US20090118392A1 - Chemical derivatization of silica coated fullerenes and use of derivatized silica coated fullerenes - Google Patents

Chemical derivatization of silica coated fullerenes and use of derivatized silica coated fullerenes Download PDF

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US20090118392A1
US20090118392A1 US12/349,900 US34990009A US2009118392A1 US 20090118392 A1 US20090118392 A1 US 20090118392A1 US 34990009 A US34990009 A US 34990009A US 2009118392 A1 US2009118392 A1 US 2009118392A1
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silica coated
fullerenes
carbon nanotubes
silica
including
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US12/349,900
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Andrew R. Barron
Dennis J. Flood
Andrew A. Guzelian
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NewCyte Inc
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NewCyte Inc
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Priority to US12/349,900 priority patent/US20090118392A1/en
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C07ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C07FACYCLIC, CARBOCYCLIC OR HETEROCYCLIC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING ELEMENTS OTHER THAN CARBON, HYDROGEN, HALOGEN, OXYGEN, NITROGEN, SULFUR, SELENIUM OR TELLURIUM
    • C07F7/00Compounds containing elements of Groups 4 or 14 of the Periodic System
    • C07F7/02Silicon compounds
    • C07F7/08Compounds having one or more C—Si linkages
    • C07F7/18Compounds having one or more C—Si linkages as well as one or more C—O—Si linkages
    • C07F7/1804Compounds having Si-O-C linkages
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C07ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C07BGENERAL METHODS OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY; APPARATUS THEREFOR
    • C07B2200/00Indexing scheme relating to specific properties of organic compounds
    • C07B2200/11Compounds covalently bound to a solid support
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S423/00Chemistry of inorganic compounds
    • Y10S423/39Fullerene, e.g. c60, c70 derivative and related process
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S423/00Chemistry of inorganic compounds
    • Y10S423/40Fullerene composition
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S977/00Nanotechnology
    • Y10S977/70Nanostructure
    • Y10S977/734Fullerenes, i.e. graphene-based structures, such as nanohorns, nanococoons, nanoscrolls or fullerene-like structures, e.g. WS2 or MoS2 chalcogenide nanotubes, planar C3N4, etc.
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S977/00Nanotechnology
    • Y10S977/70Nanostructure
    • Y10S977/734Fullerenes, i.e. graphene-based structures, such as nanohorns, nanococoons, nanoscrolls or fullerene-like structures, e.g. WS2 or MoS2 chalcogenide nanotubes, planar C3N4, etc.
    • Y10S977/735Carbon buckyball
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S977/00Nanotechnology
    • Y10S977/70Nanostructure
    • Y10S977/734Fullerenes, i.e. graphene-based structures, such as nanohorns, nanococoons, nanoscrolls or fullerene-like structures, e.g. WS2 or MoS2 chalcogenide nanotubes, planar C3N4, etc.
    • Y10S977/742Carbon nanotubes, CNTs
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10T428/29Coated or structually defined flake, particle, cell, strand, strand portion, rod, filament, macroscopic fiber or mass thereof
    • Y10T428/2982Particulate matter [e.g., sphere, flake, etc.]
    • Y10T428/2991Coated
    • Y10T428/2993Silicic or refractory material containing [e.g., tungsten oxide, glass, cement, etc.]

Abstract

This invention is directed to a new composition of matter in the form of chemically derivatized silica coated fullerenes, including silica coated C60 molecules and silica coated carbon nanotubes, processes for making the same and to uses for the derivatized silica coated fullerenes. Included among many uses in chemical, physical or biological fields of use, but not limited thereto, are high speed, low loss electrical interconnects for nanoscale electronic devices, components and circuits. In one embodiment, this invention also provides a method for preparing silica coated fullerenes having substituents attached to the surface of silica coated fullerenes by reacting silica coated fullerenes with a wide range of organic or inorganic chemical species in a gaseous or liquid state. Preferred substituents include but are not limited to organic groups and organic groups containing heteroatoms such as oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and halogens. The identity of the surface functional group is chosen to provide desirable properties to the silica coated fullerenes including but not limited to solubility, miscibility, stickiness, and melting point. The present invention also describes the application of surface functionalized silica coated fullerenes as components of polymer blends and composites.

Description

    STATEMENT REGARDING FEDERALLY FUNDED RESEARCH OR DEVELOPMENT
  • Not Applicable.
  • FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • This invention is directed to derivatizing the surface of silica coated fullerenes, including derivatizing the surface of silica coated C60 molecules and sidewall or endcaps of silica coated carbon nanotubes, and to uses for the derivatized fullerenes, including dispersing derivatized silica coated fullerenes in various solutions containing a wide range of organic or inorganic chemical species.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • As used herein, fullerene is any carbonaceous material wherein the structure is a regular, three dimensional network of fused carbon rings arranged in any one of a number of possible structures including, but not limited to, cylindrical, spherical, ovoid, oblate or oblong. Common fullerenes include the cylindrical carbon nanotube and the icosahedral C60 carbon molecules. In particular, the fullerene is preferably selected from the group consisting of C60, C72, C84, C96, C108, C120, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT).
  • Derivatization of planar and other macroscopic silica surfaces is well known and in the public domain. Silica coated fullerenes, including silica coated single walled or multiwalled carbon nanotubes (s-SWNT or s-MWNT) and silica coated C60 molecules, have been made by the process described in US/PCT Application 20,050,089,684 entitled “Coated Fullerenes, Composites and Dielectrics made Therefrom.” Since the discovery of silica coated fullerenes in 2002 researchers have been searching for ways to manipulate them chemically. While there have been many reports and review articles on the production and physical properties of chemically functionalized fullerenes and in particular carbon nanotubes, reports on chemical manipulation of silica coated fullerenes, including silica coated C60 molecules and silica coated carbon nanotubes, have been non-existent.
  • Single walled carbon nanotubes and multiwalled carbon nanotubes are elongated members of the fullerene family. Since their discovery they have come under intense multidisciplinary study because of their unique physical and chemical properties and their possible applications. Single walled carbon nanotubes can be either metallic or semiconducting, depending on their helicity and diameter. More importantly it has been shown that these properties are sensitive to the surrounding environments. For example, the presence of O2, NH3 and many other molecules can either donate or accept electrons and alter the overall conductivity of the single walled carbon nanotubes. Such properties make single walled carbon nanotubes ideal for nanoscale sensing materials. Nanotube field effect transistors have already been demonstrated as gas sensors. However, to introduce selectivity to nanotube sensors, certain functional groups that can selectively bind to specific target molecules need to be anchored on the nanotube surface. Unfortunately, functionalization changes the electronic properties from semiconductor or conductor to insulating, and at present chemical functionalization is not regiospecific. A further major obstacle to such efforts has been diversity of tube diameters, chiral angles, and aggregation states of the tubes. Aggregation is particularly problematic because the highly polarizable, smooth sided single walled carbon nanotubes readily form bundles or ropes with van der Waals binding energy of ca. 500 eV per micrometer of tube contact. This bundling perturbs the electronic structure of the tubes and precludes the separation of single walled carbon nanotubes by size or type; it also precludes the use of single walled carbon nanotubes as individual tubes in any matrix or solvent.
  • Individual single walled carbon nanotubes may be obtained encased in a cylindrical micelle, by ultrasonically agitating an aqueous dispersion of raw single walled carbon nanotubes in a suitable surfactant. However, upon drying or attempting to incorporate into other solvents or matrices bundles re-form. Single walled carbon nanotubes have been encased in a wide range of organic materials. It would be desirable to fabricate individually coated single walled carbon nanotubes where the coating is retained in solution and the solid state. Of particular interest are dielectric materials such as silica, which may also be compatible with composite matrix materials. Thick coatings of SiO2 on multi walled carbon nanotubes has been reported, while thin layers have been reported on single walled carbon nanotubes. Experimental measurements and theoretical calculations have shown that the silica-coated nanotubes retain the electronic and optical properties of the uncoated nanotubes. The silica coating does not interfere with the properties of the nanotube. However, while these routes allow for isolation of individual nanotubes the surfaces are defined by the surface chemistry of the silica coating. Oxide and hydroxide generally terminate the surface of silica groups. This is a severe limitation on the application of such materials.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • Accordingly, it is an object of this invention to provide a method for derivatizing silica coated fullerenes and in particular silica coated C60 molecules and the sidewall and/or endcaps of silica coated carbon nanotubes. It is another object of this invention to provide for dispersions of functionalized silica coated fullerenes that can serve as nucleation sites or binders in various solutions of a wide range of inorganic or organic chemicals. It is yet another object of this invention to provide a silica based substrate for creating nanometer scale catalytic particles using a wide variety of organic or inorganic chemical species. These and other objects of this invention are met by one or more of the following embodiments.
  • This invention provides a new composition of matter comprised of silica coated fullerenes, including silica coated C60 molecules and tubular silica coated carbon molecules derivatized with substituents that are covalently or physically bonded to silicon or oxygen atoms of the surface of the silica coated C60 molecules or the side wall or endcaps of the silica coated nanotubes. The resulting composition of matter allows for designed physical properties and compatibilities without altering the electronic and physical properties of the fullerene contained therein. The substituents may in principle be attached on the exterior of the silica coating on the C60 molecules. The substituents also may in principle be attached on the longest dimension of the silica coated carbon nanotube. That is the silica that is above the sidewall of the carbon nanotube. Alternatively, the silica can be functionalized on the shortest dimension as defined by the endcaps of the underlying carbon nanotube. The chemically functionalized silica coated fullerenes may have substituents selected from a wide range of organic or inorganic chemical species attached to the surface. Such fullerenes can demonstrate selectable properties that are distinct from the fullerene or the silica coating.
  • This invention also provides a method for derivatizing silica coated fullerenes comprising reacting silica coated fullerenes with a wide range of organic or inorganic chemical species in gaseous or liquid form. Where the fullerenes are silica-coated fullerenes, and the reaction temperature is between −78° C. and 500° C., the product will be silica coated fullerenes derivatized with a wide range of organic or inorganic chemical species.
  • This invention also provides a process for preparing a suspension or solution of silica coated carbon nanotubes in a solvent of choice, from which individual silica coated carbon nanotubes may then be isolated, the process comprising providing a mass of silica coated carbon nanotubes that have no van der Waals forces holding them in bundles, unlike the case for uncoated carbon nanotubes or chemically functionalized carbon nanotubes. Derivatizing the sidewall or endcaps of the silica coated carbon nanotubes with a plurality of chemical moieties distributed substantially uniformly along the length of said silica coated carbon nanotube sidewall, said chemical moieties having chemical and steric properties sufficient to prevent the reassembly of van der Waals force bound bundles, produces true solutions and enables recovering the individual, derivatized silica coated carbon nanotubes from said solution or suspension.
  • In another embodiment, this invention provides a method for forming a dispersion of chemically functionalized silica coated fullerenes in a solvent or polymer. In a particular embodiment chemically functionalized silica coated fullerenes are added to a polymer solution to alter the viscosity or other property of the polymer solution.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  • This invention discloses, in one aspect, a method of making a chemically derivatized, silica coated fullerene comprising a layer of silica covering at least a portion of at least one surface of a fullerene wherein the method comprises (a) dispersing fullerenes with at least a portion of the fullerene surface covered by a layer of silica; and (b) reacting the silica coated fullerene with a derivatizing agent.
  • As used herein, fullerene is any carbonaceous material wherein the structure is a regular, three dimensional network of fused carbon rings arranged in any one of a number of possible structures including, but not limited to, cylindrical, spherical, ovoid, oblate or oblong. Common fullerenes include the cylindrical carbon nanotube and the icosohedral C60 carbon molecules.
  • In another aspect, the present invention discloses a chemically derivatized, silica coated fullerene comprising a derivatizing agent attached to a silica coating on a fullerene wherein the derivatizing agent is from the functional group consisting of a wide range of organic or inorganic chemical species.
  • EXAMPLES
  • The following examples are presented to illustrate the ease and versatility of the approach and are not to be construed as the only examples of the proposed approach or as limiting the scope of the present invention. It is understood that a practitioner, of ordinary skill in the art, will be able to employ alternative reagents and coatings to achieve similar results. Examples of conditions that may be varied include, but are not limited to, choice of silanizing reagent, concentration of silanizing reagent, concentration of carbon nanotubes, reaction solvent, sonication treatment, and post-reaction heat treatments, both in solution and on dry samples.
  • Example 1
  • 30 mg of silica-coated SWNTs were added to 2 ml of toluene in a test tube. The mixture was sonicated using a horn sonicator for 5 minutes and then stirred under flowing nitrogen. 0.7 ml of aminotriethoxysilane was added, the mixture was sonicated using a horn sonicator for 5 minutes, and stirred for 2 hours under a nitrogen atmosphere. Toluene was added to a total volume of 10 ml and the solution was centrifuged, giving a black precipitate and clear supernatant. The supernatant was discarded and the precipitate was washed with 10 ml of toluene. The centrifugation and washing steps were repeated two additional times. Washing and centrifugation steps were then carried out with 10 ml of ethanol and repeated two additional times.
  • Example 2
  • 30 mg of silica-coated SWNTs were added to 2 ml of toluene in a test tube. The mixture was sonicated in a water bath for 5 minutes and then stirred under flowing nitrogen. 0.7 ml of aminotriethoxysilane was added, the mixture was sonicated in a water bath for 5 minutes, and stirred for 2 hours under a nitrogen atmosphere. Toluene was added to a total volume of 10 ml and the solution was centrifuged, giving a black precipitate and clear supernatant. The supernatant was discarded and the precipitate was washed with 10 ml of toluene. The centrifugation and washing steps were repeated two additional times. Washing and centrifugation steps were then carried out with 10 ml of ethanol and repeated two additional times.
  • Example 3
  • 30 mg of silica-coated SWNTs were added to 1 ml of toluene in a test tube. The mixture was sonicated using a horn sonicator for 5 minutes and then stirred under flowing nitrogen. 1.5 ml of aminotriethoxysilane was added, the mixture was sonicated using a horn sonicator for 5 minutes, and stirred for 2 hours under a nitrogen atmosphere. Toluene was added to a total volume of 10 ml and the solution was centrifuged, giving a black precipitate and clear supernatant. The supernatant was discarded and the precipitate was washed with 10 ml of toluene. The centrifugation and washing steps were repeated two additional times. Washing and centrifugation steps were then carried out with 10 ml of ethanol and repeated two additional times.
  • Example 4
  • 30 mg of silica-coated SWNTs were added to 1 ml of ethanol in a test tube. The mixture was sonicated using a horn sonicator for 5 minutes and then stirred under flowing nitrogen. 1.5 ml of aminotriethoxysilane was added, the mixture was sonicated using a horn sonicator for 5 minutes, and stirred for 2 hours under a nitrogen atmosphere. Ethanol was added to a total volume of 10 ml and the solution was centrifuged, giving a black precipitate and clear supernatant. The supernatant was discarded and the precipitate was washed with 10 ml of ethanol. The centrifugation and washing steps were repeated two additional times.
  • Example 5
  • 30 mg of silica-coated SWNTs were added to 1 ml of toluene in a test tube. The mixture was sonicated using a horn sonicator for 5 minutes and then stirred under flowing nitrogen. 1.5 ml of octadecyltrichlorosilane was added, the mixture was sonicated using a horn sonicator for 5 minutes, and stirred for 2 hours under a nitrogen atmosphere. Toluene was added to a total volume of 10 ml and the solution was centrifuged, giving a black precipitate and clear supernatant. The supernatant was discarded and the precipitate was washed with 10 ml of toluene. The centrifugation and washing steps were repeated two additional times. Washing and centrifugation steps were then carried out with 10 ml of ethanol and repeated two additional times.
  • Example 6
  • 30 mg of silica-coated SWNTs were added to 2 ml of toluene in a test tube. The mixture was sonicated using a horn sonicator for 5 minutes and then stirred under flowing nitrogen. 0.7 ml of octadecyltrichlorosilane was added, the mixture was sonicated using a horn sonicator for 5 minutes, and stirred for 2 hours under a nitrogen atmosphere. Toluene was added to a total volume of 10 ml and the solution was centrifuged, giving a black precipitate and clear supernatant. The supernatant was discarded and the precipitate was washed with 10 ml of toluene. The centrifugation and washing steps were repeated two additional times. Washing and centrifugation steps were then carried out with 10 ml of ethanol and repeated two additional times.
  • Example 7
  • 30 mg of silica-coated SWNTs were added to 1 ml of toluene in a test tube. The mixture was sonicated using a horn sonicator for 5 minutes and then stirred under flowing nitrogen. 1.5 ml of octadecyltrichlorosilane was added, the mixture was sonicated using a horn sonicator for 5 minutes, and stirred for 2 hours under a nitrogen atmosphere. Toluene was added to a total volume of 10 ml and the solution was heated at 70° C. for 1 hour with stirring. The solution was then centrifuged, giving a black precipitate and clear supernatant. The supernatant was discarded and the precipitate was washed with 10 ml of toluene. The centrifugation and washing steps were repeated two additional times. Washing and centrifugation steps were then carried out with 10 ml of ethanol and repeated two additional times.
  • Example 8
  • 30 mg of silica-coated SWNTs were added to 2 ml of toluene in a test tube. The mixture was sonicated using a horn sonicator for 5 minutes and then stirred under flowing nitrogen. 0.7 ml of octadecyltrichlorosilane was added, the mixture was sonicated using a horn sonicator for 5 minutes, and stirred for 2 hours under a nitrogen atmosphere. Toluene was added to a total volume of 10 ml and the solution was heated at 70° C. for 1 hour with stirring. The solution was then centrifuged, giving a black precipitate and clear supernatant. The supernatant was discarded and the precipitate was washed with 10 ml of toluene. The centrifugation and washing steps were repeated two additional times. Washing and centrifugation steps were then carried out with 10 ml of ethanol and repeated two additional times.
  • Example 9
  • 30 mg of silica-coated SWNTs were added to 2 ml of toluene in a test tube. The mixture was sonicated using a horn sonicator for 5 minutes and then stirred under flowing nitrogen. 0.7 ml of 2-[methoxy(polyethyleneoxy)propyl]trimethoxysilane was added, the mixture was sonicated using a horn sonicator for 5 minutes, and stirred for 2 hours under a nitrogen atmosphere. Toluene was added to a total volume of 10 ml and the solution was centrifuged, giving a black precipitate and clear supernatant. The supernatant was discarded and the precipitate was washed with 10 ml of toluene. The centrifugation and washing steps were repeated two additional times. Washing and centrifugation steps were then carried out with 10 ml of ethanol and repeated two additional times.
  • Example 10
  • 30 mg of silica-coated SWNTs were added to 2 ml of ethanol in a test tube. The mixture was sonicated using a horn sonicator for 5 minutes and then stirred under flowing nitrogen. 0.7 ml of 2-[methoxy(polyethyleneoxy)propyl]trimethoxysilane was added, the mixture was sonicated using a horn sonicator for 5 minutes, and stirred for 2 hours under a nitrogen atmosphere. Ethanol was added to a total volume of 10 ml and the solution was centrifuged, giving a black precipitate and clear supernatant. The supernatant was discarded and the precipitate was washed with 10 ml of ethanol. The centrifugation and washing steps were repeated two additional times.
  • Example 111
  • 30 mg of silica-coated SWNTs were added to 1 ml of toluene in a test tube. The mixture was sonicated using a horn sonicator for 5 minutes and then stirred under flowing nitrogen. 1.5 ml of 2-[methoxy(polyethyleneoxy)propyl]trimethoxysilane was added, the mixture was sonicated using a horn sonicator for 5 minutes, and stirred for 2 hours under a nitrogen atmosphere. Toluene was added to a total volume of 10 ml and the solution was heated at 70° C. for 1 hour with stirring. The solution was then centrifuged, giving a black precipitate and clear supernatant. The supernatant was discarded and the precipitate was washed with 10 ml of toluene. The centrifugation and washing steps were repeated two additional times. Washing and centrifugation steps were then carried out with 10 ml of ethanol and repeated two additional times.
  • Example 12
  • 30 mg of silica-coated SWNTs were added to 1 ml of ethanol in a test tube. The mixture was sonicated using a horn sonicator for 5 minutes and then stirred under flowing nitrogen. 1.5 ml of 2-[methoxy(polyethyleneoxy)propyl]trimethoxysilane was added, the mixture was sonicated using a horn sonicator for 5 minutes, and stirred for 2 hours under a nitrogen atmosphere. Ethanol was added to a total volume of 10 ml and the solution was heated at 50° C. for 1 hour with stirring. The solution was then centrifuged, giving a black precipitate and clear supernatant. The supernatant was discarded and the precipitate was washed with 10 ml of ethanol. The centrifugation and washing steps were repeated two additional times.

Claims (12)

1-11. (canceled)
12. A silica coated fullerene, including a silica coated C60 molecule and silica coated carbon nanotube, having a wide range of organic or inorganic chemical species covalently bonded to the silicon or oxygen atoms of the surface of the silica coated fullerene, including the silica coated C60 molecule or the sidewall or endcaps of the silica coated carbon nanotube.
13. The silica coated fullerene, including silica coated C60 molecules and silica coated carbon nanotubes, of claim 12, wherein the organic or inorganic chemical species are covalently bonded to silicon or oxygen atoms of the silica coated fullerene, including the silicon or oxygen atoms of the surface of the silica coated C60 molecule and surface of the sidewall or endcaps of silica coated carbon nanotubes.
14. A product made by the process of reacting silica coated fullerenes, including silica coated C60 molecules and silica coated carbon nanotubes, with a derivatizing agent to covalently bond a wide range of organic or inorganic chemical species to the surface of the silica coated fullerenes, including silica coated C60 molecules and silica coated carbon nanotubes.
15. The product of claim 14, wherein the derivatizing agent is selected from the group consisting of a wide range of organic or inorganic chemical species.
16. A product made by the process of claim 14 comprising the steps of: (i) selecting a derivatizing agent from the group consisting of a wide range of organic or inorganic chemical species.
17. A product made by the process comprising: (i) reacting silica coated fullerenes, including silica coated C60 molecules and silica coated carbon nanotubes, with a derivatizing agent wherein the derivatizing agent is selected from the group consisting of a wide range of organic or inorganic chemical species, and (ii) producing silica coated fullerenes having a wide range of organic or inorganic chemical species covalently or physically bonded to the surface of silica coated C60 molecules and sidewall or endcaps of silica coated carbon nanotubes, wherein the silica coated carbon nanotubes generally have a length from about 5 nm to greater than 1000 nm.
18. A method for dispersing chemically functionalized silica coated fullerenes, including silica coated C60 molecules and silica coated carbon nanotubes, comprising mixing or blending the silica coated fullerenes, including the silica coated C60 molecules or the silica coated carbon nanotubes, with a suitable solvent or matrix material.
19. A product made by the process of claim 18.
20. A method of claim 18, wherein the matrix is a polymer.
21. A method of claim 18, wherein the functional group is chosen to allow for miscibility with the chosen polymer.
22. A product made by the process of claim 21 wherein the chemically functionalized silica coated fullerenes, including chemically functionalized silica coated C60 molecules and silica coated carbon nanotubes, provide an alteration of the polymer properties.
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US20100078572A1 (en) * 2007-03-20 2010-04-01 Universitaet Innsbruck Analysis of low molecular weight molecules by maldi-ms
US20110023955A1 (en) * 2007-06-26 2011-02-03 Fonash Stephen J Lateral collection photovoltaics

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