc. Electroconversion cell
US5817157A (en) * 1996-01-02 1998-10-06 Checketts; Jed H. Hydrogen generation system and pelletized fuel
US6392313B1 (en) * 1996-07-16 2002-05-21 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Microturbomachinery
US5948558A (en) * 1997-03-27 1999-09-07 National Patent Development Corporation High energy density boride batteries
US6468694B1 (en) * 1997-03-27 2002-10-22 Millennium Cell, Inc. High energy density boride batteries
US6660685B1 (en) * 1997-10-02 2003-12-09 Ballard Power Systems Ag Device for carrying out a heterogenously catalysed reaction and method for producing a catalyst
US6326097B1 (en) * 1998-12-10 2001-12-04 Manhattan Scientifics, Inc. Micro-fuel cell power devices
US6375638B2 (en) * 1999-02-12 2002-04-23 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. Incremental motion pump mechanisms powered by shape memory alloy wire or the like
US6534033B1 (en) * 2000-01-07 2003-03-18 Millennium Cell, Inc. System for hydrogen generation
US6683025B2 (en) * 2000-01-07 2004-01-27 Millennium Cell, Inc. Process for making a hydrogen generation catalyst
US6840955B2 (en) * 2000-01-27 2005-01-11 Robert J. Ein Therapeutic apparatus
US6544400B2 (en) * 2000-03-30 2003-04-08 Manhattan Scientifics, Inc. Portable chemical hydrogen hydride system
US6544679B1 (en) * 2000-04-19 2003-04-08 Millennium Cell, Inc. Electrochemical cell and assembly for same
US6250078B1 (en) * 2000-04-27 2001-06-26 Millennium Cell, L.L.P. Engine cycle and fuels for same
US6579068B2 (en) * 2000-08-09 2003-06-17 California Institute Of Technology Method of manufacture of a suspended nitride membrane and a microperistaltic pump using the same
US6670444B2 (en) * 2000-11-08 2003-12-30 Millennium Cell, Inc. Processes for synthesizing borohydride compounds
US6433129B1 (en) * 2000-11-08 2002-08-13 Millennium Cell, Inc. Compositions and processes for synthesizing borohydride compounds
US6849351B2 (en) * 2000-12-20 2005-02-01 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Low-temperature fuel cell
US6796898B1 (en) * 2001-02-15 2004-09-28 Mike Timpano Method for providing a blackjack insurance wager
US20070120872A1 (en) * 2001-03-06 2007-05-31 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Image processing device and method therefor and program codes, storing medium
US6524542B2 (en) * 2001-04-12 2003-02-25 Millennium Cell, Inc. Processes for synthesizing borohydride compounds
US20020182459A1 (en) * 2001-06-01 2002-12-05 Hockaday Robert G. Fuel generator with diffusion ampoules for fuel cells
US6645651B2 (en) * 2001-06-01 2003-11-11 Robert G. Hockaday Fuel generator with diffusion ampoules for fuel cells
US20050003725A1 (en) * 2001-06-29 2005-01-06 The Procter & Gamble Company Absorbent article
US20030037487A1 (en) * 2001-07-06 2003-02-27 Amendola Steven C. Portable hydrogen generator
US6932847B2 (en) * 2001-07-06 2005-08-23 Millennium Cell, Inc. Portable hydrogen generator
US20030009942A1 (en) * 2001-07-11 2003-01-16 Millennium Cell Inc. Differential pressure-driven borohydride based generator
US20030022034A1 (en) * 2001-07-24 2003-01-30 Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. Apparatus for controlling electric power from fuel cell
US20030027487A1 (en) * 2001-08-06 2003-02-06 Haug Jill A. Method of closing a stuffed toy
US6834623B2 (en) * 2001-08-07 2004-12-28 Christopher T. Cheng Portable hydrogen generation using metal emulsions
US20030077494A1 (en) * 2001-09-25 2003-04-24 Ballard Power Systems Ag Method and apparatus for operating a fuel cell system
US20040048132A1 (en) * 2001-09-26 2004-03-11 Yuichi Takai Fuel cell and electronic device using fuel cell
US6924054B2 (en) * 2001-10-29 2005-08-02 Hewlett-Packard Development Company L.P. Fuel supply for a fuel cell
US20030082427A1 (en) * 2001-10-29 2003-05-01 Ravi Prasad Fuel supply for a fuel cell
US6713201B2 (en) * 2001-10-29 2004-03-30 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. Systems including replaceable fuel cell apparatus and methods of using replaceable fuel cell apparatus
US20030091879A1 (en) * 2001-11-09 2003-05-15 Ali Rusta-Sellehy Chemical hydride hydrogen generation system and an energy system incorporating the same
US6586563B1 (en) * 2001-12-18 2003-07-01 Millennium Cell, Inc. Processes for synthesizing alkali metal borohydride compounds
US6746496B1 (en) * 2002-01-15 2004-06-08 Sandia Corporation Compact solid source of hydrogen gas
US6808833B2 (en) * 2002-01-22 2004-10-26 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. Fuel supply for a fuel cell
US20030138679A1 (en) * 2002-01-22 2003-07-24 Ravi Prased Fuel cartridge and reaction chamber
US6887596B2 (en) * 2002-01-22 2005-05-03 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. Portable disposable fuel-battery unit for a fuel cell system
US20050181250A1 (en) * 2002-02-19 2005-08-18 Mti Microfuel Cells, Inc. Methods and apparatuses for managing fluids in a fuel cell system
US20040013923A1 (en) * 2002-02-19 2004-01-22 Trent Molter System for storing and recoving energy and method for use thereof
US20040131903A1 (en) * 2002-02-28 2004-07-08 Masaharu Shioya Power generation type power supply and electronic device
US20040011662A1 (en) * 2002-03-15 2004-01-22 Millennium Cell, Inc. Hydrogen-assisted electrolysis processes
US20030198558A1 (en) * 2002-04-22 2003-10-23 Nason Clyde K. Shape memory alloy wire driven positive displacement micropump with pulsatile output
US20040211054A1 (en) * 2002-04-24 2004-10-28 Morse Jeffrey D. Microfluidic systems with embedded materials and structures and method thereof
US6818334B2 (en) * 2002-06-06 2004-11-16 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. Accelerated hydrogen generation through reactive mixing of two or more fluids
US6723072B2 (en) * 2002-06-06 2004-04-20 Insulet Corporation Plunger assembly for patient infusion device
US20030235724A1 (en) * 2002-06-21 2003-12-25 Ord Jason S. Hydrogen generating apparatus
US7105245B2 (en) * 2002-07-03 2006-09-12 Neah Power Systems, Inc. Fluid cell system reactant supply and effluent storage cartridges
US20040096721A1 (en) * 2002-07-03 2004-05-20 Ohlsen Leroy J. Closed liquid feed fuel cell systems and reactant supply and effluent storage cartridges adapted for use with the same
US20040048115A1 (en) * 2002-09-06 2004-03-11 Devos John A. Hydrogen generating apparatus
US7316719B2 (en) * 2002-09-06 2008-01-08 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. Hydrogen generating apparatus
US20040052704A1 (en) * 2002-09-16 2004-03-18 Devos John A. Gas generation system
US20040062965A1 (en) * 2002-09-30 2004-04-01 The Regents Of The University Of California Bonded polyimide fuel cell package and method thereof
US20040062978A1 (en) * 2002-10-01 2004-04-01 Graftech, Inc. Fuel cell power packs and methods of making such packs
US6939529B2 (en) * 2002-10-03 2005-09-06 Millennium Cell, Inc. Self-regulating hydrogen generator
US6916159B2 (en) * 2002-10-09 2005-07-12 Therasense, Inc. Device and method employing shape memory alloy
US6821499B2 (en) * 2002-10-11 2004-11-23 General Motors Corporation Method of generating hydrogen by reaction of borohydrides and hydrates
US6893755B2 (en) * 2002-10-28 2005-05-17 Cellex Power Products, Inc. Method and system for controlling the operation of a hydrogen generator and a fuel cell
US20040089415A1 (en) * 2002-11-07 2004-05-13 Byun Young Sang Structure for loading substrate in substrate bonding apparatus for fabricating liquid crystal display device
US20040136156A1 (en) * 2002-12-26 2004-07-15 Shingo Nakamura Information processing apparatus
US7105033B2 (en) * 2003-02-05 2006-09-12 Millennium Cell, Inc. Hydrogen gas generation system
US20040148857A1 (en) * 2003-02-05 2004-08-05 Michael Strizki Hydrogen gas generation system
US6834632B2 (en) * 2003-02-13 2004-12-28 Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha Stop and start control apparatus of internal combustion engine
US6745801B1 (en) * 2003-03-25 2004-06-08 Air Products And Chemicals, Inc. Mobile hydrogen generation and supply system
US20040197214A1 (en) * 2003-04-07 2004-10-07 Arthur Alan R. Pump having shape memory actuator and fuel cell system including the same
US20040202548A1 (en) * 2003-04-09 2004-10-14 Xunhu Dai Micropump with integrated pressure sensor
US6706909B1 (en) * 2003-05-12 2004-03-16 Millennium Cell, Inc. Recycle of discharged sodium borate fuel
US20040229101A1 (en) * 2003-05-15 2004-11-18 Davis Stuart M. Fuel consuming agent
US20060059778A1 (en) * 2003-06-11 2006-03-23 Trulite, Inc. Hydrogen generator cartridge
US20040253500A1 (en) * 2003-06-13 2004-12-16 Bourilkov Jordan T. Fuel cartridge interconnect for portable fuel cells
US20050023236A1 (en) * 2003-07-29 2005-02-03 Paul Adams Fuel cartridge with flexible liner
US20050031931A1 (en) * 2003-08-05 2005-02-10 Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd. Fuel cell system and fuel feeder
US20050036941A1 (en) * 2003-08-14 2005-02-17 Bae In Tae Hydrogen generator
US20050089415A1 (en) * 2003-09-12 2005-04-28 Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. Diaphragm air pump
US20050074641A1 (en) * 2003-10-06 2005-04-07 Honda Motor Co., Ltd. Stop method for fuel cell system
US20050158595A1 (en) * 2003-11-14 2005-07-21 Integrated Fuel Cell Technologies, Inc. Self-regulating gas generator and method
US7645536B2 (en) * 2003-12-12 2010-01-12 Nec Corporation Fuel cell, fuel cartridge and fuel cell system
US20050238573A1 (en) * 2004-04-14 2005-10-27 Qinglin Zhang Systems and methods for hydrogen generation from solid hydrides
US20060127734A1 (en) * 2004-07-21 2006-06-15 Angstrom Power Incorporated Flexible fuel cell structures having external support
US20050037252A1 (en) * 2004-08-06 2005-02-17 Pham Ai Quoc Tubular solid oxide fuel cells
US7666386B2 (en) * 2005-02-08 2010-02-23 Lynntech Power Systems, Ltd. Solid chemical hydride dispenser for generating hydrogen gas
US20060196112A1 (en) * 2005-03-02 2006-09-07 Grant Berry Borohydride fuel compositions and methods
US20060275645A1 (en) * 2005-06-03 2006-12-07 Gallagher Emerson R Electrochemical fuel cell stack with integrated anode exhaust valves
US20070020171A1 (en) * 2005-07-25 2007-01-25 Shinichi Waki Manganese dioxide, method and apparatus for producing the same, and battery active material and battery prepared by using the same
US20070042244A1 (en) * 2005-08-19 2007-02-22 John Spallone Hybrid hydrogen fuel systems and methods
US20100150824A1 (en) * 2008-11-21 2010-06-17 Lynntech, Inc. Hydrogen generator with reactant dilution scheme

Cited By (18)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US8795926B2 (en) 2005-08-11 2014-08-05 Intelligent Energy Limited Pump assembly for a fuel cell system
US9515336B2 (en) 2005-08-11 2016-12-06 Intelligent Energy Limited Diaphragm pump for a fuel cell system
US9034531B2 (en) 2008-01-29 2015-05-19 Ardica Technologies, Inc. Controller for fuel cell operation
US20100173214A1 (en) * 2008-01-29 2010-07-08 Tibor Fabian Controller for fuel cell operation
US8808410B2 (en) 2009-07-23 2014-08-19 Intelligent Energy Limited Hydrogen generator and product conditioning method
US20110070151A1 (en) * 2009-07-23 2011-03-24 Daniel Braithwaite Hydrogen generator and product conditioning method
US9409772B2 (en) 2009-07-23 2016-08-09 Intelligent Energy Limited Cartridge for controlled production of hydrogen
US8741004B2 (en) 2009-07-23 2014-06-03 Intelligent Energy Limited Cartridge for controlled production of hydrogen
US9403679B2 (en) 2009-07-23 2016-08-02 Intelligent Energy Limited Hydrogen generator and product conditioning method
US20110200495A1 (en) * 2009-07-23 2011-08-18 Daniel Braithwaite Cartridge for controlled production of hydrogen
US8940458B2 (en) 2010-10-20 2015-01-27 Intelligent Energy Limited Fuel supply for a fuel cell
US9774051B2 (en) 2010-10-20 2017-09-26 Intelligent Energy Limited Fuel supply for a fuel cell
WO2012118533A2 (en) * 2010-10-29 2012-09-07 Ardica Technolgies Fuel cell purge system
WO2012118533A3 (en) * 2010-10-29 2014-04-17 Ardica Technologies Fuel cell purge system
US9169976B2 (en) 2011-11-21 2015-10-27 Ardica Technologies, Inc. Method of manufacture of a metal hydride fuel supply
US8752566B2 (en) 2012-03-02 2014-06-17 Uop Llc Method for rotary valve operation to reduce seal sheet wear
WO2013152834A1 (en) 2012-04-12 2013-10-17 Daimler Ag Method for operating a fuel cell system
DE102012007374A1 (en) 2012-04-12 2013-10-17 Daimler Ag A method of operating a fuel cell system

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
WO2009097149A1 (en) 2009-08-06 application
CA2713022A1 (en) 2009-08-06 application
US20090305112A1 (en) 2009-12-10 application
JP2011511416A (en) 2011-04-07 application
US8192890B2 (en) 2012-06-05 grant
WO2009097146A1 (en) 2009-08-06 application
CN101971402A (en) 2011-02-09 application
EP2248213A1 (en) 2010-11-10 application
US20130224611A1 (en) 2013-08-29 application

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US6815101B2 (en) Fuel cell ambient environment monitoring and control apparatus and method
US6861167B2 (en) Fuel cell resuscitation method and apparatus
US20030022045A1 (en) Fuel cell system having a hydrogen sensor
US6960401B2 (en) Fuel cell purging method and apparatus
US6953630B2 (en) Fuel cell anomaly detection method and apparatus
US20050058861A1 (en) Method and apparatus for hydrogen detection and dilution
US20110117460A1 (en) Fuel cell system and operation method thereof
JP2000208161A (en) Operating method of and operating device for fuel cell
JP2008041625A (en) Fuel cell system
US20070287041A1 (en) System level adjustments for increasing stack inlet RH
JP2002352827A (en) Fuel cell system
US20070087233A1 (en) System and method of controlling fuel cell shutdown
US20060121326A1 (en) Fuel cell system and control method thereof
US20050175872A1 (en) Fuel cell flooding detection
US20060046109A1 (en) Power generation system of fuel cell and control method thereof
US20060057447A1 (en) Fuel cell system
US6703152B2 (en) Method of operating phosphoric acid fuel cell
US20080090124A1 (en) Fuel Cell System With A Liquid Separator
EP1372205A2 (en) Method of operating phosphoric acid fuel cell
US20070264544A1 (en) Method and apparatus for controlling operation of direct methanol fuel cell system
US20090155651A1 (en) Fuel cell system and generation control device
JP2004179000A (en) Fuel cell system
JP2006318715A (en) Polymer electrolyte fuel cell and operation method of polymer electrolyte fuel cell
JP2006260874A (en) Fuel gas supply device for polymer electrolyte fuel cell generator
JP2005209584A (en) Direct type methanol fuel cell system

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AS Assignment

Owner name: ARDICA TECHNOLOGIES, INC., CALIFORNIA

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:FABIAN, TIBOR;FISHER, TOBIN J.;BRAITHWAITE, DANIEL;REEL/FRAME:022984/0633

Effective date: 20090603