US20090232201A1 - Video compression method and apparatus - Google Patents

Video compression method and apparatus Download PDF

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US20090232201A1
US20090232201A1 US12422100 US42210009A US2009232201A1 US 20090232201 A1 US20090232201 A1 US 20090232201A1 US 12422100 US12422100 US 12422100 US 42210009 A US42210009 A US 42210009A US 2009232201 A1 US2009232201 A1 US 2009232201A1
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Sultan Weatherspoon
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BROADCAST MICROWAVE SERVICES Inc
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Duma Video Inc
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N19/00Methods or arrangements for coding, decoding, compressing or decompressing digital video signals
    • H04N19/50Methods or arrangements for coding, decoding, compressing or decompressing digital video signals using predictive coding
    • H04N19/503Methods or arrangements for coding, decoding, compressing or decompressing digital video signals using predictive coding involving temporal prediction
    • H04N19/51Motion estimation or motion compensation
    • H04N19/53Multi-resolution motion estimation; Hierarchical motion estimation
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N19/00Methods or arrangements for coding, decoding, compressing or decompressing digital video signals
    • H04N19/42Methods or arrangements for coding, decoding, compressing or decompressing digital video signals characterised by implementation details or hardware specially adapted for video compression or decompression, e.g. dedicated software implementation
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N19/00Methods or arrangements for coding, decoding, compressing or decompressing digital video signals
    • H04N19/42Methods or arrangements for coding, decoding, compressing or decompressing digital video signals characterised by implementation details or hardware specially adapted for video compression or decompression, e.g. dedicated software implementation
    • H04N19/423Methods or arrangements for coding, decoding, compressing or decompressing digital video signals characterised by implementation details or hardware specially adapted for video compression or decompression, e.g. dedicated software implementation characterised by memory arrangements
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N19/00Methods or arrangements for coding, decoding, compressing or decompressing digital video signals
    • H04N19/42Methods or arrangements for coding, decoding, compressing or decompressing digital video signals characterised by implementation details or hardware specially adapted for video compression or decompression, e.g. dedicated software implementation
    • H04N19/43Hardware specially adapted for motion estimation or compensation
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N19/00Methods or arrangements for coding, decoding, compressing or decompressing digital video signals
    • H04N19/42Methods or arrangements for coding, decoding, compressing or decompressing digital video signals characterised by implementation details or hardware specially adapted for video compression or decompression, e.g. dedicated software implementation
    • H04N19/436Methods or arrangements for coding, decoding, compressing or decompressing digital video signals characterised by implementation details or hardware specially adapted for video compression or decompression, e.g. dedicated software implementation using parallelised computational arrangements
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N19/00Methods or arrangements for coding, decoding, compressing or decompressing digital video signals
    • H04N19/60Methods or arrangements for coding, decoding, compressing or decompressing digital video signals using transform coding
    • H04N19/61Methods or arrangements for coding, decoding, compressing or decompressing digital video signals using transform coding in combination with predictive coding

Abstract

A video compression system may have first and second dual-port memory devices, a third memory device, and first and second processors that may provide enhanced processing, including motion estimation. The first processor may be configured to store in the second memory device first and second video frames and to transfer sequential sets of data from the first video frame corresponding to fields of search. A second set of a plurality of adjacent macroblocks of the second video frame may be compared to macroblocks selected from the field of search. Dual-port memory devices may allow for the concurrent use of shared memory by the two processors as well as data transfer during processing.

Description

    RELATED APPLICATION
  • This is a division of application Ser. No. 10/404,952, filed Mar. 31, 2003, U.S. Pat. No. 7,519,115, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety for all purposes.
  • BACKGROUND
  • The present disclosure relates to video signal processing, such as video compression.
  • Digital video is the format commonly used with personal computers, digital-video cameras, and other electronic systems. Since a huge amount of memory or storage space is required to fully store all 30 or more frames per second of video, the images are usually compressed. Often sequential images in the video sequence differ only slightly. The difference from a previous (or following) image in the sequence can be detected and encoded, rather than the entire picture using a compression technique, such as MPEG encoding.
  • MPEG is a video signal compression standard, established by the Moving Picture Experts Group (“MPEG”) of the International Standardization Organization. MPEG is a multistage algorithm that integrates a number of well known data compression techniques into a single system. These include motion-compensated predictive coding, discrete cosine transform (“DCT”), adaptive quantization, and variable length coding (“VLC”). The main objective of MPEG is to remove redundancy that normally exists in the spatial domain (within a frame of video) as well as in the temporal domain (frame-to-frame), while allowing inter-frame compression and interleaved audio.
  • There are two basic forms of video signals: an interlaced scan signal and a non-interlaced scan signal. An interlaced scan signal is a technique employed in television systems in which every television frame consists of two fields referred to as an odd-field and an even-field. Each field scans the entire picture from side to side and top to bottom. However, the horizontal scan lines of one (e.g., odd) field are positioned half way between the horizontal scan lines of the other (e.g., even) field. Interlaced scan signals are typically used in broadcast television (“TV”) and high definition television (“HDTV”). Non-interlaced scan signals are typically used in computer systems and when compressed have data rates up to 1.8 Mb/sec for combined video and audio. The Moving Picture Experts Group has established an MPEG-1 protocol intended for use in compressing/decompressing non-interlaced video signals, and an MPEG-2 protocol intended for use in compressing/decompressing interlaced TV and HDTV signals.
  • Before a conventional video signal may be compressed in accordance with either MPEG protocol it must first be digitized. The digitization process produces digital video data which specifies the intensity and color of the video image at specific locations in the video image that are referred to as pixels. Each pixel is associated with a coordinate positioned among an array of coordinates arranged in vertical columns and horizontal rows. Each pixel's coordinate is defined by an intersection of a vertical column with a horizontal row. In converting each frame of video into a frame of digital video data, scan lines of the two interlaced fields making up a frame of un-digitized video are interdigitated in a single matrix of digital data. Interdigitization of the digital video data causes pixels of a scan line from an odd-field to have odd row coordinates in the frame of digital video data. Similarly, interdigitization of the digital video data causes pixels of a scan line from an even-field to have even row coordinates in the frame of digital video data.
  • MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 each divides a video input signal, generally a successive occurrence of frames, into sequences or groups of frames (“GOF”), also referred to as a group of pictures (“GOP”). The frames in respective GOFs are encoded into a specific format. Respective frames of encoded data are divided into slices representing, for example, sixteen image lines. Each slice is divided into macroblocks each of which represents, for example, a 16×16 matrix of pixels. Each macroblock is divided into six blocks including four blocks relating to luminance data and two blocks relating to chrominance data. The MPEG-2 protocol encodes luminance and chrominance data separately and then combines the encoded video data into a compressed video stream. The luminance blocks relate to respective 8×8 matrices of pixels. Each chrominance block includes an 8×8 matrix of data relating to the entire 16×16 matrix of pixels, represented by the macroblock. After the video data is encoded it is then compressed, buffered, modulated and finally transmitted to a decoder in accordance with the MPEG protocol. The MPEG protocol typically includes a plurality of layers each with respective header information. Nominally each header includes a start code, data related to the respective layer and provisions for adding header information.
  • There are generally three different encoding formats which may be applied to video data. Intra-frame coding produces an “I” block, designating a block of data where the encoding relies solely on information within a video frame where the macroblock of data is located. Inter-frame coding may produce either a “P” block or a “B” block. A “P” block designates a block of data where the encoding relies on a prediction based upon blocks of information found in a prior video frame. A “B” block is a block of data where the encoding relies on a prediction based upon blocks of data from surrounding video frames, i.e., a prior I or P frame and/or a subsequent P frame of video data.
  • One means used to eliminate frame-to-frame redundancy is to estimate the displacement of moving objects in the video images, and encode motion vectors representing such motion from frame to frame. The accuracy of such motion estimation affects the coding performance and the quality of the output video. Motion estimation performed on a pixel-by-pixel basis has the potential for providing the highest quality video output, but comes at a high cost in terms of computational resources. Motion estimation can be performed on a block-by-block basis to provide satisfactory video quality with a significantly reduced requirement for computational performance.
  • These techniques are used for reducing the data required to store video signals, or for transmitting video signals over communication links having a smaller bandwidth than is required to transmit uncompressed video. Examples of such communication links includes local area networks, wide area networks, and circuit-switched telephone networks, such as integrated services digital network (ISDN) lines or standard telephone lines.
  • Video signal processing and video signal compression are variously described in Video Demystified: A Handbook for the Digital Engineer, Second Ed., by K. Jack, High Text Interactive, Inc., San Diego, Calif., U.S.A., 1996; Image and Video Compression Standards Algorithms and Architectures, Second Edition, by V. Bhaskaran et al., Kluwer Academic Publishers, Norwell Mass., U.S.A., 1997; Algorithms, Complexity Analysis and VLSI Architectures for MPEG-4 Motion Estimation, by P. Kuhn, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1999; as well as in U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,421,466 B1; 6,363,117; 6,014,181; 5,731,850; and 5,510,857; and U.S. Patent Application Publication Nos. 2002/0176502 A1; and 2002/0131502 A1, all of which are incorporated in this description by reference.
  • BRIEF SUMMARY
  • A method of video compression may be practiced by storing in a first memory device a set of data representative of a first field of search including a first set of a plurality of macroblocks of a first video frame. The first set of macroblocks may be searched relative to a second set of a plurality of adjacent macroblocks of a second video frame. This searching may include comparing concurrently a plurality of macroblocks of one of the first and second sets with at least one macroblock of the other set. The plurality of macroblocks of the one set or the one macroblock of the other set may be changed and the comparison repeated. This may be used as part of a motion estimation algorithm. A system that may be used to perform this method may include a first memory device, and a processor.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • FIG. 1 is a general block diagram of a video compression system.
  • FIGS. 2A and 2B form a combined block diagram of an embodiment of the system of FIG. 1.
  • FIG. 3 is a general schematic of an alternative embodiment of a concurrent read/write memory that may be used in the system of FIG. 1.
  • FIG. 4 is a diagram illustrating a search algorithm associated with a field of search.
  • FIG. 5 is an enlarged illustration of a portion of the search field illustrated in FIG. 4.
  • FIG. 6 is a flow chart of a video-compression process.
  • FIG. 7 is a flow chart of another video-compression process.
  • FIG. 8 is a further flow chart of yet another video-compression process.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • As has been mentioned, video compression may be performed with multiple unit processing. This multi-unit processing may take various forms. In one form, it provides rapid serial processing of video compression functions. As an example, FIG. 1 illustrates a block diagram of a video compression system 10. System 10 includes a stage N processor 12 that receives video data from what is generally referred to as an input device 14. Device 14 may be any source of data, such as a communication medium or link, such as a cable or bus, a memory device, buffer, register, processor or other data functional or storage device. Processor 12 may be any process that processes video information, such as a processor that performs one or more functions relating to, for example, motion estimation, motion compensation, discrete-cosine transformation, quantization, and entropy encoding.
  • Processor 12 processes data received from input device 14 and writes or otherwise stores the processed data in a concurrent read/write memory device 16. Data may be written into memory device 16 at the same time as data previously stored in the device is read out. That is, reading and writing of data may occur concurrently. Any device, apparatus or combination of devices that provide this function may, in the general sense be used. Two examples of device 16 are illustrated in FIGS. 2A, 2B and 3, which are described below. Accordingly, data previously recorded in device 16 by processor 12 may be read into a stage N+1 processor 18. Processor 18 may process video data that has been processed previously by processor 12. For instance, processor 12 may perform motion estimation and compensation, and processor 18 may perform discrete cosine transform (DCT) and quantization in a video compression system. Other examples are given in the system illustrated in FIGS. 2A and 2B.
  • Once the processed data received by the stage N+1 processor is further processed, the data is output to what is generally referred to as an output device 20. Similar to device 14, output device 20 may be any destination for data, such as a communication medium or link, a memory device, buffer, register, processor or other device for processing, storing or transmitting data.
  • It will be appreciated then that processors 12 and 18 and intermediate memory provide a system that may allow for rapid transfer of data between the two processors while making the processors nearly independent. In an exemplary video compression application, processor 12 may be performing an Nth video compression process on an (N+1)th block of video data and progressively writing processed data out to memory device 16 during the processing. While processor 12 is writing data into memory device 16, processor 18 may be reading data associated with an Nth block of data that was previously processed by processor 12 and stored in the memory device. Processors 12 and 14 may thereby be able to function on the respective blocks of data without having to depend on or interact with the operation of the other processor. Each processing function may thereby be internally optimized.
  • A more detailed example of a video compression system 30 is illustrated in FIGS. 2A and 2B. These two figures together provide a general block diagram of a video compression system that may incorporate the features of system 10 just described. System 30 includes an input device 32, which may be a SDI interface that provides demultiplexing of multiplexed video/audio data, and stores, for example, 32 lines of video data in a dual-port RAM. The processing of the demultiplexed audio data is provided by conventional means and is not further discussed.
  • Included in system 30 is a motion estimator 34, a motion compensator 36, a DCT and quantization (DCT/Q) processor 38, an entropy encoder 40, and an output device 42. Output device 42 provides multiplexing and data selection to produce an output compressed video signal 44. A system feedback processor 46 may receive processing information from the motion compensator, DCT/Q processor and entropy encoder for controlling the rate of processing at each stage and the amount of data being generated at each stage. The feedback system may modify the operation of the processors in order to normalize the rate and quantity of coded data generation by system 30 so that the output video signal may maintain a target level of data output. Other than as described, these various functional processors may function conventionally, and further explanation is not provided.
  • Motion estimator 34 may receive a digital video signal 48 from input device 32 in the form of successive 16×16 pixel macroblocks. System 30 may process a slice of 16 lines of video at a time. Estimator 34 includes a P frame motion estimator 50 and a B-frame motion estimator 52. In applications where B frames are not determined, the B-frame motion estimator may not be used. In applications where only I frames are used, motion compensation would not be required. The I frames may be passed through the motion estimator and compensator without processing.
  • Referring now to P-frame estimator 50, successive luma macroblock data is input to a coarse luma search processor 54. Coarse processor 54 is coupled to a dual-port RAM 56 that may store an entire search area, also referred to as a field of search, of data of a previously processed reference I frame. RAM 56 may receive field of search data from an external DDR SDRAM 58 that may store data for four frames. Processor 54 may provide for transfer of data to RAM 56 and SDRAM 58, but when a state machine 60 or other processor provides this function, the functional requirements of processor 54 may be reduced. Accordingly, one may refer to a general processor 64 that includes the functionality of processors 54 and 60.
  • SDRAM 58 is referred to as an external device because a single chip 62 may include all of the structure shown for system 30, except for the external DDR-SDRAM's. An example of such a chip is a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) sold under the proprietary name of Xilinx® Virtex-II®, available from Xilinx, Inc. of San Jose, Calif., U.S.A.
  • As is explained further below with reference to FIG. 4, the course processor 54, as part of a hierarchical search, may select a best match for each macroblock or group of current macroblocks of a P frame, for which motion estimation is being performed, relative to a reference field of search. There are various known algorithms that may be used for selecting a best match. One such method is the computation of the sum of the absolute differences (SAD) between a current macroblock and a reference macroblock. The reference macroblock that has the lowest SAD value may then be considered to be the best match. The results are output to a dual-port RAM 66. Data may by read into RAM 66 at the same time that previously stored data is read out of it. In this case, data associated with a previous coarse search is read from RAM 66 by a fine luma search processor 68.
  • For each given current macroblock, processor 68 may perform a further search in more detail in a reduced field of search centered on the best match identified in the previous stage of the motion estimation. The field of search may be a portion of the field of search used in the coarse search. This field of search data is also read out of RAM 56. Since RAM 56 is a dual-port RAM, processor 68 may access RAM 56 while processor 54 is accessing RAM 56. This allows for simultaneous data transfer from a single memory device and relatively independent functioning of the processors.
  • A replacement best match may be found within this reduced field of search and the results passed on to another dual-port RAM 70. Previously stored data is output from RAM 70 to a block difference processor 72 forming part of motion compensator 36. Processor 72 may compute a motion vector based on the position differences between each current macroblock and the associated best-fit reference macroblock determined during motion estimation. This motion vector is based on luma values. Differences between the chroma values for each pair of current and reference macroblocks is also determined. The chroma values may be obtained from an external DDR SDRAM 74 having stored chroma values corresponding to the frames for which SDRAM 58 stores luma values. The difference values are written into a dual-port RAM 76.
  • B-frame motion estimator 52 includes elements that are mirror images of elements contained in P-frame motion estimator 50. Accordingly, estimator 52 includes a coarse search processor 78, dual-port RAM 80 storing the current field of search of a reference frame and an external DDR SDRAM 82. A dual-port RAM 84 couples search processor 78 with a fine search processor 86. The output of processor 86 is stored in a dual-port RAM 88. A block difference processor 90 of motion compensator 36 reads data stored in RAM 88 and in an external DDR SDRAM 92. The block difference data is written into a dual-port RAM 94.
  • A final difference block 96 reads data from both RAM's 76 and 94. The reason for this is that frames treated as a B-frames have motion estimation determined by B-frame motion estimator 52, and also by P-frame motion estimator 50, as though the frame was a P-frame. Final difference block 96 compares the results of the two motion estimation and compensation processes and determines which one provides the better match between the current frame and the respective reference frame. The one with a better match is used and the other is disregarded.
  • Dual-port RAM's also provide interfaces between the remaining stages of video compression system 30. A RAM 98 is disposed between processors 96 and 38, and a RAM 100 is disposed between processors 38 and 40.
  • Entropy encoder 40 includes an entropy encoding processor 102 that is coupled to registers 104, 106 and 108 that provide, respectively, header information, DC values and AC values for data to be transmitted. The compressed video data and associated components of a compressed video signal are transmitted to data select processor 42 for production of the data stream that becomes video signal 44 transmitted over a communication link to a video receiver.
  • Concurrent read/write memory devices may be in the form of the dual-port RAM's illustrated in FIG. 2. Additionally, they may formed of a combination of components that provide for concurrent reading and writing. Such a memory device is shown generally at 110 in FIG. 3. Memory device 110 couples a stage N processor 112 to a stage N+1 processor 114. Processor 112 outputs data DIN to an address AIN. Processor 114 inputs data DOUT received from an address AOUT. A multiplexer 116 receives the data DIN and outputs it to one of output lines DIN1 and DIN2, based on a control signal 118 received from a state machine (not shown) based on a control signal 120 output from processor 112. The multiplexer writes successive sets of data alternately to a RAM 1 and a RAM 2. The address lines from processors 112 and 114 are input to a router 122. The router outputs a received input address to either an address line A1 connected to RAM 1 or to an address line A2 connected to RAM 2 based on a received control signal 124. Each of RAM 1 and RAM 2 either read received data or write stored data based on respective control signals 126 and 128. Data is read out from RAM 1 and RAM2 on respective data lines DOUT1 and DOUT2 connected to inputs on a multiplexer 130. This multiplexer then outputs the data received on either of these data lines on data line DOUT based on a control signal 132. The operation of stage N+1 processor 114 is coordinated with the operation of stage N processor by a control signal 134.
  • Memory device 110, in the general sense, allows processor 112 to write data to one RAM while processor 114 reads data from the other RAM, and both RAM's may receive data from processor 112 and may output data to processor 114. However, because the address lines must be coordinated, as shown, both processors may not address both RAM's at the same time. This configuration provides for separate functioning of the two processors and their operations do not require that one be completed before the other can begin.
  • Referring now to FIG. 4, coarse processor 54 may use a coarse field of search as shown generally at 140. This discussion is directed specifically to P-frame motion estimator 50, although it may be equivalently applied to B-frame motion estimator 52. The size of the field of search may be based on the amount of time required to read the data into dual-port memory 56 and the amount of time it takes to conduct the search. The complete field of search 140 may be stored in the dual-port memory 56 for direct access by processor 54.
  • In determining motion estimation for a P frame, the reference frame is an I frame. Field 140 is shown as an array of seven rows by twenty columns. The columns may be considered as five groups of four columns each. The columns in each group are designated as columns A, B, C and D. The array may thus be considered to be an array of sets of four adjacent macroblocks. For instance, a group 142 of four macroblocks in column 5 of the array includes reference macroblocks designated RA(5,3), RB(5,3), RC(5,3) and RD(5,3). In the center of the array are four adjacent macroblocks identified as CA, CB, CC and CD. Macroblocks CA, CB, CC and CD are not part of array 140, but rather form a set 144 of macroblocks of a current frame for which motion estimation is being determined. The macroblocks in current set 144 have positions in the current frame corresponding to positions RA(3,4), RB(3,4), RC(3,4) and RD(3,4) of array 140. That is, a field of search is selected, in this case, that is +/−3 rows of macroblocks vertically and +/−2 columns of four-macroblock sets horizontally.
  • The macroblocks in current set 144 may each be compared concurrently to each of the macroblocks shaded as shown. This is a summary form of designation. As is well known in the art, one macroblock is compared to another macroblock by comparing corresponding pixel values in both macroblocks. The shaded macroblocks correspond to every other macroblock in every other row. Other search strategies, such as every other macroblock in every row or different search field configurations, may be used depending on the requirements of a particular application. Further, the search field may take configurations other than a rectangular array. Table I below illustrates the steps in a coarse motion estimation search for four macroblocks CA, CB, CC and CD.
  • TABLE I
    COARSE SEARCH
    MB
    STEP CA CB CC CD
     1 RA(1, 1) RA(1, 1) RA(1, 1) RA(1, 1)
     2 RC(1, 1) RC(1, 1) RC(1, 1) RC(1, 1)
     3 RA(3, 1) RA(3, 1) RA(3, 1) RA(3, 1)
     4 RC(3, 1) RC(3, 1) RC(3, 1) RC(3, 1)
    . . . . .
    . . . . .
    . . . . .
    37 RA(5, 5) RA(5, 5) RA(5, 5) RA(5, 5)
    38 RC(5, 5) RC(5, 5) RC(5, 5) RC(5, 5)
    39 RA(7, 5) RA(7, 5) RA(7, 5) RA(7, 5)
    40 RC(7, 5) RC(7, 5) RC(7, 5) RC(7, 5)
  • It is seen that each selected reference macroblock R(J,K) is compared concurrently to each of the four macroblocks in current group 144. These steps continue until each of the current macroblocks are compared to each of the selected reference macroblocks. As has been mentioned, the comparison may be of a minimum function, such as the minimum sum of the absolute differences for each pair of macroblocks compared. As a result of the coarse search, a best match is determined for each current macroblock. The best match may be different for the four current macroblocks. For instance, reference macroblock RC(3,1) may be the best match for macroblock CA, and reference macroblock RA(5,5) may be the best match for macroblock CD.
  • Once the best matches are selected by coarse processor 54, the results are stored in RAM 66. Processor 54 then proceeds to perform the same coarse search for the next four adjacent current macroblocks. Fine search processor 68 may be processing the previous set of four adjacent current macroblocks while processor 54 is performing a search for set 144. Processor 68 stores the results of its search in RAM 70 and then reads in from RAM 66 the results of the coarse search on current set 144. A different field of search is applied to the fine search. In this example, the field of search is a 3×3 macroblock square array, such as array 150 shown in FIG. 5. Array 150 as a result is a 48×48 pixel array. Other sizes of the field of search may be used. Array 150 may be contained within array 140 and may be centered on the position of the best fit macroblock RC associated with a current macroblock C. When array 150 is contained in array 140, the data is directly accessible from RAM 56. Further, since RAM 56 is a dual-port RAM, processors 54 and 68 may access the data concurrently, thereby making the data available from a single memory device. As an example of an array 150 and referring again to the example in FIG. 4, a fine field-of-search array 152 associated with current macroblock CA may be centered around reference macroblock RC(3,1).
  • Rather than compare the current macroblock with alternate macroblocks, a finer or more dense, search is performed. Every macroblock embedded in the reduced array may be searched or fewer macroblocks may be searched, depending on the allocated time for computing the best match. As an example, Table II below illustrates the steps that may be used for performing a fine search of reduced array 150. In this table, each current macroblock CX is compared concurrently to a set of reference macroblocks RX(J,K). Each reference macroblock is designated by the location of the upper left pixel. In the example shown, macroblocks identified by alternate pixel locations in pixel rows and columns are searched.
  • TABLE II
    FINE SEARCH
    STEP
    MB 1 2 . . . 256 257 . . . 1024
    CA RA(2,2) RA(2,10) RA(32,26)
    CA RA(2,4) RA(2,12) RA(32,28)
    CA RA(2,6) RA(2,14) RA(32,30)
    CA RA(2,8) RA(2,16) RA(32,32)
    CB RB(2,2)
    CB RB(2,4) . . .
    CB RB(2,6)
    CB RB(2,8)
    CC
    CC . . .
    CC
    CC
    CD RD(32,26)
    CD . . . RD(32,28)
    CD RD(32,30)
    CD RD(32,32)
  • The comparisons for the set of four current macroblocks are performed sequentially, since each one may be associated with a different reference macroblock. A new reference macroblock may be selected after the fine search process that has a lower SAD than the reference macroblock identified in the coarse search. Referring to FIG. 5, the reference macroblock identified in the coarse search corresponds in position to macroblock R(16,16). A new reference macroblock, such as macroblock R(6,26) may have the lowest SAD after the fine search process. This information is output to dual-port RAM 70.
  • It is seen that at the general functional level, the dual-port RAM's allow for concurrent use of a memory device by two sequentially adjacent processors, thereby permitting them to operate relatively independently. This gives the individual processors flexibility in functioning, having little dependency on the ongoing function of adjacent processors.
  • A further aspect of motion estimator 50 is that field-of-search data is fed into dual-port RAM 56 from SDRAM 58 while processors 54 and 68 are processing data. Since a next set of current macroblocks may have a field of search that overlaps with that of a current set, it may only be necessary to read in, during processing of a given set of current macroblocks, that data required for the next set. This additional data is illustrated by partial array 140′ shown in FIG. 4. Thus, when processing of a current set N is complete, the data for the field of search for set N+1 has been entered, and processing on set N+1 may begin immediately.
  • Referring now to FIG. 6, a method is shown generally at 160 in a simplified form for purposes of illustration. Method 160 may be directed to a method of sequential processing using an intermediate memory device. Beginning the method at 162, an index N may be initialized to N=0 at 164. The processing path then splits into two paths.
  • In the left path, the index N is incremented by 1 at 166. An Nth set of video data is processed according to a first video compression process, such as those processes illustrated in system 30 shown in FIG. 2. The processed Nth set of video data is written into a memory device. A determination is made at 170 whether an (N−1)th set has been read from the memory device. If it has not, further processing may be delayed at 172 to allow an increment of additional time to lapse. The determination at 170 is then repeated, and this cycle repeats until the (N−1)th set has been read. At that time, a determination is made at 174 as to whether there is more data to process. If not, processing is ended at 176. Otherwise, processing is continued and the index is again incremented at 166 and the process repeated.
  • In the right path, the index N is incremented by 1 at 178. An (N−1)th set of video data is read at 180 from the memory device and processed according to a second video compression process. A determination is then made at 182 whether an Nth set has been written into the memory device. If so, processing is continued and the index is again incremented at 178 and the process repeated. If not, a determination is made at 184 as to whether there is more data to process. If not, processing is ended at 186. If there is more data, further processing may be delayed at 188 to allow an increment of additional time to lapse. The determination at 182 is then repeated, and this cycle repeats until the Nth set of data has been written.
  • The respective steps of processing data and storing it in the memory device at 168, and reading the stored data and processing it at 180 may occur at the same time. Further, these processes may be independent of each other except with regard to the coordinating of the reading and writing of sequential sets of data into the memory device. The processes may also be sequential in that one set of data is first processed and then passed on to the second process step via the memory device for further processing. This sequential processing further allows the respective process steps to be internally optimized.
  • A second method is shown generally at 200 in FIG. 7. Method 200 may be directed to changing data in a memory device to allow relatively uninterrupted processing of the changing data. Once the method begins at 202, data representative of a first video frame is stored in a first memory device at 204. An index N is initialized to zero at 206 and then the method divides into two paths.
  • In the right path, the index N is incremented at 208. An Nth set of data not included in a previously stored (N−1)th set of data may be transferred from the first memory device to a second memory device at 210. A determination may then be made at 212 as to whether the (N−1)th set of data has been processed. If it has not, further processing may be delayed at 214 to allow an increment of additional time to lapse. The determination at 212 is then repeated, and this cycle repeats until the (N−1)th set has been processed. Once it has been processed, a determination may be made at 216 as to whether there is more data. If so, processing is continued at 208 and the index is incremented at step 210 and the subsequent steps repeated. If there is no more data, the method ends at 218.
  • In the left path, the index N is incremented by 1 at 220. An (N−1)th set of video data is read at 222 from the second memory device and processed according to a video compression process. A determination may then be made at 224 whether an Nth set has been transferred into the second memory device. If so, processing is continued and the index is again incremented at 220 and the process repeated. If not, a determination is made at 226 as to whether there is more data to process. If not, processing is ended at 228. If there is more data, further processing may be delayed at 230 to allow an increment of additional time to lapse. The determination at 224 is then repeated, and this cycle repeats until the Nth set of data has been written into the second memory device.
  • The respective steps of transferring data into the second memory device at 210 and reading the stored data and processing it at 222 may occur at the same time. Further, these processes may be independent of each other except with regard to the coordinating of the reading and writing of the data into the second memory device. The processes may be performed on sequential sets of data in that one set of data is first transferred to the second memory device and then the stored data is processed. This processing of sequential sets of data may also allow these respective process steps to be internally optimized.
  • Referring now to FIG. 8, yet another method, shown generally at 240, is shown. Method 240 may be directed to performing motion estimation on a plurality of adjacent macroblocks of a current frame with concurrent processing of a plurality of macroblocks. The method may begin at 242 followed by storing, at 244, in a first memory device, data for a field of search of a first video frame corresponding to a second set of adjacent macroblocks of a second video frame. The first video frame may be a reference frame, such as an I frame or a P frame. The second video frame, referred to as a current frame, may be a P frame or a B frame, depending on the motion estimation process being used.
  • A first set of macroblocks may be selected from the field of search at 246. At 248, a plurality of macroblocks of one of the first and second sets may be compared concurrently with at least one macroblock of the other set. A determination may then made at 250 as to whether all of the second set has been compared to the first set. If so, a determination may be made at 252 as to whether there is more data. If not, the process may be ended at 254. Otherwise, processing may return to step 244 for a new field of search. If it is determined in step 250 that all of the second set has not been compared, then at least one of a different plurality of macroblocks and a different one macroblock may be selected at 256. Processing is then returned to step 248 and the process continued.
  • By processing concurrently a plurality of macroblocks, motion estimation may occur at a very rapid rate. Further, by providing motion estimation of a plurality of adjacent macroblocks of a current video frame, motion estimation may be further expedited, as compared to processing one current-frame macroblock at a time.
  • Although several processors have been identified separately in this description, these processors may be combined or even further separated into various other combinations. Separate processors may provide for concurrent processing of data.
  • The preceding description is presented largely in terms of diagrams, algorithms, and symbolic representations of structure and processor operation. These descriptions and representations may be implemented and described as various interconnected distinct software modules, structures or features. This is not necessary, as software, firmware, and hardware may be configured many different ways, and may be aggregated into a single processor and program with unclear boundaries. Program modules, executed by one or more computers or other devices, include routines, programs, objects, components, data structures that perform particular tasks or implement particular abstract data types. The functionality of program modules may be combined or distributed as desired in various embodiments.
  • An algorithm is generally considered to be a self-consistent sequence of steps leading to a desired result. These steps require physical manipulations of physical quantities. Usually, though not necessarily, these quantities may take the form of electrical or magnetic signals capable of being stored, transferred, combined, compared, and otherwise manipulated. As a convention, these signals may be referred to as bits, values, elements, symbols, characters, images, terms, numbers, or the like. These and similar terms may be associated with appropriate physical quantities and are convenient labels applied to these quantities.
  • Processes realizable in the form of computer programs may be stored in any computer-readable medium. Computer-readable media may be any available media that may be accessed by a computer. By way of example, computer-readable media may comprise volatile and non-volatile, removable and non-removable media implemented in any method or technology for storage of information such as computer-readable instructions, data structures, program modules, or other data. Computer-readable media may further include RAM, ROM, EEPROM, flash memory or other memory technology, CD-ROM, digital versatile disks (DVD) or other optical storage medium, magnetic cassettes, magnetic tape, magnetic disk storage or other magnetic storage devices, or any other medium that may be used to store information and that may be accessed by a computer.
  • The present disclosure also relates to apparatus for performing operations. This apparatus may be specially constructed for the required purposes or it may comprise a general-purpose computer selectively activated or reconfigured by a computer program stored in the computer or other apparatus. In particular, various general-purpose machines may be used with programs in accordance with the teachings described, or it may prove more convenient to construct more specialized apparatus to perform the required method steps.
  • The programs described need not reside in a single memory, or even a single machine. Various portions, modules or features of them may reside in separate memories, or even separate machines. The separate machines may be connected directly, or through a network, such as a local access network (LAN), or a global network, such as what is presently known as the Internet™.
  • The above description is intended to be illustrative, and not restrictive. Many other embodiments will be apparent to those of skill in the art upon reviewing the above description. The scope of a claimed invention should, therefore, be determined with reference to the claims, along with the full scope of equivalents to which such claims are entitled. Accordingly, while embodiments of video compression systems and video-compression methods have been particularly shown and described, many variations may be made therein. This disclosure may include one or more independent or interdependent inventions directed to various combinations of features, functions, elements and/or properties, one or more of which may be defined in the following claims. Other combinations and sub-combinations of features, functions, elements and/or properties may be claimed later in this or a related application. Such variations, whether they are directed to different combinations or directed to the same combinations, whether different, broader, narrower or equal in scope, are also regarded as included within the subject matter of the present disclosure. An appreciation of the availability or significance of claims not presently claimed may not be realized at the time of filing of this disclosure. Accordingly, the foregoing embodiments are illustrative, and no single feature or element, or combination thereof, is essential to all possible combinations that may be claimed in this or a later application. Each claim defines an invention disclosed in the foregoing disclosure, but any one claim does not necessarily encompass all features or combinations that may be claimed. Where the claims recite “a” or “a first” element or the equivalent thereof, such claims include one or more such elements, neither requiring nor excluding two or more such elements. Further, ordinal indicators, such as first, second or third, for identified elements are used to distinguish between the elements, and do not indicate a required or limited number of such elements, and do not indicate a particular position or order of such elements unless otherwise specifically stated.

Claims (42)

  1. 1. A video compression system comprising:
    a first memory device;
    a first processor configured to process video data according to a first video compression process, and to write processed data to the memory device; and
    a second processor configured to read video data processed by the first video compression process from the memory device while the first processor is writing processed data to the memory device, and process the read data by a second video compression process;
    at least one of the first and second video compression processes including motion estimation including a search of a first set of a plurality of adjacent macroblocks of a first video frame relative to a field of search of a second set of macroblocks of a second video frame.
  2. 2. The system of claim 1, where the first set includes an array of J macroblocks, and the second set includes an array of M sets of J adjacent macroblocks, where J and M are integers greater than one.
  3. 3. The system of claim 2, where a plurality of macroblocks of one of the first and second sets is compared concurrently with at least one macroblock of the other set.
  4. 4. A video compression system comprising:
    a first memory device;
    a second memory device; and
    a first processor configured to store in the first memory device data representative of at least a portion of each of a plurality of video frames, to transfer sequential sets of data representative of corresponding portions of the frames from the first memory device to the second memory device, which sets of data are fields of search, to process each current set of data stored in the second memory device according to a first video compression process including motion estimation while transferring a sequentially next set of data from the first memory device to the second memory device;
    the search being a search of a first set of a plurality of adjacent macroblocks of a first video frame relative to a field of search of a second set of macroblocks of a second video frame.
  5. 5. The system of claim 4, where the first set includes an array of J macroblocks, and the second set includes an array of M sets of J adjacent macroblocks, where J and M are integers greater than one.
  6. 6. The system of claim 5, where a plurality of macroblocks of one of the first and second sets is compared concurrently with at least one macroblock of the other set.
  7. 7. A video compression system comprising:
    a first memory device; and
    a first processor configured to store in the first memory device a set of video data representative of a first field of search including a first set of a plurality of macroblocks of a first video frame, and to search the first set of macroblocks relative to a second set of a plurality of adjacent macroblocks of a second video frame.
  8. 8. The system of claim 7, where the first set includes an array of M subsets of J adjacent macroblocks, and the second set includes an array of J macroblocks, where J and M are integers greater than one.
  9. 9. The system of claim 8, where the array of M macroblocks includes an array of K×L sets of J macroblocks, where K and L are integers greater than 1.
  10. 10. The system of claim 8, where a plurality of macroblocks of one of the first and second sets is compared concurrently with at least one macroblock of the other set.
  11. 11. The system of claim 10, where the macroblocks in the array of J macroblocks are contained within the same lines of the second video frame.
  12. 12. The system of claim 10, where the macroblocks in the second set are compared concurrently with each of a plurality of macroblocks selected from the first set.
  13. 13. The system of claim 12, further comprising a second processor configured to search an associated plurality of macroblocks selected from the first set of macroblocks, relative to each macroblock of the second set of macroblocks.
  14. 14. The system of claim 13, where the second processor is further configured to compare sequentially each macroblock in the second set with overlapping macroblocks included in the associated plurality of macroblocks selected from the first set.
  15. 15. The system of claim 14, where the second processor is configured to compare each macroblock of the second set concurrently with a plurality of macroblocks from the first set.
  16. 16. The system of claim 10, where the macroblocks in the second set are sequentially compared with macroblocks selected from the first set, with each macroblock of the second set being compared concurrently with a plurality of macroblocks from the first set.
  17. 17. A method of compressing video data comprising:
    processing video data according to a first video compression process;
    writing processed data to a first memory device;
    while writing processed data, reading processed data from the memory device; and
    processing the read data by a second video compression process;
    at least one of processing the video data and processing the read data includes motion estimating including performing a stage of a hierarchical search including searching a first set of a plurality of adjacent macroblocks of a first video frame relative to a field of search of a second set of a plurality of macroblocks of a second video frame.
  18. 18. The method of claim 17, where searching the first set includes searching an array of J macroblocks relative to an array of M sets of J adjacent macroblocks, where J and M are integers greater than one.
  19. 19. The method of claim 18, where searching an array includes comparing a plurality of macroblocks of one of the first and second sets concurrently with at least one macroblock of the other set.
  20. 20. A method of compressing video data comprising:
    storing in a first memory device data representative of at least a portion of each of a plurality of video frames;
    transferring sequential sets of data corresponding to fields of search representative of corresponding portions of the frame from the first memory device to a second memory device;
    processing each set of data stored in the second memory device according to a first video compression process including estimating motion by searching a first set of a plurality of adjacent macroblocks of a first video frame relative to a field of search of a second set of macroblocks of a second video frame; and
    during processing of each set of data stored in the second memory device, transferring a sequentially next set of data from the first memory device to the second memory device.
  21. 21. The method of claim 20, where the first set includes an array of J macroblocks, and the second set includes an array of M sets of J adjacent macroblocks, where J and M are integers greater than one.
  22. 22. The method of claim 21, where searching a first set of a plurality of adjacent macroblocks includes comparing concurrently a plurality of macroblocks of one of the first and second sets with at least one macroblock of the other set.
  23. 23. A method of compressing video data comprising:
    storing in a first memory device a set of data representative of a first field of search including a first set of a plurality of macroblocks of a first video frame; and
    searching the first set of macroblocks relative to a second set of a plurality of adjacent macroblocks of a second video frame.
  24. 24. The method of claim 23, where the first set includes an array of M subsets of J adjacent macroblocks, and the second set includes an array of J macroblocks, where J and M are integers greater than one.
  25. 25. The method of claim 24, where the array of M macroblocks includes K×L sets of J macroblocks, where K and L are integers greater than 1.
  26. 26. The method of claim 24, where searching includes comparing concurrently a plurality of macroblocks of one of the first and second sets with at least one macroblock of the other set.
  27. 27. The method of claim 26, where the macroblocks in the array of J macroblocks are contained within the same lines of the second video frame.
  28. 28. The method of claim 26, where comparing includes comparing concurrently the macroblocks in the second set with each of a plurality of macroblocks selected from the first set.
  29. 29. The method of claim 28, further comprising selecting a plurality of macroblocks from the first set of macroblocks associated with each macroblock of the second set of macroblocks, and searching the associated plurality of macroblocks selected from the first set of macroblocks relative to each macroblock of the second set of macroblocks.
  30. 30. The method of claim 29, where searching the associated plurality of macroblocks includes comparing sequentially each macroblock in the second set with overlapping macroblocks included in the associated plurality of selected macroblocks.
  31. 31. The method of claim 30, where comparing each macroblock in the second set includes comparing concurrently each macroblock of the second set with a plurality of macroblocks from the first set.
  32. 32. The method of claim 26, where comparing includes comparing sequentially the macroblocks in the second set with macroblocks selected from the first set, including comparing concurrently each macroblock of the second set with a plurality of macroblocks from the first set.
  33. 33. A computer-readable medium readable by one or more processors and having embodied therein a program of computer-readable instructions that, when executed by the one or more processors, provide for:
    processing video data according to a first video compression process;
    writing processed data to a first memory device;
    while writing processed data, reading processed data from the memory device; and
    processing the read data by a second video compression process;
    at least one of processing the video data and processing the read data including motion estimating including performing a stage of a hierarchical search including searching a first set of a plurality of adjacent macroblocks of a first video frame relative to a field of search of a second set of a plurality of macroblocks of a second video frame.
  34. 34. The computer-readable medium of claim 33, where searching the first set includes searching an array of J macroblocks relative to an array of M sets of J adjacent macroblocks, where J and M are integers greater than one.
  35. 35. A computer-readable medium readable by one or more processors and having embodied therein a program of computer-readable instructions that, when executed by the one or more processors, provide for:
    storing in a first memory device data representative of at least a portion of each of a plurality of video frames;
    transferring sequential sets of data corresponding to fields of search and representative of corresponding portions of the frames from the first memory device to a second memory device;
    processing each set of data stored in the second memory device according to a first video compression process including estimating motion by searching a first set of a plurality of adjacent macroblocks of a first video frame relative to a field of search of a second set of macroblocks of a second video frame; and
    during processing of each set of data stored in the second memory device, transferring a sequentially next set of data from the first memory device to the second memory device.
  36. 36. A computer-readable medium readable by one or more processors and having embodied therein a program of computer-readable instructions that, when executed by the one or more processors, provide for:
    storing in a first memory device a set of data representative of a first field of search including a first set of a plurality of macroblocks of a first video frame; and
    searching the first set of macroblocks relative to a second set of a plurality of adjacent macroblocks of a second video frame.
  37. 37. The computer-readable medium of claim 36, where the first set includes an array of M subsets of J adjacent macroblocks, and the second set includes an array of J macroblocks, where J and M are integers greater than one.
  38. 38. The computer-readable medium of claim 37, where searching includes comparing concurrently a plurality of macroblocks of one of the first and second sets with at least one macroblock of the other set.
  39. 39. The computer-readable medium of claim 38, where the macroblocks in the array of J macroblocks are contained within the same lines of the second video frame.
  40. 40. The computer-readable medium of claim 38, where comparing includes comparing concurrently the macroblocks in the second set with each of a plurality of macroblocks selected from the first set.
  41. 41. The computer-readable medium of claim 40, where the instructions further provide for selecting a plurality of macroblocks from the first set of macroblocks associated with each macroblock of the second set of macroblocks, and searching the associated plurality of macroblocks selected from the first set of macroblocks relative to each macroblock of the second set of macroblocks.
  42. 42. The computer-readable medium of claim 38, where comparing includes comparing sequentially the macroblocks in the second set with macroblocks selected from the first set, including comparing concurrently each macroblock of the second set with a plurality of macroblocks from the first set.
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