US20080245025A1 - Building system - Google Patents

Building system Download PDF

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Publication number
US20080245025A1
US20080245025A1 US11/696,081 US69608107A US2008245025A1 US 20080245025 A1 US20080245025 A1 US 20080245025A1 US 69608107 A US69608107 A US 69608107A US 2008245025 A1 US2008245025 A1 US 2008245025A1
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Prior art keywords
clip
kit
parts
chords
clips
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Abandoned
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US11/696,081
Inventor
Jack Slater
Ping Guo
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INTERNATIONAL FRAMING INDUSTRIES Inc
Valorem Building Systems Inc
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Valorem Building Systems Inc
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Priority to US11/696,081 priority Critical patent/US20080245025A1/en
Assigned to PG ENGINEERING LIMITED reassignment PG ENGINEERING LIMITED ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: GUO, PING
Assigned to INTERNATIONAL FRAMING INDUSTRIES, INC. reassignment INTERNATIONAL FRAMING INDUSTRIES, INC. ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: PG ENGINEERING LIMITED
Publication of US20080245025A1 publication Critical patent/US20080245025A1/en
Abandoned legal-status Critical Current

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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/18Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons
    • E04B1/24Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons the supporting parts consisting of metal
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/38Connections for building structures in general
    • E04B1/40Separate connecting elements
    • E04B1/41Connecting devices specially adapted for embedding in concrete
    • E04B1/4178Masonry wall ties
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04CSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; BUILDING MATERIALS
    • E04C3/00Structural elongated elements designed for load-supporting
    • E04C3/02Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces
    • E04C3/04Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces of metal
    • E04C3/08Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces of metal with apertured web, e.g. with a web consisting of bar-like components; Honeycomb girders
    • E04C3/09Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces of metal with apertured web, e.g. with a web consisting of bar-like components; Honeycomb girders at least partly of bent or otherwise deformed strip- or sheet-like material
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04CSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; BUILDING MATERIALS
    • E04C3/00Structural elongated elements designed for load-supporting
    • E04C3/02Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces
    • E04C3/04Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces of metal
    • E04C3/11Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces of metal with non-parallel upper and lower edges, e.g. roof trusses
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04CSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; BUILDING MATERIALS
    • E04C3/00Structural elongated elements designed for load-supporting
    • E04C3/30Columns; Pillars; Struts
    • E04C3/32Columns; Pillars; Struts of metal
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/18Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons
    • E04B1/24Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons the supporting parts consisting of metal
    • E04B1/2403Connection details of the elongated load-supporting parts
    • E04B2001/2415Brackets, gussets, joining plates
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/18Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons
    • E04B1/24Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons the supporting parts consisting of metal
    • E04B1/2403Connection details of the elongated load-supporting parts
    • E04B2001/2448Connections between open section profiles
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/18Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons
    • E04B1/24Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons the supporting parts consisting of metal
    • E04B2001/2466Details of the elongated load-supporting parts
    • E04B2001/2472Elongated load-supporting part formed from a number of parallel profiles
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/18Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons
    • E04B1/24Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons the supporting parts consisting of metal
    • E04B2001/2481Details of wall panels
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/18Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons
    • E04B1/24Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons the supporting parts consisting of metal
    • E04B2001/2484Details of floor panels or slabs
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/18Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons
    • E04B1/24Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons the supporting parts consisting of metal
    • E04B2001/249Structures with a sloping roof
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B2/00Walls, e.g. partitions, for buildings; Wall construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted to walls
    • E04B2/56Load-bearing walls of framework or pillarwork; Walls incorporating load-bearing elongated members
    • E04B2002/565Load-bearing walls of framework or pillarwork; Walls incorporating load-bearing elongated members with a brick veneer facing
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04CSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; BUILDING MATERIALS
    • E04C3/00Structural elongated elements designed for load-supporting
    • E04C3/02Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces
    • E04C3/04Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces of metal
    • E04C2003/0404Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces of metal beams, girders, or joists characterised by cross-sectional aspects
    • E04C2003/0408Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces of metal beams, girders, or joists characterised by cross-sectional aspects characterised by assembly or the cross-section
    • E04C2003/0413Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces of metal beams, girders, or joists characterised by cross-sectional aspects characterised by assembly or the cross-section being built up from several parts
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04CSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; BUILDING MATERIALS
    • E04C3/00Structural elongated elements designed for load-supporting
    • E04C3/02Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces
    • E04C3/04Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces of metal
    • E04C2003/0404Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces of metal beams, girders, or joists characterised by cross-sectional aspects
    • E04C2003/0443Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces of metal beams, girders, or joists characterised by cross-sectional aspects characterised by substantial shape of the cross-section
    • E04C2003/0452H- or I-shaped
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04CSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; BUILDING MATERIALS
    • E04C3/00Structural elongated elements designed for load-supporting
    • E04C3/02Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces
    • E04C3/04Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces of metal
    • E04C2003/0404Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces of metal beams, girders, or joists characterised by cross-sectional aspects
    • E04C2003/0443Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces of metal beams, girders, or joists characterised by cross-sectional aspects characterised by substantial shape of the cross-section
    • E04C2003/0465Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces of metal beams, girders, or joists characterised by cross-sectional aspects characterised by substantial shape of the cross-section square- or rectangular-shaped
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04CSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; BUILDING MATERIALS
    • E04C3/00Structural elongated elements designed for load-supporting
    • E04C3/02Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces
    • E04C3/04Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces of metal
    • E04C2003/0404Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces of metal beams, girders, or joists characterised by cross-sectional aspects
    • E04C2003/0443Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces of metal beams, girders, or joists characterised by cross-sectional aspects characterised by substantial shape of the cross-section
    • E04C2003/0469Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces of metal beams, girders, or joists characterised by cross-sectional aspects characterised by substantial shape of the cross-section triangular-shaped
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04CSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; BUILDING MATERIALS
    • E04C3/00Structural elongated elements designed for load-supporting
    • E04C3/02Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces
    • E04C3/04Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces of metal
    • E04C2003/0486Truss like structures composed of separate truss elements
    • E04C2003/0491Truss like structures composed of separate truss elements the truss elements being located in one single surface or in several parallel surfaces

Abstract

A building system is provided such that a building designer, given the various loads a structure must bear, can determine and configure the components of the structure, such as walls, floors and roof trusses, and fabricate those components from chords and clips. The chords and clips are designed in such a way as to permit location of the clips at the desired locations within the chords as required to bear the load. Chords and clips with varying characteristics are provided for assembly of components with varying requirements.

Description

    FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • The present invention relates to a beam for use in a frame for building structures such as walls, floors, roofs, etc., the beam having a pair of spaced apart chords joined by clips. In its various aspects, the invention concerns: the clips which join the chords; the assembled beam; the frame including such beams; and methods for assembling the beam and frame.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • There are a variety of approaches currently taken to the construction of frames for building structures such as walls, floors, ceilings, trusses, etc. One example, a wood beam used as a stud or a joist, is still in common use. Wood is becoming increasingly expensive and should be treated to prevent rot and possible insect infestation. Wood may also warp and may be of inconsistent quality. A general characteristic of a wood beam is that a beam of given dimensions has particular load bearing characteristics, and increasing the load bearing characteristics of a frame constructed of wood beams generally requires using a greater number of beams or beams of increased cross-dimension. Wood, being a solid material, also requires holes to be drilled for the passage of concealed wires, etc., through the beams of a floor, or wall. Wood beams nevertheless have an advantage of being easily cut to fit a particular application, although a certain amount of pre-fabrication of wooden building frames has become common.
  • When designing a building structure, an architect or designer determines the load which the structure is required to bear. Load bearing beams are selected from those which are available. Consideration is given to material characteristics, such as weight, cost, beam spacing and dimension required to bear the required load. An architect is limited by these considerations. For example, an architect may prefer to use 6″ deep wood joists in a floor, but finds that to meet the determined load requirement, the joists must be spaced no more than 14″ apart. Standard sub-flooring materials require joists spaced at 48″ intervals. A common solution to this problem would be simply over-build the floor by using the 6″ deep wooden joists spaced 12″ apart. This would result in the use of more material and labor necessary than to simply meet the determined load bearing capacity. An alternative solution might be to use 8″ deep wooden joists spaced 16″ apart, but this changes the depth, i.e. thickness, of the floor which may be undesirable or even not possible within the constraints of a particular situation. In any event, it might still lead to an over-built floor. It would thus be advantageous to have a beam for use in a building structure which beam permits the load bearing capacity of the structure to be conveniently tailored to a particular situation without necessarily requiring alteration of the beam dimension or spacing. Such a beam would provide a structure having material and labor costs more commensurate with the load bearing requirements of the structure.
  • One example of providing for a beam for use in a building structure which permits the load bearing capacity to be tailored to a particular situation without requiring alteration of the beam dimension or spacing is found in U.S. Pat. No. 5,761,873 to Slater. The invention disclosed in Slater provides for beams made from metal webs attached to the outside of metal chords, which beams can be used to form building structures, such as walls and floors. While the Slater invention works well in many situations, it would be advantageous to have an improved building system to provide for greater strength with less components and less weight, in an easier and more cost effective composition, while still providing a beam for use in a building structure that permits the load bearing capacity of the structure to be conveniently tailored to a particular situation without necessarily requiring alteration of the beam dimension or spacing.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • The approach of the present invention is to provide load bearing members of a building structure, such as beams for wall studs, floor joists and roof trusses, which are tailored such that the load requirements of a particular building structure are met. Each beam is assembled to include a pair of component chords and at least one clip, which are selected from a set of chords and clips according to a recipe. Given the load bearing requirements of a structure, the recipe indicates beam spacing within the frame, the type of chord, the type of clips and the number and position of clips to be included in each beam.
  • The present invention thus provides, in one aspect, a beam kit of parts. The kit includes standard chords and clips. These are assembled into beams according to a recipe and included in the frame of a structure having a required load-bearing capacity according to predetermined criteria. The recipe for beam assembly indicates which type of chords to include in each beam, and the number and type of clips to be included. The predetermined criteria indicate the spacing of beams necessary for the required load bearing capacity of the structure.
  • According to a preferred embodiment, the set of chords include generally “T” shaped chords formed from a flat length of metal, being steel, aluminum or other such composite material, by a rolled-form process, or other similar shaping process, leaving an opening at the end of the elongate vertical portion of the “T” shaped chord. Two chords are connected together by clips formed from metal, being steel, aluminum or other such composite material, by a rolled-form process, or other similar shaping process. A clip may be a plate clip, a tubular clip or other clip, depending on the strength requirements of the desired beam. The clips have tag portions which fit inside the opening at the ends of the elongate portion of the “T” shaped chords, at which points the clips may be fastened to the chords by fastening means, such as clinching, screwing or bolting. Clips are preferably dimensioned such that an assembled beam is of a depth which may be used with conventional building materials.
  • The present invention also includes methods for assembling beams and constructing frames, walls, floors, ceilings, trusses and other building forms from such beams.
  • A method for assembling a beam for use as part of a frame of a building structure having a required load bearing capacity includes selecting a combination of chords and clips according to a recipe; positioning a first clip and chord in a predetermined position; fastening the clip and chord according to a recipe; positioning a second chord in a position parallel to the first chord and for fastening to the clip and fastening the second chord and clip together according to a recipe.
  • A method for constructing a frame for a load-bearing building structure includes determining the load required to be borne by the structure; determining beam spacing and beam dimensions required for the frame to bear the load according to predetermined criteria; assembling beams by fastening together standard chords and clips according to a recipe indicating the number of clips and the types of clips and chords to be included in each beam and incorporating so assembled beams as part of the frame to have the determined spacing.
  • DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a beam fabricated from two chords and a plate clip;
  • FIG. 2 a is a cross-sectional view of a standard chord.
  • FIG. 2 b is a cross-sectional view of an expanded chord;
  • FIG. 3 a is a perspective view of a plate clip;
  • FIG. 3 b is a cross-sectional view of a plate clip;
  • FIG. 4 a is a side perspective view of a tubular clip;
  • FIG. 4 b is a front perspective view of a tubular clip;
  • FIG. 5 is a cross-sectional view of a beam fabricated from two standard chords and a plate clip;
  • FIG. 6 is a perspective view of an alternate beam fabricated from two expanded chords and a plate clip;
  • FIG. 7 is a perspective view of a beam fabricated from two expanded chords and two tubular clips;
  • FIG. 8 is a perspective view of a beam connected to a bottom track;
  • FIG. 9 is a perspective view of a beam connected to a top track;
  • FIG. 10 is a perspective view of a corner detail fabricated from two bottom tracks and two beams;
  • FIG. 11 a is an isometric view of a joist end connection connecting the end of a joist to a top track and a beam;
  • FIG. 11 b is a cross-sectional view of a joist end connection;
  • FIG. 12 is an interactive view of a joist end insert into a chord;
  • FIG. 13 is a perspective view of a building structure fabricated from beams, tracks and joists;
  • FIG. 14 is a perspective view of a truss fabricated from chords, tubular clips and brackets;
  • FIG. 15 a is a perspective view of a beam with a brick connector;
  • FIG. 15 b is a cross-sectional view of a beam with a brick connector;
  • FIG. 16 is a side view of a two beams with a concrete floor between them and a brick outer surface attached with the aid of a brick connector;
  • FIG. 17 is a side view of a beam with a stucco surface attached to the outer surface of the beam and a drywall surface attached to the inside of the beam;
  • FIG. 18 is a side view of a beam with a metal surface attached to the outer surface of the beam and a metal surface attached to the inside surface of the beam;
  • FIG. 19 is a perspective view of a window detail;
  • FIG. 20 is a perspective view of a door detail;
  • FIG. 21 is a perspective view of a cross chord connector;
  • FIG. 22 is a perspective view of a building structure fabricated from beams, joists, trusses, a window detail and a door detail;
  • FIG. 23 is a view of a truss.
  • FIG. 24 is a perspective view of an alternative shape for a plate clip.
  • FIG. 25 is a perspective view of an alternative shape for a plate clip.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
  • Referring to the drawings, FIG. 1 shows a portion of a preferred embodiment beam 20. Beam 20 includes a pair of spaced apart chords 22 held together by plate clip 24 secured to each chord 22 by fastening means, such as clinching, screwing or bolting.
  • FIG. 2 a shows the cross-section of a standard chord 22. The standard chord 22 has a cross-section that is generally “T” shaped which can be formed from a flat length of metal, being steel, aluminum or other such composite material, by a rolled-form process, or other similar shaping process. This forms a standard chord 22 with a top portion 21, opposing side wall portions 25 of length y, two connecting portions 27 and an elongate portion 29 of length x. An opening 26 is formed at the distal end of the elongate portion 29 of standard chord 22 between two substantially parallel members 23 of the elongate portion 29. A depression 28 is formed in the top portion of standard chord 22.
  • FIG. 2 b shows the cross-section of an expanded chord 32. The expanded chord 32 has a cross-section that is generally “T” shaped which can be formed from a flat length of metal, being steel, aluminum or other such composite material, by a rolled-form process, or other similar shaping process. This forms an expanded chord 32 with a top portion 31, opposing expanded side wall portions 35 of length y′, two connecting portions 37 and an elongate portion 39 of length x′. An opening 36 is formed at the distal end of the elongate portion 39 of standard chord 32 between two substantially parallel members 33 of the elongate portion 39. A depression 38 is formed in the top portion of expanded chord 32.
  • The length x and x′ of the chords 22 and 32 as shown in FIGS. 2 a and 2 b is sufficient to permit the entry of the tag portions 64 of plate clip 24 or tubular clip 100, as shown in FIGS. 3 a, 3 b, 4 a and 4 b, into the openings 26 and 36 of the standard chord 22 and the expanded chord 32, respectively. The minimum length y of the side wall portion 25 of the standard chord 22 is ¼ of length x of the elongate portion 29 of the standard chord 22. Preferably, the minimum length y of the side wall portion 25 of the standard chord 22 is about ¼″ to permit the standard chord 22 to maintain its structural integrity. The length y of the standard chord 22 may be easily expanded to the length y′ of the expanded chord 32 in the forming process. The expanded chord 32 exhibits increased strength as compared to the standard chord 22. The length y′ may be increased to about 4 times the length x′, or preferably about 4″, while maintaining the benefits of its increased strength with minimal changes in manufacturing. The varying lengths of y′ results in the various chord profiles for use in the present invention.
  • As seen in FIGS. 3 a and 3 b, a plate clip 24 may be used. The plate clip 24 is comprised of a single flat piece of metal. The plate clip 24 has a pair of tag portions 64 at opposing ends. The tag portions 64 have a thickness that is less than the width of the opening 26 of the standard chord 22 and the opening 36 of the expanded chord 32, so as to permit entry therein. The plate clip 24 may have an opening 68 formed in its central portion through which wires and cable may be passed. A smooth return 69 is formed around the edge of the opening 68 on one side of the opening 68 by punching the opening 68 using a die to cause a lip to be formed which is then pressed down to form the smooth return 69 to reduce friction on wires and cables passing through the opening 68. The plate clip 24 has indentations 65 on the non-tag portion. The indentations 65 provide increased strength for the plate clip 24, while acting as stops for the insertion of the tag portions 64 into the openings 26 and 36 of the standard chord 22 and the expanded chord 32, respectively. The indentations 65 may be any shape and configuration, while indentations that are elongate and which are at a 45 degree angle to the edges of the tag portions 64 maximize the increased strength to the plate clip 24. FIG. 24 illustrates an alternative shape for a plate clip, being trapezoidal with returns 61 on the sides not having the tag portions 64, and angled indentations 65, which further increases the strength of a resulting beam. FIG. 25 illustrates another alternative shape for a plate clip, being rectangular.
  • FIGS. 4 a and 4 b illustrate tubular clips 100 which are formed from a tubular length of metal or other composite which is flattened at each end to form tag portions 104 at opposing ends of a central portion 102. As illustrated in FIG. 7, two chords 22 are joined together by tubular clips 100 by inserting the tag portions 104 of the tubular clips 100 into the openings 26 of the chords 22 and fixing the tubular clips 100 to the chords 22 by clinching or other fastening means. The angle between two tubular clips may be varied, with an angle of 45 degrees providing the maximum strength for the resulting beam. The length of the central portion 102 may be increased or decreased to provide the desired width between beams.
  • FIG. 5 shows a cross-sectional view of beam 20 with the tag portions 64 of a plate clip 24 inserted within openings 26 of chords 22 and fixed together by clinching means applied in the areas and directions indicated by the arrows.
  • FIG. 6 illustrates a beam 80 assembled from two expanded chords 32 and a plate clip 24.
  • FIG. 8 illustrates a typical connection of beam 20 installed as a stud in bottom track 110 having bed 112 and walls 114. As shown in FIG. 8, the beam 20 is lowered onto the bottom track 110 and is fixed at point 116 to the bottom track 110 by fastening means, such as screwing or bolting. The bottom track 110 may be fastened directly to a supporting concrete floor, for example, by a concrete anchor.
  • FIG. 9 illustrates a typical connection of beam 20 installed as a stud in Top track 120 having bed 122 and walls 124. As shown in FIG. 9, the top track 120 is lowered onto the beam 20 and is fixed at point 126 to the beam 20 by fastening means, such as screwing or bolting. The top track 120 may be fastened directly to a supporting concrete floor, for example, by a concrete anchor.
  • An example of a corner arrangement for wall frame members is shown in FIG. 10. bottom tracks 110 a and 110 b are mitered at a right angle and beams 20 a, 20 b and 20 c are fastened to bottom tracks 110 a and 110 b, respectively, at the taps 126, not shown. The beams 20 a, 20 b and 20 c are fastened by screws or other similar fastening means 132 to upstanding track walls 114 a and 114 b, respectively.
  • A joist end connection is shown in FIGS. 11 a and 11 b. A beam 20 used as a vertical stud is connected to a top track 120. A joist beam 140 is assembled from two expanded chords 32 b and 32 c and two tubular clips 100 a and 100 b. A short piece of standard chord 22 a is fixed to the top of the top track 120 by fastening means, such as a screw, with its opening 26 a positioned away from the top track 120. The upper chord 32 b of the joist beam 140 extends over the top track 120 with its opening 36 b positioned towards the top track 120. As shown in FIG. 11 b, one substantially parallel member 23 a of the elongate portion 29 a of chord piece 22 a is fitted into the opening 36 b of chord 32 b and one substantially parallel member 33 b of the elongate portion 39 a of chord 32 b is fitted into the opening 26 a of chord piece 22 a. The elongate portions 29 a and 39 b are fixed together by fastening means, such as clinching, screwing or bolting.
  • FIG. 12 illustrates a joist end insert 94 inserted into the end of an expanded chord 32 which may be used to fabricate a beam for use as a joist. The joist end insert 94 may be made from metal or other composite material. The joist end insert 94 may be used to increase the load capacity of a joist.
  • A portion of a building frame, having studs and joist made from beams assembled from the present invention is shown in FIG. 13. Beams assembled pursuant to the present invention are used as studs, such as beam 20, and joists, such as joist beam 140, and are connected to top tracks 120 and bottom tracks 110.
  • FIG. 14 shows a view of a portion of truss 220. Chords 22 a and 22 b are connected together by tubular clips 100. A truss bracket 222 may be fixed by fastening means 226, such as clinching, screwing or bolting, to chords 22 a and 22 b above top track 120 supported by beam 20 used as a stud. Alternatively, a length of chord 22 may be used in place of a truss bracket 222. An angle bracket 224 is fixed to chord 22 a and chord piece 22 c by fastening means, such as clinching, screwing or bolting. Chord piece 22 c is fixed to beam 20 by support bracket 228.
  • Sheathing such as drywall, stucco, sheet metal, rigid foam insulation, etc. may be secured to beams in a conventional manner. Drywall screws may be fastened directly into the chords of the preferred embodiment.
  • FIGS. 15 a and 15 b show a brick connector 150 for beam 20 installed included as a stud as part of a wall frame. Brick connector 150 includes sheet metal trough with walls 152, 154 and base 156 secured to beam 20 by fastening means, such as screws. Lateral extension 158 having aperture 160 for receipt of tie wire 162 provides for connection of a brick veneer wall to the beam in a manner familiar to those skilled in the art, and illustrated further below.
  • Beam 20 installed as part of an outer wall is illustrated in FIG. 16. In addition to the components detailed above, brick veneer 170 connected to beam 20 by way of tie wire 162 is shown. The wall includes exterior sheathing 172 which may be fastened directly to beam 20 by conventional means appropriate for the sheathing. Sheathing may include any conventional building component such as rigid insulation fastened by any suitable conventional manner directly to frame beams. Water barrier 174 inhibits ingress of water into the area of wall-floor joint 176 and flashing 180 directs any water flow to weep holes 182. The weep holes are located above angle shelf 184 anchored directly to concrete slab 186, supported by joist 140, by anchor 188 and elastic sealant 190 and sealant back-up 192 are between upper brick layer 194 and shelf 184. Material to be concealed within a wall may be installed to pass between chords of a beam without the need for drilling holes, as with solid beams. For example, insulation, not shown, may be located between beams 20 and spaced apart chords 22 a and 22 b of beams of the wall frame. It will be appreciated that plate clips 24 connecting inner chords 22 a and outer chords 22 b act as a reduced thermal bridge between the outer and inner portions of an external wall than if a unitary metal beam were used.
  • Beam 20 may be installed as part of an outer wall as illustrated in FIG. 17. In addition to the components detailed above, a primary surface 210, such as cement board or plywood, may be fixed directly to the outer chord 22 a of beam 20 by any suitable conventional manner. Rigid insulation 212 may be applied to the primary surface 210 by conventional means. Insulation 218 may be located between beams 20 and spaced apart chords 22 a and 22 b of beam 20 of the wall frame. Stucco 214 may be applied to the rigid insulation 212 by conventional means to create a finished outer surface. Drywall 220 may be applied to the inner chord 22 b to create an inner surface.
  • Beam 20 may be installed as part of an outer wall as illustrated in FIG. 18. In addition to the components detailed above, a sheathing 230 may be fixed directly to the outer chord 22 a of beam 20 by any suitable conventional manner. Exterior metal rain screen 232 is fixed to the sheathing 230 by continuous horizontal subgirt 234 by fastening means, such as sheet metal screws 236 between exterior metal rain screen 232 and outer chord 22 a. Insulation 218 may be located between beams 20 and spaced apart chords 22 a and 22 b of beam 20 of the wall frame. Sheathing 230 may be applied to the inner chord 22 b to create an inner surface.
  • Exemplary building components including beams of the present invention are shown in FIGS. 19 and 20, illustrating a window component 130 and a door component 135, respectively. The horizontal chord pieces 22 a are fixed to vertical beams 20 by cross chord connectors 96, illustrated in FIG. 21, and fastening means, such as screwing or bolting. An exemplary building including beams of the present invention is shown in FIG. 22, various components being indicated as discussed above.
  • The strength of a beam may be tailored to suit a particular framing application by the use of chords of a particular strength and by the use of clips having a particular size and shape and by the use of particular configurations for fastening the clips and chords together. Examples of the manner in which a beam of the preferred embodiment is tailored for particular applications are given below.
  • Chords and clips of the illustrated embodiment may be made from galvanized steel, ASTM A513-35Y. The gauge of steel depends upon the strength requirements of the application for which the beam is to be used, and is generally in the range between 22 GA and 14 GA. The chords and clips may also be manufactured from aluminum or other composite materials.
  • The preferred embodiment beam is shown in use as part of frames for various building structures. It will be appreciated that in certain contexts the beam is used in place of a conventional stud, joist, etc. but that the beam has additional uses as well.
  • It will further be appreciated that beam 20 may be supplied as a “kit of parts” including unassembled chords and clips. The beam may thus be shipped and stored compactly and assembled at a building construction site or possibly by a manufacturer prior to shipment.
  • The following examples are provided for purposes of illustrating various aspects of the preferred embodiment of the present invention. It will be appreciated by a person skilled in the art that other and additional configurations can be made by varying the parameters without venturing beyond the scope of the present invention.
  • The following examples are provided based on the International Building Code—2006, North American Specification—2001 and ASTM quality standards. It will be appreciated by a person skilled in the art that varying the standards will require other and additional configurations, which can be obtained without venturing beyond the scope of the present invention.
  • EXAMPLE 1
  • Example 1 illustrates the fabrication of a wall stud 8 feet in length. The Depth refers to the outside dimension. The Chord Type refers to the nature of the cross-section profile of the chord, where 1 refers to the standard chord with measurement “y” approximately equal to ¼″ and where 2, 3 and 4 refer to the expanded side wall chord with measurement “y1” approximately equal to ½″, 1½″ and 2½″, respectively. The Gauge refers to the thickness of the steel, where 20, 18 and 16 refer to thicknesses of 0.032″, 0.044″ and 0.06″, respectively. The Clip Type refers to the kind of clip to be used, where 1 refers to a tubular clip 1″ in diameter and 2 refers to a plate clip. The clips used in any given wall stud are all of the same dimension from tag portion to tag portion. The number of clips refers to the quantity of clips to be used, where there is always one clip approximately 2″ from each end of the beam and the remaining clips are distributed such that the center points of all clips are equally spaced from one another. Where more than one number is indicated for the number of clips and gauges, the first number of clips is matched with the first gauge number and each subsequent number of clips is matched with each subsequent gauge number. In the event that clips of different gauges are to be used in the same beam, the thicker clip(s) is/are to be affixed in the positions lowest to the bottom of the beam.
  • Referring to Table 1 for the fabrication of wall stud of 8 feet in length and 6 inches in depth, the desired wind load is chosen from the table, indicating the appropriate row of information. The type and gauge of chord is referenced in the corresponding column in that row. The number and type and gauge of clips is also referenced from the corresponding column in that row. The wall stud is then fabricated by inserting the clips within the chords in the positions indicated by the above noted recipe and fastening the clips to the chords.
  • TABLE 1 Wall Stud Wall Stud Specified Factored Chords Clips Height Depth Wind Load Vert. Load Chord Steel Clips Clip Steel (Feet) (Inches) (lb/ft) (lbs) (Type) (Gauge) (Quantity) (Type) (Gauge) 8 6 20 3000 2 20 3 2 20 8 6 30 3000 2 20 5 2 20 8 6 40 3000 2 20 7 2 20 8 6 50 3000 2 20 9 2 20 8 6 60 3000 2 20 8/1 2 20/18 8 6 70 3000 2 20 8/2 2 20/18 8 6 80 3000 2 20 9/2 2 20/18 8 6 90 3000 2 20 9/2/1 2 20/18/16 8 6 100 3000 2 20 10/2/1 2 20/18/16
  • EXAMPLE 2
  • Example 2 illustrates the fabrication of a floor joist 10 feet in length. The Depth refers to the outside dimension. The Chord Type refers to the nature of the cross-section profile of the chord, where 1 refers to the standard chord with measurement “y” approximately equal to ¼″ and where 2, 3 and 4 refer to the expanded side wall chord with measurement “y1” approximately equal to ½″, 1½″ and 2½″, respectively. The Gauge refers to the thickness of the steel, where 20, 18 and 16 refer to thicknesses of 0.032″, 0.044″ and 0.06″, respectively. The Clip Type refers to the kind of clip to be used, where 1 refers to a tubular clip 1″ in diameter and 2 refers to a plate clip. The number of clips refers to the number of sets of two clips to be used, where a set of clips comprises two tubular clips attached to the bottom chord at approximately the same location at an angle to each other that is approximately 90 degrees. The clips used in any given joist are all of the same length. The clip sets are positioned with the outer upper connection of a clip set approximately 2″ from each end of the top chord. The remaining clip sets are spaced such that the center of the bottom connection points are equidistant from each other.
  • Referring to Table 2 for the fabrication of a floor joist of 10 feet in length and 8 inches in depth, the desired factored load is chosen from the table, indicating the appropriate row of information. The type and gauge of top chord and bottom chord is referenced in the corresponding column in that row. The number of clip sets and gauge of clip is also referenced from the corresponding column in that row. The floor joist is then fabricated by inserting the clips within the chords in the positions indicated by the above noted recipe and fastening the clips to the chords.
  • TABLE 2 Joist Joist Factored Top Chord Bottom Chord Clips Span Depth Load Chord Steel Chord Steel Clip Clip Steel (Feet) (Inches) (lb/ft) (Type) (Gauge) (ID) (Gauge) (Quantity) (Type) (Gauge) 10 8 100 2 18 2 20 5 1 20 10 8 120 2 18 2 20 5 1 20 10 8 140 3 20 2 20 6 1 20 10 8 160 3 18 2 20 5 1 20 10 8 180 3 18 2 20 5 1 20 10 8 200 3 16 2 20 5 1 20 10 8 220 3 16 2 20 5 1 20 10 8 240 3 16 2 20 5 1 20
  • EXAMPLE 3
  • Example 3 illustrates the fabrication of a truss 30 feet in span. The Height refers to the distance between the bottom chord of the truss and the peak of the truss. The Chord Type refers to the nature of the cross-section profile of the chord, where 1 refers to the standard chord with measurement “y” approximately equal to ¼″ and where 2, 3 and 4 refer to the expanded side wall chord with measurement “y1” approximately equal to ½″, 1½″ and 2½″, respectively. The Gauge refers to the thickness of the steel, where 20, 18 and 16 refer to thicknesses of 0.032″, 0.044″ and 0.06″, respectively. The Clip Type refers to the kind of clip to be used, where 1 refers to a tubular clip 1″ in diameter and 2 refers to a plate clip. The Quantity refers to the number of clips used in the truss. The clips used in any given truss are not all of the same length. The truss clips are positioned according to the configuration chosen from those which are commonly known in the art, depending on the span, pitch and loads required.
  • Reference is made to FIG. 23, where clip positions a, b and c are indicated. Where double or triple clips are indicated in the table by a letter, the clips at the positions indicated are either double or triple clips. A double clip is two clips that are placed side-by-side within the plane created by the chords such that the position equidistant between the centers of each clip is centered on the position that would otherwise be occupied by a single clip. A triple clip is three clips that are placed side by side within the plane created by the chords such that the position of the center of the middle clip is centered on the position that would otherwise be occupied by a single clip.
  • Referring to Table 3 for the fabrication of a truss of 30 feet in span and 5′6″ inches in height, the desired loads are chosen from the table, indicating the appropriate row of information. The type and gauge of top chords and bottom chord is referenced in the corresponding column in that row. The number of clips and gauge of clip is also referenced from the corresponding column in that row. The truss is then fabricated by inserting the clips within the chords in the positions indicated by the above noted recipe and fastening the clips to the chords.
  • TABLE 3 Truss Truss Live Snow Wind Top Chord Bottom Chord Clips Span Height Load Load Load Chord Steel Chord Steel Double Triple Steel (Feet) (Inches) (lb/ft) (lb/ft) (mph) (Type) (Gauge) (ID) (Gauge) Quantity Clips Clips Type (Gauge) 30 5′ 6″ 20 20 90 3 18 2 20 14 a n/a 1 18 30 5′ 6″ 20 20 150 3 18 2 18 14 a, b n/a  1* 18 30 5′ 6″ 20 50 90 3 16 2 16 14 c b 1 18 *1.5″ diameter

Claims (27)

1. A kit of parts for construction of a plurality of beams for inclusion in a frame of a building structure, such as a floor, ceiling, truss or wall, which structure is required to be capable of bearing a maximum load selected from a range of loads, comprising:
i) a plurality of chords; and
ii) a plurality of clips;
wherein, each chord has at least one opening sufficient to receive a clip at a lengthwise point along the chord as required to bear the load; and
wherein, each clip has at least one pair of opposing tag portions, each with a thickness that is sufficient for insertion into the opening of first and second chords to permit the fastening of the clip to the first and second chords by fastening means.
2. The kit of parts of claim 1 wherein the cross-section of each chord is generally “T” shaped and the opening is located proximate the distal end of the elongate portion of the chord.
3. The kit of parts of claim 2 wherein the chords and the clips are metal.
4. The kit of parts of claim 2 wherein the chords are formed from a continuous piece of metal.
5. The kit of parts of claim 3 wherein the fastening means is chosen from a group comprising clinching, bolting and screwing.
6. The kit of parts of claim 5 wherein each clip is chosen from the group comprising plate clips and tubular clips.
7. The kit of parts of claim 6 wherein each plate clip is formed into a flat piece.
8. The kit of parts of claim 7 wherein each plate clip is quadrilateral in shape.
9. The kit of parts of claim 8 wherein each plate clip has at least one indentation at each border between the tag portions and non-tag portions of the plate clip which is sufficient in depth to prevent the further entry of the tag portion into the opening of the chord.
10. The kit of parts of claim 9 wherein each plate clip has an opening, which opening has a smooth return and is sufficient for the passage of an electrical wire from one side of the plate clip to the other.
11. The kit of parts of claim 10 wherein the shape of each plate clip is chosen from the group comprising trapezoidal, square and rectangular.
12. The kit of parts of claim 6 wherein each tubular clip is formed into a tubular piece and wherein the tag portions are located at opposing ends of the tubular piece.
13. The kit of parts of claim 3 wherein the metal has a gauge between about 22 GA and 14 GA.
14. A kit of parts for construction of a plurality of beams for inclusion in a frame of a building structure, such as a floor, ceiling, truss or wall, which structure is required to be capable of bearing a maximum load selected from a range of loads, comprising:
i) a plurality of substantially identical chords; and
ii) a plurality of clips;
wherein, each chord presents a lengthwise continuous member having a top portion, opposing side wall portions, connecting portions and an elongate portion generally orthogonal to the top portion extending below the top portion and connected to the connecting portions and having an opening proximate its distal end sufficient to receive a clip at any lengthwise point along the elongate portion of the chord as required to bear the load; and
wherein, each clip has at least one pair of opposing tag portions, each with a thickness that is sufficient for insertion into the opening in the elongate portion of first and second chords to permit the fastening of the clip to the first and second chords by fastening means.
15. The kit of parts of claim 14 wherein the cross-section of each chord is generally “T” shaped.
16. The kit of parts of claim 15 wherein the chords and the clips are metal.
17. The kit of parts of claim 15 wherein the chords are formed from a continuous piece of metal.
18. The kit of parts of claim 16 wherein the fastening means chosen from a group comprising clinching, bolting and screwing.
19. The kit of parts of claim 18 wherein each clip is chosen from the group comprising plate clips and tubular clips.
20. The kit of parts of claim 19 wherein each plate clip is formed into a flat piece.
21. The kit of parts of claim 20 wherein each plate clip is quadrilateral in shape.
22. The kit of parts of claim 21 wherein each plate clip has at least one indentation at each border between the tag portions and non-tag portions of the plate clip which is sufficient in depth to prevent the further entry of the tag portion into the opening of the chord.
23. The kit of parts of claim 22 wherein each plate clip has an opening between the indentation, which opening has a smooth return and is sufficient for the passage of an electrical wire from one side of the plate clip to the other.
24. The kit of parts of claim 23 wherein the shape of each plate clip is chosen from the group comprising trapezoidal, square and rectangular.
25. The kit of parts of claim 19 wherein each tubular clip is formed into a tubular piece and wherein the tag portions are located at opposing ends of the tubular piece.
26. The kit of parts of claim 15 wherein the metal has a gauge between about 22 GA and 14 GA.
27. A kit of parts for construction of a plurality of beams for inclusion in a frame of a building structure, such as a floor, ceiling, truss or wall, which structure is required to be capable of bearing a maximum load selected from a range of loads, comprising:
i) a plurality of substantially identical chords; and
ii) a plurality of clips;
wherein, each chord presents a lengthwise continuous member having a top portion, opposing side wall portions, connecting portions and an elongate portion generally orthogonal to the top portion extending below the top portion and connected to the connecting portions and having an opening proximate its distal end sufficient to receive a clip at any lengthwise point along the elongate portion of the chord as required to bear the load;
wherein, each clip has at least one pair of opposing tag portions, each with a thickness that is sufficient for insertion into the opening in the elongate portion of first and second chords to permit the fastening of the clip to the first and second chords by fastening means;
wherein each beam, when constructed, comprises first and second chords joined together by a specified number of spaced apart clips, the number of clips for each beam being selected according to a recipe which determines a substantial minimal number of clips required for each beam in order for said building structure to withstand the maximum load at a given length and depth of beam at a given beam spacing.
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