CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION
- FIELD OF THE INVENTION
This application is a Continuation application of U.S. Ser. No. 10/729,159 filed on 8 Dec. 2003 which is a Continuation application of U.S. Ser. No. 09/113,057 filed on Jul. 10, 1998. The contents of Ser. Nos. 10/729,159 and 09/113,057 are incorporated herein in entirety by reference.
- BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
The present disclosure relates to a data processing method and apparatus and, in particular, discloses a camera operable to manipulate an image taken by a camera, and a method of manipulating the image.
- SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
Camera systems that provide for the creation of instant images on demand in a similar manner to an instant Polaroid™ camera are known. Such systems include means for insertion of a card to manipulate the printed image to produce interesting effects.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
According to one aspect of the present disclosure, a method of operating a handheld camera comprises causing a sensor to sense an image, supplying predetermined data to an input of the camera via a card on which the predetermined data is disposed, and causing a processing system to obtain the image from the sensor, determine a card image in accordance with signals received from the input, rotate the card image in accordance with a skew of the card with respect to the input, and manipulate the image in accordance with the predetermined data to thereby generate a manipulated image.
Notwithstanding any other forms which may fall within the scope of the present invention, preferred forms of the invention will now be described, by way of example only, with reference to the accompanying drawings in which:
FIG. 1 illustrates an Artcam device constructed in accordance with the preferred embodiment;
FIG. 2 is a schematic block diagram of the main Artcam electronic components;
FIG. 3 is a schematic block diagram of the Artcam Central Processor;
FIG. 3( a) illustrates the VLIW Vector Processor in more detail;
FIG. 4 illustrates a pixel data configuration;
FIG. 5 illustrates a pixel processing process;
FIG. 6 illustrates a schematic block diagram of the display controller;
FIG. 7 illustrates the image pyramid storage format;
FIG. 8 illustrates a time line of the process of sampling an Artcard;
FIG. 9 illustrates the super sampling process;
FIG. 10 illustrates the process of reading a rotated Artcard;
FIG. 11 illustrates a flow chart of the steps necessary to decode an Artcard;
FIG. 12 illustrates an enlargement of the left hand corner of a single Artcard;
FIG. 13 illustrates a single target for detection;
FIG. 14 illustrates the method utilised to detect targets;
FIG. 15 illustrates the process of centroid drift;
FIG. 16 shows one form of centroid lookup table;
FIG. 17 illustrates the centroid updating process;
FIG. 18 illustrates a delta processing lookup table utilised in the preferred embodiment;
FIG. 19 illustrates the process of unscrambling Artcard data;
FIG. 20 illustrates an actual implementation of a diffuse calculation;
FIG. 21 illustrates an example illumination calculation for a single infinite light source; image with an associated bump-map;
FIG. 22 illustrates the logical layout of a single printhead;
FIG. 23 illustrates the process of rotation of a Lab image;
FIG. 24 illustrates the process of generating an 8 bit dot output;
FIG. 25 illustrates a perspective view of the card reader;
FIG. 26 illustrates a perspective view of the print roll and print head;
FIG. 27 illustrates a first exploded perspective view of the print roll;
FIG. 28 illustrates a second exploded perspective view of the print roll;
FIG. 29 illustrates the print roll authentication chip;
FIG. 30 illustrates an enlarged view of the print roll authentication chip;
FIG. 31 is an exploded perspective, in section, of the print head ink supply mechanism;
FIG. 32 is a bottom perspective of the ink head supply unit;
FIG. 33 is a top perspective of the ink head supply unit;
FIG. 34 is a top side sectional view of the ink head supply unit;
FIG. 35 illustrates a perspective view of a small portion of the print head;
FIG. 36 illustrates is an exploded perspective of the print head unit;
FIG. 37 illustrates the backing portion of a postcard print roll;
FIG. 38 illustrates the corresponding front image on the postcard print roll after printing out images;
FIG. 39 illustrates a form of print roll ready for purchase by a consumer;
FIG. 40 illustrates a layout of the software/hardware modules of the overall Artcam application;
FIG. 41 illustrates a layout of the software/hardware modules of the Camera Manager;
FIG. 42 illustrates a layout of the software/hardware modules of the Image Processing Manager;
FIG. 43 illustrates a layout of the software/hardware modules of the Printer Manager;
FIG. 44 illustrates a layout of the software/hardware modules of the Image Processing Manager;
DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED AND OTHER EMBODIMENTS
I. Digital Image Processing Camera System
FIG. 45 illustrates a layout of the software/hardware modules of the File Manager.
The digital image processing camera system constructed in accordance with the preferred embodiment is as illustrated in FIG. 1. The camera unit 1 includes means for the insertion of an integral print roll (not shown). The camera unit 1 can include an area image sensor 2 which sensors an image 3 for captured by the camera. Optionally, the second area image sensor can be provided to also image the scene 3 and to optionally provide for the production of stereographic output effects.
The camera 1 can include an optional color display 5 for the display of the image being sensed by the sensor 2. When a simple image is being displayed on the display 5, the button 6 can be depressed resulting in the printed image 8 being output by the camera unit 1. A series of cards, herein after known as “Artcards” 9 contain, on one surface encoded information and on the other surface, contain an image distorted by the particular effect produced by the Artcard 9. The Artcard 9 is inserted in an Artcard reader 10 in the side of camera 1 and, upon insertion, results in output image 8 being distorted in the same manner as the distortion appearing on the surface of Artcard 9. Hence, by means of this simple user interface a user wishing to produce a particular effect can insert one of many Artcards 9 into the Artcard reader 10 and utilize button 19 to take a picture of the image 3 resulting in a corresponding distorted output image 8.
The camera unit 1 can also include a number of other control button 13, 14 in addition to a simple LCD output display 15 for the display of informative information including the number of printouts left on the internal print roll on the camera unit. Additionally, different output formats can be controlled by CHP switch 17.
- Artcam Central Processor 31
Turning now to FIG. 2, there is illustrated a schematic view of the internal hardware of the camera unit 1. The following components are included in the internal hardware of the camera unit 1:
The ACP 31 is preferably implemented as a complex, high speed, CMOS system on-a-chip. Utilising standard cell design with some full custom regions is recommended. Fabrication on a 0.25μ CMOS process will provide the density and speed required, along with a reasonably small die area. The functions provided by the ACP 31 include:
Quartz Crystal 58
- 1. Control and digitization of the area image sensor 2. A 3D stereoscopic version of the ACP requires two area image sensor interfaces with a second optional image sensor 4 being provided for stereoscopic effects.
- 2. Area image sensor compensation, reformatting, and image enhancement.
- 3. Memory interface and management to a memory store 33.
- 4. Interface, control, and analog to digital conversion of an Artcard reader linear image sensor 34 which is provided for the reading of data from the Artcards 9.
- 5. Extraction of the raw Artcard data from the digitized and encoded Artcard image.
- 6. Reed-Solomon error detection and correction of the Artcard encoded data. The encoded surface of the Artcard 9 includes information on how to process an image to produce the effects displayed on the image distorted surface of the Artcard 9. This information is in the form of a script, hereinafter known as a “Vark script”. The Vark script is utilised by an interpreter running within the ACP 31 to produce the desired effect.
- 7. Interpretation of the Vark script on the Artcard 9.
- 8. Performing image processing operations as specified by the Vark script.
- 9. Controlling various motors for the paper transport 36, zoom lens 38, autofocus 39 and Artcard driver 37.
- 10. Controlling a guillotine actuator 40 for the operation of a guillotine 41 for the cutting of photographs 8 from print roll 42.
- 11. Half-toning of the image data for printing.
- 12. Providing the print data to a print-head 44 at the appropriate times.
- 13. Controlling the print head 44.
- 14. Controlling the ink pressure feed to print-head 44.
- 15. Controlling optional flash unit 56.
- 16. Reading and acting on various sensors in the camera, including camera orientation sensor 46, autofocus 47 and Artcard insertion sensor 49.
- 17. Reading and acting on the user interface buttons 6, 13, 14.
- 18. Controlling the status display 15.
- 19. Providing viewfinder and preview images to the color display 5.
- 20. Control of the system power consumption, including the ACP power consumption via power management circuit 51.
- 21. Providing external communications 52 to general purpose computers (using part USB).
- 22. Reading and storing information in a printing roll authentication chip 53.
- 23. Reading and storing information in a camera authentication chip 54.
- 24. Communicating with an optional mini-keyboard 57 for text modification.
- Area Image Sensor 2
A quartz crystal 58 is used as a frequency reference for the system clock. As the system clock is very high, the ACP 31 includes a phase locked loop clock circuit to increase the frequency derived from the crystal 58.
The area image sensor 2 converts an image through its lens into an electrical signal. It can either be a charge coupled device (CCD) or an active pixel sensor (APS) CMOS image sector. At present, available CCD's normally have a higher image quality, however, there is currently much development occurring in CMOS imagers. CMOS imagers are eventually expected to be substantially cheaper than CCD's have smaller pixel areas, and be able to incorporate drive circuitry and signal processing. They can also be made in CMOS fabs, which are transitioning to 12″ wafers. CCD's are usually built in 6″ wafer fabs, and economics may not allow a conversion to 12″ fabs. Therefore, the difference in fabrication cost between CCD's and CMOS imagers is likely to increase, progressively favoring CMOS imagers. However, at present, a CCD is probably the best option.
The Artcam unit will produce suitable results with a 1,500×1,000 area image sensor. However, smaller sensors, such as 750×500, will be adequate for many markets. The Artcam is less sensitive to image sensor resolution than are conventional digital cameras. This is because many of the styles contained on Artcards 9 process the image in such a way as to obscure the lack of resolution. For example, if the image is distorted to simulate the effect of being converted to an impressionistic painting, low source image resolution can be used with minimal effect. Further examples for which low resolution input images will typically not be noticed include image warps which produce high distorted images, multiple miniature copies of the of the image (eg. passport photos), textural processing such as bump mapping for a base relief metal look, and photo-compositing into structured scenes.
- Stereoscopic 3D Image Sensor 4
This tolerance of low resolution image sensors may be a significant factor in reducing the manufacturing cost of an Artcam unit 1 camera. An Artcam with a low cost 750×500 image sensor will often produce superior results to a conventional digital camera with a much more expensive 1,500×1,000 image sensor.
- Print Roll Authentication Chip 53
An embodiment of the Artcam unit 1 adapted for 3D stereoscopic operation includes an additional image sensor 4, for stereoscopic operation. This image sensor is identical to the main image sensor. The circuitry to drive the optional image sensor may be included as a standard part of the ACP chip 31 to reduce incremental design cost. Alternatively, a separate 3D Artcam ACP can be designed. This option will reduce the manufacturing cost of a mainstream single sensor Artcam.
A small chip 53 is included in each print roll 42. This chip replaced the functions of the bar code, optical sensor and wheel, and ISO/ASA sensor on other forms of camera film units such as Advanced Photo Systems film cartridges.
The authentication chip also provides other features:
- 1. The storage of data rather than that which is mechanically and optically sensed from APS rolls
- 2. A remaining media length indication, accurate to high resolution.
- 3. Authentication Information to prevent inferior clone print roll copies.
- Print-Head 44
The authentication chip 53 contains 1024 bits of Flash memory, of which 128 bits is an authentication key, and 512 bits is the authentication information. Also included is an encryption circuit to ensure that the authentication key cannot be accessed directly.
The Artcam unit 1 can utilize any suitable color print technology Preferably, an ink jet head used in the Artcam unit 1 has the following specifications
- Paper Transport Motor 36
||CMY Process Color
||Print head length
||‘Page-width’ (100 mm)
||2 seconds per photo
- Paper Transport Motor Driver 60
The paper transport motor 36 moves the paper from within the print roll 42 past the print head at a relatively constant rate. The motor 36 is a miniature motor geared down to an appropriate speed to drive rollers which move the paper. A high quality motor and mechanical gears are required to achieve high image quality, as mechanical rumble or other vibrations will affect the printed dot row spacing.
- Paper Pull Sensor
The motor driver 60 is a small circuit which amplifies the digital motor control signals from the APC 31 to levels suitable for driving the motor 36.
A paper pull sensor 50 detects a user's attempt to pull a photo from the camera unit during the printing process. The APC 31 reads this sensor 50, and activates the guillotine 41 if the condition occurs. The paper pull sensor 50 is incorporated to make the camera more ‘foolproof’ in operation. Were the user to pull the paper out forcefully during printing, the print mechanism 44 or print roll 42 may (in extreme cases) be damaged. Since it is acceptable to pull out the ‘pod’ from a Polaroid type camera before it is fully ejected, the public has been ‘trained’ to do this. Therefore, they are unlikely to heed printed instructions not to pull the paper.
The Artcam preferably restarts the photo print process after the guillotine 41 has cut the paper after pull sensing.
- Paper Guillotine Actuator 40
The pull sensor can be implemented as a strain gauge sensor, or as an optical sensor detecting a small plastic flag which is deflected by the torque that occurs on the paper drive rollers when the paper is pulled. The latter implementation is recommendation for low cost.
The paper guillotine actuator 40 is a small actuator which causes the guillotine 41 to cut the paper either at the end of a photograph, or when the paper pull sensor 50 is activated.
- Artcard 9
The guillotine actuator 40 is a small circuit which amplifies a guillotine control signal from the APC tot the level required by the actuator 41.
The Artcard 9 is a program storage medium for the Artcam unit. As noted previously, the programs are in the form of Vark scripts. Vark is a powerful image processing language especially developed for the Artcam unit. Each Artcard 9 contains one Vark script, and thereby defines one image processing style.
By utilizing the language constructs as defined by the created language, new affects on arbitrary images can be created and constructed for inexpensive storage on Artcard and subsequent distribution to camera owners. Further, on one surface of the card can be provided an example illustrating the effect that a particular VARK script, stored on the other surface of the card, will have on an arbitrary captured image.
By utilizing such a system, camera technology can be distributed without a great fear of obsolescence in that, provided a VARK interpreter is incorporated in the camera device, a device independent scenario is provided whereby the underlying technology can be completely varied over time. Further, the VARK scripts can be updated as new filters are created and distributed in an inexpensive manner, such as via simple cards for card reading.
The Artcard 9 is a piece of thin white plastic with the same format as a credit card (86 mm long by 54 mm wide). The Artcard is printed on both sides using a high resolution ink jet printer. The inkjet printer technology is assumed to be the same as that used in the Artcam, with 1600 dpi (63 dpmm) resolution. A major feature of the Artcard 9 is low manufacturing cost. Artcards can be manufactured at high speeds as a wide web of plastic film. The plastic web is coated on both sides with a hydrophilic dye fixing layer. The web is printed simultaneously on both sides using a ‘pagewidth’ color ink jet printer. The web is then cut and punched into individual cards. On one face of the card is printed a human readable representation of the effect the Artcard 9 will have on the sensed image. This can be simply a standard image which has been processed using the Vark script stored on the back face of the card.
- Linear Image Sensor 34
On the back face of the card is printed an array of dots which can be decoded into the Vark script that defines the image processing sequence. The print area is 80 mm×50 mm, giving a total of 15,876,000 dots. This array of dots could represent at least 1.89 Mbytes of data. To achieve high reliability, extensive error detection and correction is incorporated in the array of dots. This allows a substantial portion of the card to be defaced, worn, creased, or dirty with no effect on data integrity. The data coding used is Reed-Solomon coding, with half of the data devoted to error correction. This allows the storage of 967 Kbytes of error corrected data on each Artcard 9.
The Artcard linear sensor 34 converts the aforementioned Artcard data image to electrical signals. As with the area image sensor 2, 4, the linear image sensor can be fabricated using either CCD or APS CMOS technology. The active length of the image sensor 34 is 50 mm, equal to the width of the data array on the Artcard 9. To satisfy Nyquist's sampling theorem, the resolution of the linear image sensor 34 must be at least twice the highest spatial frequency of the Artcard optical image reaching the image sensor. In practice, data detection is easier if the image sensor resolution is substantially above this. A resolution of 4800 dpi (189 dpmm) is chosen, giving a total of 9,450 pixels. This resolution requires a pixel sensor pitch of 5.3 μm. This can readily be achieved by using four staggered rows of 20 μm pixel sensors.
The linear image sensor is mounted in a special package which includes a LED 65 to illuminate the Artcard 9 via a light-pipe (not shown).
The Artcard reader light-pipe can be a molded light-pipe which has several function:
Artcard Reader Motor 37
- 1. It diffuses the light from the LED over the width of the card using total internal reflection facets.
- 2. It focuses the light onto a 16 μm wide strip of the Artcard 9 using an integrated cylindrical lens.
- 3. It focuses light reflected from the Artcard onto the linear image sensor pixels using a molded array of microlenses.
- Artcard Motor Driver 61
The Artcard reader motor propels the Artcard past the linear image sensor 34 at a relatively constant rate. As it may not be cost effective to include extreme precision mechanical components in the Artcard reader, the motor 37 is a standard miniature motor geared down to an appropriate speed to drive a pair of rollers which move the Artcard 9. The speed variations, rumble, and other vibrations will affect the raw image data as circuitry within the APC 31 includes extensive compensation for these effects to reliably read the Artcard data. The motor 37 is driven in reverse when the Artcard is to be ejected.
- Card Insertion Sensor 49
The Artcard motor driver 61 is a small circuit which amplifies the digital motor control signals from the APC 31 to levels suitable for driving the motor 37.
- Card Eject Button 16
The card insertion sensor 49 is an optical sensor which detects the presence of a card as it is being inserted in the card reader 34. Upon a signal from this sensor 49, the APC 31 initiates the card reading process, including the activation of the Artcard reader motor 37.
- Card Status Indicator 66
A card eject button 16 (FIG. 1) is used by the user to eject the current Artcard, so that another Artcard can be inserted. The APC 31 detects the pressing of the button, and reverses the Artcard reader motor 37 to eject the card.
A card status indicator 66 is provided to signal the user as to the status of the Artcard reading process. This can be a standard bi-color (red/green) LED. When the card is successfully read, and data integrity has been verified, the LED lights up green continually. If the card is faulty, then the LED lights up red.
- 64 Mbit DRAM 33
If the camera is powered from a 1.5 V instead of 3V battery, then the power supply voltage is less than the forward voltage drop of the greed LED, and the LED will not light. In this case, red LEDs can be used, or the LED can be powered from a voltage pump which also powers other circuits in the Artcam which require higher voltage.
To perform the wide variety of image processing effects, the camera utilizes 8 Mbytes of memory 33. This can be provided by a single 64 Mbit memory chip. Of course, with changing memory technology increased Dram storage sizes may be substituted.
- Camera Authentication Chip
High speed access to the memory chip is required. This can be achieved by using a Rambus DRAM (burst access rate of 500 Mbytes per second) or chips using the new open standards such as double data rate (DDR) SDRAM or Synclink DRAM.
The camera authentication chip 54 is identical to the print roll authentication chip 53, except that it has different information stored in it. The camera authentication chip 54 has three main purposes:
- 1. To provide a secure means of comparing authentication codes with the print roll authentication chip;
- 2. To provide storage for manufacturing information, such as the serial number of the camera;
- 3. To provide a small amount of non-volatile memory for storage of user information.
- Zoom Lens (Not Shown)
The Artcam includes an optional color display 5 and small status display 15. Lowest cost consumer cameras may include a color image display, such as a small TFT LCD 5 similar to those found on some digital cameras and camcorders. The color display 5 is a major cost element of these versions of Artcam, and the display 5 plus back light are a major power consumption drain. The status display 15 is a small passive segment based LCD, similar to those currently provided on silver halide and digital cameras. Its main function is to show the number of prints remaining in the print roll 42 and icons for various standard camera features, such as flash and battery status. The color display 5 is a full motion image display which operates as a viewfinder, as a verification of the image to be printed, and as a user interface display. The cost of the display 5 is approximately proportional to its area, so large displays (say 4″ diagonal) unit will be restricted to expensive versions of the Artcam unit. Smaller displays, such as color camcorder viewfinder TFT's at around 1″, may be effective for mid-range Artcams.
- Autofocus Motor 39
The Artcam can include a zoom lens. This can be a standard electronically controlled zoom lens, identical to one which would be used on a standard electronic camera, and similar to pocket camera zoom lenses. A referred version of the Artcam unit may include standard interchangeable 35 mm SLR lenses.
- Autofocus Motor Driver 63
The autofocus motor 39 changes the focus of the zoom lens. The motor is a miniature motor geared down to an appropriate speed to drive the autofocus mechanism.
- Zoom Motor 38
The autofocus motor driver 63 is a small circuit which amplifies the digital motor control signals from the APC 31 to levels suitable for driving the motor 39.
- Zoom Motor Driver 62
The zoom motor 38 moves the zoom front lenses in and out. The motor is a miniature motor geared down to an appropriate speed to drive the zoom mechanism.
The zoom motor driver 62 is a small circuit which amplifies the digital motor control signals from the APC 31 to levels suitable for driving the motor.
- Optional Keyboard 57
The ACP 31 contains a universal serial bus (USB) interface 52 for communication with personal computers. Not all Artcam models are intended to include the USB connector. However, the silicon area required for a USB circuit 52 is small, so the interface can be included in the standard ACP.
The Artcam unit may include an optional miniature keyboard 57 for customizing text specified by the Artcard. Any text appearing in an Artcard image may be editable, even if it is in a complex metallic 3D font. The miniature keyboard includes a single line alphanumeric LCD to display the original text and edited text. The keyboard may be a standard accessory.
- Power Supply
The ACP 31 contains a serial communications circuit for transferring data to and from the miniature keyboard.
- Power Management Unit 51
The Artcam unit uses a battery 48. Depending upon the Artcam options, this is either a 3V Lithium cell, 1.5 V AA alkaline cells, or other battery arrangement.
Power consumption is an important design constraint in the Artcam. It is desirable that either standard camera batteries (such as 3V lithium batters) or standard AA or AAA alkaline cells can be used. While the electronic complexity of the Artcam unit is dramatically higher than 35 mm photographic cameras, the power consumption need not be commensurately higher. Power in the Artcam can be carefully managed with all units being turned off when not in use.
The most significant current drains are the ACP 31, the area image sensors 2,4, the printer 44 various motors, the flash unit 56, and the optional color display 5:
Flash Unit 56
- 1. ACP: If fabricated using 0.25 μm CMOS, and running on 1.5V, the ACP power consumption can be quite low. Clocks to various parts of the ACP chip can be quite low. Clocks to various parts of the ACP chip can be turned off when not in use, virtually eliminating standby current consumption. The ACP will only fully used for approximately 4 seconds for each photograph printed.
- 2. Area image sensor: power is only supplied to the area image sensor when the user has their finger on the button.
- 3. The printer power is only supplied to the printer when actually printing. This is for around 2 seconds for each photograph. Even so, suitably lower power consumption printing should be used.
- 4. The motors required in the Artcam are all low power miniature motors, and are typically only activated for a few seconds per photo.
- 5. The flash unit 45 is only used for some photographs. Its power consumption can readily be provided by a 3V lithium battery for a reasonably battery life.
- 6. The optional color display 5 is a major current drain for two reasons: it must be on for the whole time that the camera is in use, and a backlight will be required if a liquid crystal display is used. Cameras which incorporate a color display will require a larger battery to achieve acceptable batter life.
- II. ACP 31 in Detail
The flash unit 56 can be a standard miniature electronic flash for consumer cameras.
The ACP 31 is described now with reference to FIG. 3, which illustrates the Artcam Central Processor (ACP) 31 in greated detail. The Artcam Central Processor provides all of the processing power for Artcam. It is designed for a 0.25 micron CMOS process, with approximately 1.5 million transistors and an area of around 50 mm2. The ACP 31 is a complex design, but design effort can be reduced by the use of datapath compilation techniques, macrocells, and IP cores. The ACP 31 includes:
- 1. RISC CPU core 72
- 2. 4 Mbyte Flash memory 70 for program storage
- 3. Direct RAMbus interface 81
- 4. JTAG Interface 85
- 5. USB serial interface 52
- 6. Parallel interface 67
- 7. VLIW Input and Output FIFOs 78, 79
- 8. 4 way parallel VLIW Vector Processor 74
- 9. CMOS image sensor interface 83
- 10. Color TFT LCD interface 88
- 11. Artcard Interface 87
- 1. RISC CPU Core (CPU) 72
The RISC CPU, Direct RAMbus interface 81, CMOS sensor interface 83 and USB serial interface 52 can be vendor supplied cores. The ACP 31 is intended to run at a clock speed of 200 MHz on 3V externally and 1.5V internally to minimize power consumption. The CPU core needs only to run at 100 MHz.
- 2. 4 Mbyte Flash Memory 70, Data Cache 76, Program Cache 77
The ACP 31 incorporates a 32 bit RISC CPU 72 to run the Vark image processing language interpreter and to perform Artcam's general operating system duties. A wide variety of CPU cores are suitable: it can be any processor core with sufficient processing power to perform the required core calculations and control functions fast enough to met consumer expectations. Examples of suitable cores are: MIPS R4000 core from LSI Logic, StrongARM core. There is no need to maintain instruction set continuity between different Artcam models. Artcard compatibility is maintained irrespective of future processor advances and changes, because the Vark interpreter is simply re-compiled for each new instruction set. The ACP 31 architecture is therefore also free to evolve. Different ACP 31 chip designs may be fabricated by different manufacturers, without requiring to license or port the CPU core. This device independence avoids the chip vendor lock-in such as has occurred in the PC market with Intel. The CPU operates at 100 MHz, with a single cycle time of 10 ns. It must be fast enough to run the Vark interpreter, although the VLIW Vector Processor 74 is responsible for most of the time-critical operations.
The ACP 31 contains a 4 Mbyte Flash memory 70 for storing the Artcam program.
As it is unlikely that the Flash memory 70 will be able to operate at the 10 ns cycle time required by the CPU, a program cache 77 is provided to improve performance. The Program cache 77 is a read only cache.
The data used by CPU programs comes through the CPU Memory Decoder 68 and if the address is in DRAM, through a general Data cache 76. The separation allows the CPU to operate independently of the VLIW Vector Processor 74. If the data requirements are low for a given process, it can consequently operate completely out of cache. Finally, the Program cache 77 can be read as data by the CPU rather than purely as program instructions. This allows tables, microcode for the VLIW etc to be loaded from the Flash memory 70.
The data cache 76 is further provided to improve performance. This requirement is mostly due to the use of a RAMbus DRAM, which can provide high-speed data in bursts, but is inefficient for single byte accesses. The CPU has access to a memory caching system that allows flexible manipulation of CPU data cache 76 sizes.
The Data cache 76 handles all DRAM requests (reads and writes of data) from the CPU, the VLIW Vector Processor 74, and the Display Controller 88. These requests may have very different profiles in terms of memory usage and algorithmic timing requirements. For example, a VLIW process may be processing an image in linear memory, and lookup a value in a table for each value in the image. There is little need to cache much of the image, but it may be desirable to cache the entire lookup table so that no real memory access is required. Because of these differing requirements, the Data cache 76 allows for an intelligent definition of caching.
A total of 8 buses 182 connect the VLIW Vector Processor 74 to the Data cache 76. Each bus is connected to an I/O Address Generator. (There are 2 I/O Address Generators 189, 190 per Processing Unit 178, and there are 4 Processing Units in the VLIW Vector Processor 74.
- 3. Direct RAMbus Interface 81
The Data cache 76 as described allows for the Display Controller 88 and VLIW Vector Processor 74 to be active simultaneously. If the operation of these two components were deemed to never occur simultaneously, a total 9 Cache Groups would suffice. The CPU would use Cache Group 0, and the VLIW Vector Processor 74 and the Display Controller 88 would share the remaining 8 Cache Groups, requiring only 3 bits (rather than 4) to define which Cache Group would satisfy a particular request.
The DRAM used by the Artcam is a single channel 64 Mbit (8 MB) RAMbus RDRAM operating at 1.6 GB/sec. RDRAM accesses are by a single channel (16-bit data path) controller
Although the Rambus DRAM interface 81 is capable of very high-speed memory access (an average throughput of 32 bytes in 25 ns), it is not efficient dealing with single byte requests. In order to reduce effective memory latency, the ACP 31 contains 128 cache lines. Each cache line is 32 bytes wide. Thus the total amount of data cache 76 is 4096 bytes (4 KB).
- 4. JTAG Interface 85
The DRAM Interface 81 is responsible for interfacing between other client portions of the ACP chip and the RAMBUS DRAM. In effect, each module within the DRAM Interface is an address generator.
- 5. Serial Interfaces 52, 64
A standard JTAG (Joint Test Action Group) Interface is included in the ACP 31 for testing purposes. Due to the complexity of the chip, a variety of testing techniques are required, including BIST (Built In Self Test) and functional block isolation. An overhead of 10% in chip area is assumed for overall chip testing circuitry. The test circuitry is beyond the scope of this document.
- 6. Parallel Interface 67
The ACP includes a standard USB serial port 52, which is connected to the internal chip low speed bus, thereby allowing the CPU to control it. Further included is a standard low-speed serial port, which is also connected to the internal chip low speed bus, allowing the CPU to control it. The standard low-speed serial port is designed to be optionally connected to a keyboard to allow simple data input to customize prints. A further 2 standard low-speed serial ports connected to the internal chip low speed bus are provided as authentication chip serial interfaces 64. 2 ports are provided to connect to both the on-camera Authentication chip, and to the print-roll Authentication chip using separate lines. Only using I line may make it possible for a clone print-roll manufacturer to design a chip which, instead of generating an authentication code, tricks the camera into using the code generated by the authentication chip in the camera.
- 7. VLIW Input and Output FIFOs 78, 79
The parallel interface connects the ACP 31 to individual static electrical signals. The CPU is able to control each of these connections as memory-mapped I/O via the low speed bus.
The VLIW Input and Output FIFOs are 8 bit wide FIFOs used for communicating between processes and the VLIW Vector Processor 74. Both FIFOs are under the control of the VLIW Vector Processor 74, but can be cleared and queried (e.g. for status) etc by the CPU.
A client writes 8-bit data to the VLIW Input FIFO 78 in order to have the data processed by the VLIW Vector Processor 74. Clients include the Image Sensor Interface, Artcard Interface, and CPU. Each of these processes is able to offload processing by simply writing the data to the FIFO, and letting the VLIW Vector Processor 74 do all the hard work. An example of the use of a client's use of the VLIW Input FIFO 78 is the Image Sensor Interface (ISI 83). The ISI 83 takes data from the Image Sensor and writes it to the FIFO. A VLIW process takes it from the FIFO, transforming it into the correct image data format, and writing it out to DRAM. The ISI 83 becomes much simpler as a result.
- 8. VLIW Vector Processor 74
The VLIW Vector Processor 74 writes 8-bit data to the VLIW Output FIFO 79 where clients can read it. Clients include the Print Head Interface and the CPU. Both of these clients is able to offload processing by simply reading the already processed data from the FIFO, and letting the VLIW Vector Processor 74 do all the hard work. The CPU can also be interrupted whenever data is placed into the VLIW Output FIFO 79, allowing it to only process the data as it becomes available rather than polling the FIFO continuously. An example of the use of a client's use of the VLIW Output FIFO 79 is the Print Head Interface (PHI 62). A VLIW process takes an image, rotates it to the correct orientation, color converts it, and dithers the resulting image according to the print head requirements. The PHI 62 reads the dithered formatted 8-bit data from the VLIW Output FIFO 79 and simply passes it on to the Print Head external to the ACP 31. The PHI 62 becomes much simpler as a result.
To achieve the high processing requirements of Artcam, the ACP 31 contains a VLIW (Very Long Instruction Word) Vector Processor. The VLIW processor is a set of 4 identical Processing Units (PU e.g 178) working in parallel, connected by a crossbar switch 183. Each PU e.g 178 can perform four 8-bit multiplications, eight 8-bit additions, three 32-bit additions, I/O processing, and various logical operations in each cycle. The PUs e.g 178 are microcoded, and each has two Address Generators 189, 190 to allow full use of available cycles for data processing. The four PUs e.g 178 are normally synchronized to provide a tightly interacting VLIW processor. Clocking at 200 MHz, the VLIW Vector Processor 74 runs at 12 Gops (12 billion operations per second). Instructions are tuned for image processing functions such as warping, artistic brushing, complex synthetic illumination, color transforms, image filtering, and compositing. These are accelerated by two orders of magnitude over desktop computers.
As shown in more detail in FIG. 3( a), the VLIW Vector Processor 74 is 4 PUs e.g 178 connected by a crossbar switch 183 such that each PU e.g 178 provides two inputs to, and takes two outputs from, the crossbar switch 183. Two common registers form a control and synchronization mechanism for the PUs e.g 178. 8 Cache buses 182 allow connectivity to DRAM via the Data cache 76, with 2 buses going to each PU e.g 178 (1 bus per I/O Address Generator).
Each PU e.g 178 consists of an ALU 188 (containing a number of registers & some arithmetic logic for processing data), some microcode RAM 196, and connections to the outside world (including other ALUs). A local PU state machine runs in microcode and is the means by which the PU e.g 178 is controlled. Each PU e.g 178 contains two I/O Address Generators 189, 190 controlling data flow between DRAM (via the Data cache 76) and the ALU 188 (via Input FIFO and Output FIFO). The address generator is able to read and write data (specifically images in a variety of formats) as well as tables and simulated FIFOs in DRAM. The formats are customizable under software control, but are not microcoded. Data taken from the Data cache 76 is transferred to the ALU 188 via the 16-bit wide Input FIFO. Output data is written to the 16-bit wide Output FIFO and from there to the Data cache 76. Finally, all PUs e.g 178 share a single 8-bit wide VLIW Input FIFO 78 and a single 8-bit wide VLIW Output FIFO 79. The low speed data bus connection allows the CPU to read and write registers in the PU e.g 178, update microcode, as well as the common registers shared by all PUs e.g 178 in the VLIW Vector Processor 74.
- 9. CMOS Image Sensor Interface (ISI 83)
PUs e.g 178 share data with each other directly via the external crossbar. They also transfer data to and from external processes as well as DRAM. Each PU e.g 178 has 2 I/O Address Generators 189, 190 for transferring data to and from DRAM. A PU e.g 178 can send data to DRAM via an I/O Address Generator's Output FIFO e.g. 186, or accept data from DRAM via an I/O Address Generator's Input FIFO 187.
The CMOS Image Sensor Interface (ISI 83) takes data from the CMOS Image Sensor and makes it available for storage in DRAM. The image sensor has an aspect ratio of 3:2, with a typical resolution of 750×500 samples, yielding 375K (8 bits per pixel). Each 2×2 pixel block has the configuration as shown in FIG. 4. The ISI 83 is a state machine that sends control information to the Image Sensor, including frame sync pulses and pixel clock pulses in order to read the image. Pixels are read from the image sensor and placed into the VLIW Input FIFO 78. The VLIW is then able to process and/or store the pixels. This is illustrated further in FIG. 5. The ISI 83 is used in conjunction with a VLIW program that stores the sensed Photo Image in DRAM. Processing occurs in 2 steps:
- A small VLIW program reads the pixels from the FIFO and writes them to DRAM via a Sequential Write Iterator.
- The Photo Image in DRAM is rotated 90, 180 or 270 degrees according to the orientation of the camera when the photo was taken.
If the rotation is 0 degrees, then step 1 merely writes the Photo Image out to the final Photo Image location and step 2 is not performed. If the rotation is other than 0 degrees, the image is written out to a temporary area (for example into the Print Image memory area), and then rotated during step 2 into the final Photo Image location.
- 10. Color TFT LCD Interface/Display Controller 88
The orientation is important for converting between the sensed Photo Image and the internal format image, since the relative positioning of R, G, and B pixels changes with orientation. The processed image may also have to be rotated during the Print process in order to be in the correct orientation for printing. The 3D model of the Artcam has 2 image sensors, with their inputs multiplexed to a single ISI 83 (different microcode, but same ACP 31). Since each sensor is a frame store, both images can be taken simultaneously, and then transferred to memory one at a time.
- 11. Artcard Interface 87
The Display Controller (Color TFT LCD Interface) 88 is used in those Artcam models that incorporate a flat panel display. An example display is a TFT LCD of resolution 240×160 pixels. The structure of the Display Controller 88 is illustrated in FIG. 6. The Display Controller 88 State Machine contains registers that control the timing of the Sync Generation, where the display image is to be taken from (in DRAM via the Data cache 76 via a specific Cache Group), and whether the TFT should be active or not (via TFT Enable) at the moment. The CPU can write to these registers via the low speed bus.
The Artcard Interface (AI) 87 takes data from the linear image Sensor while an Artcard is passing under it, and makes that data available for storage in DRAM. The AI 87 is a state machine that sends control information to the linear sensor, including LineSync pulses and PixelClock pulses in order to read the image. Pixels are read from the linear sensor and placed into the VLIW Input FIFO 78. The VLIW is then able to process and/or store the pixels.
The Artcard Interface (AI) 87 is responsible for taking an Artcard image from the Artcard Reader 34, and decoding it into the original data (usually a Vark script). Specifically, the AI 87 accepts signals from the Artcard scanner linear CCD 34, detects the bit pattern printed on the card, and converts the bit pattern into the original data, correcting read errors.
With no Artcard 9 inserted, the image printed from an Artcam is simply the sensed Photo Image cleaned up by any standard image processing routines. The Artcard 9 is the means by which users are able to modify a photo before printing it out. By the simple task of inserting a specific Artcard 9 into an Artcam, a user is able to define complex image processing to be performed on the Photo Image.
With no Artcard inserted the Photo Image is processed in a standard way to create the Print Image. When a single Artcard 9 is inserted into the Artcam, that Artcard's effect is applied to the Photo Image to generate the Print Image.
When the Artcard 9 is removed (ejected), the printed image reverts to the Photo Image processed in a standard way. When the user presses the button to eject an Artcard, an event is placed in the event queue maintained by the operating system running on the Artcam Central Processor 31. When the event is processed (for example after the current Print has occurred), the following things occur:
If the current Artcard is valid, then the Print Image is marked as invalid and a ‘Process Standard’ event is placed in the event queue. When the event is eventually processed it will perform the standard image processing operations on the Photo Image to produce the Print Image.
The motor is started to eject the Artcard and a time-specific ‘Stop-Motor’ Event is added to the event queue.
When a user inserts an Artcard 9, the Artcard Sensor 49 detects it notifying the ACP72. This results in the software inserting an ‘Artcard Inserted’ event into the event queue. When the event is processed several things occur:
- The current Artcard is marked as invalid (as opposed to ‘none’).
- The Print Image is marked as invalid.
- The Artcard motor 37 is started up to load the Artcard
- The Artcard Interface 87 is instructed to read the Artcard
- The Artcard Interface 87 accepts signals from the Artcard scanner linear CCD 34, detects the bit pattern printed on the card, and corrects errors in the detected bit pattern, producing a valid Artcard data block in DRAM.
As illustrated in FIG. 8, the Data Card reading process has 4 phases operated while the pixel data is read from the card. The phases are as follows:
- Phase 1—Detect data area on Artcard
- Phase 2—Detect bit pattern from Artcard based on CCD pixels, and write as bytes.
- Phase 3—Descramble and XOR the byte-pattern
- Phase 4—Decode data (Reed-Solomon decode)
As illustrated in FIG. 9, the Artcard 9 must be sampled at least at double the printed resolution to satisfy Nyquist's Theorem. In practice it is better to sample at a higher rate than this. Preferably, the pixels are sampled 230 at 3 times the resolution of a printed dot in each dimension, requiring 9 pixels to define a single dot. Thus if the resolution of the Artcard 9 is 1600 dpi, and the resolution of the sensor 34 is 4800 dpi, then using a 50 mm CCD image sensor results in 9450 pixels per column. Therefore if we require 2 MB of dot data (at 9 pixels per dot) then this requires 2 MB*8*9/9450=15,978 columns=approximately 16,000 columns. Of course if a dot is not exactly aligned with the sampling CCD the worst and most likely case is that a dot will be sensed over a 16 pixel area (4×4) 231.
An Artcard 9 may be slightly warped due to heat damage, slightly rotated (up to, say 1 degree) due to differences in insertion into an Artcard reader, and can have slight differences in true data rate due to fluctuations in the speed of the reader motor 37. These changes will cause columns of data from the card not to be read as corresponding columns of pixel data. As illustrated in FIG. 10, a 1 degree rotation in the Artcard 9 can cause the pixels from a column on the card to be read as pixels across 166 columns.
When an Artcard 9 is inserted, the old stored Print Image and any expanded Photo Image becomes invalid. The new Artcard 9 can contain directions for creating a new image based on the currently captured Photo Image. The old Print Image is invalid, and the area holding expanded Photo Image data and image pyramid is invalid, leaving more than 5 MB that can be used as scratch memory during the read process. Strictly speaking, the 1 MB area where the Artcard raw data is to be written can also be used as scratch data during the Artcard read process as long as by the time the final Reed-Solomon decode is to occur, that 1 MB area is free again. The reading process described here does not make use of the extra 1 MB area (except as a final destination for the data).
- Phase 1
Turning now to FIG. 11, there is shown a flowchart 220 of the steps necessary to decode the Artcard data. These steps include reading in the Artcard 221, and decoding the read data to produce corresponding encoded XORed scrambled bitmap data 223. Next a checkerboard XOR is applied to the data to produces encoded scrambled data 224. This data is then unscrambled 227 to produce data 225 before this data is subjected to Reed-Solomon decoding to produce the original raw data 226. Alternatively, unscrambling and XOR process can take place together, not requiring a separate pass of the data.
As the Artcard 9 moves past the CCD 34 the AI must detect the start of the data area by robustly detecting special targets on the Artcard to the left of the data area. If these cannot be detected, the card is marked as invalid. The detection must occur in real-time, while the Artcard 9 is moving past the CCD 34.
- Phase 2
If necessary, rotation invariance can be provided. In this case, the targets are repeated on the right side of the Artcard, but relative to the bottom right corner instead of the top corner. In this way the targets end up in the correct orientation if the card is inserted the “wrong” way. Phase 3 below can be altered to detect the orientation of the data, and account for the potential rotation.
- Phase 3
Once the data area has been determined, the main read process begins, placing pixel data from the CCD into an ‘Artcard data window’, detecting bits from this window, assembling the detected bits into bytes, and constructing a byte-image in DRAM. This must all be done while the Artcard is moving past the CCD.
- Phase 4
Once all the pixels have been read from the Artcard data area, the Artcard motor 37 can be stopped, and the byte image descrambled and XORed. Although not requiring real-time performance, the process should be fast enough not to annoy the human operator. The process must take 2 MB of scrambled bit-image and write the unscrambled/XORed bit-image to a separate 2 MB image.
- A Detailed Description of Each of the Four Phases Follows:
A. Phase 1
The final phase in the Artcard read process is the Reed-Solomon decoding process, where the 2 MB bit-image is decoded into a 1 MB valid Artcard data area. Again, while not requiring real-time performance it is still necessary to decode quickly with regard to the human operator. If the decode process is valid, the card is marked as valid. If the decode failed, any duplicates of data in the bit-image are attempted to be decoded, a process that is repeated until success or until there are no more duplicate images of the data in the bit image.
A(i). Detect Data Area on Artcard
This phase is concerned with robustly detecting the left-hand side of the data area on the Artcard 9. Accurate detection of the data area is achieved by accurate detection of special targets printed on the left side of the card. These targets are especially designed to be easy to detect even if rotated up to 1 degree.
Turning to FIG. 12, there is shown an enlargement of the left hand side of an Artcard 9. The side of the card is divided into 16 bands, 239 with a target eg. 241 located at the center of each band. The bands are logical in that there is no line drawn to separate bands. Turning to FIG. 13, there is shown a single target 241. The target 241, is a printed black square containing a single white dot. The idea is to detect firstly as many targets 241 as possible, and then to join at least 8 of the detected white-dot locations into a single logical straight line. If this can be done, the start of the data area 243 is a fixed distance from this logical line. If it cannot be done, then the card is rejected as invalid.
As shown in FIG. 12, the height of the card 9 is 3150 dots. A target (Target0) 241 is placed a fixed distance of 24 dots away from the top left corner 244 of the data area so that it falls well within the first of 16 equal sized regions 239 of 192 dots (576 pixels) with no target in the final pixel region of the card. The target 241 must be big enough to be easy to detect, yet be small enough not to go outside the height of the region if the card is rotated 1 degree. A suitable size for the target is a 31×31 dot (93×93 sensed pixels) black square 241 with the white dot 242.
At the worst rotation of 1 degree, a 1 column shift occurs every 57 pixels. Therefore in a 590 pixel sized band, we cannot place any part of our symbol in the top or bottom 12 pixels or so of the band or they could be detected in the wrong band at CCD read time if the card is worst case rotated.
Therefore, if the black part of the rectangle is 57 pixels high (19 dots) we can be sure that at least 9.5 black pixels will be read in the same column by the CCD (worst case is half the pixels are in one column and half in the next). To be sure of reading at least 10 black dots in the same column, we must have a height of 20 dots. To give room for erroneous detection on the edge of the start of the black dots, we increase the number of dots to 31, giving us 15 on either side of the white dot at the target's local coordinate (15, 15). 31 dots is 91 pixels, which at most suffers a 3 pixel shift in column, easily within the 576 pixel band.
Thus each target is a block of 31×31 dots (93×93 pixels) each with the composition:
- 15 columns of 31 black dots each (45 pixel width columns of 93 pixels).
- 1 column of 15 black dots (45 pixels) followed by 1 white dot (3 pixels) and then a further 15 black dots (45 pixels)
- 15 columns of 31 black dots each (45 pixel width columns of 93 pixels)
A(ii). Detect Targets
Targets are detected by reading columns of pixels, one column at a time rather than by detecting dots. It is necessary to look within a given band for a number of columns consisting of large numbers of contiguous black pixels to build up the left side of a target. Next, it is expected to see a white region in the center of further black columns, and finally the black columns to the left of the target center.
Eight cache lines are required for good cache performance on the reading of the pixels. Each logical read fills 4 cache lines via 4 sub-reads while the other 4 cache-lines are being used. This effectively uses up 13% of the available DRAM bandwidth.
As illustrated in FIG. 14, the detection mechanism FIFO for detecting the targets uses a filter 245, run-length encoder 246, and a FIFO 247 that requires special wiring of the top 3 elements (S1, S2, and S3) for random access.
The columns of input pixels are processed one at a time until either all the targets are found, or until a specified number of columns have been processed. To process a column, the pixels are read from DRAM, passed through a filter 245 to detect a 0 or 1, and then run length encoded 246. The bit value and the number of contiguous bits of the same value are placed in FIFO 247. Each entry of the FIFO 249 is in 8 bits, 7 bits 250 to hold the run-length, and 1 bit 249 to hold the value of the bit detected.
The run-length encoder 246 only encodes contiguous pixels within a 576 pixel (192 dot) region.
When beginning to process a given pixel column, the register value S2StartPixel 254 is reset to 0. As entries in the FIFO advance from S2 to S1, they are also added 255 to the existing S2StartPixel value, giving the exact pixel position of the run currently defined in S2. Looking at each of the 3 cases of interest in the FIFO, S2StartPixel can be used to determine the start of the black area of a target (Cases 1 and 2), and also the start of the white dot in the center of the target (Case 3).
At the end of processing a given column, a comparison is made of the current column to the maximum number of columns for target detection. If the number of columns allowed has been exceeded, then it is necessary to check how many targets have been found. If fewer than 8 have been found, the card is considered invalid.
A(iii). Process Targets
After the targets have been detected, they should be processed. All the targets may be available or merely some of them. Some targets may also have been erroneously detected.
This phase of processing is to determine a mathematical line that passes through the center of as many targets as possible. The more targets that the line passes through, the more confident the target position has been found. The limit is set to be 8 targets. If a line passes through at least 8 targets, then it is taken to be the right one.
It is all right to take a brute-force but straightforward approach since there is the time to do so (see below), and lowering complexity makes testing easier. It is necessary to determine the line between targets 0 and 1 (if both targets are considered valid) and then determine how many targets fall on this line. Then we determine the line between targets 0 and 2, and repeat the process. Eventually we do the same for the line between targets 1 and 2, 1 and 3 etc. and finally for the line between targets 14 and 15. Assuming all the targets have been found, we need to perform 15+14+13+ . . . =90 sets of calculations (with each set of calculations requiring 16 tests=1440 actual calculations), and choose the line which has the maximum number of targets found along the line.
As illustrated in FIG. 8, to determine a CurrentLine 260 from Target A 261 and target B, it is necessary to calculate Δrow (264) & Δcolumn (263) between targets 261, 262, and the location of Target A. It is then possible to move from Target 0 to Target 1 etc. by adding Δrow and Δcolumn. The found (if actually found) location of target N can be compared to the calculated expected position of Target N on the line, and if it falls within the tolerance, then Target N is determined to be on the line.
To move from one expected target to the next (e.g. from Target0 to Target1), we simply add Δrow and Δcolumn to row and column respectively. To check if each target is on the line, we must calculate the expected position of Target0, and then perform one add and one comparison for each target ordinate.
At the end of comparing all 16 targets against a maximum of 90 lines, the result is the best line through the valid targets. If that line passes through at least 8 targets (i.e. MaxFound >=8), it can be said that enough targets have been found to form a line, and thus the card can be processed. If the best line passes through fewer than 8, then the card is considered invalid.
The resulting algorithm takes 180 divides to calculate Δrow and Δcolumn, 180 multiply/adds to calculate target0 position, and then 2880 adds/comparisons. The time we have to perform this processing is the time taken to read 36 columns of pixel data=3,374,892 ns. Not even accounting for the fact that an add takes less time than a divide, it is necessary to perform 3240 mathematical operations in 3,374,892 ns. That gives approximately 1040 ns per operation, or 104 cycles. The CPU can therefore safely perform the entire processing of targets, reducing complexity of design.
A(iv). Update Centroids Based on Data Edge Border and Clockmarks
Step 0: Locate the Data Area
From Target 0 (241 of FIG. 12) it is a predetermined fixed distance in rows and columns to the top left border 244 of the data area, and then a further 1 dot column to the vertical clock marks 276. So we use TargetA, Δrow and Δcolumn found in the previous stage (Δrow and Δcolumn refer to distances between targets) to calculate the centroid or expected location for Target0 as described previously.
Since the fixed pixel offset from Target0 to the data area is related to the distance between targets (192 dots between targets, and 24 dots between Target0 and the data area 243), simply add Δrow/8 to Target0's centroid column coordinate (aspect ratio of dots is 1:1). Thus the top co-ordinate can be defined as:
Next Δrow and Δcolumn are updated to give the number of pixels between dots in a single column (instead of between targets) by dividing them by the number of dots between targets:
We also set the currentColumn register (see Phase 2) to be −1 so that after step 2, when phase 2 begins, the currentColumn register will increment from −1 to 0.
Step 1: Write Out the Initial Centroid Deltas (Δ) and Bit History
This involves writing setup information required for Phase 2. This can be achieved by writing 0s to all the Δrow and Δcolumn entries for each row, and a bit history. The bit history is actually an expected bit history since it is known that to the left of the clock mark column 276 is a border column 277, and before that, a white area. The bit history therefore is 011, 010, 011, 010 etc.
Step 2: Update the Centroids Based on Actual Pixels Read.
- B. Phase 2
The bit history is set up in Step 1 according to the expected clock marks and data border. The actual centroids for each dot row can now be more accurately set (they were initially 0) by comparing the expected data against the actual pixel values. The centroid updating mechanism is achieved by simply performing step 3 of Phase 2.
B(i). Detect Bit Pattern from Artcard Based on Pixels Read, and Write as Bytes.
Since a dot from the Artcard 9 requires a minimum of 9 sensed pixels over 3 columns to be represented, there is little point in performing dot detection calculations every sensed pixel column. It is better to average the time required for processing over the average dot occurrence, and thus make the most of the available processing time. This allows processing of a column of dots from an Artcard 9 in the time it takes to read 3 columns of data from the Artcard. Although the most likely case is that it takes 4 columns to represent a dot, the 4th column will be the last column of one dot and the first column of a next dot. Processing should therefore be limited to only 3 columns.
As the pixels from the CCD are written to the DRAM in 13% of the time available, 83% of the time is available for processing of 1 column of dots i.e. 83% of (93,747*3)=83% of 281,241 ns=233,430 ns.
In the available time, it is necessary to detect 3150 dots, and write their bit values into the raw data area of memory. The processing therefore requires the following steps:
- For each column of dots on the Artcard:
- Step 0: Advance to the next dot column
- Step 1: Detect the top and bottom of an Artcard dot column (check clock marks)
- Step 2: Process the dot column, detecting bits and storing them appropriately
- Step 3: Update the centroids
Since we are processing the Artcard's logical dot columns, and these may shift over 165 pixels, the worst case is that we cannot process the first column until at least 165 columns have been read into DRAM. Phase 2 would therefore finish the same amount of time after the read process had terminated. The worst case time is: 165*93,747 ns=15,468,255 ns or 0.015 seconds.
Step 0: Advance to the Next Dot Column
In order to advance to the next column of dots we add Δrow and Δcolumn to the dotColumnTop to give us the centroid of the dot at the top of the column. The first time we do this, we are currently at the clock marks column 276 to the left of the bit image data area, and so we advance to the first column of data. Since Δrow and Δcolumn refer to distance between dots within a column, to move between dot columns it is necessary to add Δrow to columndotColumnTop and Δcolumn to rowdotColumnTop.
To keep track of what column number is being processed, the column number is recorded in a register called CurrentColumn. Every time the sensor advances to the next dot column it is necessary to increment the CurrentColumn register. The first time it is incremented, it is incremented from −1 to 0 (see Step 0 Phase 1). The CurrentColumn register determines when to terminate the read process (when reaching maxColumns), and also is used to advance the DataOut Pointer to the next column of byte information once all 8 bits have been written to the byte (once every 8 dot columns). The lower 3 bits determine what bit we're up to within the current byte. It will be the same bit being written for the whole column.
Step 1: Detect the Top and Bottom of an Artcard Dot Column.
In order to process a dot column from an Artcard, it is necessary to detect the top and bottom of a column. The column should form a straight line between the top and bottom of the column (except for local warping etc.). Initially dotColumnTop points to the clock mark column 276. We simply toggle the expected value, write it out into the bit history, and move on to step 2, whose first task will be to add the Δrow and Δcolumn values to dotColumnTop to arrive at the first data dot of the column.
Step 2: Process an Artcard's Dot Column
Given the centroids of the top and bottom of a column in pixel coordinates the column should form a straight line between them, with possible minor variances due to warping etc.
Assuming the processing is to start at the top of a column (at the top centroid coordinate) and move down to the bottom of the column, subsequent expected dot centroids are given as:
This gives us the address of the expected centroid for the next dot of the column. However to account for local warping and error we add another Δrow and Δcolumn based on the last time we found the dot in a given row. In this way we can account for small drifts that accumulate into a maximum drift of some percentage from the straight line joining the top of the column to the bottom.
We therefore keep 2 values for each row, but store them in separate tables since the row history is used in step 3 of this phase.
- Δrow and Δcolumn (2@4 bits each=1 byte)
- row history (3 bits per row, 2 rows are stored per byte)
For each row we need to read a Δrow and Δcolumn to determine the change to the centroid. The read process takes 5% of the bandwidth and 2 cache lines:
76*(3150/32)+2*3150=13,824 ns=5% of bandwidth
Once the centroid has been determined, the pixels around the centroid need to be examined to detect the status of the dot and hence the value of the bit. In the worst case a dot covers a 4×4 pixel area. However, thanks to the fact that we are sampling at 3 times the resolution of the dot, the number of pixels required to detect the status of the dot and hence the bit value is much less than this. We only require access to 3 columns of pixel columns at any one time.
In the worst case of pixel drift due to a 1% rotation, centroids will shift 1 column every 57 pixel rows, but since a dot is 3 pixels in diameter, a given column will be valid for 171 pixel rows (3*57). As a byte contains 2 pixels, the number of bytes valid in each buffered read (4 cache lines) will be a worst case of 86 (out of 128 read).
Once the bit has been detected it must be written out to DRAM. We store the bits from 8 columns as a set of contiguous bytes to minimize DRAM delay. Since all the bits from a given dot column will correspond to the next bit position in a data byte, we can read the old value for the byte, shift and OR in the new bit, and write the byte back. The read/shift&OR/write process requires 2 cache lines.
We need to read and write the bit history for the given row as we update it. We only require 3 bits of history per row, allowing the storage of 2 rows of history in a single byte. The read/shift&OR/write process requires 2 cache lines.
B(ii). Detecting a Dot
The process of detecting the value of a dot (and hence the value of a bit) given a centroid is accomplished by examining 3 pixel values and getting the result from a lookup table. The process is fairly simple and is illustrated in FIG. 15. A dot 290 has a radius of about 1.5 pixels. Therefore the pixel 291 that holds the centroid, regardless of the actual position of the centroid within that pixel, should be 100% of the dot's value. If the centroid is exactly in the center of the pixel 291, then the pixels above 292 & below 293 the centroid's pixel, as well as the pixels to the left 294 & right 295 of the centroid's pixel will contain a majority of the dot's value. The further a centroid is away from the exact center of the pixel 295, the more likely that more than the center pixel will have 100% coverage by the dot.
Although FIG. 15 only shows centroids differing to the left and below the center, the same relationship obviously holds for centroids above and to the right of center. In Case 1, the centroid is exactly in the center of the middle pixel 295. The center pixel 295 is completely covered by the dot, and the pixels above, below, left, and right are also well covered by the dot. In Case 2, the centroid is to the left of the center of the middle pixel 291. The center pixel is still completely covered by the dot, and the pixel 294 to the left of the center is now completely covered by the dot. The pixels above 292 and below 293 are still well covered. In Case 3, the centroid is below the center of the middle pixel 291. The center pixel 291 is still completely covered by the dot 291, and the pixel below center is now completely covered by the dot. The pixels left 294 and right 295 of center are still well covered. In Case 4, the centroid is left and below the center of the middle pixel. The center pixel 291 is still completely covered by the dot, and both the pixel to the left of center 294 and the pixel below center 293 are completely covered by the dot.
The algorithm for updating the centroid uses the distance of the centroid from the center of the middle pixel 291 in order to select 3 representative pixels and thus decide the value of the dot:
- Pixel 1: the pixel containing the centroid
- Pixel 2: the pixel to the left of Pixel 1 if the centroid's X coordinate (column value) is <½, otherwise the pixel to the right of Pixel 1.
- Pixel 3: the pixel above pixel 1 if the centroid's Y coordinate (row value) is <½, otherwise the pixel below Pixel 1.
As shown in FIG. 16, the value of each pixel is output to a pre-calculated lookup table 301. The 3 pixels are fed into a 12-bit lookup table, which outputs a single bit indicating the value of the dot—on or off. The lookup table 301 is constructed at chip definition time, and can be compiled into about 500 gates. The lookup table can be a simple threshold table, with the exception that the center pixel (Pixel 1) is weighted more heavily.
Step 3: Update the Centroid Δs for Each Row in the Column
The idea of the Δs processing is to use the previous bit history to generate a ‘perfect’ dot at the expected centroid location for each row in a current column. The actual pixels (from the CCD) are compared with the expected ‘perfect’ pixels. If the two match, then the actual centroid location must be exactly in the expected position, so the centroid Δs must be valid and not need updating. Otherwise a process of changing the centroid Δs needs to occur in order to best fit the expected centroid location to the actual data. The new centroid Δs will be used for processing the dot in the next column.
Updating the centroid Δs is done as a subsequent process from Step 2 for the following reasons:
- to reduce complexity in design, so that it can be performed as Step 2 of Phase 1 there is enough bandwidth remaining to allow it to allow reuse of DRAM buffers, and
- to ensure that all the data required for centroid updating is available at the start of the process without special pipelining.
The centroid Δ are processed as Δcolumn Δrow respectively to reduce complexity.
Although a given dot is 3 pixels in diameter, it is likely to occur in a 4×4 pixel area. However the edge of one dot will as a result be in the same pixel as the edge of the next dot. For this reason, centroid updating requires more than simply the information about a given single dot.
FIG. 17 shows a single dot 310 from the previous column with a given centroid 311. In this example, the dot 310 extend Δ over 4 pixel columns 312-315 and in fact, part of the previous dot column's dot (coordinate=(Prevcolumn, Current Row)) has entered the current column for the dot on the current row. If the dot in the current row and column was white, we would expect the rightmost pixel column 314 from the previous dot column to be a low value, since there is only the dot information from the previous column's dot (the current column's dot is white). From this we can see that the higher the pixel value is in this pixel column 315, the more the centroid should be to the right Of course, if the dot to the right was also black, we cannot adjust the centroid as we cannot get information sub-pixel. The same can be said for the dots to the left, above and below the dot at dot coordinates (PrevColumn, CurrentRow).
From this we can say that a maximum of 5 pixel columns and rows are required. It is possible to simplify the situation by taking the cases of row and column centroid Δs separately, treating them as the same problem, only rotated 90 degrees.
Taking the horizontal case first, it is necessary to change the column centroid Δs if the expected pixels don't match the detected pixels. From the bit history, the value of the bits found for the Current Row in the current dot column, the previous dot column, and the (previous-1)th dot column are known. The expected centroid location is also known. Using these two pieces of information, it is possible to generate a 20 bit expected bit pattern should the read be ‘perfect’. The 20 bit bit-pattern represents the expected A values for each of the 5 pixels across the horizontal dimension. The first nibble would represent the rightmost pixel of the leftmost dot. The next 3 nibbles represent the 3 pixels across the center of the dot 310 from the previous column, and the last nibble would be the leftmost pixel 317 of the rightmost dot (from the current column).
If the expected centroid is in the center of the pixel, we would expect a 20 bit pattern based on the following table:
The pixels to the left and right of the center dot are either 0 or D depending on whether the bit was a 0 or 1 respectively. The center three pixels are either 000 or DFD depending on whether the bit was a 0 or 1 respectively. These values are based on the physical area taken by a dot for a given pixel. Depending on the distance of the centroid from the exact center of the pixel, we would expect data shifted slightly, which really only affects the pixels either side of the center pixel. Since there are 16 possibilities, it is possible to divide the distance from the center by 16 and use that amount to shift the expected pixels.
Once the 20 bit 5 pixel expected value has been determined it can be compared against the actual pixels read. This can proceed by subtracting the expected pixels from the actual pixels read on a pixel by pixel basis, and finally adding the differences together to obtain a distance from the expected A values.
FIG. 18 illustrates one form of implementation of the above algorithm which includes a look up table 320 which receives the bit history 322 and central fractional component 323 and outputs 324 the corresponding 20 bit number which is subtracted 321 from the central pixel input 326 to produce a pixel difference 327.
This process is carried out for the expected centroid and once for a shift of the centroid left and right by 1 amount in Δcolumn. The centroid with the smallest difference from the actual pixels is considered to be the ‘winner’ and the Δcolumn updated accordingly (which hopefully is ‘no change’). As a result, a Δcolumn cannot change by more than 1 each dot column.
The process is repeated for the vertical pixels, and Δrow is consequentially updated.
- C. Phase 3
There is a large amount of scope here for parallelism. Depending on the rate of the clock chosen for the ACP unit 31 these units can be placed in series (and thus the testing of 3 different Δ could occur in consecutive clock cycles), or in parallel where all 3 can be tested simultaneously. If the clock rate is fast enough, there is less need for parallelism.
C(i). Unscramble and XOR the Raw Data
Returning to FIG. 11, the next step in decoding is to unscramble and XOR the raw data. The 2 MB byte image, as taken from the Artcard, is in a scrambled XORed form. It must be unscrambled and re-XORed to retrieve the bit image necessary for the Reed Solomon decoder in phase 4.
Turning to FIG. 19, the unscrambling process 330 takes a 2 MB scrambled byte image 331 and writes an unscrambled 2 MB image 332. The process cannot reasonably be performed in-place, so 2 sets of 2 MB areas are utilised. The scrambled data 331 is in symbol block order arranged in a 16×16 array, with symbol block 0 (334) having all the symbol 0's from all the code words in random order. Symbol block 1 has all the symbol 1's from all the code words in random order etc. Since there are only 255 symbols, the 256th symbol block is currently unused.
A linear feedback shift register is used to determine the relationship between the position within a symbol block eg. 334 and what code word eg. 355 it came from. This works as long as the same seed is used when generating the original Artcard images. The XOR of bytes from alternative source lines with 0xAA and 0x55 respectively is effectively free (in time) since the bottleneck of time is waiting for the DRAM to be ready to read/write to non-sequential addresses.
- D. Phase 4
The timing of the unscrambling XOR process is effectively 2 MB of random byte-reads, and 2 MB of random byte-writes i.e. 2*(2 MB*76 ns+2 MB*2 ns)=327,155,712 ns or approximately 0.33 seconds. This timing assumes no caching.
D(i). Reed Solomon Decode
This phase is a loop, iterating through copies of the data in the bit image, passing them to the Reed-Solomon decode module until either a successful decode is made or until there are no more copies to attempt decode from.
The Reed-Solomon decoder used can be the VLIW processor, suitably programmed or, alternatively, a separate hardwired core such as LSI Logic's L64712. The L64712 has a throughput of 50 Mbits per second (around 6.25 MB per second), so the time may be bound by the speed of the Reed-Solomon decoder rather than the 2 MB read and 1 MB write memory access time (500 MB/sec for sequential accesses). The time taken in the worst case is thus 2/6.25s=approximately 0.32 seconds.
The overall time taken to read the Artcard 9 and decode it is therefore approximately 2.15 seconds. The apparent delay to the user is actually only 0.65 seconds (the total of Phases 3 and 4), since the Artcard stops moving after 1.5 seconds.
- III. VLIW Processor 74
Once the Artcard is loaded, the Artvark script must be interpreted, Rather than run the script immediately, the script is only run upon the pressing of the ‘Print’ button 13 (FIG. 1). The taken to run the script will vary depending on the complexity of the script, and must be taken into account for the perceived delay between pressing the print button and the actual print button and the actual printing.
- IV. Print Head
As noted previously, the VLIW processor 74 is a digital processing system that accelerates computationally expensive Vark functions. The balance of functions performed in software by the CPU core 72, and in hardware by the VLIW processor 74 will be implementation dependent. The goal of the VLIW processor 74 is to assist all Artcard styles to execute in a time that does not seem too slow to the user. As CPUs become faster and more powerful, the number of functions requiring hardware acceleration becomes less and less.
FIG. 22 illustrates the logical layout of a single print Head which logically consists of 8 segments, each printing bi-level cyan, magenta, and yellow onto a portion of the page. Each segment prints 750 dots of one color, 375 even dots on one row, and 375 odd dots on another.
Each dot is represented in the Print Head segment by a single bit. The data must be loaded 1 bit at a time by placing the data on the segment's BitValue pin, and clocked in to a shift register in the segment according to a BitClock. Since the data is loaded into a shift register, the order of loading bits must be correct. Data can be clocked in to the Print Head at a maximum rate of 10 MHz.
Once all the bits have been loaded, they must be transferred in parallel to the Print Head output buffer, ready for printing. The transfer is accomplished by a single pulse on the segment's ParallelXferClock pin.
In order to conserve power, not all the dots of the Print Head have to be printed simultaneously. A set of control lines enables the printing of specific dots. An external controller, such as the ACP, can change the number of dots printed at once, as well as the duration of the print pulse in accordance with speed and/or power requirements.
The Print Head Interface 62 connects the ACP to the Print Head, providing both data and appropriate signals to the external Print Head. The Print Head Interface 62 works in conjunction with both a VLIW processor 74 and a software algorithm running on the CPU in order to print a photo in approximately 2 seconds.
There are 2 phases that must occur before an image is in the hand of the Artcam user:
- 1. Preparation of the image to be printed
- 2. Printing the prepared image
- Prepare the Image
Preparation of an image only needs to be performed once. Printing the image can be performed as many times as desired.
Preparing an image for printing involves:
- 1. Conversion of the Photo Image into a Print Image
- 2. Rotation of the Print Image (internal color space) to align the output for the orientation of the printer
- 3. Up-interpolation of compressed channels (if necessary)
- 4. Color conversion from the internal color space to the CMY color space appropriate to the specific printer and ink
The conversion of a Photo Image into a Print Image requires the execution of a Vark script to perform image processing. The script is either a default image enhancement script or a Vark script taken from the currently inserted Artcard. The Vark script is executed via the CPU, accelerated by functions performed by the VLIW Vector Processor.
The image in memory is originally oriented to be top upwards. This allows for straightforward Vark processing. Before the image is printed, it must be aligned with the print roll's orientation. The re-alignment only needs to be done once. Subsequent Prints of a Print Image will already have been rotated appropriately.
The transformation to be applied is simply the inverse of that applied during capture from the CCD when the user pressed the “Image Capture” button on the Artcam. If the original rotation was 0, then no transformation needs to take place. If the original rotation was +90 degrees, then the rotation before printing needs to be −90 degrees (same as 270 degrees). The method used to apply the rotation is the Vark accelerated Affine Transform function.
The Lab image must be converted to CMY before printing. Different processing occurs depending on whether the a and b channels of the Lab image is compressed. If the Lab image is compressed, the a and b channels must be decompressed before the color conversion occurs. If the Lab image is not compressed, the color conversion is the only necessary step. The Lab image must be up interpolated (if the a and b channels are compressed) and converted into a CMY image. A single VLIW process combining scale and color transform can be used.
Printing an image is concerned with taking a correctly oriented CMY image, and generating data and signals to be sent to the external Print Head. The process involves the CPU working in conjunction with a VLIW process and the Print Head Interface.
One VLIW process is responsible for calculating the next of dots to be printed. Odd and even C, M, and Y dots are generated by dithering input CMY image lines. A second VLIW process is responsible for taking a previously calculated line of dots, and correctly generating 8 bits of data for the 8 segments to be transferred by the Print Head Interface to the Print Head in a single transfer.
- V. Data Card Reader
The Print Head Interface takes the 8 bit data from the VLIW Output FIFO, and outputs it unchanged to the Print Head The CPU also controls the various motors and guillotine via the parallel interface during the print process.
FIG. 25 illustrates a card reader 500 which allows for the insertion of Artcards 9 for reading. FIG. 24 shows an exploded perspective of the reader of FIG. 25. The cardreader 500 is interconnected to a computer system and includes a CCD reading mechanism 35. The cardreader includes pinch rollers 506, 507 for pinching an inserted Artcard 9. One of the roller e.g. 506 is driven by an Artcard motor 37 for the advancement of the card 9 between the two rollers 506 and 507 at a uniformed speed.
The Artcard 9 is passed over a series of LED lights 512 which are encased within a clear plastic mould 514 having a semi circular cross section. The cross section focuses the light from the LEDs eg 512 onto the surface of the card 9 as it passes by the LEDs 512. From the surface it is reflected to a high resolution linear CCD 34 which is constructed to a resolution of approximately 480 dpi. The surface of the Artcard 9 is encoded to the level of approximately 1600 dpi hence, the linear CCD 34 supersamples the Artcard surface with an approximately three times multiplier. The Artcard 9 is further driven at a speed such that the linear CCD 34 is able to supersample in the direction of Artcard movement at a rate of approximately 4800 readings per inch. The scanned Artcard CCD data is forwarded from the Artcard reader to ACP 31 for processing. A sensor 49, which can comprise a light sensor acts to detect of the presence of the card 13.
To assist reading, the data surface area of the Artcard 9 is modulated with a checkerboard pattern as previously discussed with reference to FIG. 12. Other forms of high frequency modulation may be possible however.
It will be evident that an Artcard printer can be provided as for the printing out of data on storage Artcard. Hence, the Artcard system can be utilized as a general form of information distribution outside of the Artcam device. An Artcard printer can prints out Artcards on high quality print surfaces and multiple Artcards can be printed on same sheets and later separated. On a second surface of the Artcard 9 can be printed information relating to the files etc. stored on the Artcard 9 for subsequent storage.
- VI. Print Rolls
Hence, the Artcard system allows for a simplified form of storage which is suitable for use in place of other forms of storage such as CD ROMs, magnetic disks etc. The Artcards 9 can also be mass produced and thereby produced in a substantially inexpensive form for redistribution.
Turning to FIG. 26, there is illustrated the print roll 42 and print-head portions of the Artcam. The paper/film 611 is fed in a continuous “web-like” process to a printing mechanism 15 which includes further pinch rollers 616-619 and a print head 44
The pinch roller 613 is connected to a drive mechanism (not shown) and upon rotation of the print roller 613, “paper” in the form of film 611 is forced through the printing mechanism 615 and out of the picture output slot 6. A rotary guillotine mechanism (not shown) is utilised to cut the roll of paper 611 at required photo sizes.
The printer roll 42 is responsible for supplying “paper” 611 to the print mechanism 615 for printing of photographically imaged pictures.
In FIG. 27, there is shown an exploded perspective of the print roll 42. The printer roll 42 includes output printer paper 611 which is output under the operation of pinching rollers 612, 613.
Referring now to FIG. 28, there is illustrated a more fully exploded perspective view, of the print roll 42 of FIG. 27 without the “paper” film roll. The print roll 42 includes three main parts comprising ink reservoir section 620, paper roll sections 622, 623 and outer casing sections 626, 627.
Turning first to the ink reservoir section 620, which includes the ink reservoir or ink supply sections 633. The ink for printing is contained within three bladder type containers 630-632. The printer roll 42 is assumed to provide full color output inks. Hence, a first ink reservoir or bladder container 630 contains cyan colored ink. A second reservoir 631 contains magenta colored ink and a third reservoir 632 contains yellow ink. Each of the reservoirs 630-632, although having different volumetric dimensions, are designed to have substantially the same volumetric size.
The ink reservoir sections 621, 633, in addition to cover 624 can be made of plastic sections and are designed to be mated together by means of heat sealing, ultra violet radiation, etc. Each of the equally sized ink reservoirs 630-632 is connected to a corresponding ink channel 639-641 for allowing the flow of ink from the reservoir 630-632 to a corresponding ink output port 635-637. The ink reservoir 632 having ink channel 641, and output port 637, the ink reservoir 631 having ink channel 640 and output port 636, and the ink reservoir 630 having ink channel 639 and output port 637.
In operation, the ink reservoirs 630-632 can be filled with corresponding ink and the section 633 joined to the section 621. The ink reservoir sections 630-632, being collapsible bladders, allow for ink to traverse ink channels 639-641 and therefore be in fluid communication with the ink output ports 635-637. Further, if required, an air inlet port can also be provided to allow the pressure associated with ink channel reservoirs 630-632 to be maintained as required.
The cap 624 can be joined to the ink reservoir section 620 so as to form a pressurized cavity, accessible by the air pressure inlet port.
The ink reservoir sections 621, 633 and 624 are designed to be connected together as an integral unit and to be inserted inside printer roll sections 622, 623. The printer roll sections 622, 623 are designed to mate together by means of a snap fit by means of male portions 645-647 mating with corresponding female portions (not shown). Similarly, female portions 654-656 are designed to mate with corresponding male portions 660-662. The paper roll sections 622, 623 are therefore designed to be snapped together. One end of the film within the role is pinched between the two sections 622, 623 when they are joined together. The print film can then be rolled on the print roll sections 622, 625 as required.
As noted previously, the ink reservoir sections 620, 621, 633, 624 are designed to be inserted inside the paper roll sections 622, 623. The printer roll sections 622, 623 are able to be rotatable around stationery ink reservoir sections 621, 633 and 624 to dispense film on demand.
The outer casing sections 626 and 627 are further designed to be coupled around the print roller sections 622, 623. In addition to each end of pinch rollers eg 612, 613 is designed to clip in to a corresponding cavity eg 670 in cover 626, 627 with roller 613 being driven externally (not shown) to feed the print film and out of the print roll.
Finally, a cavity 677 can be provided in the ink reservoir sections 620, 621 for the insertion and gluing of an silicon chip integrated circuit type device 53 for the storage of information associated with the print roll 42.
As shown in FIG. 23 and FIG. 28, the print roll 42 is designed to be inserted into the Artcam camera device so as to couple with a coupling unit 680 which includes connector pads 681 for providing a connection with the silicon chip 53. Further, the connector 680 includes end connectors of four connecting with ink supply ports 635-637. The ink supply ports are in turn to connect to ink supply lines eg 682 which are in turn interconnected to printheads supply ports eg. 687 for the flow of ink to print-head 44 in accordance with requirements.
The “media” 611 utilised to form the roll can comprise many different materials on which it is designed to print suitable images. For example, opaque rollable plastic material may be utilized, transparencies may be used by using transparent plastic sheets, metallic printing can take place via utilization of a metallic sheet film. Further, fabrics could be utilised within the printer roll 42 for printing images on fabric, although care must be taken that only fabrics having a suitable stiffness or suitable backing material are utilised.
When the print media is plastic, it can be coated with a layer which fixes and absorbs the ink. Further, several types of print media may be used, for example, opaque white matte, opaque white gloss, transparent film, frosted transparent film, lenticular array film for stereoscopic 3D prints, metallised film, film with the embossed optical variable devices such as gratings or holograms, media which is pre-printed on the reverse side, and media which includes a magnetic recording layer. When utilising a metallic foil, the metallic foil can have a polymer base, coated with a thin (several micron) evaporated layer of aluminum or other metal and then coated with a clear protective layer adapted to receive the ink via the ink printer mechanism.
In use the print roll 42 is obviously designed to be inserted inside a camera device so as to provide ink and paper for the printing of images on demand. The ink output ports 635-637 meet with corresponding ports within the camera device and the pinch rollers 672, 673 are operated to allow the supply of paper to the camera device under the control of the camera device.
As illustrated in FIG. 28, a mounted silicon chip 53 is insert in one end of the print roll 42. In FIG. 29 the authentication chip 53 is shown in more detail and includes four communications leads 680-683 for communicating details from the chip 53 to the corresponding camera to which it is inserted.
- VII. Authentication Chip
Turning to FIG. 29, the chip can be separately created by means of encasing a small integrated circuit 687 in epoxy and running bonding leads eg. 688 to the external communications leads 680-683. The integrated chip 687 being approximately 400 microns square with a 100 micron scribe boundary. Subsequently, the chip can be glued to an appropriate surface of the cavity of the print roll 42. In FIG. 30, there is illustrated the integrated circuit 687 interconnected to bonding pads 681, 682 in an exploded view of the arrangement of FIG. 29.
The authentication chip 53 of the preferred embodiment is responsible for ensuring that only correctly manufactured print rolls are utilized in the camera system. The authentication chip 53 utilizes technologies that are generally valuable when utilized with any consumables and are not restricted to print roll system. Manufacturers of other systems that require consumables (such as a laser printer that requires toner cartridges) have struggled with the problem of authenticating consumables, to varying levels of success. Most have resorted to specialized packaging. However this does not stop home refill operations or clone manufacture. The prevention of copying is important to prevent poorly manufactured substitute consumables from damaging the base system. For example, poorly filtered ink may clog print nozzles in an ink jet printer, causing the consumer to blame the system manufacturer and not admit the use of non-authorized consumables.
To solve the authentication problem, the Authentication chip 53 contains an authentication code and circuit specially designed to prevent copying. The chip is manufactured using the standard Flash memory manufacturing process, and is low cost enough to be included in consumables such as ink and toner cartridges. The Authentication chip 53 ideally must have a low manufacturing cost in order to be included as the authentication mechanism for low cost consumables. The Authentication chip 53 should use a standard manufacturing process, such as Flash. This is necessary to:
- Allow a great range of manufacturing location options
- Use well-defined and well-behaved technology
- Reduce cost
Regardless of the authentication scheme used, the circuitry of the authentication part of the chip must be resistant to physical attack. Physical attack comes in four main ways, although the form of the attack can vary:
- Bypassing the Authentication Chip altogether
- Physical examination of chip while in operation (destructive and non-destructive)
- Physical decomposition of chip
- Physical alteration of chip
- Physical Interface
The Authentication Chip has a physical and a logical external interface. The physical interface defines how the Authentication Chip can be connected to a physical System, and the logical interface determines how that System can communicate with the Authentication Chip.
- Logical Interface
The Authentication Chip is a small 4-pin CMOS package (actual internal size is approximately 0.30 mm2 using 0.25 μm Flash process). The 4 pins are GND, CLK, Power, and Data. Power is a nominal voltage. If the voltage deviates from this by more than a fixed amount, the chip will RESET. The recommended clock speed is 4-10 MHz. Internal circuitry filters the clock signal to ensure that a safe maximum clock speed is not exceeded. Data is transmitted and received one bit at a time along the serial data line. The chip performs a RESET upon power-up, power-down. In addition, tamper detection and prevention circuitry in the chip will cause the chip to either RESET or erase Flash memory (depending on the attack detected) if an attack is detected. A special Programming Mode is enabled by holding the CLK voltage at a particular level.
The Authentication Chip has two operating modes—a Normal Mode and a Programming Mode. The two modes are required because the operating program code is stored in Flash memory instead of ROM (for security reasons). The Programming mode is used for testing purposes after manufacture and to load up the operating program code, while the normal mode is used for all subsequent usage of the chip.
The Programming Mode is enabled by holding a specific voltage on the CLK line for a given amount of time. When the chip enters Programming Mode, all Flash memory is erased (including all secret key information and any program code). The Authentication Chip then validates the erasure. If the erasure was successful, the Authentication Chip receives 384 bytes of data corresponding to the new program code. The bytes are transferred in order byte0 to byte383. The bits are transferred from bit0 to bit7. Once all 384 bytes of program code have been loaded, the Authentication Chip hangs. If the erasure was not successful, the Authentication Chip will hang without loading any data into the Flash memory. After the chip has been programmed, it can be restarted. When the chip is RESET with a normal voltage on the CLK line, Normal Mode is entered.
- VIII. Image Organization
Whenever the Authentication Chip is not in Programming Mode, it is in Normal Mode. When the Authentication Chip starts up in Normal Mode (for example a power-up RESET), it executes the program currently stored in the program code region of Flash memory. The program code implements a communication mechanism between the System and Authentication Chip, accepting commands and data from the System and producing output values. Since the Authentication Chip communicates serially, bits are transferred one at a time. The System communicates with the Authentication Chips via a simple operation command set.
Three logical types of images are manipulated by the ACP. They are:
- CCD Images, such as the Input Image captured from the CCD.
- Internal Format Images, utilised internally by the Artcam device.
- Print Images, which is the Output Image format printed by the Artcam
These images are typically different in color space, resolution, and the output & input color spaces which can vary from camera to camera. For example, a CCD image on a low-end camera may be a different resolution, or have different color characteristics from that used in a high-end camera. However all internal image formats are the same format in terms of color space across all cameras.
In addition, the three image types can vary with respect to which direction is ‘up’. The physical orientation of the camera causes the notion of a portrait or landscape image, and this must be maintained throughout processing. For this reason, the internal image is always oriented correctly, and rotation is performed on images obtained from the CCD and during the print operation.
Other than the final Print Image, images in the Artcam are typically not compressed. Because of memory constraints, software may choose to compress the final Print Image in the chrominance channels by scaling each of these channels by 2:1. If this has been done, the PRINT Vark function call utilised to print an image must be told to treat the specified chrominance channels as compressed. The PRINT function is the only function that knows how to deal with compressed chrominance, and even so, it only deals with a fixed 2:1 compression ratio.
Although it is possible to compress an image and then operate on the compressed image to create the final print image, it is not recommended due to a loss in resolution. In addition, an image should only be compressed once—as the final stage before printout. While one compression is virtually undetectable, multiple compressions may cause substantial image degradation.
Clip images stored on Artcards have no explicit support by the ACP 31. Software is responsible for taking any images from the current Artcard and organizing the data into a form known by the ACP. If images are stored compressed on an Artcard, software is responsible for decompressing them, as there is no specific hardware support for decompression of Artcard images.
During brushing, tiling, and warping processes utilised to manipulate an image, it is often necessary to compute the average color of a particular area in an image. Rather than calculate the value for each area given, these functions make use of an image pyramid. As illustrated in FIG. 7, an image pyramid is effectively a multi-resolution pixel-map. The original image 115 is a 1:1 representation. Low-pass filtering and sub-sampling by 2:1 in each dimension produces an image ¼ the original size 116. This process continues until the entire image is represented by a single pixel. An image pyramid is constructed from an original internal format image, and consumes ⅓ of the size taken up by the original image (¼+ 1/16+ 1/64+ . . . ). For an original image of 1500×1000 the corresponding image pyramid is approximately ½ MB. An image pyramid is constructed by a specific Vark function, and is used as a parameter to other Vark functions.
The entire processed image is required at the same time in order to print it. However the Print Image output can comprise a CMY dithered image and is only a transient image format, used within the Print Image functionality. However, it should be noted that color conversion will need to take place from the internal color space to the print color space. In addition, color conversion can be tuned to be different for different print rolls in the camera with different ink characteristics e.g. Sepia output can be accomplished by using a specific sepia toning Artcard, or by using a sepia tone print-roll (so all Artcards will work in sepia tone).
3 color spaces used in the Artcam, corresponding to the different image types. The ACP has no direct knowledge of specific color spaces. Instead, it relies on client color space conversion tables to convert between CCD, internal, and printer color spaces:
Removing the color space conversion from the ACP 31 allows:
IX. Print Head Unit
- Different CCDs to be used in different cameras
- Different inks (in different print rolls over time) to be used in the same camera
- Separation of CCD selection from ACP design path
- A well defined internal color space for accurate color processing
Turning now to FIG. 31, there is illustrated an exploded perspective view, partly in section, of the print head unit 615 of FIG. 26.
The print head unit 615 is based around the print-head 44 which ejects ink drops on demand on to print media 611 so as to form an image. The print media 611 is pinched between two set of rollers comprising a first set 618, 616 and second set 617, 619.
The print-head 44 operates under the control of power, ground and signal lines 810 which provides power and control for the print-head 44 and are bonded by means of Tape Automated Bonding (TAB) to the surface of the print-head 44.
Importantly, the print-head 44 which can be constructed from a silicon wafer device suitably separated, relies upon a series of anisotropic etches 812 through the wafer having near vertical side walls. The through wafer etches 812 allow for the direct supply of ink to the print-head surface from the back of the wafer for subsequent ejection.
The ink is supplied to the back of the inkjet print-head 44 by means of ink-head supply unit 814. The inkjet print-head 44 has three separate rows along its surface for the supply of separate colors of ink. The ink-head supply unit 814 also includes a lid 815 for the sealing of ink channels.
In FIG. 32 to FIG. 34, there is illustrated various perspective views of the ink-head supply unit 814. Each of FIG. 32 to FIG. 34 illustrate only a portion of the ink head supply unit which can be constructed of indefinite length, the portions shown so as to provide exemplary details. In FIG. 32 there is illustrated a bottom perspective view, FIG. 21 illustrates a top perspective view, FIG. 33 illustrates a close up bottom perspective view, partly in section, FIG. 34 illustrates a top side perspective view showing details of the ink channels, and FIG. 35 illustrates a top side perspective view as does FIG. 36.
There is considerable cost advantage in forming ink-head supply unit 814 from injection molded plastic instead of, say, micromachined silicon. The manufacturing cost of a plastic ink channel will be considerably less in volume and manufacturing is substantially easier. The design illustrated in the accompanying Figures assumes a 1600 dpi three color monolithic print head, of a predetermined length. The provided flow rate calculations are for a 100 mm photo printer.
The ink-head supply unit 814 contains all of the required fine details. The lid 815 (FIG. 31) is permanently glued or ultrasonically welded to the ink-head supply unit 814 and provides a seal for the ink channels.
Turning to FIG. 33, the cyan, magenta and yellow ink flows in through ink inlets 820-822, the magenta ink flows through the throughholes 824,825 and along the magenta main channels 826,827 (FIG. 20). The cyan ink flows along cyan main channel 830 and the yellow ink flows along the yellow main channel 831. As best seen from FIG. 33, the cyan ink in the cyan main channels then flows into a cyan sub-channel 833. The yellow subchannel 834 similarly receiving yellow ink from the yellow main channel 831.
As best seen in FIG. 34, the magenta ink also flows from magenta main channels 826,827 through magenta throughholes 836, 837. Returning again to FIG. 33, the magenta ink flows out of the throughholes 836, 837. The magenta ink flows along first magenta subchannel e.g. 838 and then along second magenta subchannel e.g. 839 before flowing into a magenta trough 840. The magenta ink then flows through magenta vias e.g. 842 which are aligned with corresponding inkjet head throughholes (e.g. 812 of FIG. 30) wherein they subsequently supply ink to inkjet nozzles for printing out.
Similarly, the cyan ink within the cyan subchannel 833 flows into a cyan pit area 849 which supplies ink two cyan vias 843, 844. Similarly, the yellow subchannel 834 supplies yellow pit area 46 which in turn supplies yellow vias 847, 848.
As seen in FIG. 34, the print-head is designed to be received within print-head slot 850 with the various vias e.g. 851 aligned with corresponding through holes eg. 851 in the print-head wafer.
Returning to FIG. 31, care must be taken to provide adequate ink flow to the entire print-head chip 44, while satisfying the constraints of an injection moulding process. The size of the ink through wafer holes 812 at the back of the print head chip is approximately 100 μm×50 μm, and the spacing between through holes carrying different colors of ink is approximately 170 μm. While features of this size can readily be molded in plastic (compact discs have micron sized features), ideally the wall height must not exceed a few times the wall thickness so as to maintain adequate stiffness. The preferred embodiment overcomes these problems by using hierarchy of progressively smaller ink channels.
In FIG. 35, there is illustrated a small portion 870 of the surface of the print-head 44. The surface is divided into 3 series of nozzles comprising the cyan series 871, the magenta series 872 and the yellow series 873. Each series of nozzles is further divided into two rows eg. 875, 876 with the print-head 44 having a series of bond pads 878 for bonding of power and control signals.
The print head is preferably constructed in accordance with a large number of different forms of ink jet invented for uses including Artcam devices. These ink jet devices are discussed in further detail hereinafter.
- X. Postcard Print Rolls
The print-head nozzles include the ink supply channels 880, equivalent to anisotropic etch hole 812 of FIG. 31. The ink flows from the back of the wafer through supply channel 881 and in turn through the filter grill 882 to ink nozzle chambers eg. 883. The operation of the nozzle chamber 883 and print-head 44 (FIG. 1) is, as mentioned previously, described in the abovementioned patent specification.
Turning now to FIG. 37, in one form of the preferred embodiment, the output printer paper 11 can, on the side that is not to receive the printed image, contain a number of pre-printed “postcard” formatted backing portions 885. The postcard formatted sections 885 can include prepaid postage “stamps” 886 which can comprise a printed authorization from the relevant postage authority within whose jurisdiction the print roll is to be sold or utilised. By agreement with the relevant jurisdictional postal authority, the print rolls can be made available having different postages. This is especially convenient where overseas travelers are in a local jurisdiction and wishing to send a number of postcards to their home country. Further, an address format portion 887 is provided for the writing of address dispatch details in the usual form of a postcard. Finally, a message area 887 is provided for the writing of a personalized information.
Turning now to FIG. 37 and FIG. 38, the operation of the camera device is such that when a series of images 890-892 is printed on a first surface of the print roll, the corresponding backing surface is that illustrated in FIG. 37. Hence, as each image eg. 891 is printed by the camera, the back of the image has a ready made postcard 885 which can be immediately dispatched at the nearest post office box within the jurisdiction. In this way, personalized postcards can be created.
It would be evident that when utilising the postcard system as illustrated in FIG. 38 and FIG. 39 only predetermined image sizes are possible as the synchronization between the backing postcard portion 885 and the front image 891 must be maintained. This can be achieved by utilising the memory portions of the authentication chip stored within the print roll to store details of the length of each postcard backing format sheet 885. This can be achieved by either having each postcard the same size or by storing each size within the print rolls on-board print chip memory.
The Artcam camera control system can ensure that, when utilising a print roll having pre-formatted postcards, that the printer roll is utilised only to print images such that each image will be on a postcard boundary. Of course, a degree of “play” can be provided by providing border regions at the edges of each photograph which can account for slight misalignment.
Turning now to FIG. 39, it will be evident that postcard rolls can be pre-purchased by a camera user when traveling within a particular jurisdiction where they are available. The postcard roll can, on its external surface, have printed information including country of purchase, the amount of postage on each postcard, the format of each postcard (for example being C, H or P or a combination of these image modes), the countries that it is suitable for use with and the postage expiry date after which the postage is no longer guaranteed to be sufficient can also be provided.
- XI. Software Operation
Hence, a user of the camera device can produce a postcard for dispatch in the mail by utilising their hand held camera to point at a relevant scene and taking a picture having the image on one surface and the pre-paid postcard details on the other. Subsequently, the postcard can be addressed and a short message written on the postcard before its immediate dispatch in the mail.
In respect of the software operation of the Artcam device, although many different software designs are possible, in one design, each Artcam device can consist of a set of loosely coupled functional modules utilised in a coordinated way by a single embedded application to serve the core purpose of the device. While the functional modules are reused in different combinations in various classes of Artcam device, the application is specific to the class of Artcam device.
Most functional modules contain both software and hardware components. The software is shielded from details of the hardware by a hardware abstraction layer, while users of a module are shielded from its software implementation by an abstract software interface. Because the system as a whole is driven by user-initiated and hardware-initiated events, most modules can run one or more asynchronous event-driven processes.
- Software Modules—Artcam Application 902
The most important modules which comprise the generic Artcam device are shown in FIG. 40. In this and subsequent diagrams, software components are shown on the left separated by a vertical dashed line 901 from hardware components on the right. The software aspects of these modules are described below:
The Artcam Application implements the high-level functionality of the Artcam device. This normally involves capturing an image, applying an artistic effect to the image, and then printing the image. In a camera-oriented Artcam device, the image is captured via the Camera Manager 903. In a printer-oriented Artcam device, the image is captured via the Network Manager 904, perhaps as the result of the image being “squirted” by another device.
Artistic effects are found within the unified file system managed by the File Manager 905. An artistic effect consist of a script file and a set of resources. The script is interpreted and applied to the image via the Image Processing Manager 906. Scripts are normally shipped on ArtCards known as Artcards. By default the application uses the script contained on the currently mounted Artcard.
The image is printed via the Printer Manager 908. When the Artcam device starts up, the bootstrap process starts the various manager processes before starting the application. This allows the application to immediately request services from the various managers when it starts.
- Real-Time Microkernel 911
Where the camera includes a display, the application also constructs a graphical user interface via the User Interface Manager 910 which allows the user to edit the current date and time, and other editable camera parameters. The application saves all persistent parameters in flash memory.
- Camera Manager 903
The Real-Time Microkernel schedules processes preemptively on the basis of interrupts and process priority. It provides integrated inter-process communication and timer services, as these are closely tied to process scheduling. All other operating system functions are implemented outside the microkernel.
The Camera Manager provides image capture services. It controls the camera hardware embedded in the Artcam. It provides an abstract camera control interface which allows camera parameters to be queried and set, and images captured. This abstract interface decouples the application from details of camera implementation
- Lock Focus 913
The Camera Manager runs as an asynchronous event-driven process. It contains a set of linked state machines, one for each asynchronous operation. These include auto focussing, charging the flash, counting down the self-timer, and capturing the image. On initialization the Camera Manager sets the camera hardware to a known state. This includes setting a normal focal distance and retracting the zoom. The software structure of the Camera Manager is illustrated in FIG. 41. The software components are described in the following subsections:
- Capture Image 914
Lock Focus automatically adjusts focus and exposure for the current scene, and enables the flash if necessary, depending on the focus control mode, exposure control mode and flash mode. Lock Focus is normally initiated in response to the user pressing the Take button halfway. It is part of the normal image capture sequence, but may be separated in time from the actual capture of the image, if the user holds the take button halfway depressed. This allows the user to do spot focusing and spot metering.
- Self-Timed Capture 915
Capture Image captures an image of the current scene. It lights a red-eye lamp if the flash mode includes red-eye removal, controls the shutter, triggers the flash if enabled, and senses the image through the image sensor. It determines the orientation of the camera, and hence the captured image, so that the image can be properly oriented during later image processing. It also determines the presence of camera motion during image capture, to trigger deblurring during later image processing.
- View Scene 917
Self-Timed Capture captures an image of the current scene after counting down a 20 s timer. It gives the user feedback during the countdown via the self-timer LED. During the first 15 s it can light the LED. During the last 5 s it flashes the LED.
- Auto Focus 918
View Scene periodically senses the current scene through the image sensor and displays it on the color LCD, giving the user an LCD-based viewfinder.
- Auto Flash 919
Auto Focus changes the focal length until selected regions of the image are sufficiently sharp to signify that they are in focus. It assumes the regions are in focus if an image sharpness metric derived from specified regions of the image sensor is above a fixed threshold. It finds the optimal focal length by performing a gradient descent on the derivative of sharpness by focal length, changing direction and stepsize as required. If the focus control mode is multi-point auto, then three regions are used, arranged horizontally across the field of view. If the focus control mode is single-point auto, then one region is used, in the center of the field of view. Auto Focus works within the available focal length range as indicated by the focus controller. In fixed-focus devices it is therefore effectively disabled.
- Auto Exposure 920
Auto Flash determines if scene lighting is dim enough to require the flash. It assumes the lighting is dim enough if the scene lighting is below a fixed threshold. The scene lighting is obtained from the lighting sensor, which derives a lighting metric from a central region of the image sensor. If the flash is required, then it charges the flash.
The combination of scene lighting, aperture, and shutter speed determine the exposure of the captured image. The desired exposure is a fixed value. If the exposure control mode is auto, Auto Exposure determines a combined aperture and shutter speed which yields the desired exposure for the given scene lighting. If the exposure control mode is aperture priority, Auto Exposure determines a shutter speed which yields the desired exposure for the given scene lighting and current aperture. If the exposure control mode is shutter priority, Auto Exposure determines an aperture which yields the desired exposure for the given scene lighting and current shutter speed. The scene lighting is obtained from the lighting sensor, which derives a lighting metric from a central region of the image sensor.
Auto Exposure works within the available aperture range and shutter speed range as indicated by the aperture controller and shutter speed controller. The shutter speed controller and shutter controller hide the absence of a mechanical shutter in most Artcam devices.
- Image Processing Manager 906 (FIG. 40)
If the flash is enabled, either manually or by Auto Flash, then the effective shutter speed is the duration of the flash, which is typically in the range 1/1000 s to 1/10000 s.
- Convert and Enhance Image 921
The Image Processing Manager provides image processing and artistic effects services. It utilises the VLIW Vector Processor embedded in the Artcam to perform high-speed image processing. The Image Processing Manager contains an interpreter for scripts written in the Vark image processing language. An artistic effect therefore consists of a Vark script file and related resources such as fonts, clip images etc. The software structure of the Image Processing Manager is illustrated in more detail in FIG. 42 and include the following modules:
- Detect Faces 923
The Image Processing Manager performs image processing in the device-independent CIE LAB color space, at a resolution which suits the reproduction capabilities of the Artcam printer hardware. The captured image is first enhanced by filtering out noise. It is optionally processed to remove motion-induced blur. The image is then converted from its device-dependent RGB color space to the CIE LAB color space. It is also rotated to undo the effect of any camera rotation at the time of image capture, and scaled to the working image resolution. The image is further enhanced by scaling its dynamic range to the available dynamic range.
- Vark Image Processing Language Interpreter 924
Faces are detected in the captured image based on hue and local feature analysis. The list of detected face regions is used by the Vark script for applying face-specific effects such as warping and positioning speech balloons.
Vark consists of a general-purpose programming language with a rich set of image processing extensions. It provides a range of primitive data types (integer, real, boolean, character), a range of aggregate data types for constructing more complex types (array, string, record), a rich set of arithmetic and relational operators, conditional and iterative control flow (if-then-else, while-do), and recursive functions and procedures. It also provides a range of image-processing data types (image, clip image, matte, color, color lookup table, palette, dither matrix, convolution kernel, etc.), graphics data types (font, text, path), a set of image-processing functions (color transformations, compositing, filtering, spatial transformations and warping, illumination, text setting and rendering), and a set of higher-level artistic functions (tiling, painting and stroking).
A Vark program is portable in two senses. Because it is interpreted, it is independent of the CPU and image processing engines of its host. Because it uses a device-independent model space and a device-independent color space, it is independent of the input color characteristics and resolution of the host input device, and the output color characteristics and resolution of the host output device.
The Vark Interpreter 924 parses the source statements which make up the Vark script and produces a parse tree which represents the semantics of the script. Nodes in the parse tree correspond to statements, expressions, sub-expressions, variables and constants in the program. The root node corresponds to the main procedure statement list.
The interpreter executes the program by executing the root statement in the parse tree. Each node of the parse tree asks its children to evaluate or execute themselves appropriately. An if statement node, for example, has three children—a condition expression node, a then statement node, and an else statement node. The if statement asks the condition expression node to evaluate itself, and depending on the boolean value returned asks the then statement or the else statement to execute itself. It knows nothing about the actual condition expression or the actual statements.
While operations on most data types are executed during execution of the parse tree, operations on image data types are deferred until after execution of the parse tree. This allows imaging operations to be optimized so that only those intermediate pixels which contribute to the final image are computed. It also allows the final image to be computed in multiple passes by spatial subdivision, to reduce the amount of memory required.
During execution of the parse tree, each imaging function simply returns an imaging graph—a graph whose nodes are imaging operators and whose leaves are images—constructed with its corresponding imaging operator as the root and its image parameters as the root's children. The image parameters are of course themselves image graphs. Thus each successive imaging function returns a deeper imaging graph.
After execution of the parse tree, an imaging graph is obtained which corresponds to the final image. This imaging graph is then executed in a depth-first manner (like any expression tree), with the following two optimizations: (1) only those pixels which contribute to the final image are computed at a given node, and (2) the children of a node are executed in the order which minimizes the amount of memory required. The imaging operators in the imaging graph are executed in the optimized order to produce the final image. Compute-intensive imaging operators are accelerated using the VLIW Processor embedded in the Artcam device. If the amount of memory required to execute the imaging graph exceeds available memory, then the final image region is subdivided until the required memory no longer exceeds available memory.
For a well-constructed Vark program the first optimization is unlikely to provide much benefit per se. However, if the final image region is subdivided, then the optimization is likely to provide considerable benefit. It is precisely this optimization, then, that allows subdivision to be used as an effective technique for reducing memory requirements. One of the consequences of deferred execution of imaging operations is that program control flow cannot depend on image content, since image content is not known during parse tree execution. In practice this is not a severe restriction, but nonetheless must be borne in mind during language design.
- Printer Manager 908 (FIG. 40)
The notion of deferred execution (or lazy evaluation) of imaging operations is described by Guibas and Stolfi (Guibas, L. J., and J. Stolfi, “A Language for Bitmap Manipulation”, ACM Transactions on Graphics, Vol. 1, No. 3, July 1982, pp. 191-214). They likewise construct an imaging graph during the execution of a program, and during subsequent graph evaluation propagate the result region backwards to avoid computing pixels which do not contribute to the final image. Shantzis additionally propagates regions of available pixels forwards during imaging graph evaluation (Shantzis, M. A., “A Model for Efficient and Flexible Image Computing”, Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual Conference Series, 1994, pp. 147-154). The Vark Interpreter uses the more sophisticated multi-pass bi-directional region propagation scheme described by Cameron (Cameron, S., “Efficient Bounds in Constructive Solid Geometry”, IEEE Computer Graphics & Applications, Vol. 11, No. 3, May 1991, pp. 68-74). The optimization of execution order to minimise memory usage is due to Shantzis, but is based on standard compiler theory (Aho, A. V., R. Sethi, and J. D. Ullman, “Generating Code from DAGs”, in Compilers: Principles, Techniques, and Tools, Addison-Wesley, 1986, pp. 557-567,). The Vark Interpreter uses a more sophisticated scheme than Shantzis, however, to support variable-sized image buffers. The subdivision of the result region in conjunction with region propagation to reduce memory usage is also due to Shantzis.
The Printer Manager provides image printing services. It controls the Ink Jet printer hardware embedded in the Artcam. It provides an abstract printer control interface which allows printer parameters to be queried and set, and images printed. This abstract interface decouples the application from details of printer implementation.
- Print Image 930
The Printer Manager runs as an asynchronous event-driven process. It contains a set of linked state machines, one for each asynchronous operation. These include printing the image and auto mounting the print roll. The software structure of the Printer Manager is illustrated in FIG. 43. The software components are described in the following description:
Print Image prints the supplied image. It uses the VLIW Processor to prepare the image for printing. This includes converting the image color space to device-specific CMY and producing half-toned bi-level data in the format expected by the print head.
- Auto Mount Print Roll 131
Between prints, the paper is retracted to the lip of the print roll to allow print roll removal, and the nozzles can be capped to prevent ink leakage and drying. Before actual printing starts, therefore, the nozzles are uncapped and cleared, and the paper is advanced to the print head. Printing itself consists of transferring line data from the VLIW processor, printing the line data, and advancing the paper, until the image is completely printed. After printing is complete, the paper is cut with the guillotine and retracted to the print roll, and the nozzles are capped. The remaining media length is then updated in the print roll.
- User Interface Manager 910 (FIG. 40)
Auto Mount Print Roll responds to the insertion and removal of the print roll. It generates print roll insertion and removal events which are handled by the application and used to update the status display. The print roll is authenticated according to a protocol between the authentication chip embedded in the print roll and the authentication chip embedded in Artcam. If the print roll fails authentication then it is rejected. Various information is extracted from the print roll. Paper and ink characteristics are used during the printing process. The remaining media length and the fixed page size of the media, if any, are published by the Print Manager and are used by the application.
- File Manager 905 (FIG. 41)
The User Interface Manager is illustrated in more detail if FIG. 44 and provides user interface management services. It consists of a Physical User Interface Manager 911, which controls status display and input hardware, and a Graphical User Interface Manager 912, which manages a virtual graphical user interface on the color display. The User Interface Manager translates virtual and physical inputs into events. Each event is placed in the event queue of the process registered for that event.
- Network Manager 904 (FIG. 41)
The File Manager provides file management services. It provides a unified hierarchical file system within which the file systems of all mounted volumes appear. The primary removable storage medium used in the Artcam is the ArtCards. A ArtCards is printed at high resolution with blocks of bi-level dots which directly represent serror-tolerant Reed-Solomon-encoded binary data. The block structure supports append and append-rewrite in suitable read-write ArtCards devices (not initially used in Artcam). At a higher level a ArtCards can contain an extended append-rewriteable ISO9660 CD-ROM file system. The software structure of the File Manager, and the ArtCards Device Controller in particular, can be as illustrated in FIG. 45.
- Clock Manager 907 (FIG. 41)
The Network Manager provides “appliance” networking services across various interfaces including infra-red (IrDA) and universal serial bus (USB). This allows the Artcam to share captured images, and receive images for printing.
- Power Management
The Clock Manager provides date and time-of-day clock services. It utilises the battery-backed real-time clock embedded in the Artcam, and controls it to the extent that it automatically adjusts for clock drift, based on auto-calibration carried out when the user sets the time.
When the system is idle it enters a quiescent power state during which only periodic scanning for input events occurs. Input events include the press of a button or the insertion of a ArtCards. As soon as an input event is detected the Artcam device re-enters an active power state. The system then handles the input event in the usual way.
- Watchdog Timer
Even when the system is in an active power state, the hardware associated with individual modules is typically in a quiescent power state. This reduces overall power consumption, and allows particularly draining hardware components such as the printer's paper cutting guillotine to monopolise the power source when they are operating. A camera-oriented Artcam device is, by default, in image capture mode. This means that the camera is active, and other modules, such as the printer, are quiescent. This means that when non-camera functions are initiated, the application must explicitly suspend the camera module. Other modules naturally suspend themselves when they become idle.
The system generates a periodic high-priority watchdog timer interrupt. The interrupt handler resets the system if it concludes that the system has not progressed since the last interrupt, i.e. that it has crashed.
Artcards can, of course, be used in many other environments. For example ArtCards can be used in both embedded and personal computer (PC) applications, providing a user-friendly interface to large amounts of data or configuration information.
This leads to a large number of possible applications. For example, a ArtCards reader can be attached to a PC. The applications for PCs are many and varied. The simplest application is as a low cost read-only distribution medium. Since ArtCards are printed, they provide an audit trail if used for data distribution within a company.
Further, many times a PC is used as the basis for a closed system, yet a number of configuration options may exist. Rather than rely on a complex operating system interface for users, the simple insertion of a ArtCards into the ArtCards reader can provide all the configuration requirements.
While the back side of a ArtCards has the same visual appearance regardless of the application (since it stores the data), the front of a ArtCards is application dependent
It would be appreciated by a person skilled in the art that numerous variations and/or modifications may be made to the present invention as shown in the specific embodiment without departing from the spirit or scope of the invention as broadly described. The present embodiment is, therefore, to be considered in all respects to be illustrative and not restrictive.