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On-wafer test structures

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US20090021273A1
US20090021273A1 US12283984 US28398408A US20090021273A1 US 20090021273 A1 US20090021273 A1 US 20090021273A1 US 12283984 US12283984 US 12283984 US 28398408 A US28398408 A US 28398408A US 20090021273 A1 US20090021273 A1 US 20090021273A1
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Prior art keywords
probe
signal
differential
pads
test
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Abandoned
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US12283984
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Eric Strid
Richard Campbell
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Cascade Microtech Inc
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Cascade Microtech Inc
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01RMEASURING ELECTRIC VARIABLES; MEASURING MAGNETIC VARIABLES
    • G01R31/00Arrangements for testing electric properties; Arrangements for locating electric faults; Arrangements for electrical testing characterised by what is being tested not provided for elsewhere
    • G01R31/28Testing of electronic circuits, e.g. by signal tracer
    • G01R31/2851Testing of integrated circuits [IC]
    • G01R31/2884Testing of integrated circuits [IC] using dedicated test connectors, test elements or test circuits on the IC under test

Abstract

A test structure for characterizing integrated circuits on a wafer includes a differential cell outputting a differential mode signal in response to a differential mode input signal. The probe pads of the test structure are arrayed linearly enabling placement of the test structure in a saw street between dies.

Description

    CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • [0001]
    This application is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/716,428, filed Mar. 9, 2007, which application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional App. No. 60/813,099, filed Jun. 12, 2006.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • [0002]
    The present invention relates to integrated circuits and, more particularly to, test structures and methods for on-wafer inspection of integrated circuits and other microelectronic devices.
  • [0003]
    Integrated circuits (ICs) comprise an arrangement of basic passive and active circuit elements, such as transistors, resistors and capacitors that are fabricated on a substrate or wafer. ICs are fabricated by a process of successively depositing layers of semi-conductive, conductive or insulating materials on the wafer and selectively etching portions of the deposited material. Deposition of a semi-conductor, conductor or insulator is followed by deposition of a layer of photosensitive material. The photosensitive material is exposed to light, through a precisely aligned mask, causing portions of the material to be chemically altered. Portions of the exposed photosensitive material are removed producing a photoresist layer with a pattern corresponding to the mask. A chemical etchant, applied to the surface, selectively removes the underlying semi-conductive, conductive or insulating layer except in those areas which are protected by the remaining photoresist. The remaining portions of the semi-conductor, conductor or insulator comprise a layer of one or more of the stratified, passive or active circuit elements. The photoresist layer is removed from the exposed surface of the wafer and the process is repeated until all of the strata of the circuit's elements have been laid down.
  • [0004]
    Referring to FIG. 1, typically, a plurality of dies 22, each comprising one or more integrated circuits, are formed on the surface of a wafer or substrate 20. Following fabrication, the individual dies are separated or singulated, typically by sawing the wafer along scribe or saw streets (indicated by a bracket) 24 between the dies. Each die containing a marketable integrated circuit is encased in a package and electrical connections are provided between the exterior of the package and the integrated circuit on the enclosed die. The separation and packaging of a die comprises a significant portion of the cost of manufacturing an integrated circuit device. To monitor and control the fabrication process and avoid the cost of packaging defective dies, manufacturers commonly add electrical circuits or test structures 26 to the wafer that enable on-wafer inspection before the dies are singulated.
  • [0005]
    A wafer typically includes a plurality of test structures 26 that are distributed about the surface of the wafer enabling a portion of the wafer containing a defect to be isolated and identified by the testing. Referring to FIG. 2, a test structure 40 typically comprises a device under test (DUT) 42, a plurality of bond or probe pads 44 and a plurality of vias 46 connecting the probe pads on the surface of the substrate 20 to the circuit elements of the DUT which are typically fabricated beneath the surface. A DUT typically comprises a simple circuit that includes a copy of one or more of the basic elements of the marketable integrated circuit, such as a single line of conducting material, a chain of vias or a single transistor. The circuit elements of the DUT are typically produced with the same process and in the same layers of the wafer as corresponding elements of the marketable ICs. The marketable ICs are typically characterized “on-wafer” by applying a test instrument generated signal to the test structure and measuring the response of the test structure to the signal. Since the circuit elements of the DUT are fabricated with the same process as the corresponding elements of the integrated circuit, the electrical properties of the DUT are expected to be representative of the electrical properties of the corresponding components of the marketable ICs.
  • [0006]
    Many integrated circuits utilize single ended or ground referenced signaling that is referenced a ground plane, typically, at the lower surface of the substrate on which the active and passive devices of the circuit are fabricated. As a result of the physical make up of the devices of an integrated circuit, parasitic interconnections exist between many of the parts of the individual devices and between parts of the devices and the wafer on which the devices are fabricated. These interconnections are commonly capacitive and/or inductive in nature and have frequency dependent impedances. For example, the terminals of transistors fabricated on semi-conductive substrates or wafers are typically capacitively interconnected, through the substrate, to the ground plane. The impedance of this parasitic capacitive interconnection is frequency dependent and at higher frequencies the ground potential and the true nature of ground referenced signals becomes uncertain.
  • [0007]
    Balanced or differential devices utilizing differential signals are more tolerant to poor radio frequency (RF) grounding than single ended devices making them attractive for high performance ICs. A differential gain cell 50 is a balanced device comprising two nominally identical circuit halves 50A, 50B. When the transistors 52 of the differential gain cell are biased with a dc voltage, for example from a current source 54, and stimulated with a differential mode signal, comprising even (Si +1) and odd (Si −1) mode components of equal amplitude and opposite phase, a virtual ground is established at the symmetrical axis 56 of the two circuit halves. At the virtual ground, the potential at the operating frequency does not change with time regardless of the amplitude of the stimulating signal. The quality of the virtual ground of a balanced device is independent of the physical ground path and, therefore, balanced or differential circuits can tolerate poor RF grounding better than circuits operated with single ended signals. In addition, the two waveforms of the differential output signal (So +1 and So −1) are mutual references providing faster and more certain transitioning from one binary value to the other for digital devices and enabling operation with a reduced voltage swing for the signal. Moreover, balanced or differential circuits have good immunity to noise, including noise at even-harmonic frequencies, because noise from external sources, such as adjacent conductors, tends to couple, electrically and electromagnetically, in the common mode and cancel in the differential mode and signals that are of opposite phase at the fundamental frequency are in phase at the even harmonics. Improved tolerance to poor RF grounding, increased resistance to noise and reduced power consumption make differential devices attractive for ICs that operate at higher frequencies. A differential gain cell is a common elemental device of differential or balanced circuits and a test structure comprising a differential gain cell enables on wafer testing and characterization of differential devices included in marketable ICs fabricated on the wafer.
  • [0008]
    As illustrated in FIG. 1, test structures are often fabricated on areas of the wafer that could otherwise be occupied by one or more dies containing the marketable integrated circuits. However, manufacturers face continuous pressure to reduce the cost of IC devices by increasing the number of dies fabricated on a wafer. Since the test structures serve no purpose after the dies are singulated, manufacturers have sought to locate the test structures in the saw streets between dies and, at the same time, to reduce the width of the saw streets to maximize utilization of the substrate's surface area.
  • [0009]
    While a DUT is usually small, the size of the test structure is typically determined by the area occupied by the probe pads. Test structures incorporating balanced devices typically require large areas of the wafer's surface because five probe pads 80, 82, 84, 86, 88 are required to sink and source the four differential signal components and bias the device. Two probes 60, 62 are required to facilitate simultaneous engagement of five probe pads with five probe tips 70, 72, 74, 76, 78. The probe pads of a differential test structure are typically arranged around the perimeter of the area in which the DUT is fabricated enabling a probe to be positioned on either side of the test structure. The size and separation of the individual probe pads are dictated by the need to co-locate the probe pads and the probe tips during testing and avoid interference between the adjacent conductors. Likewise, facilitating engagement of the probe pads with two probes and avoiding crosstalk between the two closely located probes dictates the separation between the rows of probe pads on either side of the test structure. However, locating two sets of interconnected probe pads in a saw street for simultaneous engagement by two probes that are relatively large compared to the features on the wafer has proven to be difficult.
  • [0010]
    What is desired, therefore, is a test structure including a DUT useful for testing integrated circuits comprising differential or balanced devices which can be fabricated in the saw streets between dies on a wafer or substrate.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • [0011]
    FIG. 1 is a top view of an exemplary wafer on which integrated circuits are fabricated.
  • [0012]
    FIG. 2 is a perspective view of a portion of a substrate comprising a test structure including a differential gain cell and a fragmentary representation of two probes arranged to probe the test structure.
  • [0013]
    FIG. 3 is a schematic illustration of a probe measurement system for testing a differential test structure.
  • [0014]
    FIG. 4 is a perspective view of a portion of a substrate comprising a differential test structure including a linear array of probe pads.
  • [0015]
    FIG. 5 is a schematic illustration of a second embodiment of a differential test structure including a linear array of probe pads .
  • [0016]
    FIG. 6 is a schematic illustration of a third embodiment of a differential test structure including a linear array of probe pads .
  • [0017]
    FIG. 7 is a schematic illustration of a fourth embodiment of a differential test structure including a linear array of probe pads.
  • [0018]
    FIG. 8 is a schematic illustration of a Gilbert cell.
  • [0019]
    FIG. 9 is a top view of a portion of wafer including a pair of differential test structures fabricated at an intersection of two saw streets.
  • [0020]
    FIG. 10 is a top view of a portion of wafer including another pair of differential test structures fabricated at an intersection of two saw streets.
  • [0021]
    FIG. 11 is a top view of a portion of wafer including an additional embodiment of a differential test structure fabricated at an intersection of two saw streets.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
  • [0022]
    The expected operation of integrated circuits (ICs) is commonly predicted by on-wafer characterization. The characterization is commonly performed by stimulating a test structure with a signal generated by a test instrument and measuring the signal produced in response to the stimulation. The test structure typically comprises a device-under-test (DUT) conductively connected to a plurality of probe or bond pads located on the surface of the wafer on which the marketable ICs are fabricated. The DUT typically comprises a relatively simple circuit that includes one or more active or passive circuit elements that correspond to circuit elements included in the marketable ICs. Much of the circuitry of the DUT is typically fabricated below the surface of the wafer with the same process of successive deposition and etching of layers of conductive, semi-conductive and insulating materials that is used to fabricate the corresponding components of the marketable ICs. Since the components of the DUT are fabricated with the same process that is used to produce the components of the marketable ICs, it is anticipated that the operation of the DUT, when stimulated by the test signal, will be representative of the operation of the corresponding components of the ICs if stimulated by a similar signal.
  • [0023]
    Interconnections between the test instrumentation and the DUT commonly exhibit frequency dependent electrical characteristics or parasitics which must be accounted for, particularly, at high frequencies, if the operation of the DUT is to be determined accurately. For example, the probes that commonly enable temporary connection of the instrumentation to the test structure typically comprise a plurality of interconnected transmission lines of differing types and each transition can produce a frequency dependent effect on the signal. Within the test structure, vias connecting the probe pads, deposited at the surface of the wafer, to the components of the DUT, located below the wafer's surface, have a finite inductance. As a result, the admittances of the vias are frequency dependent and must be accounted for to enable accurate measurement of the DUT's operation. A process known as “de-embedding” in which the test instrumentation is used to stimulate and measure the response of a plurality of known sample test structures is widely used to mathematically account for these effects so that the signals at the input and output terminals of the DUT can be accurately assessed.
  • [0024]
    However, some parasitics also arise internally in the DUT making de-embedding difficult or impossible and the frequency dependent effects of these parasitics may make assessment of the signal at the DUT's terminals unreliable. Integrated circuits are commonly unbalanced devices that utilize single ended (ground referenced) signals. Typically, the lower surface of the wafer serves as the ground plane for the circuit devices, including devices in a test structure, that are fabricated on the upper surface of the substrate. However, the terminals of circuit elements fabricated on semi-conductive substrates are capacitively interconnected through the substrate to the substrate's lower surface. The impedance of the capacitive interconnections to the circuit's ground plane varies with frequency producing uncertainty concerning the ground potential and, therefore, the true nature of the single ended signals at the terminals of the DUT particularly at higher frequencies, such as radio frequencies (RF).
  • [0025]
    A balanced device, responsive to differential signals, is known to be more tolerant than an unbalanced device to ground potential variation such as that encountered during operation at higher frequencies. Referring in detail to the drawings where similar parts are identified by like reference numerals, and, more particularly to FIG. 2, a differential gain cell 50, a balanced device, comprises two nominally identical circuit halves 50A, 50B. When biased with a DC voltage, from a source such as a current source 54 or another potential referenced to ground, and stimulated with a differential mode signal, comprising even (Si +1) and odd (Si −1) mode components of equal amplitude and opposite phase, a virtual ground is established at the symmetrical axis 56 of the two circuit halves. At the virtual ground, the potential at the operating frequency does not change with time regardless of the amplitude of the stimulating signal. The quality of the virtual ground of a balanced device is independent of the physical ground path and, therefore, balanced or differential circuits can tolerate poor radio frequency (RF) grounding better than circuits operated with single ended signals. In addition, noise from external sources, such as adjacent conductors, tends to couple, electrically and electromagnetically, in the common mode and cancel in the differential mode. As a result, balanced or differential circuits have good immunity to noise including noise at even-harmonic frequencies since signals that are of opposite phase at the fundamental frequency are in phase at the even harmonics.
  • [0026]
    While balanced devices provide enhanced signal integrity at higher frequencies and reduced interference from external noise, the use of balanced devices in DUTs of test structures is limited. Two probes 60, 62 are typically required to supply the DC bias to the balanced device and to conduct the phase or even mode and anti-phase or odd mode components of the differential input signals to the device and the even mode and odd mode components of the differential output signals from the device. A test structure comprising a balanced device is typically relatively large to accommodate at least five probe pads 80, 82, 84, 86, 88 and probing with two probes. The inventors concluded that if a test structure comprising a balanced or differential device could be fabricated in a saw street between dies and probed with a single probe the area of the surface of the substrate that is useable for fabricating marketable ICs could be substantially increased, reducing the cost of fabricating and testing ICs that utilize differential signaling.
  • [0027]
    Referring to FIG. 3, the test structure 100 comprises a DUT 102 that includes a differential gain cell 104 that is responsive to a differential input signal. The differential input signal comprises an even mode component (Si +1) and an odd mode component (Si −1) that has substantially the same amplitude as the even mode component but which is opposite in phase of the even mode component. The differential gain cell 104 comprises two substantially identical field effect (JFET) transistors 106A and 106B. However, a DUT typically comprises components corresponding to the components utilized in the marketable integrated circuits fabricated on the wafer and, referring to FIGS. 5 and 6 other types of transistors, such as MOSFET transistors 252A, 252B or bipolar junction (BJT) transistors 304A, 304B can be used in the construction of the differential gain cell. Differential gain cells comprising pairs of transistors are common elementary devices used in differential circuitry and, referring to FIG. 8, differential gain cells 402 comprising pairs of transistors are commonly used in more complex circuits such as a Gilbert cell 400.
  • [0028]
    The source terminals of the transistors 106A and 106B are interconnected as a bias terminal 110 of the differential gain cell. The bias terminal is interconnected to a centrally located bias probe pad 120. The bias probe pad is interconnected, typically through a contact tip 130 of a probe, to a source of DC voltage, for example a ground 140 or a current mirror, which provides the DC bias for the transistors of the differential gain cell.
  • [0029]
    The gates of the transistors comprise a first pair of signal terminals 116, 118 of the DUT and are connected to respective signal probe pads 126, 128 which are, in turn, connectible, typically through respective contact tips 136, 138 of a probe, to a test instrument 146, typically a network analyzer. The drains of the transistors of the differential gain cell comprise a second pair of signal terminals 112, 114 of the DUT which are interconnected to respective probe pads 122, 124. These probe pads are connectible, typically, through contact tips 132, 134 of a probe to the test instrument. The test instrument comprises, generally, a source 142 of a differential input signal to the DUT comprising an even mode component, Si +1, and an odd mode component, Si −1; a sink 144 for the differential output signal of the DUT comprising an even mode component, So +1, and an odd mode component, So −1. A reversing switch 148 enables reversing the connections between the test instrument's differential signal source and sink and the respective pairs of signal probe pads. With the reversing switch in the illustrated position, the components of the differential input signals (Si +1 and Si −1) are applied to probe pads 126 and 128 and sunk at the terminals 116 and 118 of the DUT and the output signals (So +1 and So −1) are sourced from the terminals 112 and 114 through the probe pads 122 and 124. By actuating the reversing switch, the input signals (Si +1 and Si −1) can be applied to probe pads 122 and 124 sinking the input signals at terminals 112 and 114. As a result, the output signal components (So +1 and So −1) are sourced from terminals 116 and 118 and transmitted from probe pads 126 and 128 to the sink of the test instrument. The operation of the test structure is typically tested by launching a differential input signal to one pair of signal terminals of the differential gain cell and capturing the differential and common mode output signals transmitted, in response to the input signal, from the other pair of signal terminals.
  • [0030]
    While the test structure 40 can be fabricated in an area that could otherwise be occupied by one or more marketable ICs, the area required for the probe pads is too large to make locating the test structure in a saw street practical. The inventors concluded that a differential test structure could be fabricated in a saw street between dies on a wafer by arranging the four signal probe pads of the structure in a linear array such that the probe pads could be contacted by respective probe tips of a movable probe. The probe tips have contact areas with centroids arranged in a substantially straight line. Further, signal transmission for the test structure would benefit from a substantially symmetrical arrangement of signal probe pads in relation to one or more bias probe pads which may also be included in the linear array of probe pads. Referring to FIG. 4, the test structure 150 can be fabricated in an area of the wafer that would otherwise be occupied by a die containing a marketable IC. However, advantageously, the test structure 150 may be fabricated in a saw street 24 (indicated by a bracket) bounded by dies 182, 184 fabricated on a substrate 20. Typically, the DUT 152 is relatively small and comprises circuit elements that are fabricated beneath the final surface of the wafer. Five probe pads 160, 162, 164, 166, and 168 through which the DUT is biased and through which the differential signals are communicated to and from the DUT are arranged in a linear array with each probe pad of the array located proximate at least one other probe pad of the array and with the centroids of the probe pads being arranged in a substantially straight line. The probe pads of the test structure comprise a linear array of two pairs of signal probe pads; a pair of input/output probe pads 166, 168 and a pair of output/input probe pads 162, 164; that are arranged substantially symmetrical with one or more bias probe pads. The linear array of probe pads enables placement of the test structure in a saw street only slightly wider than the probe pads. The probe pads are accessible with a single movable probe 188 having a plurality of contact tips 190 arranged to be co-locatable with respective probe pads and having contact points or areas with centroids arranged in a substantially straight line. The probe pads are conductively connected to respective terminals of the DUT by vias 186 that extend from the surface of the wafer to the subsurface strata in which the circuit elements of the DUT are fabricated.
  • [0031]
    In the test structure 100, the modes of the input and output signals at adjacent probe pads are the same. For example, sinking the even mode input signal (Si +1) at the probe pad 126 causes the even mode output signal (So +1) to be transmitted from probe pad 122. Referring to FIG. 5, in a second embodiment of the test structure 250 the mode of the input and output signals at adjacent probe pads are inverted. For example, when the odd mode input signal (Si −1) is applied to the probe pad 264 and the even mode input signal (Si +1) is applied to probe pad 262, the even mode output signal (So −1) is transmitted from probe pad 268 adjacent to probe pad 264 and the odd mode output signal (So −1) is transmitted from the probe pad 266 adjacent to probe pad 262. The gates of the transistors 252B, 252A of the DUT 251 are connected, respectively, to the second signal terminal 272 and the third signal terminal 274. The drain of the transistor 252B is connected to the fourth signal terminal 278 which is interconnected to probe pad 268 and the drain of transistor 252A is connected to the first signal terminal 276 and probe pad 266. As a result, the modes of the input and output signals at adjacent probe pads are inverted.
  • [0032]
    An additional alternative embodiment of the differential test structure 300 with linearly arrayed probe pads is illustrated in FIG. 6. The additional embodiment comprises a DUT 302 including a differential gain cell comprising matched BJT transistors 304A, 304B. The gates of the transistors comprise the first and fourth differential signal terminals 326, 328 of the DUT and are conductively interconnected to respective probe pads 316, 318 through which a differential mode signal can be sunk or sourced. Correspondingly, a differential signal can be respectively sourced or sunk through the probe pads 312 and 314 which are interconnected, respectively, to the second and third signal terminals 322 and 328 of the DUT comprising the respective collectors of the differential cell transistors. The interconnected emitters of the two transistors comprise the bias terminal 320 of the DUT. Bias is provided to the differential gain cell at a centrally located probe pad 310 that is interconnected to the bias terminal. The bias terminal is also conductively interconnected to a pair of probe pads 332, 334 that are located at the respective ends of the linear array of probe pads and which are connectable, through respective probe tips 338, to the source of DC bias 336 for the DUT. The additional DC biased probe pads at the respective ends of the linear array of probe pads improve the symmetry of the electromagnetic fields and reduce the crosstalk between the signal probe pads and the centrally located bias probe pad.
  • [0033]
    Referring to FIG. 7, an additional embodiment of the differential test structure 350 comprises a linear array of six probe pads 352, 354, 356, 358, 362, 364. The differential input and output signals are conducted to and from the signal probe pads 352, 354 which are interconnected to the first pair of signal terminals 322, 324 connected to the collectors of the transistors 304A and 304B of the DUT 351 and signal probe pads 356, 358 which are interconnected to the second pair of signal terminals 326, 328 connected to the bases of the transistors. The emitters of the transistors are connected to the bias terminal 320 of the cell which is in turn connected to bias probe pads 362, 364 at the extremes of the linear array of probe pads. The DC biased probe pads at the respective ends of the linear array of probe pads provide symmetry in the electromagnetic fields and the centrally located bias probe pad is eliminated reducing the length of the linear array of probe pads.
  • [0034]
    The test structures can be further concentrated by locating the linear arrays of probe pads at the intersections of saw streets 24 between dies 22 on a wafer 20. Referring to FIG. 9, the linear arrays 500 of probe pads comprise up to seven probe pads with a central bias probe pad 502 located between two pairs of signal probe pads 504, 506. The bias probe pad located in the intersection of the saw streets 24 can be common to a DUT 508 in the north-south saw street and a DUT 510 located in the east-west saw street because the probe tips 514 of the probe 512 are arranged supply signals to only one set of signal probe pads at a time. The probe pads of the test structures can include additional bias probe pads 516 at each end of each linear array of probe pads. Referring to FIG. 10, linear arrays of six probe pads 550 comprising two pairs of signal probe pads 552, 554 and a pair of bias probe pads 556, 558, one located at each end to the array, can be fabricated in the intersection of the east-west and north-south streets 24. The bias probe pad 556 in the intersection can be connected to each of the four DUTs 570, 572, 574, 576 in the streets leading to the intersection because the probe tips 562 of probe 560 will supply signals to the signal probe pads of only one array of probe pads at a time.
  • [0035]
    FIG. 11 illustrates another embodiment of a compact differential test structure 600 fabricated at the intersection of saw streets 24A and 24B (indicated by brackets) separating a plurality of dies 22 on a substrate 20. The test structure comprises a DUT 42 fabricated below the surface of the wafer and a plurality probe pads. Four signal probe pads, comprising a pair of input/output probe pads 602 and 604 and a pair of output/input probe pads 606 and 608, are arranged in a linear array in a first saw street 24A. The four probe pads are co-locatable with respective contact areas of four probe tips 622, 624, 626, 628 on a probe 620. The contact areas of the four probe tips are arranged in a substantially straight line. The bias probe pad 610 is fabricated in the second saw street 24B such that it is co-locatable with a bias probe tip 630 of the probe 620. The probe pads of the pair of input/output signal probe pads 602, 604 and the pair of output/input probe pads 606, 608 are arranged substantially symmetrical with regard to the bias probe pad.
  • [0036]
    A test structure comprising a balanced or differential device and having a plurality of probe pads arranged in a linear array enables fabrication of the test structure in a saw street between dies increasing the area of the substrate available for fabricating marketable integrated circuits reducing the cost of the marketable ICs and the cost of on wafer characterization of the ICs.
  • [0037]
    The detailed description, above, sets forth numerous specific details to provide a thorough understanding of the present invention. However, those skilled in the art will appreciate that the present invention may be practiced without these specific details. In other instances, well known methods, procedures, components, and circuitry have not been described in detail to avoid obscuring the present invention.
  • [0038]
    All the references cited herein are incorporated by reference.
  • [0039]
    The terms and expressions that have been employed in the foregoing specification are used as terms of description and not of limitation, and there is no intention, in the use of such terms and expressions, of excluding equivalents of the features shown and described or portions thereof, it being recognized that the scope of the invention is defined and limited only by the claims that follow.

Claims (18)

1. A test structure for characterizing a circuit fabricated on die on a substrate, said test structure comprising:
(a) a differential cell to output a differential output signal at a first signal terminal and a second signal terminal in response to a differential input signal applied to a third signal terminal and a fourth signal terminal and, alternatively, to output a differential output signal at said third signal terminal and said fourth signal terminal in response to a differential input signal applied to said first signal terminal and said second signal terminal application of a bias to a bias terminal of said differential cell;
(b) a first probe pad interconnected said third signal terminal;
(c) a second probe pad adjacent to said first probe pad and interconnected with said first signal terminal;
(d) a third probe pad adjacent to said second probe pad and interconnected with said bias terminal;
(e) a fourth probe pad adjacent to said third probe pad and interconnected to said second signal terminal; and
(f) a fifth probe pad adjacent to said fourth probe pad and interconnected to said fourth signal terminal.
2. The test structure of claim 1 wherein said first, said second, said third, said fourth and said fifth probe pads are located within a saw street bounded by a first die and a second die.
3. The test structure of claim 1 wherein said differential input signal comprises a first input signal and a second input signal, said second input signal having a phase opposite said first input signal, and said differential output signal comprises a first output signal and a second output signal, said second output signal having a phase opposite said first output signal, and said phase of said signal at said first probe pad is inverted relative to said phase of said signal at said second probe pad.
4. The test structure of claim 1 wherein said differential input signal comprises a first input signal and a second input signal, said second input signal having a phase opposite said first input signal, and said differential output signal comprises a first output signal and a second output signal, said second output signal having a phase opposite said first input signal, and said phase of said signal at said first probe pad is the same as said phase of said signal at said second probe pad.
5. The test structure of claim 1 wherein said first, said second, said third, said fourth and said fifth probe pads are arrayed substantially linearly on said wafer.
6. The test structure of claim 5 wherein said probe pads of said linear array are located within a saw street bounded a first die and a second die fabricated on said substrate.
7. A test structure for characterizing a circuit fabricated on die on a substrate, said test structure comprising:
(a) a differential cell to output a differential output signal at a first signal terminal and a second signal terminal in response to a differential input signal applied to a third signal terminal and a fourth signal terminal and, alternatively, to output a differential output signal at said third signal terminal and said fourth signal terminal in response to a differential input signal applied to said first signal terminal and said second signal terminal application of a bias to a bias terminal of said differential cell;
(b) a first probe pad interconnected to said bias terminal
(c) a second probe pad adjacent to said first probe pad and interconnected with said third signal terminal;
(d) a third probe pad adjacent to said second probe pad and interconnected with said first signal terminal;
(e) a fourth probe pad adjacent to said third probe pad and interconnected with said bias terminal;
(f) a fifth probe pad adjacent to said fourth probe pad and interconnected to said second signal terminal; and
(g) a sixth probe pad adjacent to said fifth probe pad and interconnected to said fourth signal terminal.
(h) a seventh probe pad adjacent said sixth probe pad and interconnected to said bias terminal.
8. The test structure of claim 7 wherein said first, said second, said third, said fourth, said fifth, said sixth and said seventh probe pads are located within a saw street bounded by a first die and a second die.
9. The test structure of claim 7 wherein said differential input signal comprises a first input signal and a second input signal, said second input signal having a phase opposite said first input signal, and said differential output signal comprises a first output signal and a second output signal, said second output signal having a phase opposite said first output signal, and said phase of said signal at said second probe pad is inverted relative to said phase of said signal at said third probe pad.
10. The test structure of claim 7 wherein said differential input signal comprises a first input signal and a second input signal, said second input signal having a phase opposite said first input signal, and said differential output signal comprises a first output signal and a second output signal, said second output signal having a phase opposite said first output signal, and said phase of said signal at said second probe pad is the same as said phase of said signal at said third probe pad.
11. The test structure of claim 7 wherein said first, said second, said third, said fourth and said fifth, said sixth and said seventh probe pads are arrayed substantially linearly on said wafer.
12. The test structure of claim 11 wherein said probe pads of said linear array are located within a saw street bounded a first die and a second die fabricated on said substrate.
13. A test structure for characterizing a circuit fabricated on die on a substrate, said test structure comprising:
(a) a differential cell to output a differential output signal at a first signal terminal and a second signal terminal in response to a differential input signal applied to a third signal terminal and a fourth signal terminal and, alternatively, to output a differential output signal at said third signal terminal and said fourth signal terminal in response to a differential input signal applied to said first signal terminal and said second signal terminal application of a bias to a bias terminal of said differential cell;
(b) a first probe pad interconnected to said bias terminal
(c) a second probe pad adjacent to said first probe pad and interconnected with said third signal terminal;
(d) a third probe pad adjacent to said second probe pad and interconnected with said first signal terminal;
(e) a fourth probe pad adjacent to said third probe pad and interconnected to said second signal terminal; and
(f) a fifth probe pad adjacent to said fourth probe pad and interconnected to said fourth signal terminal; and
(g) a sixth probe pad proximate said fifth probe pad and interconnected to said bias terminal.
14. The test structure of claim 13 wherein said first, said second, said third, said fourth, said fifth and said sixth probe pads are located within a saw street bounded by a first die and a second die.
15. The test structure of claim 13 wherein said differential input signal comprises a first input signal and a second input signal, said second input signal having a phase opposite said first input signal, and said differential output signal comprises a first output signal and a second output signal, said second output signal having a phase opposite said first output signal, and said phase of said signal at said second probe pad is inverted relative to said phase of said signal at said third probe pad.
16. The test structure of claim 13 wherein said differential input signal comprises a first input signal and a second input signal, said second input signal having a phase opposite said first input signal, and said differential output signal comprises a first output signal and a second output signal, said second output signal having a phase opposite said first output signal, and said phase of said signal at said second probe pad is the same as said phase of said signal at said third probe pad.
17. The test structure of claim 13 wherein said first, said second, said third, said fourth and said fifth and said sixth probe pads are arrayed substantially linearly on said wafer.
18. The test structure of claim 13 wherein said probe pads of said linear array are located within a saw street bounded a first die and a second die fabricated on said substrate.
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US7443186B2 (en) 2008-10-28 grant

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