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Method for forming a dielectric stack

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US20090079016A1
US20090079016A1 US12272614 US27261408A US2009079016A1 US 20090079016 A1 US20090079016 A1 US 20090079016A1 US 12272614 US12272614 US 12272614 US 27261408 A US27261408 A US 27261408A US 2009079016 A1 US2009079016 A1 US 2009079016A1
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layer
dielectric
high
stack
nm
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US12272614
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Peijun Jerry Chen
Tsai Wilman
Mathieu Caymax
Jan Willem Maes
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IMEC vzw
ASM America Inc
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IMEC vzw
ASM America Inc
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    • H01L21/31Treatment of semiconductor bodies using processes or apparatus not provided for in groups H01L21/20 - H01L21/26 to form insulating layers thereon, e.g. for masking or by using photolithographic techniques; After treatment of these layers
    • H01L21/314Inorganic layers
    • H01L21/316Inorganic layers composed of oxides or glassy oxides or oxide based glass
    • H01L21/31604Deposition from a gas or vapour
    • H01L21/31645Deposition of Hafnium oxides, e.g. HfO2
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L21/00Processes or apparatus adapted for the manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or solid state devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/02Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/04Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof the devices having at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction, depletion layer, carrier concentration layer
    • H01L21/18Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof the devices having at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction, depletion layer, carrier concentration layer the devices having semiconductor bodies comprising elements of Group IV of the Periodic System or AIIIBV compounds with or without impurities, e.g. doping materials
    • H01L21/30Treatment of semiconductor bodies using processes or apparatus not provided for in groups H01L21/20 - H01L21/26
    • H01L21/31Treatment of semiconductor bodies using processes or apparatus not provided for in groups H01L21/20 - H01L21/26 to form insulating layers thereon, e.g. for masking or by using photolithographic techniques; After treatment of these layers
    • H01L21/314Inorganic layers
    • H01L21/318Inorganic layers composed of nitrides
    • H01L21/3185Inorganic layers composed of nitrides of siliconnitrides
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L2924/00Indexing scheme for arrangements or methods for connecting or disconnecting semiconductor or solid-state bodies as covered by H01L24/00
    • H01L2924/0001Technical content checked by a classifier
    • H01L2924/0002Not covered by any one of groups H01L24/00, H01L24/00 and H01L2224/00

Abstract

The present invention provides a method for fabricating a dielectric stack in an integrated circuit comprising the steps of (i) forming a high-k dielectric layer on a semiconductor substrate, (ii) subjecting the semiconductor substrate with the high-k dielectric layer to a nitrogen comprising vapor phase reactant and silicon comprising vapor phase reactant in a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition process (PECVD) or a plasma-enhanced atomic layer chemical vapor deposition (PE ALCVD) process. Furthermore, the present invention provides a dielectric stack in an integrated circuit comprising (i) a high-k dielectric layer comprising at least a high-k material, (ii) a dielectric layer comprising at least silicon and nitrogen; (iii) an intermediate layer disposed between the high-k dielectric layer and the dielectric layer, the intermediate layer comprising the high-k material, silicon, and nitrogen.

Description

    FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • [0001]
    The present invention relates to integrated circuit fabrication processes and in particular to the formation of an integrated circuit comprising a multilayer dielectric stack of high-k material. The present invention further relates to such dielectric stack in an integrated circuit and to a MOS transistor having such multilayer dielectric stack.
  • BACKGROUND DESCRIPTION
  • [0002]
    A multilayer dielectric stack according to the present invention replaces prior art silicon dioxide as dielectric layer in integrated circuits.
  • [0003]
    When integrating a high-k dielectric with a gate electrode into a conventional CMOS gate stack, two major process/thermal stability issues need to be addressed and tackled. It is hereby important to
  • [0004]
    1. Reduce reaction(s) at the top interface between the high-k dielectric and the gate electrode such as polysilicon either during polysilicon deposition and/or during subsequent thermal processing and/or to
  • [0005]
    2. Minimize degradation of high-k material integrity due to crystallization, which leads to formation of structural defects such as oxygen vacancies and grain boundaries that interact with gate electrode deposition process leading to pathways of enhanced electrical leakage and/or of dopant/impurity diffusion.
  • [0006]
    Based upon knowledge from conventional SiO2-based CMOS gate dielectric material (which is amorphous and 100% compatible with polysilicon gate), it is known that nitrogen is a key modifier introduced to improve the resistance against boron diffusion. Likewise, in high-k dielectric, enhanced stability against dopant (boron) diffusion from the polysilicon gate can be achieved through the use of a metal-oxynitride (MOxNy) or nitridation of metal oxide (U.S. Pat. No. 6,251,761). U.S. Pat. No. 6,251,761 describes a gate stack including a gate dielectric with reduced effective electrical thickness. A high-k dielectric is deposited over the silicon substrate. In a next step, remote plasma nitridation of the high-k dielectric layer is performed to convert the upper surface of the high-k dielectric into a nitride layer. A conductive layer is formed over the nitride layer to complete the CMOS gate stack.
  • [0007]
    Published US patent application No. 2002/0130340 A1 discloses a multilayer dielectric stack, which has alternating layers of high-k material and an interposing material. The interposing material can be Al2O3, AlN, SiN, Si3N4 and SiO2. The interposing material can be deposited by atomic layer deposition, sputtering or evaporation, resulting in the deposition of the interposing layer on the dielectric layer. Each layer is preferably less tan 50 Angstroms thick. This structure inhibits and prevents the crystallization of the high k-material.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • [0008]
    In a first aspect of this invention, a method for forming a dielectric stack in an integrated circuit structure is disclosed comprising the steps of:
  • [0009]
    forming a high-k dielectric layer on a semiconductor substrate, and
  • [0010]
    subjecting the semiconductor substrate with the high-k dielectric layer to a nitrogen comprising vapor phase reactant and a silicon comprising vapor phase reactant in a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition process (PECVD) or plasma-enhanced atomic layer chemical vapor deposition (PE ALCVD) process.
  • [0011]
    With a process according to the present invention, highly reactive species such as nitrogen ions or radicals and silicon species penetrate into the upper part of the high-k material, thereby promoting intermixing, densification and formation of an intermediate layer. The intermediate layer comprises at least the high-k material, silicon and nitrogen. Highly reactive species are formed by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) or plasma-enhanced atomic layer chemical vapor deposition (PE ALCVD). Highly reactive species can be radicals or ions. Consequently, using PECVD or PE ALCVD, the species formed in the plasma penetrate into the upper part of the underlying high-k dielectric layer.
  • [0012]
    The presence of both silicon and nitrogen contributes to the compatibility between the high-k dielectric layer and any other layer such as e.g. the gate electrode.
  • [0013]
    Compared to prior art methods, the formation of an interfacial layer between the high-k dielectric layer and e.g. the gate electrode layer is avoided, thus leading to improved electrical properties.
  • [0014]
    In an embodiment of the first aspect of this invention, a method as recited in any of the previous embodiments is disclosed wherein the subjecting step results in the formation of a dielectric layer comprising at least silicon and nitrogen and essentially no or no high-k material and in the formation of an intermediate layer disposed between the high-k dielectric layer and the dielectric layer, the intermediate layer comprising at least the high-k material, silicon and nitrogen.
  • [0015]
    In a preferred embodiment, the dielectric layer is selected from the group consisting of SiN, SiON and Si3N4.
  • [0016]
    In another embodiment of the first aspect of this invention, a method as recited in any of the previous embodiments is disclosed wherein the subjecting step results in the formation of an intermediate layer adjacent to the high-k dielectric layer and the dielectric layer, the intermediate layer comprising at least the high-k material, silicon and nitrogen. Preferably, the intermediate layer is on top of the high-k dielectric layer. The subjecting step results in essentially no and/or no formation at all of the dielectric layer (in the case of very thin layers).
  • [0017]
    In an embodiment of the first aspect of this invention, a method as recited in any of the previous embodiments is disclosed further comprising subjecting the substrate with the high-k dielectric layer to an oxygen comprising vapor phase reactant. In this case, the intermediate layer formed comprises oxygen in addition.
  • [0018]
    In a preferred embodiment, the silicon comprising compound or vapor phase reactant is selected from the group consisting of SiH4, Si2H6, Si3H8, SixHyClz and combinations thereof. In another preferred embodiment, the nitrogen comprising compound is selected from the group consisting of nitrogen, ammonia, N2H4, NO, N2O, and combinations thereof. In a further embodiment of the first aspect of this invention, a method as recited in any of the previous embodiments is disclosed wherein the ratio of silane:nitrogen containing compounds is in the range of 1:1 to 1:10000. Preferably, the ratio is between 1:1 and 1:1000.
  • [0019]
    In an embodiment of the first aspect of this invention, a method as recited in any of the previous embodiments is disclosed further comprising repeating the forming step and the subjecting step between 2 and 100 times, between 2 and 50 times, between 10 and 50 times, between 10 and 30 times and between 2 and 10 times.
  • [0020]
    In an embodiment of the first aspect of this invention, a method as recited in any of the previous embodiments is disclosed wherein the high-k dielectric layer comprises a high-k material selected from the group consisting of a transition metal or lanthanide oxide and a transition metal or lanthanide oxynitride. In a preferred embodiment, the high-k material is selected from the group consisting of ZrO2, HfO2, TiO2, Ta2O5, Al2O3, HfOxNy, HfN, LaxOy, LaAlO3, and/or mixtures thereof.
  • [0021]
    In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the forming step comprises subjecting the semiconducting substrate to an atomic layer deposition process.
  • [0022]
    In a preferred embodiment, the high-k material is selected from the group consisting of HfO2, HfOxNy and HfN.
  • [0023]
    In an embodiment of the first aspect of this invention, a method as recited in any of the previous embodiments is disclosed wherein the subjecting step is performed in a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) chamber at a temperature in the range of 300 to 600 degrees Celsius.
  • [0024]
    In a further embodiment of the first aspect of this invention, a method as recited in any of the previous embodiments is disclosed wherein the subjecting step is performed in a plasma-enhanced atomic layer chemical vapor deposition chamber at a temperature in the range of 300 to 600 degrees Celsius. The semiconductor substrate with the high-k dielectric layer is subjected to alternating pulses of precursor compounds, the precursor compound being a nitrogen containing vapor phase reactant or a silicon containing vapor phase reactant.
  • [0025]
    In a further embodiment of the first aspect of this invention, a method as recited in any of the previous embodiments is disclosed wherein the subjecting step is performed at a pressure in the range of 10−3 to 100 Torr. The pressure can vary, depending on the composition of reactants. For N2 as reactant, the pressure is preferably between 0.01 and 100 Torr, while for a silane reactant, the pressure is between 1 and 100 mTorr.
  • [0026]
    In a further embodiment of the first aspect of this invention, a method as recited in any of the previous embodiments is disclosed wherein the subjecting step is performed in a plasma with a plasma density in the range of 1010 to 1013 reactive species cm−3.
  • [0027]
    In another embodiment of the first aspect of this invention, a method as recited in any of the previous embodiments is disclosed wherein the high-k dielectric layer has a thickness in the range of 0.01 nm to 20 nm, 0.05 nm to 20 nm, 0.1 nm to 20 nm, 0.3 nm to 20 nm, 0.5 nm to 20 nm. The dielectric layer has a thickness in the range of 0.01 nm to 20 nm, 0.05 nm to 20 nm, 0.1 nm to 20 nm, 0.3 nm to 20 nm, 0.5 nm to 20 nm. Preferably, the thickness is below 1 nm, below 0.5 nm and below 0.3 nm. According to an embodiment of the first aspect of this invention, the dielectric layer has a thickness between 0.01 nm and 1 nm, between 0.01 nm and 0.5 nm, between 0.01 nm and 0.1 nm.
  • [0028]
    In another embodiment of the first aspect of this invention, a method as recited in any of the previous embodiments is disclosed wherein the step of forming a high-k dielectric layer on a semiconductor substrate is performed by an atomic layer deposition process (ALD). In another embodiment of the first aspect of this invention, a method as recited in any of the previous embodiments is disclosed further comprising the step of annealing the semiconductor substrate at a temperature between 500 and 1000 degrees Celsius. Preferably, the substrate is annealed at a temperature between 600 and 900 degrees Celsius. The step of annealing can be performed after each individual step or can be performed after the formation of the dielectric stack.
  • [0029]
    The method as recited in the previous embodiments can further comprise the step of depositing a conductive layer over the dielectric stack. The conductive layer can comprise silicon. The conductive layer can be polysilicon, polysilicon germanium or a metal. In a subsequent step, the dielectric stack and the electrode layer are patterned to form the desired integrated circuit.
  • [0030]
    In a second aspect of the invention, a dielectric stack in an integrated circuit is provided. The dielectric stack comprises:
      • a high-k dielectric layer comprising at least a high-k material; and
      • an intermediate layer disposed between the high-k dielectric layer and the dielectric layer, the intermediate layer comprising the high-k material, silicon and nitrogen.
  • [0033]
    In a preferred embodiment of the second aspect of this invention, a device a recited in any of the previous embodiments is disclosed wherein the dielectric stack further comprises a dielectric layer comprising at least silicon and nitrogen.
  • [0034]
    In an embodiment of the second aspect of this invention, a device as recited in any of the previous embodiments is disclosed wherein the dielectric stack is characterized by a crystallization temperature, the crystallization temperature of the dielectric stack is higher than the crystallization temperature of the high-k material.
  • [0035]
    In a preferred embodiment of the second aspect of this invention, a dielectric stack as recited in any of the previous embodiments is disclosed wherein the crystallization temperature is between 800 degrees C. and 1200 degrees C.
  • [0036]
    In another embodiment of the second aspect of this invention, the intermediate layer and the dielectric layer are formed by subjecting the semiconductor substrate with the high-k dielectric layer to a nitrogen comprising vapor phase reactant and a silicon comprising vapor phase reactant in a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition process (PECVD) or plasma-enhanced atomic layer chemical vapor deposition (PE ALCVD) process.
  • [0037]
    In another embodiment of the second aspect of this invention, the high-k layer is formed by subjecting the semiconductor substrate to an atomic layer deposition process.
  • [0038]
    In another embodiment of the second aspect of this invention, a dielectric stack as recited in any of the previous embodiments is disclosed wherein a sequence of the high-k dielectric layer, the intermediate layer and the dielectric layer is repeated between 3 and 60 times. In a preferred embodiment, a dielectric stack is provided wherein between one of the high-k dielectric layers and an adjacent one of the dielectric layers an intermediate layer is disposed, the intermediate layer comprising the dielectric material, silicon and nitrogen.
  • [0039]
    In another embodiment, the dielectric layer and the intermediate layer further comprise oxygen.
  • [0040]
    In another embodiment of the second aspect of this invention, a dielectric stack as recited in any of the previous embodiments is disclosed wherein the dielectric layer does essentially not comprise the high-k material. In a preferred embodiment, the intermediate layer comprises the high-k material, nitrogen and silicon and optionally oxygen.
  • [0000]
    In another embodiment, the stack as recited in any of the previous embodiments comprises a dielectric layer selected from the group consisting of SiN, SiON, and Si3N4.
    In another embodiment of the second aspect of this invention, a dielectric stack as recited in any of the previous embodiments is disclosed wherein the high-k dielectric layer comprises a compound selected from the group consisting of a transition metal oxide or a transition metal oxynitride. In a preferred embodiment, the high-k dielectric layer comprises a high-k dielectric material selected from the group consisting of ZrO2, HfO2, TiO2, Ta2O5, Al2O3, HfOxNy, HfN and/or mixtures thereof. More preferably, the high-k dielectric material is selected from the group consisting of HfO2, HfOxNy and HfN.
  • [0041]
    In a further embodiment of the second aspect of this invention, a dielectric stack as recited in any of the previous embodiment is disclosed wherein the high-k dielectric layer has a thickness between 0.5 nm to 20 nm.
  • [0042]
    In a further embodiment of the second aspect of this invention, a dielectric stack as recited in any of the previous embodiment is disclosed wherein the dielectric layer has a thickness in the range of 0.01 nm to 20 nm, 0.05 nm to 20 nm, 0.1 nm to 20 nm, 0.3 nm to 20 nm, 0.5 nm to 20 nm. Preferably, the thickness is below 1 nm, below 0.5 nm and below 0.3 nm. According to an embodiment of the second aspect of this invention, the dielectric layer has a thickness between 0.01 nm and 1 nm, between 0.01 nm and 0.5 nm, between 0.01 nm and 0.1 nm.
  • [0043]
    In an embodiment of the invention, the intermediate layer comprises Hf, nitrogen and silicon and oxygen.
  • [0044]
    Preferably the dielectric layer of the stack is selected from the group consisting of SiN, SiON and Si3N4.
  • [0045]
    In a third aspect of this invention, a MOS transistor is disclosed. The MOS transistor comprises:
  • [0046]
    a gate electrode;
  • [0047]
    a channel region having an upper surface underlying the gate electrode; and
  • [0048]
    a dielectric stack being interposed between the gate electrode and the upper surface of the channel region, the dielectric stack comprising a high-k dielectric layer comprising at least a high-k material, a dielectric layer comprising at least silicon and nitrogen and an intermediate layer between the high-k dielectric layer and the dielectric layer, the intermediate layer comprising the high-k material, silicon and nitrogen.
  • [0049]
    The dielectric stack is characterized by the features as disclosed in the second aspect of the invention.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES
  • [0050]
    The FIG. 1 a represents a flow chart of a method of forming a dielectric stack according to a preferred embodiment of the invention.
  • [0051]
    The FIG. 1 b represents a flow chart of a method of forming a dielectric stack according to another preferred embodiment of the invention.
  • [0052]
    The FIG. 2 represents a schematic view of a dielectric stack according to an embodiment of the present invention.
  • [0053]
    The FIG. 3 represents a schematic view of an integrated circuit structure according to an embodiment of the present invention.
  • [0054]
    The FIG. 4 represents a flow chart of a method of forming an integrated circuit according to a preferred embodiment of the invention.
  • [0055]
    The FIGS. 5 a-d represent the results of capacitor leakage experiments for devices obtained according to various methods.
  • [0056]
    The FIGS. 6 a-b represents a TEM picture of dielectric stacks obtained according to various methods.
  • [0057]
    The FIG. 7 represents a ToF-SIMS depth profile for a preferred embodiment of a device of the present invention.
  • [0058]
    The FIGS. 8 a-c represents X-Ray diffraction spectra of devices obtained according to various methods.
  • [0059]
    The FIG. 9 represents channel electron mobility measurements from n-MOSFET devices obtained according to various methods.
  • [0060]
    The FIG. 10 represents the cumulative distribution of gate leakage current for 30 diode/capacitor devices obtained according to different methods.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • [0061]
    In relation to the appended drawings the present invention is described in details in the sequel. It is apparent however that a person skilled in the art can imagine several other equivalent embodiments or other ways of executing the present invention.
  • [0062]
    While the invention is described in conjunction with a MOS transistor, it will be apparent to those ordinary skilled in the art that the benefits of this invention can be applied to other transistor structures and other structures such as memory cell capacitors. In particular, one ordinary skilled in the art can imagine other situations where similar electrical and physical properties at an interface are desired.
  • [0063]
    For the purpose of this invention, a Plasma enhanced CVD or plasma enhanced ALCVD process should be understood as a process wherein at least one chemical compound is subjected to a plasma source, thereby creating highly reactive species such as radicals or ions.
  • [0064]
    The term high-k dielectric layer should be understood as a layer comprising a high-k material. A high-k material is a dielectric material having a dielectric constant greater than the dielectric constant of silicon oxide and preferably greater than 10.
  • [0065]
    The high-k material can be a high-k material selected from the group consisting of a transition metal oxide or a transition metal oxynitride, a rare earth metal oxide, a rare earth metal oxynitride. Transition metals can be Group IV or Group V metals such as e.g. Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, and Ta. Rare earth metal can be Lanthanides such as e.g. So, Ce, Pr, Eu. Lanthanides meaning an element from the lanthanide series. High-k material can also include lanthanum oxide, neodymium oxide and cerium oxide. Preferably, the metal is Hafnium (Hf). Preferably, the high-k material is selected from the group consisting of ZrO2, HfO2, TiO2, Ta2O5, Al2O3, HfOxNy, HfN and/or mixtures thereof. Preferably, the high-k material is LaAlO3, ZrO2 or HfO2, more preferably ZrO2 or HfO2, more preferably HfO2.
  • [0066]
    In a first aspect of this invention, a method for forming a dielectric stack is provided, the method comprising the steps of:
  • [0067]
    forming a high-k dielectric layer on a semiconductor substrate, and
  • [0068]
    subjecting the semiconductor substrate to nitrogen comprising vapor phase reactants and silicon comprising vapor phase reactants in a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition process (PECVD) or plasma-enhanced atomic layer chemical vapor deposition (PE ALCVD) process.
  • [0069]
    Preferably, the forming step and the subjecting step are repeated n times, such that a laminate structure is formed. n can be between 2 and 100, between 3 and 70, between 3 and 60, between 3 and 50, between 3 and 40, between 2 and 30, between 2 and 20, between 2 and 10.
  • [0070]
    The method can further comprise the step of depositing a gate electrode adjacent to the dielectric layer. Preferably, the gate electrode will be deposited on top of the dielectric layer. The gate electrode can be a conducting or semiconducting material such as poly Si or poly SiGe (polysilicon germanium).
  • [0071]
    The high-k dielectric layer can be formed by ALD, ALCVD, MOCVD (metalorganic chemical vapor deposition) or sputtering.
  • [0072]
    The plasma enhancement effect can be attributed to the enhanced reactivity of nitrogen containing species produced by the plasma, either as ions or as radicals. Energy released from ion bombardment or by radicals help to promote intermixing, densification and incorporation of silicon and nitrogen into the high-k dielectric layer. The presence of both silicon and nitrogen contributes to the compatibility between the high-k dielectric layer and the gate electrode.
  • [0073]
    The dielectric layer between the high-k dielectric layer and gate electrode contributes to minimize interfacial reactions between polysilicon and high-k dielectric layer at elevated temperature.
  • [0074]
    FIG. 1 a illustrates an exemplary sequence for forming a dielectric stack in accordance with a preferred embodiment. The sequence is shown for transistor gate dielectric structures between a semiconductor substrate and a gate electrode. Initially, the semiconductor substrate can be treated for subsequential ALD deposition (11). Such a treatment can comprise water, alcohol or Ozone treatment, intended to create surface —OH groups as known to a person skilled in the art. Subsequently, a first high-k dielectric layer is deposited on the semiconductor substrate by ALD (12). A dielectric layer is deposited on the first high-k layer by PECVD (13). The dielectric layer comprises at least Si and N. This can be done in the same tool, but in different reaction chambers. This sequence of two steps can be repeated n times (14). Subsequently, a transistor gate electrode is deposited over the dielectric layer (15).
  • [0075]
    Optionally, a step of post deposition anneal can be performed before depositing the gate electrode layer to further improve the film integrity, to promote intermixing of individual components in the stack, and to further optimize oxygen-to-nitrogen ratio in the film stack.
  • [0076]
    FIG. 1 b illustrates another exemplary sequence for forming a dielectric stack in accordance with a preferred embodiment. The sequence is shown for transistor gate dielectric structures between a semiconductor substrate and a gate electrode. Initially, the semiconductor substrate can be treated for subsequential ALD deposition (11), as known by a person skilled in the art. Subsequently, a first high-k dielectric layer is deposited on the semiconductor substrate by ALD (12). A dielectric layer is deposited on the first high-k layer by PEALCVD (13). This step (13) comprises subjecting the substrate with the high-k dielectric layer to subsequent pulses of nitrogen comprising vapor phase reactants and silicon comprising vapor phase reactants. The dielectric layer comprises at least Si and N. This can be done in the same tool, but in different reaction chambers. This sequence of two steps can be repeated n times (14). Subsequently, a transistor gate electrode is deposited over the dielectric layer (15).
  • [0077]
    Optionally, a step of post deposition anneal can be performed before depositing the gate electrode layer to further improve the film integrity, to promote intermixing of individual components in the stack, and to further optimize oxygen-to-nitrogen ratio in the film stack.
  • [0078]
    In a second aspect of this invention a dielectric stack for an integrated circuit is disclosed. In an embodiment, the dielectric stack is part of a transistor gate electrode structure. FIG. 2 depicts a cross section of such a structure. The dielectric stack (24) comprises a high-k dielectric layer (21) comprising at least a high-k material, a dielectric layer (23) comprising at least silicon and nitrogen and an intermediate layer (22) between the high-k dielectric layer and the dielectric layer, the intermediate layer comprising the high-k dielectric material, silicon and nitrogen. The dielectric stack (24) can be repeated n times.
  • [0079]
    Optionally, a dielectric layer can be deposited between the substrate and the high-k dielectric layer. This layer can have the same characteristics as the dielectric layer discussed above.
  • [0080]
    The crystallization temperature of the dielectric stack is higher than the crystallization temperature of the high-k dielectric layer. The crystallization temperature is higher than 600 degrees C., higher than 700 degrees C., preferably higher than 800 degrees C. and more preferably higher than 900 degrees C. The crystallization temperature is between 800 degrees C. and 1200 degrees C., between 800 degrees C. and 1100 degrees C., and preferably between 900 degrees C. and 1000 degrees C.
  • [0081]
    The silicon and nitrogen comprising dielectric layer provides a maximum barrier to prevent interfacial reaction between the high-k dielectric layer and the conductive layer (e.g. polysilicon gate electrode) compared to any dielectric stack consisting of a high-k dielectric layer such as HfO2, HfOxNy or HfSiON based single layer dielectric layer.
  • [0082]
    FIG. 3 illustrates an integrated circuit (IC) structure. The IC (38) is formed on a semiconductor substrate (31) above an active region (36). The IC comprises a dielectric stack (37) that replaces silicon dioxide dielectric layers as known in the prior art. The IC has a dielectric stack (37) being interposed between the gate electrode (35) and the upper surface of the active region (36). The dielectric stack consists of a high-k dielectric layer (32) comprising at least a high-k material, a dielectric layer (34) comprising at least silicon and nitrogen and an intermediate layer (33) between the high-k dielectric layer and the dielectric layer, the intermediate layer comprising the high-k material, silicon and nitrogen.
  • [0083]
    The high-k material is preferably HfO2 or ZrO2, while the dielectric layer consists preferably of Si3N4 or SixOyNz. The intermediate layer consists preferably of HfSiON produced by the plasma action in the PECVD or PE-ALCVD dielectric layer deposition process. This layer is preferably a mixture of the high-k material, silicon and nitrogen. This layer is preferably a mixture of the high-k material, silicon and nitrogen.
  • [0084]
    In a preferred embodiment, the layers 32, 33 and 34 will repeat.
  • [0085]
    In a preferred embodiment, the gate electrode (35) is polysilicon and more preferably polysilicon germanium.
  • [0086]
    The thickness of the high-k dielectric layer is between 0.5 nm to 20 nm, between 0.5 nm and 10 nm, between 0.5 nm and 5 nm, between 0.5 nm and 1 nm. The thickness of dielectric layer is between 0.5 to 20 nm, between 0.5 nm and 10 nm, between 0.5 nm and 5 nm, between 0.5 nm and 1 nm. The thickness of the intermediate layer can be between 0.01 nm 2 nm, between 0.01 nm and 1 nm, between 0.01 nm and 0.5 nm.
  • [0087]
    The present invention has the advantage that the incorporation of silicon and nitrogen into the high-k dielectric layer by forming an intermediate layer of metal-silicon oxynitride, leads to improved overall structural integrity and enhanced thermal stability.
  • [0088]
    The present invention has further the advantage that the gate oxide thickness can be minimized without sacrificing the yield of the integrate circuits. The dielectric stack as provided in this invention leads to excellent equivalent oxide thickness (EOT), while maintaining leakage current reduction benefits from the high-k dielectric layer, which is beneficial since it allows scaling integrated circuits and transistors in particular.
  • [0089]
    In a preferred embodiment, a method for forming a dielectric stack is formed. The dielectric stack comprises alternating layers of HfO2, SiN and an intermediate layer comprising Hf, Si and N. The method is disclosed in FIG. 4. The method comprises the step of:
  • [0090]
    preparing a silicon surface for ALD (41);
  • [0091]
    forming a layer of HfO2 by atomic layer chemical vapor deposition (ALCVD) on the silicon substrate (42);
  • [0092]
    subjecting the silicon substrate with the HfO2 layer to a nitrogen containing species and a silicon containing species in a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition process (PECVD) (43), repeating step (42) and (43) n times, n being an integer between 0 and 100. Preferably, n is between 2 and 100, between 3 and 70, between 3 and 60, between 3 and 50, between 3 and 40, between 3 and 30, or between 2 and 10; and then
  • [0093]
    depositing a poly Si gate electrode layer (45).
  • [0094]
    This method results in the formation of a dielectric stack consisting of alternating layers of HfO2, SiN and an intermediate layer comprising Hf, Si and N. For the purpose of this invention, this dielectric stack will be referred to as the [HfO2/SiN]xZ laminate stack. Z refers to the number of times that the stack HfO2/SiN is repeated. This dielectric stack results in advantages obtained by 1) incorporation of silicon and nitrogen into the high-k material; 2) formation of an intermediate layer containing HfSiON. Consequently, high-k/polysilicon interface reaction is prevented and concurrently the thermal stability of the high-k material against crystallization is improved.
  • EXAMPLES 1. Deposition of Hafnium Dioxide (HfO2) or Hafnium Oxynitride (HfOxNy) by Atomic Layer CVD (ALCVD)
  • [0095]
    Deposition of 1st HfO2 high-k layer is achieved by ALCVD which uses sequential exposure of the starting Si wafer surface to pulses of HfCl4 and H2O precursors in a dedicated ALCVD reactor. ALCVD allows for precise HfO2 thickness control down to (sub)monolayer level by self-limiting surface reactions during the HfCl4 and H2O precursor exposure cycles, respectively.
  • [0096]
    Alternatively, deposition of 1st HfOxNy high-k dielectric is achieved by using sequential exposure of HfCl4, H2O and/or NH3 precursors in a dedicated ALCVD reactor. The oxygen-to-nitrogen ratio in the ALCVD HfOxNy dielectric can be varied by controlling the H2O to NH3 precursor cycle ratio after the prior HfCl4 exposure cycle. In the case of using NH3 precursor only, the ALCVD layer produced is pure hafnium nitride, HfN. Other precursors that can be used for producing HfO2 or HfOxNy include tetra-kis-diethylamido hafnium, TDEAH, Hf[N(C2H5)2]4 and ozone (O3).
  • [0097]
    Alternative methods to produce HfO2 or HfOxNy thin dielectric layers are MOCVD or physical (sputter) deposition with suitable precursors or targets.
  • 2. Deposition of Silicon Nitride (SiN) by Plasma-Enhanced CVD (PECVD)
  • [0098]
    Following the formation of HfO2 high-k dielectric, an ultra-thin silicon (oxy)nitride cap or intermediate layer can be readily deposited, using a remote N2-plasma plus a dilute silane (SiH4) flow in a PECVD reactor that is clustered with the ALCVD reactor. Silicon and nitrogen species are incorporated into the upper part of the underlying high-k dielectric layer in this process.
  • [0000]
    The above CVD processes are repeated twice to complete the fabrication of the stack.
  • 3. Post Deposition Anneal (PDA)
  • [0099]
    A post deposition anneal step is performed to further improve the stack integrity and promote intermixing of material between the components. Final optimization of the dielectric stack composition in terms of nitrogen and oxygen content can be made by selecting either an oxidizing, nitridizing or inert ambient along with a suitable annealing temperature. Typical inert gas ambient includes N2, Ar, He. Typical oxidizing ambient gas includes O2, NO, N2O. Typical nitridizing gas ambient without oxygen is NH3.
  • Capacitor Leakage Experiments:
  • [0100]
    Capacitor leakage experiments were performed for device structures obtained via the method described above. The gate electrode is a conducting polysilicon gate electrode. The results of the experiments are shown in FIGS. 5 and 6.
  • [0101]
    The devices comprising a dielectric stack are achieved according to the following methods:
  • [0000]
    FIG. 5 a—Sequence of Steps:
  • [0102]
    treating Si substrate to a mixture of O3 and DI water to obtain an —OH terminated surface,
  • [0103]
    subjecting Si substrate subsequently to HfCl4 and H2O precursors (one cycle) in ALD chamber, repeat this up to a total of 80 cycles, resulting in a layer of HfO2 of approximate thickness of 4 nm,
  • [0104]
    subjecting Si substrate with HfO2 layer to a mixture of silane+MRG (microwave radical generator) N2 plasma at 600 degrees C. for 15 seconds in a PECVD chamber,
  • [0105]
    deposition of the poly silicon gate layer, and
  • [0106]
    post gate electrode anneal at 1000 degrees C.
  • [0000]
    FIG. 5 b—Sequence of Steps:
  • [0107]
    treating Si substrate to a mixture of O3 and DI water to obtain an —OH terminated surface,
  • [0108]
    subjecting Si substrate subsequently to HfCl4 and H2O precursors (one cycle) in ALD chamber, repeat this up to a total of 80 cycles, resulting in a layer of HfO2 of approximate thickness of 4 nm,
  • [0109]
    subjecting Si substrate with HfO2 layer to silane without N2 plasma at 600 degrees C. for 15 seconds,
  • [0110]
    deposition of the poly silicon gate layer, and
  • [0111]
    post gate electrode anneal at 1000 degrees C.
  • [0000]
    FIG. 5 c—Sequence of Steps:
  • [0112]
    treating Si substrate to a mixture of O3 and DI water to obtain an —OH terminated surface,
  • [0113]
    subjecting Si substrate subsequently to HfCl4 and H2O precursors (one cycle) in ALD chamber, repeat this up to a total of 80 cycles, resulting in a layer of HfO2 of approximate thickness of 4 nm,
  • [0114]
    subjecting Si substrate with HfO2 layer to MRG N2 plasma in a PECVD chamber at 600 degrees C. for 15 seconds,
  • [0115]
    deposition of the poly silicon gate layer, and
  • [0116]
    post gate electrode anneal at 1000 degrees C.
  • [0000]
    FIG. 5 d—Sequence of Steps:
  • [0117]
    treating Si substrate to a mixture of O3 and DI water to obtain an —OH terminated surface,
  • [0118]
    subjecting Si substrate subsequently to HfCl4 and H2O precursors (one cycle) in ALD chamber, repeat this up to a total of 80 cycles, resulting in a layer of HfO2 of approximate thickness of 4 nm,
      • subjecting Si substrate with HfO2 layer to N2
      • post deposition anneal (PDA) treatment at 600 degrees C. for 15 seconds,
  • [0121]
    deposition of the poly silicon gate layer, and
  • [0122]
    post gate electrode anneal at 1000 degrees C.
  • [0123]
    51 in FIG. 5 refers to devices with a 100 by 100 μm2 device area, 52 refers to devices with a 50 by 50 μm2 device area, 53 refers to devices with a 30 by 30 μm2 device area.
  • [0124]
    Experiment 5 a shows low leakage current capacitor devices with well-behaved area-scaling. In the next set of comparison experiments, the effects of (a) silane and nitrogen plasma exposure; (b) silane exposure only; (c) N2-plasma exposure only and (d) N2 post deposition anneal (PDA) on 4 nm HfO2 are shown. A thermal silane exposure without the N2-plasma (FIG. 5 b) on 4 nm HfO2 did not achieve the same low leakage current as in FIG. 5 a. The plasma enhancement effect can be attributed to the enhanced reactivity of nitrogen-containing species produced by the plasma, either as ions or radicals. Energy released from ion bombardment or by radicals help to promote intermixing, densification and silicon/nitrogen incorporation into the HfO2 high-k dielectric. The presence of both silicon and nitrogen contributes to ensure polysilicon compatibility of the 4 nm HfO2 dielectric as a N2-plasma treatment alone (FIG. 5 c) or a N2 post deposition anneal treatment (FIG. 5 d) did not achieve the same low leakage current as the plasma CVD SiN—HfO2 control (FIG. 5 a). Thus, the incorporation of silicon and nitrogen into the HfO2 from the N2-plasma/silane plasma by plasma enhanced CVD process deposition process contributes to a dielectric stack with desired chemical composition and structural/electrical integrity.
  • Study of Interface Reactions
  • [0125]
    The effect of reduced interface reaction between polysilicon gate and high-k material is demonstrated in the cross-sectional TEM images shown in FIG. 6. FIG. 6 a shows a TEM of a dielectric stack. The dielectric stack is obtained by the following method:
  • [0126]
    treating Si substrate to a mixture of O3 and DI water to obtain an —OH terminated surface,
  • [0127]
    subjecting Si substrate subsequently to HfCl4 and H2O precursors (one cycle) in ALD chamber, repeat this up to a total of 80 cycles, resulting in a layer of HfO2 of approximate thickness of 4 nm,
  • [0128]
    subjecting Si substrate with HfO2 layer to a mixture of silane+MRG (microwave radical generator) N2 plasma at 600 degrees C. for 15 seconds in a PECVD chamber,
  • [0129]
    deposition of the poly silicon gate layer, and
  • [0130]
    post gate electrode anneal at 1000 degrees C.
  • [0131]
    In FIG. 6 a, 61 refers to the HfO2 layer, 62 refers to SiN layer and 63 refer to the poly Si gate electrode. The dielectric stack was obtained by the method as described for FIG. 5 a. FIG. 6 a shows that incorporation of silicon and nitrogen into bulk of the HfO2 or HfOxNy high-k dielectric layers results in the formation of an intermediate layer of hafnium-silicon oxynitride (HfSiON), leading to improved overall structural integrity and enhanced thermal stability against interface reaction with polysilicon (gate electrode). The intermediate layer formation occurs due to the plasma action from the deposition of the silicon oxynitride by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Relative ratio of Hf, O, Si, and N components can be adjusted by individual layer thickness and deposition parameters.
  • [0132]
    FIG. 6 b shows a TEM image of a dielectric stack obtained by the method:
  • [0133]
    treating Si substrate to a mixture of O3 and DI water to obtain an —OH terminated surface,
  • [0134]
    subjecting Si substrate subsequently to HfCl4 and H2O precursors (one cycle) in ALD chamber, repeat this up to a total of 80 cycles, resulting in a layer of HfO2 of approximate thickness of 4 nm,
  • [0135]
    deposition of the poly silicon gate layer, and
  • [0136]
    post gate electrode anneal at 1000 degrees C.
  • [0137]
    In FIG. 6 b, 61 refer to the HfO2 layer, 64 refer to a gray contrast haze layer, and typical for the HfO2/polySi interface due to interface reaction and 63 refers to the poly Si gate electrode.
  • [0138]
    The silicon-rich SiN layer 62 of FIG. 6 a, between the HfO2 layer and polisilicon gate electrode, provides an effective barrier to prevent undesired interfacial reaction between HfO2 and polysilicon (gate electrode) compared to any HfO2, HfOxNy or HfSiON based single layer dielectric.
  • [0139]
    An example of the intermixing of the high-k layer with silicon and nitrogen is described in the ToF SIMS depth profiles shown in FIG. 7.
  • [0140]
    The dielectric stacks are obtained by the method:
  • [0141]
    treating Si substrate to a mixture of O3 and DI water to obtain an —OH terminated surface,
  • [0142]
    subjecting Si substrate subsequently to HfCl4 and H2O precursors (one cycle) in ALD chamber, repeat this up to a total of 80 cycles, resulting in a layer of HfO2 of approximate thickness of 4 nm,
  • [0143]
    subjecting Si substrate with HfO2 layer to a mixture of silane+MRG (microwave radical generator) N2 plasma for 150 seconds in a PECVD chamber at 600 degrees C., resulting in a layer of SiN (thickness approximately 5 nm),
  • [0144]
    deposition of the poly silicon gate layer, and
  • [0145]
    post gate electrode anneal at 1000 degrees C.
  • [0146]
    ToF-SIMS depth profiles show the presence of HfN+ secondary ions (74). 71 refers in this figure to Si, 72 refers to Hf and 73 refers to SiN2, indicating the presence of an intermediate Hf(Si)-oxynitride layer between the HfO2 layer and the SiN layer.
  • [0147]
    Experimental results on crystallization temperature of the dielectric stack are shown in FIG. 8.
  • [0148]
    Binary oxides such as ZrO2 and HfO2 have a crystallization onset temperature between 450-550 degrees C. The [HfO2/SiN] laminate approach significantly increases the crystallization onset temperature to 900-1000 degrees C. FIG. 8 a-c show the x-ray diffraction spectra of the [HfO2/SiN]x10 laminate structure with 30 (FIG. 8 a), 20 (FIG. 8 b) and 15 cycles (FIG. 8 c) of HfCl4/H2O and 0.5 nm SiN (repeated 10 times). Diffraction peaks located between 5-10 degrees 2-theta angle represent reflections from the individual laminated [HfO2/SiN] layers. As a function of increasing annealing temperature, a second x-ray diffraction peak located between 2-theta angle of 29-31 degrees start to emerge at or above 900° C., indicating the crystallization of the HfO2 phase-separated from [HfO2/SiN] laminate.
  • [0149]
    The dielectric stacks were obtained according to the method:
  • [0150]
    treating Si substrate to a mixture of O3 and DI water to obtain an —OH terminated surface,
  • [0151]
    performing 10 times the sequence of steps:
  • [0152]
    subjecting Si substrate subsequently to HfCl4 and H2O precursors (one cycle) in ALD chamber, repeat this up to a total of y cycles, resulting in layer of HfO2, and
  • [0153]
    subjecting Si substrate with HfO2 layer to a mixture of silane+MRG (microwave radical generator) N2 plasma in a PECVD chamber at 550 degrees C., resulting in a layer of SiN.
  • [0154]
    Hereby, y=30 (FIG. 8 a), y=20 (FIG. 8 b), y=15 (FIG. 8 c).
  • [0155]
    FIG. 9 shows channel electron mobility measurements from nMOSFET devices fabricated with HfO2 (91), HfO2/SiN (92), and [HfO2/SiN]x2 (z=2) laminate (93) as dielectric stack. It can be seen that the [HfO2/SiN]x2 laminate (93) and the HfO2/SiN (92) has a higher peak and overall mobility compared to the HfO2 reference (91).
  • [0156]
    The dielectric stacks are obtained by the method of:
  • [0157]
    treating Si substrate to a mixture of O3 and DI water to obtain an —OH terminated surface,
  • [0158]
    subjecting Si substrate subsequently to HfCl4 and H2O precursors (one cycle) in ALD chamber, (up to a total of 80 cycles for condition 91, 60 cycles for condition 92, 20 cycles for condition 93) resulting in layer of HfO2,
  • [0159]
    subjecting Si substrate with HfO2 layer to a mixture of silane+MRG (microwave radical generator) N2 plasma in a PECVD chamber at 550 degrees C., resulting in a layer of SiN deposition of the poly silicon gate layer (only for condition 92 and 93), and optionally
  • [0160]
    repeating both subjecting steps once (only for condition 93).
  • [0161]
    FIG. 10 show the cumulative distribution of gate leakage current for a sample of 30 diode/capacitor devices. The devices are obtained according to method described above (conditions 91, 92 and 93 in FIG. 9). Both the HfO2/SiN and [HfO2/SiN]x2 (z=2) devices give near 100% yield whereas about 30% HfO2 devices fail the leakage distribution trend.

Claims (15)

1. A dielectric stack in an integrated circuit comprising
a high-k dielectric layer comprising a high-k material;
a dielectric layer comprising silicon and nitrogen; and
an intermediate layer disposed between the high-k dielectric layer and the dielectric layer, the intermediate layer comprising the high-k material, silicon, and nitrogen.
2. The dielectric stack of claim 1, wherein a crystallization temperature of the dielectric stack is higher than a crystallization temperature of the high-k material.
3. The dielectric stack of claim 1, wherein a crystallization temperature of the dielectric stack is from 800 degrees Celsius to 1200 degrees Celsius.
4. The dielectric stack of claim 1, wherein the dielectric stack comprises a sequence of the high-k dielectric layer, the intermediate layer, and the dielectric layer repeated from 3 times to 60 times.
5. The dielectric stack of claim 4, wherein an intermediate layer is disposed between one of the high-k dielectric layers and an adjacent dielectric layer.
6. The dielectric stack of claim 1, wherein the dielectric layer further comprises oxygen.
7. The dielectric stack of claim 1, wherein the dielectric layer comprises essentially no high-k material,
8. The dielectric stack of claim 1, wherein the high-k dielectric layer comprises a compound selected from the group consisting of a transition metal oxide and transition metal oxynitride.
9. The dielectric stack of claim 1, wherein the high-k dielectric layer comprises a compound selected from the group consisting of ZrO2, HfO2, TiO2, Ta2O5, Al2O3, HfOxNy, HfN, and mixtures thereof.
10. The dielectric stack of claim 1, wherein the high-k dielectric layer has a thickness of from 0.5 nm to 20 nm.
11. The dielectric stack of claim 1, wherein the dielectric layer has a thickness of from 0.5 nm to 20 nm.
12. The dielectric stack of claim 1, wherein the intermediate layer comprises Hf, nitrogen, silicon, and oxygen.
13. The dielectric stack of claim 1, wherein the dielectric layer comprises a material selected from the group consisting of SiN, SiON, and Si3N4.
14. The dielectric stack of claim 1, wherein the high-k dielectric layer is formed by an atomic layer deposition process.
15. A MOS transistor comprising:
a gate electrode;
a channel region having an upper surface underlying the gate electrode; and
a dielectric stack interposed between the gate electrode and the upper surface of the channel region, the dielectric stack comprising:
a high-k dielectric layer comprising a high-k material,
a dielectric layer comprising silicon and nitrogen, and
an intermediate layer between the high-k dielectric layer and the dielectric layer, the intermediate layer comprising the high-k material, silicon, and nitrogen.
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