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US20090120338A1 - Process and Apparatus for Low-NOx Combustion - Google Patents

Process and Apparatus for Low-NOx Combustion Download PDF

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Publication number
US20090120338A1
US20090120338A1 US12091650 US9165008A US2009120338A1 US 20090120338 A1 US20090120338 A1 US 20090120338A1 US 12091650 US12091650 US 12091650 US 9165008 A US9165008 A US 9165008A US 2009120338 A1 US2009120338 A1 US 2009120338A1
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Prior art keywords
burner
furnace
agent
oxidizing
fuel
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
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US12091650
Inventor
Martin Adendorff
Lothar Backes
Horst Koder
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Air Liquide SA
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Air Liquide SA
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C03GLASS; MINERAL OR SLAG WOOL
    • C03BMANUFACTURE, SHAPING, OR SUPPLEMENTARY PROCESSES
    • C03B5/00Melting in furnaces; Furnaces so far as specially adapted for glass manufacture
    • C03B5/16Special features of the melting process; Auxiliary means specially adapted for glass-melting furnaces
    • C03B5/235Heating the glass
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23CCOMBUSTION APPARATUS USING FLUENT FUEL
    • F23C9/00Combustion apparatus characterised by arrangements for returning combustion products or flue gases to the combustion chamber
    • F23C9/08Combustion apparatus characterised by arrangements for returning combustion products or flue gases to the combustion chamber for reducing temperature in combustion chamber, e.g. for protecting walls of combustion chamber
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23LAIR SUPPLY; DRAUGHT-INDUCING; SUPPLYING NON-COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID OR GAS
    • F23L15/00Heating of air supplied for combustion
    • F23L15/04Arrangements of recuperators
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23LAIR SUPPLY; DRAUGHT-INDUCING; SUPPLYING NON-COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID OR GAS
    • F23L7/00Supplying non-combustible liquids or gases, other than air, to the fire, e.g. oxygen, steam
    • F23L7/002Supplying water
    • F23L7/005Evaporated water; Steam
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23LAIR SUPPLY; DRAUGHT-INDUCING; SUPPLYING NON-COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID OR GAS
    • F23L7/00Supplying non-combustible liquids or gases, other than air, to the fire, e.g. oxygen, steam
    • F23L7/007Supplying oxygen or oxygen-enriched air
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23CCOMBUSTION APPARATUS USING FLUENT FUEL
    • F23C2900/00Special features of, or arrangements for combustion apparatus using fluid fuels or solid fuels suspended in air; Combustion processes therefor
    • F23C2900/09002Specific devices inducing or forcing flue gas recirculation
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23DBURNERS
    • F23D2900/00Special features of, or arrangements for burners using fluid fuels or solid fuels suspended in a carrier gas
    • F23D2900/00004Burners specially adapted for generating high luminous flames, e.g. yellow for fuel-rich mixtures
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GASES [GHG] EMISSION, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E20/00Combustion technologies with mitigation potential
    • Y02E20/30Technologies for a more efficient combustion or heat usage
    • Y02E20/34Indirect CO2 mitigation, i.e. by acting on non CO2 directly related matters of the process, e.g. more efficient use of fuels
    • Y02E20/344Oxyfuel combustion
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GASES [GHG] EMISSION, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E20/00Combustion technologies with mitigation potential
    • Y02E20/30Technologies for a more efficient combustion or heat usage
    • Y02E20/34Indirect CO2 mitigation, i.e. by acting on non CO2 directly related matters of the process, e.g. more efficient use of fuels
    • Y02E20/348Air pre-heating

Abstract

The invention relates to a process and an apparatus for low-NOx combustion with at least one burner (5) using fuel and oxidizing agent and/or furnace off-gases and/or carbon dioxide and/or steam. The low-NOx combustion according to the invention can be used in conventional melting and holding furnaces, in particular in aluminum holding furnaces or rotary drum furnaces and glass-melting furnaces, with the potential for considerable economies to be made.

Description

  • [0001]
    The invention relates to a process and an apparatus for low-NOx combustion using fuel and oxidizing agent and/or furnace off-gases and/or carbon dioxide and/or steam.
  • [0002]
    In the known low-NOx combustion, the furnace off-gases, which are sucked in by a blower, sheath the burner flame, thereby reducing the flame temperature and consequently the thermal emission of NOx.
  • [0003]
    However, this conventional combustion has the significant drawback that the furnace off-gases which are recirculated in the furnace installation are not completely mixed with the oxidizing agent, and consequently the stipulated emission of NOx in the off-gas can only be realized at additional cost.
  • [0004]
    High investment costs are inevitable with the known low-NOx combustion, and costs are additionally incurred for maintenance of the installation, in particular the highly loaded blower and the pipelines. Moreover, external energy is required to operate the blower.
  • [0005]
    Therefore, it is an object of the present invention to provide a process and an apparatus which allow economical and low-pollutant (low-NOx) combustion in conventional furnace installations.
  • [0006]
    This object is achieved by a process having the features of claim 1 and by an apparatus having the features of claim 13.
  • [0007]
    Advantageous refinements of the invention are given in the subclaims. According to the invention, a mixture of oxidizing agent and/or furnace off-gas and/or carbon dioxide and/or steam is burnt with the fuel, which is fed to the burner separately, by means of the burner, which is arranged in a burner block in a refractory lining of a furnace installation.
  • [0008]
    For this purpose, the oxidizing agent is fed to an injector at a pressure of from 0.2 to 40 bar and advantageously having been heated from 20 to 900° C. in a heat exchanger by means of furnace off-gas. The oxidizing agent may also be fed to the injector directly without being heated.
  • [0009]
    The oxidizing agent, which expands as it flows out of the nozzle (which is axially displaceable in the injector at the flow end side), generates a gas jet at a velocity of from 20 to 660 m/s, and thereby generates a reduced pressure in the injector, the sucking action of which sucks either furnace off-gas and/or carbon dioxide (CO2) and/or superheated steam generated from water through heat exchange with furnace off-gas into the jet of oxidizing agent, and this mixture is then fed to the burner, with temperature balancing, in a line connecting the injector to the burner.
  • [0010]
    A conventional blowing nozzle or some other equivalent technical means can also be used instead of the injector, which is advantageously arranged in a stack provided for discharging the furnace off-gases from the combustion chamber of the furnace installation.
  • [0011]
    As an alternative to the oxidizing agent, it is possible for fuel gas at a pressure of from 0.2 to 40 bar to be fed to the injector. In this case, the oxidizing agent is added to the burner.
  • [0012]
    The mixture of oxidizing agent and/or furnace off-gases and/or carbon dioxide (CO2) and/or steam, which is fed to the burner at a temperature of from 20° C. to 1600° C., preferably 900° C., and at a velocity of from 5 to 70 m/s, has an oxygen content of at least 5% by volume.
  • [0013]
    The burner, which is, for example, arranged set back in the burner block, is advantageously a parallel-flow burner with two tubes (inner tube and outer tube) arranged substantially coaxially with respect to one another for feeding fuel and oxidizing agent and/or furnace off-gases and/or carbon dioxide and/or steam to the burner mouth. The fuel or the oxidizing-agent mixture may be passed to the burner mouth through the inner tube or through the outer tube.
  • [0014]
    The oxidizing agent used is an oxygen-containing medium with an oxygen content of at least 10% by volume.
  • [0015]
    The fuel used may be any conventional gaseous or liquid fuel, particularly advantageously natural gas.
  • [0016]
    The injector, which is advantageously operated with the oxidizing agent, is equipped with an axially displaceable nozzle for controlling the intake quantity and concentration and temperature of the mixture fed to the burner. This eliminates the need to supply the injector with external energy, which entails additional costs.
  • [0017]
    The heat exchanger which is used to heat the oxygen, carbon dioxide and the water and is advantageously arranged in the stack that discharges the furnace off-gases from the combustion chamber of the furnace installation is advantageously a conventional recuperator or regenerator.
  • [0018]
    The burner used is preferably a conventional parallel-flow burner with at least one feed for the oxidizing agent and at least one feed for the fuel, preferably comprising two cylindrical, concentrically arranged tubes.
  • [0019]
    The burner design according to the invention allows the mixture of oxidizing agent and/or furnace off-gases and/or carbon dioxide (CO2) and/or steam to flow out of the burner mouth of the burner at a velocity which is 0.3 to 4 times higher than the fuel, with the result that a total momentum flux, based on the burner power, of from 1.5 to 8 N/MW and a ratio of the momentum flux densities of the mixture of oxidizing agent and furnace off-gases to fuel of from 0.8 to 31 are ensured, and as a result a power density of from 0.2 to 0.5 KW/mm2 is reached at the outlet of the burner block.
  • [0020]
    The outlet velocity of the mixture of oxidizing agent and/or furnace off-gases and/or carbon dioxide (CO2) and/or steam is between 20 and 80 m/s at the burner mouth.
  • [0021]
    The burner may also be arranged on the off-gas side of the furnace installation, preferably in the stack which discharges the furnace off-gases from the combustion chamber of the furnace installation, or at any other location which is suitable for its intended use in the furnace wall surrounding the combustion chamber of the furnace installation.
  • [0022]
    It is also possible for the injector and the heat exchanger to be arranged in the burner. An injector/heat exchanger arrangement of this type is advantageous if the furnace off-gas is extracted through an annular gap around the burner mouth, as for example in the case of rotary drum furnaces, in particular when the burner is installed on the off-gas side of the furnace. In this case, the mixture of oxidizing agent and/or furnace off-gas and/or carbon dioxide and/or steam is recuperatively heated by the furnace off-gases.
  • [0023]
    The lines which carry the oxidizing agent, the furnace off-gas, the carbon dioxide and the steam consist of heat-resistant and corrosion-resistant NiCr or ODS alloys and are provided with an insulation which ensures the required thermal protection from the inside and/or the outside and preferably ceramic fibres.
  • [0024]
    The burner block which includes the burner preferably has a cylindrical opening.
  • [0025]
    The burner is equipped with a UV light receiver for flame monitoring.
  • [0026]
    The mixture of oxidizing agent and/or furnace off-gas and/or carbon dioxide and/or steam which is fed to the burner in accordance with the invention reduces the reaction rate of the combustion, since the reactions of the oxygen with the fuel are impeded by the CO2 and/or H2O molecules.
  • [0027]
    The mixing of the oxidizing agent with furnace gas and/or carbon dioxide and/or steam results in the formation of a voluminous combustion flame with a high concentration of carbon dioxide and steam. The greater volume of the flame compared to that achieved with known combustion, and the higher concentration of carbon dioxide and/or steam in the burner flame significantly increase the gas radiation of carbon dioxide and/or steam, which takes place in the spectral region in radiation bands, with the result that the material to be treated can be heated by a flame temperature which lowers the levels of NOx in the off-gas. The radiation bands which are relevant to carbon dioxide are in the range from 2.4 to 3 μm, 4 to 4.8 μm, 12.5 to 16.4 μm, and those which are relevant to steam are in the range from 1.7 to 2 μm, 2.2 to 3 μm and 12 to 30 μm.
  • [0028]
    As a result of the high-viscosity mixture of oxidizing agent and/or furnace off-gases and/or carbon dioxide and/or steam being fed to the burner at a temperature of from 20° C. to 1600° C., preferably 900° C., this mixture is mixed in such a manner with the fuel at the burner mouth that the combustion takes place at a flame temperature of from 800° C. to 2700° C., which significantly reduces the thermal NOx off-gas potential of the furnace installation.
  • [0029]
    The mixture of oxidizing agent and/or furnace off-gases and/or carbon dioxide and/or steam which is fed to the burner, as well as the burner which is used in accordance with the invention, causes the fuel to be at least partially self-carburized in the fuel tube of the burner and, owing to the design of the burner, in the fuel-rich core of the burner flame. The self-carburization or decomposition takes place in oxygen-free zones and at temperatures of greater than 1000° C. in the case of hydrocarbons, so as to form soot. The heating of the soot particles in the burner flame leads to continuous radiation in the range from 0.2 to 20 micrometers and therefore to cooling of the flame, so that the NOx off-gas levels from the furnace installation are additionally lowered.
  • [0030]
    A further advantage is the improved heating of lower layers, e.g. in a glass melt bath, since liquid glass is semi-transparent to wavelengths in the range from 0.3 to 4 micrometers.
  • [0031]
    The NOx off-gas levels are additionally reduced by the use of preferably low-N2 oxidizing agent mixtures and fuels.
  • [0032]
    The circulating furnace gases cause nitrogen oxides which are present in the combustion chamber of the furnace installation to be fed to the burner flame, and these nitrogen oxides are then reduced to form nitrogen (N2) in the fuel-rich zones of the burner flame.
  • [0033]
    The very long, soft and visible flames generated in the combustion chamber of the furnace installation allow particularly advantageous low-NOx combustion in aluminium holding furnaces and rotary drum furnaces.
  • [0034]
    Moreover, the combustion according to the invention is stable and low-noise. The noise level is 50-80 Decibels.
  • [0035]
    With the low-NOx combustion according to the invention—unlike with the known flame-free combustion—the flame radiation in the visible region advantageously increases the heat transfer to the material to be treated.
  • [0036]
    The high concentration and volume of CO2/H2O vapour in the burner flame additionally increases the gas radiation of CO2 and/or H2O vapour, which takes place in the spectral region in radiation bands, in such a manner as to ensure improved heat transfer to the material to be treated, e.g. when melting glass.
  • [0037]
    Furthermore, the turbulence and swirling during combustion, which have a disruptive influence when dust-containing products are introduced, are reduced.
  • [0038]
    The injector insert significantly reduces the wear and maintenance costs for the furnace installation incurred, for example, with a blower consisting of expensive heat-resistant materials which has hitherto been used. Moreover, the supply of external energy which has hitherto been required to operate the blower is no longer necessary.
  • [0039]
    Furthermore, the thermal loading and therefore wear to the pipe tubes is reduced, since the mixing of the oxidizing agent with furnace off-gases and/or carbon dioxide and/or steam lowers the temperature of the media that are to be transported.
  • [0040]
    In addition, primary energy can be saved through preheating of the oxygen used as oxidizing agent and/or carbon dioxide and/or steam by furnace off-gases in the heat exchanger, and as a result the operating costs of the furnace installation can be reduced further.
  • [0041]
    The low-NOx combustion according to the invention, with a uniform temperature distribution at a low temperature level (burner flame) in the combustion chamber and therefore with a significantly reduced NOx off-gas potential can be used in any conventional furnace installation, particularly advantageously in aluminium holding furnaces or glass-melting furnaces.
  • [0042]
    The invention is explained in more detail below on the basis of an exemplary embodiment illustrated in the drawing, in which:
  • [0043]
    FIG. 1 diagrammatically depicts a furnace installation with combustion apparatus;
  • [0044]
    FIG. 2 diagrammatically depicts a further furnace installation with combustion apparatus;
  • [0045]
    FIG. 3 diagrammatically depicts a third furnace installation with combustion apparatus.
  • [0046]
    The furnace installation illustrated in FIG. 1 comprises a refractory lining 1 which surrounds a combustion chamber and has an off-gas opening 19 and a stack 2, which discharges the furnace off-gases, and pipeline 3 as well as a burner block 4 with a burner 5, the burner 5 being connected by a pipeline 7 to an injector 6 and to a heat exchanger 8 arranged in the stack 2.
  • [0047]
    The furnace off-gases which flow out of the combustion chamber through the off-gas opening 19 are cooled as they flow around the heat exchanger 8 and then flow out of the furnace installation through the stack 2.
  • [0048]
    The gaseous oxygen, which is used as oxidizing agent at a temperature of from −20 to 40° C. and at a pressure of from 0.2 to 40 bar, flows into the heat exchanger 8 through an inlet 9.
  • [0049]
    The oxygen flowing through the heat exchanger 8, which is designed as a recuperator or regenerator, is heated by the furnace off-gases flowing around the heat exchanger 8 and flows through an outlet 10 of the heat exchanger 8 into the injector 6 through an inlet 11 at a temperature of from 20 to 900° C.
  • [0050]
    The oxygen which flows out of the outflow nozzle 12 of the injector 6 at a velocity of from 20 to 660 m/s expands, thereby generating an oxygen jet flowing at a velocity of from 20 to 660 m/s.
  • [0051]
    The high flow velocity of the oxygen jet generates a reduced pressure at position 13 in the injector 6, the sucking action of which reduced pressure sucks the furnace off-gases out of the combustion chamber through the pipeline 3 into the oxygen jet, and in the pipeline 7, which is designed as a mixing section of length x, they are mixed with the oxygen jet, with temperature balancing, after which the mixture of oxygen and furnace off-gases is fed, at a temperature of from 20 to 1600° C., through a connection 14 to the burner 5, which via a further connection 15 is supplied with natural gas as gaseous fuel.
  • [0052]
    The pipelines carrying the oxygen and the furnace off-gases consist of a heat-resistant NiCr or ODS alloy and are provided on the inner side with a thermal protection and/or on the outer side with a thermal insulation, e.g. comprising ceramic fibres or ceramic blocks.
  • [0053]
    The burner 5, which is used as a parallel-flow burner, advantageously has an inner tube and an outer tube, with the natural gas used as gaseous fuel flowing to the burner mouth 16 through the fuel tube 18, which is arranged as the inner tube, and the mixture of oxygen and furnace off-gas flowing to the burner mouth 16 through the outer tube, which accommodates fuel tube 18 and is designed as an annular gap 21, generating a long, soft and visible burner flame 17 in the combustion chamber of the furnace installation for heating material that is to be treated.
  • [0054]
    Partial self-carburization of the fuel takes place in the fuel tube 18 of the burner 5 through recuperative heat exchange with the mixture of oxidizing agent and furnace off-gases.
  • [0055]
    The burner structure according to the invention allows the mixture of oxidizing agent and furnace off-gases to flow out of the burner mouth 16 of the burner at a velocity which is 0.3 to 4 times higher than the fuel, with the result that a total momentum flux, based on the burner power, of from 1.5 to 8 N/MW and a ratio of the momentum flux densities of the mixture of oxidizing agent and furnace off-gases to fuel of from 0.8 to 31 are ensured, and as a result a power density of from 0.2 to 0.5 KW/mm2 is reached at the outlet of the burner block 4.
  • [0056]
    The mixture of oxidizing agent and furnace off-gases flows out of the burner mouth 16 at a velocity of from 20 to 80 m/s.
  • [0057]
    The burner flame which burns the material that is to be treated in the combustion chamber has a flame temperature of from 800° C. to 2700° C.
  • [0058]
    The burner block 4 which accommodates the burner 5 has a preferably cylindrical opening.
  • [0059]
    The burner is advantageously equipped with a UV light receiver 20 for flame monitoring.
  • [0060]
    The furnace installation which is diagrammatically depicted in FIG. 2 is advantageously used if the furnace off-gases are ladened with dust or other substances which are aggressive or promote oxidation. This furnace installation comprises the refractory lining 1, which surrounds a combustion chamber of a furnace installation and has an off-gas opening 19, and a stack 2, which discharges the furnace off-gas and accommodates the heat exchanger 8, as well as the burner block 4, which contains the burner 5 and is connected by a pipeline 7 to the injector 6 and the heat exchanger 8.
  • [0061]
    The furnace off-gases which flow out of the combustion chamber through the off-gas opening 19 are cooled as they flow around the heat exchanger 8, which is supplied with water, and then flow out of the furnace installation via the stack 2.
  • [0062]
    As it flows through the heat exchanger 8, the water which is fed to the heat exchanger 8 through the inlet 9 is evaporated through heat exchange with the furnace off-gas flowing around the heat exchanger 8 and then flows into the injector 6 at position 13 as superheated steam at a temperature of from 20 to 900° C.
  • [0063]
    The gaseous oxygen, which is used as oxidizing agent at a temperature of from −20 to 40° C. and a pressure of from 0.2 to 40 bar, flows into the injector 6 through the inlet 11. The oxygen jet expanding as it flows out of the outflow nozzle 12 of the injector 6 increases its flow velocity to 20 to 340 m/s, with the result that a reduced pressure is generated at position 13 in the injector 6, the sucking action of which reduced pressure sucks the superheated steam into the oxygen jet flowing through the injector 6 at position 13 and mixes it with the oxygen jet, with temperature balancing, in the pipeline 7, which is designed as mixing section of length x, and the oxygen/steam mixture flows, at a temperature of from 20 to 1600° C., through connection 14 into the burner 5, which is supplied through connection 15 with natural gas as gaseous fuel.
  • [0064]
    The pipelines carrying the oxygen and the steam consist of a heat-resistant and corrosion-resistant NiCr or ODS alloy and are designed from the inside with a thermal protection or from the outside with a thermal insulation, e.g. comprising a ceramic fibre or ceramic block.
  • [0065]
    The burner 5, which is used as a parallel-flow burner, advantageously has an inner tube and an outer tube, natural gas which is used as gaseous fuel flowing to the burner mouth 16 through the fuel tube 18, which is arranged as an inner tube, and the mixture of oxygen and steam flowing to the burner mouth 16 through the outer tube, which accommodates the fuel tube 18 and is designed as an annular gap 21, thereby generating the long, soft and visible burner flame 17 with a flame temperature of from 800° C. to 2700° C. in the combustion chamber of the furnace installation for heating material that is to be treated.
  • [0066]
    Partial self-carburization of the fuel takes place in the fuel tube 18 of the burner 5 through recuperative heat exchange with the mixture of oxidizing agent and steam.
  • [0067]
    The burner design according to the invention allows the mixture of oxidizing agent and steam to flow out of the burner mouth 16 of the burner at a velocity which is 0.3 to 4 times higher than the fuel, with the result that a total momentum flux, based on the burner power, of from 1.5 to 8 N/MW and a ratio of the momentum flux densities of the mixture of oxidizing agent and steam to fuel of from 0.8 to 31 are ensured, and as a result a power density of from 0.2 to 0.5 KW/mm2 is reached at the outlet of the burner block 4.
  • [0068]
    The mixture of oxidizing agent and steam flows out of the burner mouth 16 at a velocity of from 20 to 80 m/s.
  • [0069]
    The burner block 4 has a preferably cylindrical opening.
  • [0070]
    The burner is equipped with a UV light receiver 20 for flame monitoring.
  • [0071]
    The furnace installation which is diagrammatically depicted in FIG. 3 is used if the furnace off-gases are ladened with dust or other aggressive or oxidation-promoting substances. This furnace installation comprises the refractory lining 1, which surrounds a combustion chamber and has an off-gas opening 19, and the stack 2, which is designed to discharge the furnace off-gas and contains the heat exchanger 8, as well as the burner block 4 with burner 5, burner 5 being connected to the injector 6 and to the heat exchanger 8 by a pipeline 7.
  • [0072]
    The exhaust gases which flow out of the combustion chamber through the off-gas opening 19 are cooled as they flow around the heat exchanger 8, which is supplied with carbon dioxide, and then flow out of the furnace installation through the stack 2.
  • [0073]
    Liquid or preferably gaseous carbon dioxide which is supplied through the inlet 9 of the heat exchanger 8 is heated to 20° C. to 900° C. through heat exchange with the furnace off-gas flowing around the heat exchanger 8 and flows through the outlet 10 into the injector 6 at position 13.
  • [0074]
    The gaseous oxygen, which is used as oxidizing agent at a temperature of from −20 to 40° C. and a pressure of from 0.2 to 40 bar, is fed to the injector 6 through the inlet 11. The oxygen flowing through the injector 6 expands as it flows out of the outflow nozzle 12 of the injector, so that its flow velocity is increased to from 20 to 340 m/s, with the result that a reduced pressure is generated in the injector 6 at position 13, the sucking action of which reduced pressure sucks the carbon dioxide into the oxygen jet, with the carbon dioxide being mixed with the oxygen jet, with temperature balancing, in the pipeline 7, which is designed as a mixing section with a length x, and then the mixture of oxygen and carbon dioxide flows, at a temperature of from 20 to 1600° C., through connection 14 into the burner 5, which is supplied via a further connection 15 with natural gas as gaseous fuel.
  • [0075]
    The pipelines carrying the oxygen and the carbon dioxide consist of a heat-resistant and corrosion-resistant NiCr or ODS alloy and are provided on the inner side with a thermal protection and/or on the outer side with a thermal insulation, e.g. comprising ceramic fibres.
  • [0076]
    The burner 5, which is used as a parallel-flow burner, advantageously has an inner tube and an outer tube, with natural gas used as gaseous fuel being fed to the burner mouth 16 through the fuel tube 18, which is arranged as the inner tube, and the mixture of oxygen and carbon dioxide being fed to the burner mouth 16 through the outer tube, which accommodates the fuel tube 18 and is designed as an annular gap 21, producing a long, soft and visible burner flame 17 with a flame temperature of from 800-2700° C. in the combustion chamber of the furnace installation for heating material that is to be treated.
  • [0077]
    Partial self-carburization of the fuel takes place in the fuel tube 18 of the burner 5 through recuperative heat exchange with the mixture of oxidizing agent and carbon dioxide.
  • [0078]
    The burner design according to the invention allows the mixture of oxidizing agent and carbon dioxide to flow out of the burner mouth 16 of the burner at a velocity which is 0.3 to 4 times higher than the fuel, with the result that a total momentum flux, based on the burner power, of from 1.5 to 8 N/MW and a ratio of the momentum flux densities of the mixture of oxidizing agent and carbon dioxide to fuel of from 0.8 to 31 are ensured, and as a result a power density of from 0.2 to 0.5 KW/mm2 is reached at the outlet of the burner block 4.
  • [0079]
    The mixture of oxidizing agent and carbon dioxide flows out of the burner mouth 16 at a velocity of from 20 to 80 m/s.
  • [0080]
    The burner block 4 has a preferably cylindrical opening.
  • [0081]
    The burner is equipped with a UV light receiver 20 for flame monitoring.
  • LIST OF DESIGNATIONS
  • [0000]
    • 1 Refractory lining
    • 2 Stack (furnace off-gas)
    • 3 Pipeline (furnace off-gas)
    • 4 Burner block
    • 5 Burner
    • 6 Injector
    • 7 Pipeline
    • 8 Heat exchanger
    • 9 Inlet (8)
    • 10 Outlet (8)
    • 11 Inlet (6)
    • 12 Outflow nozzle (6)
    • 13 Position (6)
    • 14 Connection (5)
    • 15 Connection (5)
    • 16 Burner mouth
    • 17 Burner flame
    • 18 Fuel tube
    • 19 Off-gas opening
    • 20 UV light receiver
    • 21 Annular gap

Claims (26)

  1. 1-27. (canceled)
  2. 28. A process for low-NOx combustion in a combustion chamber with at least one burner using fuel and oxidizing agent and furnace off-gas and/or carbon dioxide and/or steam,
    wherein the oxidizing agent and the furnace off-gases and/or the carbon dioxide and/or the steam are fed to the burner as a mixture which is produced by means of an injector,
    wherein the burner is connected by means of a pipeline:
    to the injector and
    to a heat exchanger for heating oxidizing agent, carbon dioxide or steam,
    wherein the heat exchanger is arranged in a stack which discharges the furnace off-gases from the combustion chamber and wherein the injector is arranged in the line.
  3. 29. The process of claim 28, wherein the injector is operated with the oxidizing agent.
  4. 30. The process of claim 28, wherein the mixture of oxidizing agent and furnace off-gases and/or carbon dioxide and/or steam which is fed to the burner has an oxygen content of at least 5% by volume of oxygen.
  5. 31. The process of claim 28, wherein the mixture of oxidizing agent and furnace off-gases and/or carbon dioxide and/or steam which is fed to the burner at a temperature of from 20° C. to 1600° C.
  6. 32. The process of claim 28, wherein the oxidizing agent used is oxygen or an oxygen-containing medium containing at least 10% by volume of oxygen at a pressure of from 0.2 to 40 bar and a temperature of from −20 to 40° C.
  7. 33. The process of claim 28, wherein the combustion is carried out at a flame temperature of from 800° C. to 2700° C.
  8. 34. The process of claim 28, wherein the burner has a burner mouth and the velocity at which the mixture of oxidizing agent and furnace off-gases and/or carbon dioxide and/or steam emerges at the burner mouth is between 20 and 80 m/s.
  9. 35. The process of claim 28, wherein the burner has a burner mouth, and wherein:
    a) the mixture of oxidizing agent and furnace off-gases and/or carbon dioxide and/or steam flows out of the burner mouth at a velocity which is 0.3 to 4 times higher than the velocity at which the fuel flows out of the burner mouth;
    b) a total momentum flux, based on the burner power, of from 1.5 to 8 N/MW is established;
    c) a ratio of the momentum flux densities of the mixture of oxidizing agent and furnace off-gases and/or carbon dioxide and/or steam to fuel is from 0.8 to 31; and
    d) a power density of from 0.2 to 0.5 KW/mm2 is reached at the outlet of the burner block (4).
  10. 36. The process of claim 28, wherein the burner comprises a fuel tube wherein partial self-carburization of the fuel takes place in the fuel tube through recuperative heat exchange with the mixture of oxidizing agent and furnace off-gases and/or carbon dioxide and/or steam.
  11. 37. The process of claim 28, wherein the injector comprises an outflow nozzle wherein the oxidizing agent flows out of the outflow nozzle at a velocity of from 20 to 660 m/s.
  12. 38. An apparatus for carrying out low-NOx combustion with at least one burner, which is arranged in a burner block of a furnace wall surrounding the combustion chamber and which is supplied with oxidizing agent and fuel, as described in one of the preceding claims,
    wherein the burner is connected by means of a line:
    to a heat exchanger for heating oxidizing agent, carbon dioxide or steam and
    to an injector for producing a mixture of oxidizing agent and furnace off-gas and/or carbon dioxide and/or steam,
    wherein the heat exchanger is arranged in a stack which discharges the furnace off-gases from the combustion chamber and whereby the injector is arranged in the pipeline.
  13. 39. The apparatus of claim 38, wherein the injector has an axially displaceable outflow nozzle.
  14. 40. The apparatus of claim 38, wherein the heat exchanger is a recuperator or regenerator.
  15. 41. The apparatus of claim 38, wherein the burner has at least one connection for supplying the oxidizing-agent mixture and at least one connection for supplying the fuel.
  16. 42. The apparatus of claim 41, wherein the fuel feed and/or oxidizing-agent mixture feed of the burner are arranged substantially coaxially with respect to one another.
  17. 43. The apparatus of claim 41, wherein the furnace has an off-gas opening wherein the burner is arranged opposite the off-gas opening.
  18. 44. The apparatus of claim 38, wherein the burner is arranged on the off-gas side of the furnace.
  19. 45. The apparatus of claim 44, wherein the burner is arranged on the off-gas side of the furnace in the off-gas opening or in the stack.
  20. 46. The apparatus of claim 38, wherein the media-carrying lines consist of a heat-resistant and corrosion-resistant NiCr or ODS alloy.
  21. 47. The apparatus of claim 42, wherein the media-carrying lines have a thermal insulation on the outer side and/or a thermal protection on the inner side.
  22. 48. The apparatus of claim 47, wherein the media-carrying lines have a thermal insulation on the outer side and/or a thermal protection on the inner side consisting of ceramic fibres or ceramic block.
  23. 49. The apparatus of claim 38, wherein the burner block which includes the burner preferably has a cylindrical opening.
  24. 50. The apparatus of claim 38, wherein the burner is equipped with a UV light receiver for flame monitoring.
  25. 51. The apparatus of claim 38, wherein said apparatus is used in a furnace selected from aluminium holding furnaces, rotary drum furnaces or glass-melting furnaces.
  26. 52. The process of claim 28, wherein said process is used in a furnace selected from aluminium holding furnaces, rotary drum furnaces or glass-melting furnaces.
US12091650 2005-10-28 2005-10-28 Process and Apparatus for Low-NOx Combustion Abandoned US20090120338A1 (en)

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JP4950208B2 (en) 2012-06-13 grant
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CA2627016C (en) 2013-08-20 grant
EP1943461A1 (en) 2008-07-16 application

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