US20080192022A1 - Sensing device having automatic mode selection - Google Patents

Sensing device having automatic mode selection Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US20080192022A1
US20080192022A1 US12015509 US1550908A US2008192022A1 US 20080192022 A1 US20080192022 A1 US 20080192022A1 US 12015509 US12015509 US 12015509 US 1550908 A US1550908 A US 1550908A US 2008192022 A1 US2008192022 A1 US 2008192022A1
Authority
US
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
device
data
sensing
page
pen
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US12015509
Inventor
Kia Silverbrook
Paul Lapstun
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd
Original Assignee
Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06KRECOGNITION OF DATA; PRESENTATION OF DATA; RECORD CARRIERS; HANDLING RECORD CARRIERS
    • G06K19/00Record carriers for use with machines and with at least a part designed to carry digital markings
    • G06K19/06Record carriers for use with machines and with at least a part designed to carry digital markings characterised by the kind of the digital marking, e.g. shape, nature, code
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRIC DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F3/00Input arrangements for transferring data to be processed into a form capable of being handled by the computer; Output arrangements for transferring data from processing unit to output unit, e.g. interface arrangements
    • G06F3/01Input arrangements or combined input and output arrangements for interaction between user and computer
    • G06F3/03Arrangements for converting the position or the displacement of a member into a coded form
    • G06F3/0304Detection arrangements using opto-electronic means
    • G06F3/0317Detection arrangements using opto-electronic means in co-operation with a patterned surface, e.g. absolute position or relative movement detection for an optical mouse or pen positioned with respect to a coded surface
    • G06F3/0321Detection arrangements using opto-electronic means in co-operation with a patterned surface, e.g. absolute position or relative movement detection for an optical mouse or pen positioned with respect to a coded surface by optically sensing the absolute position with respect to a regularly patterned surface forming a passive digitiser, e.g. pen optically detecting position indicative tags printed on a paper sheet
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRIC DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F3/00Input arrangements for transferring data to be processed into a form capable of being handled by the computer; Output arrangements for transferring data from processing unit to output unit, e.g. interface arrangements
    • G06F3/01Input arrangements or combined input and output arrangements for interaction between user and computer
    • G06F3/03Arrangements for converting the position or the displacement of a member into a coded form
    • G06F3/033Pointing devices displaced or positioned by the user, e.g. mice, trackballs, pens or joysticks; Accessories therefor
    • G06F3/0354Pointing devices displaced or positioned by the user, e.g. mice, trackballs, pens or joysticks; Accessories therefor with detection of 2D relative movements between the device, or an operating part thereof, and a plane or surface, e.g. 2D mice, trackballs, pens or pucks
    • G06F3/03545Pens or stylus
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06KRECOGNITION OF DATA; PRESENTATION OF DATA; RECORD CARRIERS; HANDLING RECORD CARRIERS
    • G06K7/00Methods or arrangements for sensing record carriers, e.g. for reading patterns
    • G06K7/10Methods or arrangements for sensing record carriers, e.g. for reading patterns by electromagnetic radiation, e.g. optical sensing; by corpuscular radiation
    • G06K7/10544Methods or arrangements for sensing record carriers, e.g. for reading patterns by electromagnetic radiation, e.g. optical sensing; by corpuscular radiation by scanning of the records by radiation in the optical part of the electromagnetic spectrum
    • G06K7/10712Fixed beam scanning
    • G06K7/10722Photodetector array or CCD scanning
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06TIMAGE DATA PROCESSING OR GENERATION, IN GENERAL
    • G06T7/00Image analysis
    • G06T7/30Determination of transform parameters for the alignment of images, i.e. image registration
    • G06T7/32Determination of transform parameters for the alignment of images, i.e. image registration using correlation-based methods
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRIC DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F2203/00Indexing scheme relating to G06F3/00 - G06F3/048
    • G06F2203/033Indexing scheme relating to G06F3/033
    • G06F2203/0337Status LEDs integrated in the mouse to provide visual feedback to the user about the status of the input device, the PC, or the user
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRIC DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F2203/00Indexing scheme relating to G06F3/00 - G06F3/048
    • G06F2203/038Indexing scheme relating to G06F3/038
    • G06F2203/0384Wireless input, i.e. hardware and software details of wireless interface arrangements for pointing devices

Abstract

A sensing device for interaction with a surface, said sensing device having automatic mode selection, said sensing device comprising: an image sensor for imaging the surface and generating image data; a motion sensor configured for determining one or more relative position changes of the sensing device; a processor configured for: receiving the image data; and automatically selecting, using said image data, either an interaction mode or a cursor mode for said sensing device; and communication means for transmitting either interaction data or cursor data to a computer system, dependent on said selected mode, wherein said processor is configured to: select the interaction mode and generate interaction data from the image data if said image data indicates that said sensing device is interacting with a first surface having a position-coding pattern disposed thereon, said interaction data being indicative of at least one absolute location of the sensing device relative to the surface; and select the cursor mode if said image data indicates that said sensing device is interacting with a second surface lacking a position-coding pattern, said cursor data being indicative of said one or more relative position changes of the sensing device.

Description

    FIELD OF INVENTION
  • [0001]
    The present invention relates to a method and system for reading a position-coding pattern disposed on a surface. It has been developed primarily to improve the functionality of sensing device used for reading the position-coding pattern.
  • COPENDING
  • [0002]
    The following applications have been filed by the Applicant simultaneously with the present application:
  • [0000]
    NPZ025US NPZ026US NPZ028US NPZ029US NPZ030US NPZ031US
  • [0003]
    The disclosures of these co-pending applications are incorporated herein by reference. The above applications have been identified by their filing docket number, which will be substituted with the corresponding application number, once assigned.
  • CROSS REFERENCES
  • [0004]
    The following patents or patent applications filed by the applicant or assignee of the present invention are hereby incorporated by cross-reference.
  • [0000]
    6276850 6520631 6158907 6539180 6270177 6405055 6628430
    6835135 6626529 6981769 7125338 7125337 7136186 7286260
    7145689 7130075 7081974 7177055 7209257 6443555 7161715
    7154632 7158258 7148993 7075684 10/943905 10/943906 10/943904
    10/943903 10/943902 6966659 6988841 7077748 7255646 7070270
    7014307 7158809 7217048 11/225172 11/255942 11/329039 11/329040
    7271829 11/442189 11/474280 11/483061 11/503078 11/520735 11/505858
    11/525850 11/583870 11/592983 11/592208 11/601828 11/635482 11/635526
    10/466440 7215441 11/650545 11/653241 11/653240 7056040 6942334
    11/706300 11/740265 11/737720 11/739056 11/740204 11/740223 11/753557
    11/750285 11758648 11/778559 11834634 11/838878 11845669 6799853
    7237896 6749301 10/451722 7137678 7252379 7144107 10/503900
    10/503898 10/503897 7220068 7270410 7241005 7108437 7140792
    10/503922 7224274 10/503917 10/503918 10/503925 10/503927 10/503928
    10/503929 10/503885 7195325 7229164 7150523 10/503889 7154580
    6906778 7167158 7128269 6688528 6986613 6641315 7278702
    10/503891 7150524 7155395 6915140 6999206 6795651 6883910
    7118481 7136198 7092130 6786661 6808325 10/920368 10/920284
    7219990 10/920283 6750901 6476863 6788336 6322181 6597817
    6227648 6727948 6690419 10/470947 6619654 6969145 6679582
    10/470942 6568670 6866373 7280247 7008044 6742871 6966628
    6644781 6969143 6767076 6834933 6692113 6913344 6727951
    7128395 7036911 7032995 6969151 6955424 6969162 10/919249
    6942315 11/006577 7234797 6986563 7295211 11/045442 7286162
    7283159 7077330 6196541 11/149389 11/185725 7226144 11/202344
    7267428 11/248423 11/248422 7093929 11/282769 11/330060 11/442111
    7290862 11/499806 11/499710 6195150 11749156 11782588 11/854435
    11/853817 11/935958 11924608 6362868 11970993 6831681 6431669
    6362869 6472052 6356715 6894694 6636216 6366693 6329990
    6459495 6137500 6690416 7050143 6398328 7110024 6431704
    6879341 6415054 6665454 6542645 6486886 6381361 6317192
    6850274 09/113054 6646757 6624848 6357135 6271931 6353772
    6106147 6665008 6304291 6305770 6289262 6315200 6217165
    6496654 6859225 6924835 6647369 6943830 09/693317 7021745
    6712453 6460971 6428147 6416170 6402300 6464340 6612687
    6412912 6447099 6837567 6505913 7128845 6733684 7249108
    6566858 6331946 6246970 6442525 09/517384 09/505951 6374354
    7246098 6816968 6757832 6334190 6745331 7249109 10/203559
    7197642 7093139 10/636263 10/636283 10/866608 7210038 10/902883
    10/940653 10/942858 11/706329 11/757385 11/758642 7119836 7283162
    7286169 10/636285 7170652 6967750 6995876 7099051 7172191
    7243916 7222845 11/239232 7285227 7063940 11/107942 7193734
    7086724 7090337 7278723 7140717 11/190902 11/209711 7256824
    7140726 7156512 7186499 11/478585 11/525862 11/540574 11/583875
    11/592181 6750944 11/599336 7291447 11744183 11/758646 11/778561
    11/839532 11/838874 11/853021 11/869710 11/868531 11927403 11951960
    10/636225 6985207 6773874 6650836 10/666495 10/636224 7250975
    7295343 6880929 7236188 7236187 7155394 10/636219 10/636223
    7055927 6986562 7052103 7312845 10/656281 10/656791 10/666124
    10/683217 7289142 7095533 6914686 6896252 6820871 6834851
    6848686 6830246 6851671 10/729098 7092011 7187404 10/729159
    10/753458 6878299 6929348 6921154 10/780625 10/804042 6913346
    10/831238 10/831237 10/831239 10/831240 10/831241 10/831234 10/831233
    7246897 7077515 10/831235 10/853336 10/853117 10/853659 10/853681
    6913875 7021758 7033017 7161709 7099033 7147294 7156494
    11/012024 11/011925 7032998 7044585 7296867 6994424 11/006787
    7258435 7097263 7001012 7004568 7040738 7188933 7027080
    7025446 6991321 7131715 7261392 7207647 7182435 7097285
    11/228410 7097284 7083264 7147304 7232203 7156498 7201471
    11/501772 11/503084 11/513073 7210764 11/635524 11/706379 11/730386
    11/730784 11/753568 11/782591 11/859783 6710457 6775906 6507099
    7221043 7107674 7154172 11/442400 7247941 11/736540 11/758644
    11/940304 6530339 6631897 6851667 6830243 6860479 6997452
    7000913 7204482 11/212759 11/281679 11/730409 6238044 6425661
    11/003786 7258417 7293853 11/003334 7270395 11/003404 11/003419
    11/003700 7255419 7284819 7229148 7258416 7273263 7270393
    6984017 11/003699 11/071473 7156497 11/601670 11748482 11/778563
    11/779851 11/778574 11/853816 11/853814 11/853786 11/872037 11/856694
    11965703 11/003463 11/003701 11/003683 11/003614 7284820 11/003684
    7246875 11/003617 11/764760 11853777 11955354 11/293800 11/293802
    11/293801 11/293808 11/293809 11/482975 11/482970 11/482968 11/482972
    11/482971 11/482969 6431777 6334664 6447113 7239407 6398359
    6652089 6652090 7057759 6631986 7187470 7280235 11/501775
    11744210 11/859784 6471331 6676250 6347864 6439704 6425700
    6588952 6626515 6722758 6871937 11/060803 11/097266 11/097267
    11/685084 11/685086 11/685090 11/740925 11/763444 11/763443 11946840
    11961712 7249942 7206654 7162324 7162325 7231275 7146236
    7278847 10/753499 6997698 7220112 7231276 10/753440 7220115
    7195475 7144242 11/499746 11/501774 11/525858 11/545501 11/599335
    11/706380 11736545 11/736554 11/739047 11749159 11/739073 11/775160
    11/853755 11/940291 11934071 11951913 6786420 6827282 6948661
    7073713 10/983060 7093762 7083108 7222799 7201319 11/442103
    11/739071 11/518238 11/518280 11/518244 11/518243 11/518242 7032899
    6854724 11/084237 11/084240 11/084238 11/357296 11/357298 11/357297
    6350023 6318849 6592207 6439699 6312114 11/246676 11/246677
    11/246678 11/246679 11/246680 11/246681 11/246714 11/246713 11/246689
    11/246671 11/246670 11/246669 11/246704 11/246710 11/246688 11/246716
    11/246715 11/246707 11/246706 11/246705 11/246708 11/246693 11/246692
    11/246696 11/246695 11/246694 11/482958 11/482955 11/482962 11/482963
    11/482956 11/482954 11/482974 11/482957 11/482987 11/482959 11/482960
    11/482961 11/482964 11/482965 11/482976 11/482973 11/495815 11/495816
    11/495817 60992635 60992637 60992641 10/803074 10/803073 7040823
    10/803076 10/803077 10/803078 10/803079 10/922971 10/922970 10/922836
    10/922842 10/922848 10/922843 7125185 7229226 11/513386 11/753559
    10/815621 7243835 10/815630 10/815637 10/815638 7251050 10/815642
    7097094 7137549 10/815618 7156292 11738974 10/815635 10/815647
    10/815634 7137566 7131596 7128265 7207485 7197374 7175089
    10/815617 10/815620 7178719 10/815613 7207483 7296737 7270266
    10/815614 11/446240 11/488162 11/488163 11/488164 11/488167 11/488168
    11/488165 11/488166 7267273 11/834628 11/839497 11/944449 10/815636
    7128270 11/041650 11/041651 11/041652 11/041649 11/041610 11863253
    11863255 11/863257 11863258 11863262 11/041609 11/041626 11/041627
    11/041624 11/041625 11863268 11863269 11863270 11863271 11863273
    76584733 11/041556 11/041580 11/041723 11/041698 11/041648 11863263
    11863264 11863265 11863266 11863267 10/815609 7150398 7159777
    10/815610 7188769 7097106 7070110 7243849 11/442381 11/480957
    11/764694 11957470 6227652 6213588 6213589 6231163 6247795
    6394581 6244691 6257704 6416168 6220694 6257705 6247794
    6234610 6247793 6264306 6241342 6247792 6264307 6254220
    6234611 6302528 6283582 6239821 6338547 6247796 6557977
    6390603 6362843 6293653 6312107 6227653 6234609 6238040
    6188415 6227654 6209989 6247791 6336710 6217153 6416167
    6243113 6283581 6247790 6260953 6267469 6588882 6742873
    6918655 6547371 6938989 6598964 6923526 6273544 6309048
    6420196 6443558 6439689 6378989 6848181 6634735 6299289
    6299290 6425654 6902255 6623101 6406129 6505916 6457809
    6550895 6457812 7152962 6428133 7216956 7080895 11/144844
    7182437 11/599341 11/635533 11/607976 11/607975 11/607999 11/607980
    11/607979 11/607978 11/735961 11/685074 11/696126 11/696144 11/696650
    11/763446 6224780 6235212 6280643 6284147 6214244 6071750
    6267905 6251298 6258285 6225138 6241904 6299786 6866789
    6231773 6190931 6248249 6290862 6241906 6565762 6241905
    6451216 6231772 6274056 6290861 6248248 6306671 6331258
    6110754 6294101 6416679 6264849 6254793 6245246 6855264
    6235211 6491833 6264850 6258284 6312615 6228668 6180427
    6171875 6267904 6245247 6315914 7169316 6526658 7210767
    11/056146 11/635523 6665094 6450605 6512596 6654144 7125090
    6687022 7072076 7092125 7215443 7136195 7077494 6877834
    6969139 10/636227 7283280 6912067 7277205 7154637 10/636230
    7070251 6851782 10/636211 10/636247 6843545 7079286 7064867
    7065247 7027177 7218415 7064873 6954276 7061644 7092127
    7059695 10/990382 7177052 7270394 11/124231 7188921 7187469
    7196820 11/281445 7283281 7251051 7245399 11/524911 11/640267
    11/706297 11/730387 11/737142 11/764729 11/834637 11/853019 11/863239
    11/305274 11/305273 11/305275 11/305152 11/305158 11/305008 6231148
    6293658 6614560 6238033 6312070 6238111 6378970 6196739
    6270182 6152619 7006143 6876394 6738096 6970186 6287028
    6412993 11/033145 11/102845 11/102861 11/248421 11/672878 7204941
    7282164 10/815628 11845672 7278727 10/913373 10/913374 10/913372
    7138391 7153956 10/913380 10/913379 10/913376 7122076 7148345
    11/172816 11/172815 11/172814 11/482990 11/482986 11/482985 11/454899
    11/583942 11/592990 11849360 11/831961 11/831962 11/831963 60951700
    11/832629 11/832637 60971535 10/407212 7252366 10/683064 10/683041
    7275811 10/884889 10/922890 10/922875 10/922885 10/922889 10/922884
    10/922879 10/922887 10/922888 10/922874 7234795 10/922871 10/922880
    7293855 10/922882 10/922883 10/922878 10/922872 10/922876 10/922886
    10/922877 7147792 7175774 11/159193 11/491378 11766713 11/841647
    11/482980 11/563684 11/482967 11/482966 11/482988 11/482989 11/293832
    11/293838 11/293825 11/293841 11/293799 11/293796 11/293797 11/293798
    11/124158 11/124196 11/124199 11/124162 11/124202 11/124197 11/124154
    11/124198 7284921 11/124151 11/124160 11/124192 11/124175 11/124163
    11/124149 11/124152 11/124173 11/124155 7236271 11/124174 11/124194
    11/124164 11/124200 11/124195 11/124166 11/124150 11/124172 11/124165
    11/124186 11/124185 11/124184 11/124182 11/124201 11/124171 11/124181
    11/124161 11/124156 11/124191 11/124159 11/124176 11/124188 11/124170
    11/124187 11/124189 11/124190 11/124180 11/124193 11/124183 11/124178
    11/124177 11/124148 11/124168 11/124167 11/124179 11/124169 11/187976
    11/188011 11/188014 11/482979 11/735490 11/853018 11/944450 11/228540
    11/228500 11/228501 11/228530 11/228490 11/228531 11/228504 11/228533
    11/228502 11/228507 11/228482 11/228505 11/228497 11/228487 11/228529
    11/228484 11/228489 11/228518 11/228536 11/228496 11/228488 11/228506
    11/228516 11/228526 11/228539 11/228538 11/228524 11/228523 11/228519
    11/228528 11/228527 11/228525 11/228520 11/228498 11/228511 11/228522
    11/228515 11/228537 11/228534 11/228491 11/228499 11/228509 11/228492
    11/228493 11/228510 11/228508 11/228512 11/228514 11/228494 11/228495
    11/228486 11/228481 11/228477 11/228485 11/228483 11/228521 11/228517
    11/228532 11/228513 11/228503 11/228480 11/228535 11/228478 11/228479
    6238115 6386535 6398344 6612240 6752549 6805049 6971313
    6899480 6860664 6925935 6966636 7024995 7284852 6926455
    7056038 6869172 7021843 6988845 6964533 6981809 7284822
    7258067 11/155544 7222941 7284925 7278795 7249904 11/737726
    11772240 11/863246 11/863145 11/865650 6087638 6340222 6041600
    6299300 6067797 6286935 6044646 6382769 6787051 6938990
    11/242916 11/144799 11/198235 11861282 11861284 11/766052 7152972
    11/592996 D529952 6390605 6322195 6612110 6480089 6460778
    6305788 6426014 6364453 6457795 6315399 6338548 7040736
    6938992 6994425 6863379 6540319 6994421 6984019 7008043
    6997544 6328431 6991310 10/965772 7140723 6328425 6982184
    7267423 7134741 7066577 7152945 11/038200 7021744 6991320
    7155911 11/107799 6595624 7152943 7125103 11/209709 7290857
    7285437 7229151 11/330058 7237873 11/329163 11/442180 11/450431
    7213907 6417757 11/482951 11/545566 11/583826 11/604315 11/604323
    11/643845 11/706950 11/730399 11749121 11/753549 11/834630 11/935389
    11/869670 7095309 11/945157 11957473 11967235 6854825 6623106
    6672707 6575561 6817700 6588885 7075677 6428139 6575549
    6846692 6425971 7063993 6383833 6955414 6412908 6746105
    6953236 6412904 7128388 6398343 6652071 6793323 6659590
    6676245 7201460 6464332 6659593 6478406 6978613 6439693
    6502306 6966111 6863369 6428142 6874868 6390591 6799828
    6896358 7018016 10/296534 6328417 6322194 6382779 6629745
    6565193 6609786 6609787 6439908 6684503 6843551 6764166
    6561617 10/510092 6557970 6546628 10/510098 6652074 6820968
    7175260 6682174 7303262 6648453 6834932 6682176 6998062
    6767077 7278717 6755509 10/534813 6692108 10/534811 6672709
    7303263 7086718 10/534881 6672710 10/534812 6669334 10/534804
    7152958 7281782 6824246 7264336 6669333 10/534815 6820967
    7306326 6736489 7264335 6719406 7222943 7188419 7168166
    6974209 7086719 6974210 7195338 7252775 7101025 11/474281
    11/485258 11/706304 11/706324 11/706326 11/706321 11/772239 11/782598
    11/829941 11/852991 11852986 11/936062 11/934027 11955028 11/763440
    11/763442 11/246687 11/246718 11/246685 11/246686 11/246703 11/246691
    11/246711 11/246690 11/246712 11/246717 11/246709 11/246700 11/246701
    11/246702 11/246668 11/246697 11/246698 11/246699 11/246675 11/246674
    11/246667 11/829957 11/829960 11/829961 11/829962 11/829963 11/829966
    11/829967 11/829968 11/829969 11946839 11946838 11946837 11951230
    7156508 7159972 7083271 7165834 7080894 7201469 7090336
    7156489 10/760233 10/760246 7083257 7258422 7255423 7219980
    10/760253 10/760255 10/760209 7118192 10/760194 10/760238 7077505
    7198354 7077504 10/760189 7198355 10/760232 10/760231 7152959
    7213906 7178901 7222938 7108353 7104629 11/446227 11/454904
    11/472345 11/474273 7261401 11/474279 11/482939 11/482950 11/499709
    7306324 7306325 11/603824 11/601756 11/601672 7303261 11/653253
    11/706328 11/706299 11/706965 11/737080 11/737041 11/778062 11/778566
    11/782593 11/934018 11/945157 11951095 11951828 11954906 11954949
    11967226 7303930 11/246672 11/246673 11/246683 11/246682 60/939086
    11860538 11860539 11/860540 11860541 11860542 11/936060 11877667
    11877668 7246886 7128400 7108355 6991322 7287836 7118197
    10/728784 10/728783 7077493 6962402 10/728803 7147308 10/728779
    7118198 7168790 7172270 7229155 6830318 7195342 7175261
    10/773183 7108356 7118202 10/773186 7134744 10/773185 7134743
    7182439 7210768 10/773187 7134745 7156484 7118201 7111926
    10/773184 7018021 11/060751 11/060805 11/188017 7128402 11/298774
    11/329157 11/490041 11/501767 7284839 7246885 7229156 11/505846
    11/505857 7293858 11/524908 11/524938 7258427 11/524912 7278716
    11/592995 11/603825 11/649773 11/650549 11/653237 11/706378 11/706962
    11749118 11/754937 11749120 11/744885 11/779850 11/765439 11/842950
    11/839539 11/926121 11/097308 11/097309 7246876 11/097299 11/097310
    11/097213 11/210687 11/097212 7147306 7261394 11/764806 11/782595
    11965696 11/482953 11/482977 11/544778 11/544779 11/764808 11/756624
    11/756625 11/756626 11/756627 11/756628 11/756629 11/756630 11/756631
    7156289 7178718 7225979 11/712434 11/084796 11/084742 11/084806
    09/575197 7079712 6825945 09/575165 6813039 7190474 6987506
    6824044 7038797 6980318 6816274 7102772 09/575186 6681045
    6678499 6679420 6963845 6976220 6728000 7110126 7173722
    6976035 6813558 6766942 6965454 6995859 7088459 6720985
    7286113 6922779 6978019 6847883 7131058 7295839 09/607843
    09/693690 6959298 6973450 7150404 6965882 7233924 09/575181
    09/722174 7175079 7162259 6718061 10/291523 10/291471 7012710
    6825956 10/291481 7222098 10/291825 7263508 7031010 6972864
    6862105 7009738 6989911 6982807 10/291576 6829387 6714678
    6644545 6609653 6651879 10/291555 7293240 10/291592 10/291542
    7044363 7004390 6867880 7034953 6987581 7216224 10/291821
    7162269 7162222 7290210 7293233 7293234 6850931 6865570
    6847961 10/685523 10/685583 7162442 10/685584 7159784 10/804034
    10/793933 6889896 10/831232 7174056 6996274 7162088 10/943874
    10/943872 10/944044 7259884 10/944043 7167270 10/943877 6986459
    10/954170 7181448 10/981626 10/981616 10/981627 7231293 7174329
    10/992713 7295922 7200591 11/020106 11/020260 11/020321 11/020319
    11/026045 11/059696 11/051032 11/059674 11/107944 11/107941 11/082940
    11/082815 11/082827 11/082829 6991153 6991154 11/124256 11/123136
    11/154676 11/159196 11/182002 11/202251 11/202252 11/202253 11/203200
    11/202218 11/206778 11/203424 11/222977 11/228450 11/227239 11/286334
    7225402 11/329187 11/349143 11/491225 11/491121 11/442428 11/454902
    11/442385 11/478590 7271931 11/520170 11/603057 11/706964 11/739032
    11739014 11/834633 11/830848 11/830849 11/839542 11/866394 11/934077
    11951874 7068382 7007851 6957921 6457883 10/743671 7044381
    11/203205 7094910 7091344 7122685 7038066 7099019 7062651
    6789194 6789191 10/900129 7278018 10/913350 10/982975 10/983029
    11/331109 6644642 6502614 6622999 6669385 6827116 7011128
    10/949307 6549935 6987573 6727996 6591884 6439706 6760119
    7295332 7064851 6826547 6290349 6428155 6785016 6831682
    6741871 6927871 6980306 6965439 6840606 7036918 6977746
    6970264 7068389 7093991 7190491 10/901154 10/932044 10/962412
    7177054 10/962552 10/965733 10/965933 10/974742 10/982974 7180609
    10/986375 11/107817 7292363 11/149160 11/206756 11/250465 7202959
    11/653219 11/706309 11/730389 11/730392 60/953443 11/866387 60974077
    6982798 6870966 6822639 6474888 6627870 6724374 6788982
    7263270 6788293 6946672 6737591 7091960 09/693514 6792165
    7105753 6795593 6980704 6768821 7132612 7041916 6797895
    7015901 7289882 7148644 10/778056 10/778058 10/778060 10/778059
    10/778063 10/778062 10/778061 10/778057 7096199 7286887 10/917467
    10/917466 10/917465 7218978 7245294 7277085 7187370 10/917436
    10/943856 10/919379 7019319 10/943878 10/943849 7043096 7148499
    11/144840 11/155556 11/155557 11/193481 11/193435 11/193482 11/193479
    11/255941 11/281671 11/298474 7245760 11/488832 11/495814 11/495823
    11/495822 11/495821 11/495820 11/653242 11/754370 60911260 11/829936
    11/839494 11866305 11866313 11866324 11866336 11866348 11866359
    11970951 7055739 7233320 6830196 6832717 7182247 7120853
    7082562 6843420 10/291718 6789731 7057608 6766944 6766945
    7289103 10/291559 7299969 7264173 10/409864 7108192 10/537159
    7111791 7077333 6983878 10/786631 7134598 10/893372 6929186
    6994264 7017826 7014123 7134601 7150396 10/971146 7017823
    7025276 7284701 7080780 11/074802 11/442366 11749158 11/842948
    10/492169 10/492152 10/492168 10/492161 7308148 10/502575 10/531229
    10/683151 10/531733 10/683040 10/510391 10/919260 10/510392 10/778090
    11/944404 11/936638 6957768 09/575172 7170499 7106888 7123239
    6982701 6982703 7227527 6786397 6947027 6975299 7139431
    7048178 7118025 6839053 7015900 7010147 7133557 6914593
    10/291546 6938826 7278566 7123245 6992662 7190346 11/074800
    11/074782 11/074777 11/075917 7221781 11/102843 7213756 11/188016
    7180507 7263225 7287688 11/737094 11/753570 11/782596 11/865711
    11856061 11856062 11856064 11856066 11/672522 11/672950 11/672947
    11/672891 11/672954 11/672533 11754310 11/754321 11/754320 11/754319
    11/754318 11/754317 11/754316 11/754315 11/754314 11/754313 11/754312
    11/754311 6593166 7132679 6940088 7119357 7307272 6755513
    6974204 6409323 7055930 6281912 6893109 6604810 6824242
    6318920 7210867 6488422 6655786 6457810 6485135 6796731
    6904678 6641253 7125106 6786658 7097273 6824245 7222947
    6918649 6860581 6929351 7063404 6969150 7004652 6871938
    6905194 6846059 6997626 10/974881 7029098 6966625 7114794
    7207646 7077496 7284831 11/072529 7152938 7182434 7182430
    11/102842 7032993 11/155513 11/155545 11/144813 7172266 7258430
    7128392 7210866 11/488066 11/505933 11/540727 11/635480 11/707946
    11/706303 11/709084 11/730776 11/744143 11/779845 11/782589 11/863256
    11/940302 11/940235 11955359 11/066161 11/066160 11/066159 11/066158
    7287831 11/875936 6804030 6807315 6771811 6683996 7271936
    7304771 6965691 7058219 7289681 7187807 7181063 11/338783
    11/603823 11/650536 10/727181 10/727162 10/727163 10/727245 7121639
    7165824 7152942 10/727157 7181572 7096137 7302592 7278034
    7188282 10/727159 10/727180 10/727179 10/727192 10/727274 10/727164
    10/727161 10/727198 10/727158 10/754536 10/754938 10/727227 10/727160
    10/934720 7171323 7278697 11/442131 11/474278 11/488853 11/488841
    11749750 11749749 11955127 11951213 10/296522 6795215 7070098
    7154638 6805419 6859289 6977751 6398332 6394573 6622923
    6747760 6921144 10/884881 7092112 7192106 11/039866 7173739
    6986560 7008033 11/148237 7222780 7270391 7150510 11/478599
    11/499749 11/521388 11/738518 11/482981 11/743662 11/743661 11/743659
    11/743655 11/743657 11/752900 11926109 11927163 11929567 7195328
    7182422 11/650537 11/712540 10/854521 10/854522 10/854488 7281330
    10/854503 10/854504 10/854509 7188928 7093989 10/854497 10/854495
    10/854498 10/854511 10/854512 10/854525 10/854526 10/854516 7252353
    10/854515 7267417 10/854505 10/854493 7275805 7314261 10/854490
    7281777 7290852 10/854528 10/854523 10/854527 10/854524 10/854520
    10/854514 10/854519 10/854513 10/854499 10/854501 7266661 7243193
    10/854518 10/854517 10/934628 7163345 11/499803 11/601757 11/706295
    11/735881 11748483 11749123 11/766061 11775135 11772235 11/778569
    11/829942 11/870342 11/935274 11/937239 11961907 11961940 11961961
    11/014731 D529081 D541848 D528597 6924907 6712452 6416160
    6238043 6958826 6812972 6553459 6967741 6956669 6903766
    6804026 7259889 6975429 10/636234 10/636233 7301567 10/636216
    7274485 7139084 7173735 7068394 7286182 7086644 7250977
    7146281 7023567 7136183 7083254 6796651 7061643 7057758
    6894810 6995871 7085010 7092126 7123382 7061650 10/853143
    6986573 6974212 7307756 7173737 10/954168 7246868 11/065357
    7137699 11/107798 7148994 7077497 11/176372 7248376 11/225158
    11/225154 7173729 11/442132 11/478607 11/503085 11/545502 11/583943
    11/585946 11/653239 11/653238 11/764781 11/764782 11/779884 11845666
    11/872637 11/944401 11/940215 11/544764 11/544765 11/544772 11/544773
    11/544774 11/544775 11/544776 11/544766 11/544767 11/544771 11/544770
    11/544769 11/544777 11/544768 11/544763 11/293804 11/293840 11/293803
    11/293833 11/293834 11/293835 11/293836 11/293837 11/293792 11/293794
    11/293839 11/293826 11/293829 11/293830 11/293827 11/293828 7270494
    11/293823 11/293824 11/293831 11/293815 11/293819 11/293818 11/293817
    11/293816 11/838875 11/482978 11/640356 11/640357 11/640358 11/640359
    11/640360 11/640355 11/679786 11/872714 10/760254 10/760210 10/760202
    7201468 10/760198 10/760249 7234802 7303255 7287846 7156511
    10/760264 7258432 7097291 10/760222 10/760248 7083273 10/760192
    10/760203 10/760204 10/760205 10/760206 10/760267 10/760270 7198352
    10/760271 7303251 7201470 7121655 7293861 7232208 10/760186
    10/760261 7083272 7261400 11/474272 11/474315 7311387 11/583874
    7303258 11/706322 11/706968 11/749119 11749157 11779848 11/782590
    11/855152 11855151 11/870327 11/934780 11/935992 11951193 11/014764
    11/014763 11/014748 11/014747 11/014761 11/014760 11/014757 7303252
    7249822 11/014762 11/014724 11/014723 11/014756 11/014736 11/014759
    11/014758 11/014725 11/014739 11/014738 11/014737 11/014726 11/014745
    11/014712 7270405 7303268 11/014735 11/014734 11/014719 11/014750
    11/014749 7249833 11/758640 11/775143 11/838877 11944453 11/944633
    11955065 11/014769 11/014729 11/014743 11/014733 7300140 11/014755
    11/014765 11/014766 11/014740 7284816 7284845 7255430 11/014744
    11/014741 11/014768 11/014767 11/014718 11/014717 11/014716 11/014732
    11/014742 11/097268 11/097185 11/097184 11/778567 11852958 11852907
    11/872038 11955093 11961578 11/293820 11/293813 11/293822 11/293812
    11/293821 11/293814 11/293793 11/293842 11/293811 11/293807 11/293806
    11/293805 11/293810 11/688863 11/688864 11/688865 11/688866 11/688867
    11/688868 11/688869 11/688871 11/688872 11/688873 11/741766 11/482982
    11/482983 11/482984 11/495818 11/495819 11/677049 11/677050 11/677051
    11872719 11872718 11/014722 11/934781 D528156 10/760180 7111935
    10/760213 10/760219 10/760237 7261482 10/760220 7002664 10/760252
    10/760265 7088420 11/446233 11/503083 11/503081 11/516487 11/599312
    6364451 6533390 6454378 7224478 6559969 6896362 7057760
    6982799 11/202107 11/743672 11744126 11/743673 7093494 7143652
    7089797 7159467 7234357 7124643 7121145 7089790 7194901
    6968744 7089798 7240560 7137302 11/442177 7171855 7260995
    7260993 7165460 7222538 7258019 11/543047 7258020 11/604324
    11/642520 11/706305 11/707056 11744211 11/767526 11/779846 11/764227
    11/829943 11/829944 6454482 6808330 6527365 6474773 6550997
    7093923 6957923 7131724 10/949288 7168867 7125098 11/706966
    11/185722 7249901 7188930 11/014728 11/014727 D536031 D531214
    7237888 7168654 7201272 6991098 7217051 6944970 10/760215
    7108434 10/760257 7210407 7186042 10/760266 6920704 7217049
    10/760214 10/760260 7147102 7287828 7249838 10/760241 10/962413
    10/962427 7261477 7225739 10/962402 10/962425 10/962428 7191978
    10/962426 10/962409 10/962417 10/962403 7163287 7258415 10/962523
    7258424 10/962410 7195412 7207670 7270401 7220072 11/474267
    11/544547 11/585925 11/593000 11/706298 11/706296 11/706327 11/730760
    11/730407 11/730787 11/735977 11/736527 11/753566 11/754359 11/778061
    11/765398 11/778556 11/829937 11/780470 11/866399 11/223262 11/223018
    11/223114 11955366 11/223022 11/223021 11/223020 11/223019 11/014730
    D541849 29/279123 6716666 6949217 6750083 7014451 6777259
    6923524 6557978 6991207 6766998 6967354 6759723 6870259
    10/853270 6925875 10/898214 7095109 7145696 10/976081 7193482
    7134739 7222939 7164501 7118186 7201523 7226159 7249839
    7108343 7154626 7079292 10/980184 7233421 7063408 10/983082
    10/982804 7032996 10/982834 10/982833 10/982817 7217046 6948870
    7195336 7070257 10/986813 10/986785 7093922 6988789 10/986788
    7246871 10/992748 10/992747 7187468 10/992828 7196814 10/992754
    7268911 7265869 7128384 7164505 7284805 7025434 7298519
    7280244 7206098 7265877 7193743 7168777 11/006734 7195329
    7198346 7281786 11/013363 11/013881 6959983 7128386 7097104
    11/013636 7083261 7070258 7083275 7110139 6994419 6935725
    11/026046 7178892 7219429 6988784 11/026135 7289156 11/064005
    7284976 7178903 7273274 7083256 11/064008 7278707 11/064013
    6974206 11/064004 7066588 7222940 11/075918 7018025 7221867
    7290863 7188938 7021742 7083262 7192119 11/083021 7036912
    7175256 7182441 7083258 7114796 7147302 11/084757 7219982
    7118195 7229153 6991318 7108346 11/248429 11/239031 7178899
    7066579 11/281419 11/298633 11/329188 11/329140 7270397 7258425
    7237874 7152961 11/478592 7207658 11/484744 7311257 7207659
    11/525857 11/540569 11/583869 11/592985 11/585947 7306307 11/604316
    11/604309 11/604303 11/643844 11/650553 11/655940 11/653320 7278713
    11/706381 11/706323 11/706963 11/713660 7290853 11/696186 11/730390
    11/737139 11/737749 11/740273 11749122 11/754361 11766043 11/764775
    11/768872 11/775156 11/779271 11/779272 11/829938 11/839502 11858852
    11/862188 11859790 11/872618 11/923651 11950255 11930001 11955362
    11965718 6485123 6425657 6488358 7021746 6712986 6981757
    6505912 6439694 6364461 6378990 6425658 6488361 6814429
    6471336 6457813 6540331 6454396 6464325 6443559 6435664
    6412914 6488360 6550896 6439695 6447100 09/900160 6488359
    6637873 10/485738 6618117 10/485737 6803989 7234801 7044589
    7163273 6416154 6547364 10/485744 6644771 7152939 6565181
    10/485805 6857719 7255414 6702417 7284843 6918654 7070265
    6616271 6652078 6503408 6607263 7111924 6623108 6698867
    6488362 6625874 6921153 7198356 6536874 6425651 6435667
    10/509997 6527374 10/510154 6582059 10/510152 6513908 7246883
    6540332 6547368 7070256 6508546 10/510151 6679584 10/510000
    6857724 10/509998 6652052 10/509999 6672706 10/510096 6688719
    6712924 6588886 7077508 7207654 6935724 6927786 6988787
    6899415 6672708 6644767 6874866 6830316 6994420 6954254
    7086720 7240992 7267424 7128397 7084951 7156496 7066578
    7101023 11/165027 11/202235 11/225157 7159965 7255424 11/349519
    7137686 7201472 7287829 11/504602 7216957 11/520572 11/583858
    11/583895 11/585976 11/635488 7278712 11/706952 11/706307 7287827
    11944451 11/740287 11/754367 11/758643 11/778572 11859791 11/863260
    11/874178 11/936064 11951983 6916082 6786570 10/753478 6848780
    6966633 7179395 6969153 6979075 7132056 6832828 6860590
    6905620 6786574 6824252 7097282 6997545 6971734 6918652
    6978990 6863105 10/780624 7194629 10/791792 6890059 6988785
    6830315 7246881 7125102 7028474 7066575 6986202 7044584
    7210762 7032992 7140720 7207656 7285170 11/048748 7008041
    7011390 7048868 7014785 7131717 7284826 11/176158 7182436
    7104631 7240993 7290859 11/202217 7172265 7284837 7066573
    11/298635 7152949 11/442161 11/442133 11/442126 7156492 11/478588
    11/505848 7287834 11/525861 11/583939 11/545504 7284326 11/635485
    11/730391 11/730788 11/749148 11/749149 11/749152 11/749151 11/759886
    11/865668 11/874168 11/874203 11965722 6824257 7270475 6971811
    6878564 6921145 6890052 7021747 6929345 6811242 6916087
    6905195 6899416 6883906 6955428 7284834 6932459 6962410
    7033008 6962409 7013641 7204580 7032997 6998278 7004563
    6910755 6969142 6938994 7188935 10/959049 7134740 6997537
    7004567 6916091 7077588 6918707 6923583 6953295 6921221
    7001008 7168167 7210759 11/008115 11/011120 11/012329 6988790
    7192120 7168789 7004577 7052120 11/123007 6994426 7258418
    7014298 11/124348 11/177394 7152955 7097292 7207657 7152944
    7147303 11/209712 7134608 7264333 7093921 7077590 7147297
    11/239029 11/248832 11/248428 11/248434 7077507 7172672 7175776
    7086717 7101020 11/329155 7201466 11/330057 7152967 7182431
    7210666 7252367 7287837 11/485255 11/525860 6945630 7018294
    6910014 6659447 6648321 7082980 6672584 7073551 6830395
    7289727 7001011 6880922 6886915 6644787 6641255 7066580
    6652082 7284833 6666544 6666543 6669332 6984023 6733104
    6644793 6723575 6953235 6663225 7076872 7059706 7185971
    7090335 6854827 6793974 10/636258 7222929 6739701 7073881
    7155823 7219427 7008503 6783216 6883890 6857726 10/636274
    6641256 6808253 6827428 6802587 6997534 6959982 6959981
    6886917 6969473 6827425 7007859 6802594 6792754 6860107
    6786043 6863378 7052114 7001007 10/729151 10/729157 6948794
    6805435 6733116 10/683006 7008046 6880918 7066574 6983595
    6923527 7275800 7163276 7156495 6976751 6994430 7014296
    7059704 7160743 7175775 7287839 7097283 7140722 11/123009
    11/123008 7080893 7093920 7270492 7128093 7052113 7055934
    11/155627 7278796 11/159197 7083263 7145592 7025436 11/281444
    7258421 11/478591 11/478735 7226147 11/482940 7195339 11/503061
    11/505938 7284838 7293856 11/544577 11/540576 11/585964 11/592991
    11/599342 11/600803 11/604321 11/604302 11/635535 11/635486 11/643842
    11/655987 11/650541 11/706301 11/707039 11/730388 11/730786 11/730785
    11/739080 11/764746 11/768875 11/779847 11/829940 11847240 11/834625
    11/863210 11/865680 11/874156 11/923602 11951940 11954988 11961662
    7067067 6776476 6880914 7086709 6783217 7147791 6929352
    7144095 6820974 6918647 6984016 7192125 6824251 6834939
    6840600 6786573 7144519 6799835 6959975 6959974 7021740
    6935718 6938983 6938991 7226145 7140719 6988788 7022250
    6929350 7011393 7004566 7175097 6948799 7143944 7310157
    7029100 6957811 7073724 7055933 7077490 7055940 10/991402
    7234645 7032999 7066576 7229150 7086728 7246879 7284825
    7140718 7284817 7144098 7044577 7284824 7284827 7189334
    7055935 7152860 11/203188 11/203173 11/202343 7213989 11/225156
    11/225173 7300141 7114868 7168796 7159967 11/272425 7152805
    11/298530 11/330061 7133799 11/330054 11/329284 7152956 7128399
    7147305 7287702 11/442160 7246884 7152960 11/442125 11/454901
    11/442134 11/450441 11/474274 11/499741 7270399 6857728 6857729
    6857730 6989292 7126216 6977189 6982189 7173332 7026176
    6979599 6812062 6886751 10/804057 10/804036 7001793 6866369
    6946743 10/804048 6886918 7059720 10/846561 10/846562 10/846647
    10/846649 10/846627 6951390 6981765 6789881 6802592 7029097
    6799836 7048352 7182267 7025279 6857571 6817539 6830198
    6992791 7038809 6980323 7148992 7139091 6947173 7101034
    6969144 6942319 6827427 6984021 6984022 6869167 6918542
    7007852 6899420 6918665 6997625 6988840 6984080 6845978
    6848687 6840512 6863365 7204582 6921150 7128396 6913347
    7008819 6935736 6991317 7284836 7055947 7093928 7100834
    7270396 7187086 7290856 7032825 7086721 7159968 7010456
    7147307 7111925 11/144812 7229154 11/505849 11/520570 11/520575
    11/546437 11/540575 11/583937 7278711 7290720 11/592207 11/635489
    11/604319 11/635490 11/635525 7287706 11/706366 11/706310 11/706308
    11/785108 11/744214 11744218 11748485 11/748490 11/764778 11/766025
    11/834635 11839541 11860420 11/865693 11/863118 11/866307 11/866340
    11/869684 11/869722 11/869694 11/876592 11/945244 11951121 11/945238
    11955358 11965710 11962050
  • BACKGROUND
  • [0005]
    The Applicant has previously described a method of enabling users to access information from a computer system via a printed substrate e.g. paper. The substrate has coded data printed thereon, which is read by an optical sensing device when the user interacts with the substrate using the sensing device. A computer receives interaction data from the sensing device and uses this data to determine what action is being requested by the user. For example, a user may make handwritten input onto a form or make a selection gesture around a printed item. This input is interpreted by the computer system with reference to a page description corresponding to the printed substrate.
  • [0006]
    It would be desirable to provide a broader range of functionalities available to the user via the sensing device. It would be particularly desirable to provide this broader range of functionalities without introducing a plethora of separate functional systems into the sensing device.
  • SUMMARY OF INVENTION
  • [0007]
    In a first aspect the present invention provides a system for controlling movement of a cursor on a display device, the system comprising:
      • a substrate having a position-coding pattern disposed on or in a surface thereof;
      • a sensing device comprising:
        • an image sensor for optically imaging the position-coding pattern; and
        • a processor configured for:
          • generating absolute motion data by determining a plurality of absolute positions of the sensing device relative to the surface using the imaged position-coding pattern;
          • generating orientation data indicative of an orientation of the sensing device relative to the substrate; and
          • using the orientation data to translate the absolute motion data into relative motion data, said relative motion data being indicative of relative motion of the sensing device from the perspective of a user; and
        • communication means for communicating the relative motion data to a computer system; and
      • the computer system configured for:
        • receiving said relative motion data from the sensing device;
        • interpreting said relative motion data as cursor movement; and
        • generating cursor control commands for said display device.
  • [0020]
    Optionally, the relative motion data is indicative of relative position changes of the sensing device substantially from a perspective of a user, and irrespective of an orientation of said substrate.
  • [0021]
    Optionally, the position-coding pattern comprises a plurality of tags, each tag identifying a location on the surface and a rotational orientation of the tag relative to the substrate, thereby enabling a yaw of the sensing device relative to the substrate to be determined.
  • [0022]
    Optionally, said display device is selected from at least one of:
      • a display device associated with the computer system
      • a display device integral with the computer system; and
      • a display device remote from the computer system.
  • [0026]
    Optionally, said sensing device is operable in a plurality of modes, said plurality including a cursor mode and at least one other mode, and wherein the computer system is further configured for:
      • determining that said sensing device is operating in a cursor mode.
  • [0028]
    Optionally, said at least one other mode is selected from the group comprising: a scroll mode; a hyperlinking mode; a searching mode; a content-extraction mode; and a handwriting mode.
  • [0029]
    Optionally, said sensing device comprises a mode selector, and said interaction data comprises mode data indicative of said cursor mode.
  • [0030]
    Optionally, said mode selector comprises at least one of:
      • one or more mode buttons operable by a user; and
      • a sensor for detecting a force exerted by said sensing device on said surface.
  • [0033]
    Optionally, said computer system is configured for retrieving stored mode data indicative of a most recent mode selected for said sensing device.
  • [0000]
    Optionally, said computer system is further configured for:
      • determining if said sensing device is positioned within a cursor zone of said substrate, said cursor zone being activated by determination of said cursor mode; and
      • interpreting relative motion of said sensing device only within said cursor zone as said cursor movement.
  • [0036]
    Optionally, said computer system is further configured for:
      • determining if said sensing device is positioned within a scroll zone of said substrate, said scroll zone being activated by determination of said cursor mode; and
      • interpreting the interaction of said sensing device within said scroll zone as a scroll action;
      • scrolling a page displayed on said display device according to said scroll action.
  • [0040]
    Optionally, said computer system is configured for at least one of:
      • interpreting at least one absolute position of said sensing device within said scroll zone to be indicative of a scroll direction; and
      • interpreting relative motion of said sensing device within said scroll zone to be indicative of a scroll direction.
  • [0043]
    Optionally, the position-coding pattern is further indicative of an identity of the substrate and the interaction data comprises substrate identity data.
  • [0044]
    Optionally, the substrate is a cursor control substrate and said computer system is configured for using the substrate identity data to retrieve a cursor page description corresponding to said cursor control substrate, said cursor page description comprising a cursor zone within which the interaction of said sensing device is interpreted as said cursor movement.
  • [0045]
    Optionally, said cursor page description comprises a scroll zone within which the interaction of said sensing device is interpreted as a scroll action, and wherein said computer system is configured to scroll a page displayed on said display device according to said scroll action.
  • [0046]
    Optionally, said cursor control substrate has visible markings indicating at least one of: said cursor zone, said scroll zone and a scroll direction.
  • [0047]
    Optionally, said scroll zone is located at an edge region of said substrate.
  • [0048]
    In a further aspect the present invention provides a method of controlling movement of a cursor on a display device via a substrate having a position-coding pattern disposed on or in a surface thereof, said method comprising the steps of:
      • receiving, in a computer system, interaction data indicative of an interaction of the sensing device with the substrate, said interaction data comprising:
        • absolute motion data indicative of a plurality of absolute positions of the sensing device relative to the surface; and
        • orientation data indicative of an orientation of the sensing device relative to the substrate; and
      • using the orientation data to translate the absolute motion data into relative motion data, said relative motion data being indicative of position changes of the sensing device relative to itself;
      • interpreting said relative motion data as cursor movement; and
      • generating cursor control commands for said display device.
  • [0055]
    In another aspect the present invention provides a sensing device for controlling movement of a cursor on a display device, said sensing device comprising:
      • an image sensor for optically imaging a position-coding pattern disposed on or in a surface; and
      • a processor configured for:
        • generating absolute motion data by determining a plurality of absolute positions of the sensing device relative to the surface using the imaged position-coding pattern;
        • generating orientation data indicative of an orientation of the sensing device relative to the substrate; and
        • using the orientation data to translate the absolute motion data into relative motion data, said relative motion data being indicative of relative motion of the sensing device from the perspective of a user; and
      • communication means for communicating the relative motion data to a computer system, thereby enabling the computer system to generate cursor control commands using the relative motion data for controlling movement of the cursor on the display device.
  • [0062]
    In a another aspect the present invention provides a computer system for controlling movement of a cursor on a display device via a substrate having a position-coding pattern disposed on or in a surface thereof, said computer system being configured for:
      • receiving interaction data indicative of an interaction of the sensing device with the substrate, said interaction data comprising:
        • absolute motion data indicative of a plurality of absolute positions of the sensing device relative to the surface; and
        • orientation data indicative of an orientation of the sensing device relative to the substrate;
      • using the orientation data to translate the absolute motion data into relative motion data, said relative motion data being indicative of position changes of the sensing device relative to itself;
      • interpreting said relative motion data as cursor movement; and
      • generating cursor control commands for said display device.
  • [0069]
    In a second aspect the present invention provides a sensing device for interaction with a surface, said sensing device having automatic mode selection, said sensing device comprising:
      • an image sensor for imaging the surface and generating image data;
      • a motion sensor configured for determining one or more relative position changes of the sensing device;
      • a processor configured for:
        • receiving the image data; and
        • automatically selecting, using said image data, either an interaction mode or a cursor mode for said sensing device; and
      • communication means for transmitting either interaction data or cursor data to a computer system, dependent on said selected mode,
        wherein said processor is configured to:
      • select the interaction mode and generate interaction data from the image data if said image data indicates that said sensing device is interacting with a first surface having a position-coding pattern disposed thereon, said interaction data being indicative of at least one absolute location of the sensing device relative to the surface; and
      • select the cursor mode if said image data indicates that said sensing device is interacting with a second surface lacking a position-coding pattern, said cursor data being indicative of said one or more relative position changes of the sensing device.
  • [0078]
    Optionally, the motion sensor is selected from any one of the group comprising: at least one accelerometer; a mechanical mouse; an optical mouse; and a point interferometry device.
  • [0079]
    Optionally, said motion sensor is an optical mouse utilizing at least one of: a pattern-based optical mouse technique; a texture-based optical mouse technique; and a laser-speckle-based mouse technique.
  • [0080]
    Optionally, the position-coding pattern of the first surface is indicative of a plurality of locations on the surface and of an identity of a region.
  • [0081]
    Optionally, in said interaction mode, said processor is configured for determining the identity of the region using the imaged position-coding pattern, and said interaction data is further indicative of the identity of the region.
  • [0082]
    Optionally, the identity of the region is coincident with an identity of the surface.
  • [0083]
    Optionally, the position-coding pattern is comprised of a plurality of tags, each tag identifying the identity of the surface and a location of the tag on the surface.
  • [0084]
    In a further aspect the present invention provides a system for initiating an action corresponding to interaction of a sensing device relative to a surface, said system comprising:
  • [0000]
    (A) the sensing device comprising:
      • an image sensor for imaging the surface and generating image data;
      • a motion sensor configured for determining one or more relative position changes of the sensing device;
      • a processor configured for:
        • receiving the image data; and
        • automatically selecting, using said image data, either an interaction mode or a cursor mode for said sensing device; and
      • communication means for transmitting either interaction data or cursor data to a computer system, dependent on said selected mode,
        wherein said processor is configured to:
      • select the interaction mode and generate interaction data if said image data indicates that said sensing device is interacting with a first surface having a position-coding pattern disposed thereon, said interaction data being indicative of an absolute location of the sensing device relative to the surface; and
      • select the cursor mode if said image data indicates that said sensing device is interacting with a second surface lacking a position-coding pattern, said cursor data being indicative of said one or more relative position changes of the sensing device; and
        (B) the computer system configured for:
      • receiving the interaction data and the cursor data from the sensing device;
      • interpreting said interaction data to initiate an action corresponding to said interaction with said surface; and
      • interpreting said cursor data to control movement of a cursor on a display device.
  • [0096]
    Optionally, said action initiated by said interaction data is selected from at least one of: hyperlinking; form-filling; searching; and content-extraction.
  • [0097]
    Optionally, the position-coding pattern of the first surface is indicative of a plurality of locations on the surface and of an identity of a region.
  • [0098]
    Optionally, in said interaction mode, said processor is configured for determining the identity of the region using the imaged position-coding pattern, and said interaction data is further indicative of the identity of the region.
  • [0099]
    Optionally, said computer system is configured to interpret said interaction data by the steps of:
      • identifying and retrieving a page description corresponding to the first surface using the identity of the region;
      • determining a request using the retrieved page description and the interaction data; and
      • initiating an action based on said request.
  • [0103]
    Optionally, the identity of the region is coincident with an identity of the surface.
  • [0104]
    Optionally, the position-coding pattern is comprised of a plurality of tags, each tag identifying the identity of the surface and a location of the tag on the surface.
  • [0105]
    Optionally, display device is selected from at least one of:
      • a display device associated with the computer system
      • a display device integral with the computer system; and
      • a display device remote from the computer system.
  • [0109]
    In a further aspect the present invention provides a method of automatically selecting a mode of a sensing device interacting with a surface, said sensing device comprising a motion sensor configured for determining one or more relative position changes of the sensing device, said method comprising the steps of:
      • imaging the surface and generating image data;
      • automatically selecting, using said image data, either an interaction mode or a cursor mode for said sensing device; and
      • transmitting either interaction data or cursor data to a computer system, dependent on said selected mode,
        wherein:
      • the interaction mode is selected and the interaction data is generated from the image data if said image data indicates that said sensing device is interacting with a first surface having a position-coding pattern disposed thereon, said interaction data being indicative of at least one absolute location of the sensing device relative to the surface; and
      • the cursor mode is selected and one or more relative position changes of the sensing device are determined if said image data indicates that said sensing device is interacting with a second surface lacking a position-coding pattern, said cursor data being indicative of said one or more relative position changes of the sensing device.
  • [0115]
    In a further aspect the method further comprising the steps of:
      • receiving the interaction data in the computer system; and
      • interpreting said interaction data to initiate an action corresponding to said interaction with said surface.
  • [0118]
    In another aspect the method further comprising the steps of:
      • receiving the cursor data from the sensing device;
      • interpreting said cursor data to control movement of a cursor on a display device.
  • [0121]
    In a third aspect the present invention provides a system for enabling scrolling of a page displayed on a display device, the system comprising:
      • a substrate having a position-coding pattern disposed on or in a surface thereof;
      • a sensing device operable in a plurality of modes including a cursor mode, said sensing device comprising:
        • an image sensor for optically imaging the position-coding pattern; and
        • a processor configured for generating interaction data indicative of an interaction of the sensing device with the surface, said interaction data being indicative of a position or movement of the sensing device relative to the surface;
        • communication means for communicating the interaction data to a computer system; and
      • the computer system configured for:
        • receiving the interaction data from the sensing device;
        • determining that said sensing device is operating in a cursor mode;
        • determining a scroll zone for said substrate;
        • determining if said sensing device is positioned within said scroll zone;
        • interpreting said position or movement of said sensing device within said scroll zone as a scrolling action; and
        • generating a scroll control command for said display device so as to scroll said displayed page.
  • [0134]
    Optionally, the sensing device is operable in two or more modes selected from the group comprising: said cursor mode; a hyperlinking mode; a searching mode; a content-extraction mode; and a handwriting mode.
  • [0135]
    Optionally, said sensing device comprises a mode selector, and said interaction data comprises mode data indicative of said cursor mode.
  • [0136]
    Optionally, said mode selector comprises at least one of:
      • one or more mode buttons operable by a user; and
      • a sensor for detecting a force exerted by said sensing device on said surface.
  • [0139]
    Optionally, said computer system is configured for retrieving stored mode data indicative of a most recent mode selected for said sensing device.
  • [0140]
    Optionally, said computer system is configured for at least one of:
      • interpreting at least one absolute position of said sensing device within said scroll zone to be indicative of a scroll direction; and
      • interpreting movement of said sensing device within said scroll zone to be indicative of a scroll direction.
  • [0143]
    Optionally, said scroll direction is selected from at least one of:
      • vertical scrolling;
      • horizontal scrolling; and
      • diagonal scrolling.
  • [0147]
    Optionally, said scroll zone is located at an edge region of said substrate.
  • [0148]
    Optionally, said substrate comprises a plurality of scroll zones.
  • [0149]
    Optionally, said substrate comprises visible markings indicating at least one of: said scroll zone and a scroll direction.
  • [0150]
    Optionally, said computer system is further configured for:
      • determining if said sensing device is positioned within a cursor zone of said substrate;
      • interpreting movement of said sensing device as a cursor movement; and
      • generating cursor control commands for said display device.
  • [0154]
    Optionally, said display device is selected from at least one of:
      • a display device associated with the computer system
      • a display device integral with the computer system; and
      • a display device remote from the computer system.
  • [0158]
    In a further aspect the system further comprising the display device.
  • [0159]
    Optionally, the position-coding pattern is further indicative of an identity of the substrate and the interaction data comprises substrate identity data.
  • [0160]
    Optionally, said computer system is configured for retrieving a page description corresponding to said substrate using said substrate identity.
  • [0161]
    Optionally, said computer is configured for retrieving said page description if it is determined that said sensing device is not operating in said cursor mode.
  • [0162]
    Optionally, said computer system is configured for:
      • using said position or movement of said sensing device together with said retrieved page description to interpret said interaction of said sensing device with said substrate; and
      • initiate an action corresponding to said interaction.
  • [0165]
    In another aspect the present invention provides a method of enabling scrolling of a page displayed on a display device via a substrate having position-coding pattern disposed in or on a surface thereof, said method comprising, in a computer system, the steps of:
      • receiving interaction data indicative of an interaction of the sensing device with the substrate, said interaction data being indicative of a position or movement of the sensing device relative to the surface;
      • determining that said sensing device is operating in a cursor mode;
      • determining a scroll zone for said substrate;
      • determining if said sensing device is positioned within a scroll zone of said substrate;
      • interpreting said position or movement of said sensing device within said scroll zone as a scrolling action; and
      • generating a scroll control command for said display device so as to scroll said displayed page.
  • [0172]
    In a further aspect the present invention provides a computer system for controlling scrolling of a page displayed on a display device, said computer system being configured for:
      • receiving interaction data indicative of an interaction of the sensing device with a substrate having a position-coding pattern disposed on or in a surface thereof, said interaction data being indicative of a position or movement of the sensing device relative to the surface;
      • determining that said sensing device is operating in a cursor mode;
      • determining a scroll zone for said substrate;
      • determining if said sensing device is positioned within a scroll zone of said substrate;
      • interpreting said position or movement of said sensing device within said scroll zone as a scrolling action; and
      • generating a scroll control command for said display device so as to scroll said displayed page.
  • [0179]
    In a fourth aspect the present invention provides a system for enabling user input and control of a cursor on a display device, the system comprising:
      • a substrate having a position-coding pattern disposed on or in a surface thereof, said substrate having at least one input element and a discrete cursor zone;
      • a sensing device comprising:
        • an image sensor for optically imaging the position-coding pattern; and
        • a processor configured for generating interaction data indicative of an interaction of the sensing device with the surface, said interaction data being indicative of a position or movement of the sensing device relative to the surface;
        • communication means for communicating the interaction data to a computer system; and
      • the computer system configured for:
        • receiving the interaction data from the sensing device;
        • retrieving a page description corresponding to said substrate;
        • determining whether said sensing device is positioned within said cursor zone;
        • interpreting movement of said sensing device within said cursor zone as a cursor movement and generating corresponding cursor control commands for said display device; and
        • otherwise determining if said position or movement of said sensing device is within a zone of said at least one input element and initiating an action corresponding to said at least one input element.
  • [0191]
    Optionally, said at least one user input element is a GUI control button and said action is a corresponding GUI control action.
  • [0192]
    Optionally, said GUI control action is selected from the group comprising: scrolling; web browser control; page up; page down; cut; copy; paste; tab between GUI applications; launching of a GUI application; volume control; log off; sleep; and keyboard input.
  • [0193]
    Optionally, said substrate is an explicitly dedicated GUI control substrate, said substrate comprising visible markings indicating said cursor zone and said at least one GUI control button.
  • [0194]
    Optionally, said at least one input element is a hyperlink element, and said action is hyperlinking.
  • [0195]
    Optionally, said substrate comprises a scroll zone, and said computer system is configured for interpreting a position or movement of said sensing device within said scroll zone to be indicative of a scrolling action.
  • [0196]
    Optionally, said computer system is configured for at least one of:
      • interpreting at least one absolute position of said sensing device within said scroll zone to be indicative of a scroll direction; and
      • interpreting movement of said sensing device within said scroll zone to be indicative of a scroll direction.
  • [0199]
    Optionally, said scroll direction is selected from at least one of:
      • vertical scrolling;
      • horizontal scrolling; and
      • diagonal scrolling.
  • [0203]
    Optionally, said substrate comprises a plurality of scroll zones.
  • [0204]
    Optionally, said substrate comprises visible markings indicating at least one of: said scroll zone and a scroll direction.
  • [0205]
    Optionally, said computer system is configured for interpreting movement of said sensing device within said cursor zone as relative movement.
  • [0206]
    Optionally, said computer system is configured for interpreting the position or movement of said sensing device outside said cursor zone as an absolute position or movement relative to the surface.
  • [0207]
    Optionally, said display device is selected from at least one of:
      • a display device associated with the computer system
      • a display device integral with the computer system; and
      • a display device remote from the computer system.
  • [0211]
    In a further aspect the system further comprising the display device.
  • [0212]
    Optionally, the position-coding pattern is further indicative of an identity of the substrate and the interaction data comprises substrate identity data.
  • [0213]
    Optionally, said computer system is configured for retrieving the page description corresponding to said substrate using said substrate identity.
  • [0214]
    In another aspect the present invention provides a method of enabling user input and control of a cursor on a display device via a substrate having position-coding pattern disposed in or on a surface thereof, said substrate having at least one input element and a discrete cursor zone, said method comprising, in a computer system, the steps of:
      • receiving interaction data indicative of an interaction of the sensing device with the substrate, said interaction data being indicative of a position or movement of the sensing device relative to the surface;
      • retrieving a page description corresponding to said substrate;
      • determining whether said sensing device is positioned within said cursor zone;
      • interpreting movement of said sensing device within said cursor zone as a cursor movement and generating corresponding cursor control commands for said display device; and
      • otherwise determining if said position or movement of said sensing device is within a zone of said at least one input element and initiating an action corresponding to said at least one input element.
  • [0220]
    In a further aspect the present invention provides a computer system for enabling user input and control of a cursor on a display device via a substrate having position-coding pattern disposed in or on a surface thereof, said substrate comprising at least one input element and a discrete cursor zone, said computer system being configured for:
      • receiving interaction data indicative of an interaction of the sensing device with the substrate, said interaction data being indicative of a position or movement of the sensing device relative to the surface;
      • retrieving a page description corresponding to said substrate;
      • determining whether said sensing device is positioned within said cursor zone;
      • interpreting movement of said sensing device within said cursor zone as a cursor movement and generating corresponding cursor control commands for said display device; and
      • otherwise determining if said position or movement of said sensing device is within a zone of said at least one input element and initiating an action corresponding to said at least one input element.
    BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS
  • [0226]
    Preferred and other embodiments of the invention will now be described, by way of non-limiting example only, with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:
  • [0227]
    FIG. 1 shows an embodiment of basic netpage architecture;
  • [0228]
    FIG. 2 is a schematic of a the relationship between a sample printed netpage and its online page description;
  • [0229]
    FIG. 3 shows an embodiment of basic netpage architecture with various alternatives for the relay device;
  • [0230]
    FIG. 3A illustrates a collection of netpage servers, Web terminals, printers and relays interconnected via a network;
  • [0231]
    FIG. 4 is a schematic view of a high-level structure of a printed netpage and its online page description;
  • [0232]
    FIG. 5A is a plan view showing a structure of a netpage tag;
  • [0233]
    FIG. 5B is a plan view showing a relationship between a set of the tags shown in FIG. 5 a and a field of view of a netpage sensing device in the form of a netpage pen;
  • [0234]
    FIG. 6A is a plan view showing an alternative structure of a netpage tag;
  • [0235]
    FIG. 6B is a plan view showing a relationship between a set of the tags shown in FIG. 6 a and a field of view of a netpage sensing device in the form of a netpage pen;
  • [0236]
    FIG. 6C is a plan view showing an arrangement of nine of the tags shown in FIG. 6 a where targets are shared between adjacent tags;
  • [0237]
    FIG. 6D is a plan view showing the interleaving and rotation of the symbols of the four codewords of the tag shown in FIG. 6 a;
  • [0238]
    FIG. 7 is a flowchart of a tag image processing and decoding algorithm;
  • [0239]
    FIG. 8 is a perspective view of a netpage pen and its associated tag-sensing field-of-view cone;
  • [0240]
    FIG. 9 is a perspective exploded view of the netpage pen shown in FIG. 8;
  • [0241]
    FIG. 10 is a schematic block diagram of a pen controller for the netpage pen shown in FIGS. 8 and 9;
  • [0242]
    FIG. 11 is a schematic view of a pen class diagram;
  • [0243]
    FIG. 12 is a schematic view of a document and page description class diagram;
  • [0244]
    FIG. 13 is a schematic view of a document and page ownership class diagram;
  • [0245]
    FIG. 14 is a schematic view of a terminal element specialization class diagram;
  • [0246]
    FIG. 15 shows cursor control and scroll functions mapped onto an arbitrary page;
  • [0247]
    FIG. 16 shows an explicit cursor control and scroll page; and
  • [0248]
    FIG. 17 shows an explicit cursor control, scroll and keyboard page.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED AND OTHER EMBODIMENTS
  • [0249]
    Note: Memjet™ is a trade mark of Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd, Australia.
  • [0250]
    In the preferred embodiment, the invention is configured to work with the netpage networked computer system, a detailed overview of which follows. It will be appreciated that not every implementation will necessarily embody all or even most of the specific details and extensions discussed below in relation to the basic system. However, the system is described in its most complete form to reduce the need for external reference when attempting to understand the context in which the preferred embodiments and aspects of the present invention operate.
  • [0251]
    In brief summary, the preferred form of the netpage system employs a computer interface in the form of a mapped surface, that is, a physical surface which contains references to a map of the surface maintained in a computer system. The map references can be queried by an appropriate sensing device. Depending upon the specific implementation, the map references may be encoded visibly or invisibly, and defined in such a way that a local query on the mapped surface yields an unambiguous map reference both within the map and among different maps. The computer system can contain information about features on the mapped surface, and such information can be retrieved based on map references supplied by a sensing device used with the mapped surface. The information thus retrieved can take the form of actions which are initiated by the computer system on behalf of the operator in response to the operator's interaction with the surface features.
  • [0252]
    In its preferred form, the netpage system relies on the production of, and human interaction with, netpages. These are pages of text, graphics and images printed on ordinary paper, but which work like interactive webpages. Information is encoded on each page using ink which is substantially invisible to the unaided human eye. The ink, however, and thereby the coded data, can be sensed by an optically imaging sensing device and transmitted to the netpage system. The sensing device may take the form of a clicker (for clicking on a specific position on a surface), a pointer having a stylus (for pointing or gesturing on a surface using pointer strokes), or a pen having a marking nib (for marking a surface with ink when pointing, gesturing or writing on the surface). References herein to “pen” or “netpage pen” are provided by way of example only. It will, of course, be appreciated that the pen may take the form of any of the sensing devices described above.
  • [0253]
    In one embodiment, active buttons and hyperlinks on each page can be clicked with the sensing device to request information from the network or to signal preferences to a network server. In one embodiment, text written by hand on a netpage is automatically recognized and converted to computer text in the netpage system, allowing forms to be filled in. In other embodiments, signatures recorded on a netpage are automatically verified, allowing e-commerce transactions to be securely authorized. In other embodiments, text on a netpage may be clicked or gestured to initiate a search based on keywords indicated by the user.
  • [0254]
    As illustrated in FIG. 2, a printed netpage 1 can represent a interactive form which can be filled in by the user both physically, on the printed page, and “electronically”, via communication between the pen and the netpage system. The example shows a “Request” form containing name and address fields and a submit button. The netpage consists of graphic data 2 printed using visible ink, and coded data 3 printed as a collection of tags 4 using invisible ink. The corresponding page description 5, stored on the netpage network, describes the individual elements of the netpage. In particular it describes the type and spatial extent (zone) of each interactive element (i.e. text field or button in the example), to allow the netpage system to correctly interpret input via the netpage. The submit button 6, for example, has a zone 7 which corresponds to the spatial extent of the corresponding graphic 8.
  • [0255]
    As illustrated in FIGS. 1 and 3, a netpage sensing device 101, such as the pen shown in FIGS. 8 and 9 and described in more detail below, works in conjunction with a netpage relay device 601, which is an Internet-connected device for home, office or mobile use. The pen is wireless and communicates securely with the netpage relay device 601 via a short-range radio link 9. In an alternative embodiment, the netpage pen 101 utilises a wired connection, such as a USB or other serial connection, to the relay device 601.
  • [0256]
    The relay device 601 performs the basic function of relaying interaction data to a page server 10, which interprets the interaction data. As shown in FIG. 3, the relay device 601 may, for example, take the form of a personal computer 601 a, a netpage printer 601 b or some other relay 601 c.
  • [0257]
    The netpage printer 601 b is able to deliver, periodically or on demand, personalized newspapers, magazines, catalogs, brochures and other publications, all printed at high quality as interactive netpages. Unlike a personal computer, the netpage printer is an appliance which can be, for example, wall-mounted adjacent to an area where the morning news is first consumed, such as in a user's kitchen, near a breakfast table, or near the household's point of departure for the day. It also comes in tabletop, desktop, portable and miniature versions. Netpages printed on-demand at their point of consumption combine the ease-of-use of paper with the timeliness and interactivity of an interactive medium.
  • [0258]
    Alternatively, the netpage relay device 601 may be a portable device, such as a mobile phone or PDA, a laptop or desktop computer, or an information appliance connected to a shared display, such as a TV. If the relay device 601 is not a netpage printer 601 b which prints netpages digitally and on demand, the netpages may be printed by traditional analog printing presses, using such techniques as offset lithography, flexography, screen printing, relief printing and rotogravure, as well as by digital printing presses, using techniques such as drop-on-demand inkjet, continuous inkjet, dye transfer, and laser printing.
  • [0259]
    As shown in FIG. 3, the netpage sensing device 101 interacts with the coded data on a printed netpage 1, or other printed substrate such as a label of a product item 251, and communicates, via a short-range radio link 9, the interaction to the relay 601. The relay 601 sends corresponding interaction data to the relevant netpage page server 10 for interpretation. Raw data received from the sensing device 101 may be relayed directly to the page server 10 as interaction data. Alternatively, the interaction data may be encoded in the form of an interaction URI and transmitted to the page server 10 via a user's web browser. Of course, the relay device 601 (e.g. mobile phone) may incorporate a web browser and a display device.
  • [0260]
    Interpretation of the interaction data by the page server 10 may result in direct access to information requested by the user. This information may be sent from the page server 10 to, for example, a user's display device (e.g. a display device associated with the relay device 601). The information sent to the user may be in the form of a webpage constructed by the page server 10 and the webpage may be constructed using information from external web services 200 (e.g. search engines) or local web resources accessible by the page server 10. In some circumstances, the page server 10 may access application computer software running on a netpage application server 13.
  • [0261]
    Alternatively, and as shown explicitly in FIG. 1, a two-step information retrieval process may be employed. Interaction data is sent from the sensing device 101 to the relay device 601 in the usual way. The relay device 601 then sends the interaction data to the page server 10 for interpretation with reference to the relevant page description 5. Then, the page server 10 forms a request (typically in the form of a request URI) and sends this request URI back to the user's relay device 601. A web browser running on the relay device 601 then sends the request URI to a netpage web server 201, which interprets the request. The netpage web server 201 may interact with local web resources and external web services 200 to interpret the request and construct a webpage. Once the webpage has been constructed by the netpage web server 201, it is transmitted to the web browser running on the user's relay device 601, which typically displays the webpage. This system architecture is particularly useful for performing searching via netpages, as described in our earlier U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/672,950 filed on Feb. 8, 2007 (the contents of which is incorporated by reference). For example, the request URI may encode search query terms, which are searched via the netpage web server 201.
  • [0262]
    The netpage relay device 601 can be configured to support any number of sensing devices, and a sensing device can work with any number of netpage relays. In the preferred implementation, each netpage sensing device 101 has a unique identifier. This allows each user to maintain a distinct profile with respect to a netpage page server 10 or application server 13.
  • [0263]
    Digital, on-demand delivery of netpages 1 may be performed by the netpage printer 601 b, which exploits the growing availability of broadband Internet access. Netpage publication servers 14 on the netpage network are configured to deliver print-quality publications to netpage printers. Periodical publications are delivered automatically to subscribing netpage printers via pointcasting and multicasting Internet protocols. Personalized publications are filtered and formatted according to individual user profiles.
  • [0264]
    A netpage pen may be registered with a netpage registration server 11 and linked to one or more payment card accounts. This allows e-commerce payments to be securely authorized using the netpage pen. The netpage registration server compares the signature captured by the netpage pen with a previously registered signature, allowing it to authenticate the user's identity to an e-commerce server. Other biometrics can also be used to verify identity. One version of the netpage pen includes fingerprint scanning, verified in a similar way by the netpage registration server.
  • Netpage System Architecture
  • [0265]
    Each object model in the system is described using a Unified Modeling Language (UML) class diagram. A class diagram consists of a set of object classes connected by relationships, and two kinds of relationships are of interest here: associations and generalizations. An association represents some kind of relationship between objects, i.e. between instances of classes. A generalization relates actual classes, and can be understood in the following way: if a class is thought of as the set of all objects of that class, and class A is a generalization of class B, then B is simply a subset of A. The UML does not directly support second-order modelling—i.e. classes of classes.
  • [0266]
    Each class is drawn as a rectangle labelled with the name of the class. It contains a list of the attributes of the class, separated from the name by a horizontal line, and a list of the operations of the class, separated from the attribute list by a horizontal line. In the class diagrams which follow, however, operations are never modelled.
  • [0267]
    An association is drawn as a line joining two classes, optionally labelled at either end with the multiplicity of the association. The default multiplicity is one. An asterisk (*) indicates a multiplicity of “many”, i.e. zero or more. Each association is optionally labelled with its name, and is also optionally labelled at either end with the role of the corresponding class. An open diamond indicates an aggregation association (“is-part-of”), and is drawn at the aggregator end of the association line.
  • [0268]
    A generalization relationship (“is-a”) is drawn as a solid line joining two classes, with an arrow (in the form of an open triangle) at the generalization end.
  • [0269]
    When a class diagram is broken up into multiple diagrams, any class which is duplicated is shown with a dashed outline in all but the main diagram which defines it. It is shown with attributes only where it is defined.
  • 1 NETPAGES
  • [0270]
    Netpages are the foundation on which a netpage network is built. They provide a paper-based user interface to published information and interactive services.
  • [0271]
    A netpage consists of a printed page (or other surface region) invisibly tagged with references to an online description of the page. The online page description is maintained persistently by the netpage page server 10. The page description describes the visible layout and content of the page, including text, graphics and images. It also describes the input elements on the page, including buttons, hyperlinks, and input fields. A netpage allows markings made with a netpage pen on its surface to be simultaneously captured and processed by the netpage system.
  • [0272]
    Multiple netpages (for example, those printed by analog printing presses) can share the same page description. However, to allow input through otherwise identical pages to be distinguished, each netpage may be assigned a unique page identifier. This page ID has sufficient precision to distinguish between a very large number of netpages.
  • [0273]
    Each reference to the page description is encoded in a printed tag. The tag identifies the unique page on which it appears, and thereby indirectly identifies the page description. The tag also identifies its own position on the page. Characteristics of the tags are described in more detail below.
  • [0274]
    Tags are typically printed in infrared-absorptive ink on any substrate which is infrared-reflective, such as ordinary paper, or in infrared fluorescing ink. Near-infrared wavelengths are invisible to the human eye but are easily sensed by a solid-state image sensor with an appropriate filter.
  • [0275]
    A tag is sensed by a 2D area image sensor in the netpage sensing device, and the tag data is transmitted to the netpage system via the nearest netpage relay device. The pen is wireless and communicates with the netpage relay device via a short-range radio link. Tags are sufficiently small and densely arranged that the sensing device can reliably image at least one tag even on a single click on the page. It is important that the pen recognize the page ID and position on every interaction with the page, since the interaction is stateless. Tags are error-correctably encoded to make them partially tolerant to surface damage.
  • [0276]
    The netpage page server 10 maintains a unique page instance for each unique printed netpage, allowing it to maintain a distinct set of user-supplied values for input fields in the page description for each printed netpage.
  • [0277]
    The relationship between the page description, the page instance, and the printed netpage is shown in FIG. 4. The printed netpage may be part of a printed netpage document 45. The page instance may be associated with both the netpage printer which printed it and, if known, the netpage user who requested it.
  • 2 NETPAGE TAGS 2.1 Tag Data Content
  • [0278]
    In a preferred form, each tag identifies the region in which it appears, and the location of that tag within the region and an orientation of the tag relative to a substrate on which the tag is printed. A tag may also contain flags which relate to the region as a whole or to the tag. One or more flag bits may, for example, signal a tag sensing device to provide feedback indicative of a function associated with the immediate area of the tag, without the sensing device having to refer to a description of the region. A netpage pen may, for example, illuminate an “active area” LED when in the zone of a hyperlink.
  • [0279]
    As will be more clearly explained below, in a preferred embodiment, each tag typically contains an easily recognized invariant structure which aids initial detection, and which assists in minimizing the effect of any warp induced by the surface or by the sensing process. The tags preferably tile the entire page, and are sufficiently small and densely arranged that the pen can reliably image at least one tag even on a single click on the page. It is important that the pen recognize the page ID and position on every interaction with the page, since the interaction is stateless.
  • [0280]
    In a preferred embodiment, the region to which a tag refers coincides with an entire page, and the region ID encoded in the tag is therefore synonymous with the page ID of the page on which the tag appears. In other embodiments, the region to which a tag refers can be an arbitrary subregion of a page or other surface. For example, it can coincide with the zone of an interactive element, in which case the region ID can directly identify the interactive element.
  • [0000]
    TABLE 1
    Tag data
    Field Precision (bits)
    Page ID/Region ID 100
    Tag ID/x-y coordinates 16
    Flags 4
    Total 120
  • [0281]
    Each tag contains 120 bits of information, typically allocated as shown in Table 1. Assuming a maximum tag density of 64 per square inch, a 16-bit tag ID supports a region size of up to 1024 square inches. Larger regions can be mapped continuously without increasing the tag ID precision simply by using abutting regions and maps. The 100-bit region ID allows 2100 (˜1030 or a million trillion trillion) different regions to be uniquely identified.
  • 2.2 Tag Data Encoding
  • [0282]
    The 120 bits of tag data are redundantly encoded using a (15, 5) Reed-Solomon code. This yields 360 encoded bits consisting of 6 codewords of 15 4-bit symbols each. The (15, 5) code allows up to 5 symbol errors to be corrected per codeword, i.e. it is tolerant of a symbol error rate of up to 33% per codeword.
  • [0283]
    Each 4-bit symbol is represented in a spatially coherent way in the tag, and the symbols of the six codewords are interleaved spatially within the tag. This ensures that a burst error (an error affecting multiple spatially adjacent bits) damages a minimum number of symbols overall and a minimum number of symbols in any one codeword, thus maximising the likelihood that the burst error can be fully corrected.
  • [0284]
    Any suitable error-correcting code can be used in place of a (15, 5) Reed-Solomon code, for example a Reed-Solomon code with more or less redundancy, with the same or different symbol and codeword sizes; another block code; or a different kind of code, such as a convolutional code (see, for example, Stephen B. Wicker, Error Control Systems for Digital Communication and Storage, Prentice-Hall 1995, the contents of which a herein incorporated by cross-reference).
  • 2.3 Physical Tag Structure
  • [0285]
    The physical representation of the tag, shown in FIG. 5 a, includes fixed target structures 15, 16, 17 and variable data areas 18. The fixed target structures allow a sensing device such as the netpage pen to detect the tag and infer its three-dimensional orientation relative to the sensor. The data areas contain representations of the individual bits of the encoded tag data.
  • [0286]
    To achieve proper tag reproduction, the tag is rendered at a resolution of 256×256 dots. When printed at 1600 dots per inch this yields a tag with a diameter of about 4 mm. At this resolution the tag is designed to be surrounded by a “quiet area” of radius 16 dots. Since the quiet area is also contributed by adjacent tags, it only adds 16 dots to the effective diameter of the tag.
  • [0287]
    The tag may include a plurality of target structures. A detection ring 15 allows the sensing device to initially detect the tag. The ring is easy to detect because it is rotationally invariant and because a simple correction of its aspect ratio removes most of the effects of perspective distortion. An orientation axis 16 allows the sensing device to determine the approximate planar orientation of the tag due to the yaw of the sensor. The orientation axis is skewed to yield a unique orientation. Four perspective targets 17 allow the sensing device to infer an accurate two-dimensional perspective transform of the tag and hence an accurate three-dimensional position and orientation of the tag relative to the sensor.
  • [0288]
    All target structures are redundantly large to improve their immunity to noise.
  • [0289]
    In order to support “single-click” interaction with a tagged region via a sensing device, the sensing device must be able to see at least one entire tag in its field of view no matter where in the region or at what orientation it is positioned. The required diameter of the field of view of the sensing device is therefore a function of the size and spacing of the tags.
  • [0290]
    Thus, if a tag has a circular shape, the minimum diameter of the sensor field of view is obtained when the tags are tiled on a equilateral triangular grid, as shown in FIG. 5 b.
  • [0291]
    2.4 Tag Image Processing and Decoding
  • [0292]
    The tag image processing and decoding performed by a sensing device such as the netpage pen is shown in FIG. 7. While a captured image is being acquired from the image sensor, the dynamic range of the image is determined (at 20). The center of the range is then chosen as the binary threshold for the image 21. The image is then thresholded and segmented into connected pixel regions (i.e. shapes 23) (at 22). Shapes which are too small to represent tag target structures are discarded. The size and centroid of each shape is also computed.
  • [0293]
    Binary shape moments 25 are then computed (at 24) for each shape, and these provide the basis for subsequently locating target structures. Central shape moments are by their nature invariant of position, and can be easily made invariant of scale, aspect ratio and rotation.
  • [0294]
    The ring target structure 15 is the first to be located (at 26). A ring has the advantage of being very well behaved when perspective-distorted. Matching proceeds by aspect-normalizing and rotation-normalizing each shape's moments. Once its second-order moments are normalized the ring is easy to recognize even if the perspective distortion was significant. The ring's original aspect and rotation 27 together provide a useful approximation of the perspective transform.
  • [0295]
    The axis target structure 16 is the next to be located (at 28). Matching proceeds by applying the ring's normalizations to each shape's moments, and rotation-normalizing the resulting moments. Once its second-order moments are normalized the axis target is easily recognized. Note that one third order moment is required to disambiguate the two possible orientations of the axis. The shape is deliberately skewed to one side to make this possible. Note also that it is only possible to rotation-normalize the axis target after it has had the ring's normalizations applied, since the perspective distortion can hide the axis target's axis. The axis target's original rotation provides a useful approximation of the tag's rotation due to pen yaw 29.
  • [0296]
    The four perspective target structures 17 are the last to be located (at 30). Good estimates of their positions are computed based on their known spatial relationships to the ring and axis targets, the aspect and rotation of the ring, and the rotation of the axis. Matching proceeds by applying the ring's normalizations to each shape's moments. Once their second-order moments are normalized the circular perspective targets are easy to recognize, and the target closest to each estimated position is taken as a match. The original centroids of the four perspective targets are then taken to be the perspective-distorted corners 31 of a square of known size in tag space, and an eight-degree-of-freedom perspective transform 33 is inferred (at 32) based on solving the well-understood equations relating the four tag-space and image-space point pairs (see Heckbert, P., Fundamentals of Texture Mapping and Image Warping, Masters Thesis, Dept. of EECS, U. of California at Berkeley, Technical Report No. UCB/CSD 89/516, June 1989, the contents of which are herein incorporated by cross-reference).
  • [0297]
    The inferred tag-space to image-space perspective transform is used to project (at 36) each known data bit position in tag space into image space where the real-valued position is used to bilinearly interpolate (at 36) the four relevant adjacent pixels in the input image. The previously computed image threshold 21 is used to threshold the result to produce the final bit value 37.
  • [0298]
    Once all 360 data bits 37 have been obtained in this way, each of the six 60-bit Reed-Solomon codewords is decoded (at 38) to yield 20 decoded bits 39, or 120 decoded bits in total. Note that the codeword symbols are sampled in codeword order, so that codewords are implicitly de-interleaved during the sampling process.
  • [0299]
    The ring target 15 is only sought in a subarea of the image whose relationship to the image guarantees that the ring, if found, is part of a complete tag. If a complete tag is not found and successfully decoded, then no pen position is recorded for the current frame. Given adequate processing power and ideally a non-minimal field of view 193, an alternative strategy involves seeking another tag in the current image.
  • [0300]
    The obtained tag data indicates the identity of the region containing the tag and the position of the tag within the region. An accurate position 35 of the pen nib in the region, as well as the overall orientation 35 of the pen, is then inferred (at 34) from the perspective transform 33 observed on the tag and the known spatial relationship between the image sensor (containing the optical axis of the pen) and the nib (which typically contains the physical axis of the pen). The image sensor is usually offset from the nib.
  • 2.5 Alternative Tag Structures
  • [0301]
    The tag structure described above is designed to support the tagging of non-planar surfaces where a regular tiling of tags may not be possible. In the more usual case of planar surfaces where a regular tiling of tags is possible, i.e. surfaces such as sheets of paper and the like, more efficient tag structures can be used which exploit the regular nature of the tiling.
  • [0302]
    FIG. 6 a shows a square tag 4 with four perspective targets 17. The tag represents sixty 4-bit Reed-Solomon symbols 47, for a total of 240 bits. The tag represents each one bit as a dot 48, and each zero bit by the absence of the corresponding dot. The perspective targets are designed to be shared between adjacent tags, as shown in FIGS. 6 b and 6 c. FIG. 6 b shows a square tiling of 16 tags and the corresponding minimum field of view 193, which must span the diagonals of two tags. FIG. 6 c shows a square tiling of nine tags, containing all one bits for illustration purposes.
  • [0303]
    Using a (15, 7) Reed-Solomon code, 112 bits of tag data are redundantly encoded to produce 240 encoded bits. The four codewords are interleaved spatially within the tag to maximize resilience to burst errors. Assuming a 16-bit tag ID as before, this allows a region ID of up to 92 bits.
  • [0304]
    The data-bearing dots 48 of the tag are designed to not overlap their neighbors, so that groups of tags cannot produce structures which resemble targets. This also saves ink. The perspective targets therefore allow detection of the tag, so further targets are not required. Tag image processing proceeds as described in section 1.2.4 above, with the exception that steps 26 and 28 are omitted.
  • [0305]
    Although the tag may contain an orientation feature to allow disambiguation of the four possible orientations of the tag relative to the sensor, it is also possible to embed orientation data in the tag data. For example, the four codewords can be arranged so that each tag orientation contains one codeword placed at that orientation, as shown in FIG. 6 d, where each symbol is labelled with the number of its codeword (1-4) and the position of the symbol within the codeword (A-O). Tag decoding then consists of decoding one codeword at each orientation. Each codeword can either contain a single bit indicating whether it is the first codeword, or two bits indicating which codeword it is. The latter approach has the advantage that if, say, the data content of only one codeword is required, then at most two codewords need to be decoded to obtain the desired data. This may be the case if the region ID is not expected to change within a stroke and is thus only decoded at the start of a stroke. Within a stroke only the codeword containing the tag ID is then desired. Furthermore, since the rotation of the sensing device changes slowly and predictably within a stroke, only one codeword typically needs to be decoded per frame.
  • [0306]
    It is possible to dispense with perspective targets altogether and instead rely on the data representation being self-registering. In this case each bit value (or multi-bit value) is typically represented by an explicit glyph, i.e. no bit value is represented by the absence of a glyph. This ensures that the data grid is well-populated, and thus allows the grid to be reliably identified and its perspective distortion detected and subsequently corrected during data sampling. To allow tag boundaries to be detected, each tag data must contain a marker pattern, and these must be redundantly encoded to allow reliable detection. The overhead of such marker patterns is similar to the overhead of explicit perspective targets. One such scheme uses dots positioned a various points relative to grid vertices to represent different glyphs and hence different multi-bit values (see Anoto Technology Description, Anoto April 2000).
  • [0307]
    Additional tag structures are disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,929,186 (“Orientation-indicating machine-readable coded data”) filed by the applicant or assignee of the present invention and the contents of which is herein incorporated by reference.
  • 2.6 Tag Map
  • [0308]
    Decoding a tag typically results in a region ID, a tag ID, and a tag-relative pen transform. Before the tag ID and the tag-relative pen location can be translated into an absolute location within the tagged region, the location of the tag within the region must be known. This is given by a tag map, a function which maps each tag ID in a tagged region to a corresponding location. The tag map class diagram is shown in FIG. 22, as part of the netpage printer class diagram.
  • [0309]
    A tag map reflects the scheme used to tile the surface region with tags, and this can vary according to surface type. When multiple tagged regions share the same tiling scheme and the same tag numbering scheme, they can also share the same tag map.
  • [0310]
    The tag map for a region must be retrievable via the region ID. Thus, given a region ID, a tag ID and a pen transform, the tag map can be retrieved, the tag ID can be translated into an absolute tag location within the region, and the tag-relative pen location can be added to the tag location to yield an absolute pen location within the region.
  • [0311]
    The tag ID may have a structure which assists translation through the tag map. It may, for example, encode Cartesian (x-y) coordinates or polar coordinates, depending on the surface type on which it appears. The tag ID structure is dictated by and known to the tag map, and tag IDs associated with different tag maps may therefore have different structures.
  • [0312]
    With the tagging scheme described above, the tags usually function in cooperation with associated visual elements on the netpage. These function as user interactive elements in that a user can interact with the printed page using an appropriate sensing device in order for tag data to be read by the sensing device and for an appropriate response to be generated in the netpage system.
  • [0313]
    Additionally (or alternatively), decoding a tag may be used to provide orientation data indicative of the yaw of the pen relative to the surface. The orientation data may be determined using, for example, the orientation axis 16 described above (Section 2.3) or orientation data embedded in the tag data (Section 2.5).
  • 3 Document and Page Descriptions
  • [0314]
    A preferred embodiment of a document and page description class diagram is shown in FIGS. 12 and 13.
  • [0315]
    In the netpage system a document is described at three levels. At the most abstract level the document 836 has a hierarchical structure whose terminal elements 839 are associated with content objects 840 such as text objects, text style objects, image objects, etc. Once the document is printed on a printer with a particular page size, the document is paginated and otherwise formatted. Formatted terminal elements 835 will in some cases be associated with content objects which are different from those associated with their corresponding terminal elements, particularly where the content objects are style-related. Each printed instance of a document and page is also described separately, to allow input captured through a particular page instance 830 to be recorded separately from input captured through other instances of the same page description.
  • [0316]
    The presence of the most abstract document description on the page server allows a copy of a document to be printed without being forced to accept the source document's specific format. The user or a printing press may be requesting a copy for a printer with a different page size, for example. Conversely, the presence of the formatted document description on the page server allows the page server to efficiently interpret user actions on a particular printed page.
  • [0317]
    A formatted document 834 consists of a set of formatted page descriptions 5, each of which consists of a set of formatted terminal elements 835. Each formatted element has a spatial extent or zone 58 on the page. This defines the active area of input elements such as hyperlinks and input fields.
  • [0318]
    A document instance 831 corresponds to a formatted document 834. It consists of a set of page instances 830, each of which corresponds to a page description 5 of the formatted document. Each page instance 830 describes a single unique printed netpage 1, and records the page ID 50 of the netpage. A page instance is not part of a document instance if it represents a copy of a page requested in isolation.
  • [0319]
    A page instance consists of a set of terminal element instances 832. An element instance only exists if it records instance-specific information. Thus, a hyperlink instance exists for a hyperlink element because it records a transaction ID 55 which is specific to the page instance, and a field instance exists for a field element because it records input specific to the page instance. An element instance does not exist, however, for static elements such as textflows.
  • [0320]
    A terminal element 839 can be a visual element or an input element. A visual element can be a static element 843 or a dynamic element 846. An input element may be, for example, a hyperlink element 844 or a field element 845, as shown in FIG. 14. Other types of input element are of course possible, such a input elements, which select a particular mode of the pen 101.
  • [0321]
    A page instance has a background field 833 which is used to record any digital ink captured on the page which does not apply to a specific input element.
  • [0322]
    In the preferred form of the invention, a tag map 811 is associated with each page instance to allow tags on the page to be translated into locations on the page.
  • 4 The Netpage Network
  • [0323]
    In one embodiment, a netpage network consists of a distributed set of netpage page servers 10, netpage registration servers 11, netpage ID servers 12, netpage application servers 13, and netpage relay devices 601 connected via a network 19 such as the Internet, as shown in FIG. 3.
  • [0324]
    The netpage registration server 11 is a server which records relationships between users, pens, printers and applications, and thereby authorizes various network activities. It authenticates users and acts as a signing proxy on behalf of authenticated users in application transactions. It also provides handwriting recognition services. As described above, a netpage page server 10 maintains persistent information about page descriptions and page instances. The netpage network includes any number of page servers, each handling a subset of page instances.
  • [0325]
    Since a page server also maintains user input values for each page instance, clients such as netpage relays 601 send netpage input directly to the appropriate page server. The page server interprets any such input relative to the description of the corresponding page.
  • [0326]
    A netpage ID server 12 allocates document IDs 51 on demand, and provides load-balancing of page servers via its ID allocation scheme.
  • [0327]
    A netpage relay 601 uses the Internet Distributed Name System (DNS), or similar, to resolve a netpage page ID 50 into the network address of the netpage page server 10 handling the corresponding page instance.
  • [0328]
    A netpage application server 13 is a server which hosts interactive netpage applications.
  • [0329]
    Netpage servers can be hosted on a variety of network server platforms from manufacturers such as IBM, Hewlett-Packard, and Sun. Multiple netpage servers can run concurrently on a single host, and a single server can be distributed over a number of hosts. Some or all of the functionality provided by netpage servers, and in particular the functionality provided by the ID server and the page server, can also be provided directly in a netpage appliance such as a netpage printer, in a computer workstation, or on a local network.
  • 5 The Netpage Pen
  • [0330]
    The active sensing device of the netpage system may take the form of a clicker (for clicking on a specific position on a surface), a pointer having a stylus (for pointing or gesturing on a surface using pointer strokes), or a pen having a marking nib (for marking a surface with ink when pointing, gesturing or writing on the surface). A pen 101 is described herein, although it will be appreciated that clickers and pointers may have similar features. The pen 101 uses its embedded controller 134 to capture and decode netpage tags from a page via an image sensor. The image sensor is a solid-state device provided with an appropriate filter to permit sensing at only near-infrared wavelengths. As described in more detail below, the system is able to sense when the nib is in contact with the surface, and the pen is able to sense tags at a sufficient rate to capture human handwriting (i.e. at 200 dpi or greater and 100 Hz or faster). Information captured by the pen may be encrypted and wirelessly transmitted to the printer (or base station), the printer or base station interpreting the data with respect to the (known) page structure.
  • [0331]
    The preferred embodiment of the netpage pen 101 operates both as a normal marking ink pen and as a non-marking stylus (i.e. as a pointer). The marking aspect, however, is not necessary for using the netpage system as a browsing system, such as when it is used as an Internet interface. Each netpage pen is registered with the netpage system and has a unique pen ID 61. FIG. 11 shows the netpage pen class diagram, reflecting pen-related information maintained by a registration server 11 on the netpage network.
  • [0332]
    When the nib is in contact with a netpage, the pen determines its position and orientation relative to the page. The nib is attached to a force sensor, and the force on the nib is interpreted relative to a threshold to indicate whether the pen is “up” or “down”. This allows an interactive element on the page to be ‘clicked’ by pressing with the pen nib, in order to request, say, information from a network. Furthermore, the force may be captured as a continuous value to allow, say, the full dynamics of a signature to be verified.
  • [0333]
    The pen determines the position and orientation of its nib on the netpage by imaging, in the infrared spectrum, an area 193 of the page in the vicinity of the nib. It decodes the nearest tag and computes the position of the nib relative to the tag from the observed perspective distortion on the imaged tag and the known geometry of the pen optics. Although the position resolution of the tag may be low, because the tag density on the page is inversely proportional to the tag size, the adjusted position resolution is quite high, exceeding the minimum resolution required for accurate handwriting recognition.
  • [0334]
    Pen actions relative to a netpage are captured as a series of strokes. A stroke consists of a sequence of time-stamped pen positions on the page, initiated by a pen-down event and completed by the subsequent pen-up event. A stroke is also tagged with the page ID 50 of the netpage whenever the page ID changes, which, under normal circumstances, is at the commencement of the stroke.
  • [0335]
    Each netpage pen has a current selection 826 associated with it, allowing the user to perform copy and paste operations etc. The selection is timestamped to allow the system to discard it after a defined time period. The current selection describes a region of a page instance. It consists of the most recent digital ink stroke captured through the pen relative to the background area of the page. It is interpreted in an application-specific manner once it is submitted to an application via a selection hyperlink activation.
  • [0336]
    Each pen has a current nib 824. This is the nib last notified by the pen to the system. In the case of the default netpage pen described above, either the marking black ink nib or the non-marking stylus nib is current. Each pen also has a current nib style 825. This is the nib style last associated with the pen by an application, e.g. in response to the user selecting a color from a palette. The default nib style is the nib style associated with the current nib. Strokes captured through a pen are tagged with the current nib style. When the strokes are subsequently reproduced, they are reproduced in the nib style with which they are tagged.
  • [0337]
    The pen 101 may have one or more buttons 209. As described in U.S. application Ser. No. 11/672,950 filed on Feb. 8, 2007 (the contents of which is herein incorporated by reference), the button(s) may be used to determine a mode or behavior of the pen, which, in turn, determines how a stroke or, more generally, interaction data is interpreted by the page server 10.
  • [0338]
    Whenever the pen is within range of a relay device 601 with which it can communicate, the pen slowly flashes its “online” LED. When the pen fails to decode a stroke relative to the page, it momentarily activates its “error” LED. When the pen succeeds in decoding a stroke relative to the page, it momentarily activates its “ok” LED.
  • [0339]
    A sequence of captured strokes is referred to as digital ink. Digital ink forms the basis for the digital exchange of drawings and handwriting, for online recognition of handwriting, and for online verification of signatures.
  • [0340]
    The pen is typically wireless and transmits digital ink to the relay device 601 via a short-range radio link. The transmitted digital ink is encrypted for privacy and security and packetized for efficient transmission, but is always flushed on a pen-up event to ensure timely handling in the printer.
  • [0341]
    When the pen is out-of-range of a relay device 601 it buffers digital ink in internal memory, which has a capacity of over ten minutes of continuous handwriting. When the pen is once again within range of a relay device, it transfers any buffered digital ink.
  • [0342]
    A pen can be registered with any number of relay devices, but because all state data resides in netpages both on paper and on the network, it is largely immaterial which relay device a pen is communicating with at any particular time.
  • [0343]
    One embodiment of the pen is described in greater detail in Section 7 below, with reference to FIGS. 8 to 10.
  • 6 Netpage Interaction
  • [0344]
    The netpage relay device 601 receives data relating to a stroke from the pen 101 when the pen is used to interact with a netpage 1. The coded data 3 of the tags 4 is read by the pen when it is used to execute a movement, such as a stroke. The data allows the identity of the particular page to be determined and an indication of the positioning of the pen relative to the page to be obtained. Interaction data, typically comprising the page ID 50 and at least one position of the pen, is transmitted to the relay device 601, where it resolves, via the DNS, the page ID 50 of the stroke into the network address of the netpage page server 10 which maintains the corresponding page instance 830. It then transmits the stroke to the page server. If the page was recently identified in an earlier stroke, then the relay device may already have the address of the relevant page server in its cache. Each netpage consists of a compact page layout maintained persistently by a netpage page server (see below). The page layout refers to objects such as images, fonts and pieces of text, typically stored elsewhere on the netpage network.
  • [0345]
    When the page server receives the stroke from the pen, it retrieves the page description to which the stroke applies, and determines which element of the page description the stroke intersects. It is then able to interpret the stroke in the context of the type of the relevant element.
  • [0346]
    A “click” is a stroke where the distance and time between the pen down position and the subsequent pen up position are both less than some small maximum. An object which is activated by a click typically requires a click to be activated, and accordingly, a longer stroke is ignored. The failure of a pen action, such as a “sloppy” click, to register may be indicated by the lack of response from the pen's “ok” LED.
  • [0347]
    Hyperlinks and form fields are two kinds of input elements, which may be contained in a netpage page description. Input through a form field can also trigger the activation of an associated hyperlink. These types of input elements are described in further detail in the above-identified patents and patent applications, the contents of which are herein incorporated by cross-reference.
  • 7 Detailed Netpage Pen Description 7.1 Pen Mechanics
  • [0348]
    Referring to FIGS. 8 and 9, the pen, generally designated by reference numeral 101, includes a housing 102 in the form of a plastics moulding having walls 103 defining an interior space 104 for mounting the pen components. Mode selector buttons 209 are provided on the housing 102. The pen top 105 is in operation rotatably mounted at one end 106 of the housing 102. A semi-transparent cover 107 is secured to the opposite end 108 of the housing 102. The cover 107 is also of moulded plastics, and is formed from semi-transparent material in order to enable the user to view the status of the LED mounted within the housing 102. The cover 107 includes a main part 109 which substantially surrounds the end 108 of the housing 102 and a projecting portion 110 which projects back from the main part 109 and fits within a corresponding slot 111 formed in the walls 103 of the housing 102. A radio antenna 112 is mounted behind the projecting portion 110, within the housing 102. Screw threads 113 surrounding an aperture 113A on the cover 107 are arranged to receive a metal end piece 114, including corresponding screw threads 115. The metal end piece 114 is removable to enable ink cartridge replacement.
  • [0349]
    Also mounted within the cover 107 is a tri-color status LED 116 on a flex PCB 117. The antenna 112 is also mounted on the flex PCB 117. The status LED 116 is mounted at the top of the pen 101 for good all-around visibility.
  • [0350]
    The pen can operate both as a normal marking ink pen and as a non-marking stylus. An ink pen cartridge 118 with nib 119 and a stylus 120 with stylus nib 121 are mounted side by side within the housing 102. Either the ink cartridge nib 119 or the stylus nib 121 can be brought forward through open end 122 of the metal end piece 114, by rotation of the pen top 105. Respective slider blocks 123 and 124 are mounted to the ink cartridge 118 and stylus 120, respectively. A rotatable cam barrel 125 is secured to the pen top 105 in operation and arranged to rotate therewith. The cam barrel 125 includes a cam 126 in the form of a slot within the walls 181 of the cam barrel. Cam followers 127 and 128 projecting from slider blocks 123 and 124 fit within the cam slot 126. On rotation of the cam barrel 125, the slider blocks 123 or 124 move relative to each other to project either the pen nib 119 or stylus nib 121 out through the hole 122 in the metal end piece 114. The pen 101 has three states of operation. By turning the top 105 through 90° steps, the three states are:
      • Stylus 120 nib 121 out;
      • Ink cartridge 118 nib 119 out; and
      • Neither ink cartridge 118 nib 119 out nor stylus 120 nib 121 out.
  • [0354]
    A second flex PCB 129, is mounted on an electronics chassis 130 which sits within the housing 102. The second flex PCB 129 mounts an infrared LED 131 for providing infrared radiation for projection onto the surface. An image sensor 132 is provided mounted on the second flex PCB 129 for receiving reflected radiation from the surface. The second flex PCB 129 also mounts a radio frequency chip 133, which includes an RF transmitter and RF receiver, and a controller chip 134 for controlling operation of the pen 101. An optics block 135 (formed from moulded clear plastics) sits within the cover 107 and projects an infrared beam onto the surface and receives images onto the image sensor 132. Power supply wires 136 connect the components on the second flex PCB 129 to battery contacts 137 which are mounted within the cam barrel 125. A terminal 138 connects to the battery contacts 137 and the cam barrel 125. A three volt rechargeable battery 139 sits within the cam barrel 125 in contact with the battery contacts. An induction charging coil 140 is mounted about the second flex PCB 129 to enable recharging of the battery 139 via induction. The second flex PCB 129 also mounts an infrared LED 143 and infrared photodiode 144 for detecting displacement in the cam barrel 125 when either the stylus 120 or the ink cartridge 118 is used for writing, in order to enable a determination of the force being applied to the surface by the pen nib 119 or stylus nib 121. The IR photodiode 144 detects light from the IR LED 143 via reflectors (not shown) mounted on the slider blocks 123 and 124.
  • [0355]
    Rubber grip pads 141 and 142 are provided towards the end 108 of the housing 102 to assist gripping the pen 101, and top 105 also includes a clip 142 for clipping the pen 101 to a pocket.
  • 7.2 Pen Controller
  • [0356]
    The pen 101 is arranged to determine the position of its nib (stylus nib 121 or ink cartridge nib 119) by imaging, in the infrared spectrum, an area of the surface in the vicinity of the nib. It records the location data from the nearest location tag, and is arranged to calculate the distance of the nib 121 or 119 from the location tab utilising optics 135 and controller chip 134. The controller chip 134 calculates the orientation (yaw) of the pen using an orientation indicator in the imaged tag, and the nib-to-tag distance from the perspective distortion observed on the imaged tag.
  • [0357]
    Utilising the RF chip 133 and antenna 112 the pen 101 can transmit the digital ink data (which is encrypted for security and packaged for efficient transmission) to the computing system.
  • [0358]
    When the pen is in range of a relay device 601, the digital ink data is transmitted as it is formed. When the pen 101 moves out of range, digital ink data is buffered within the pen 101 (the pen 101 circuitry includes a buffer arranged to store digital ink data for approximately 12 minutes of the pen motion on the surface) and can be transmitted later.
  • [0359]
    In Applicant's U.S. Pat. No. 6,870,966, the contents of which is incorporated herein by reference, a pen 101 having an interchangeable ink cartridge nib and stylus nib was described.
  • [0360]
    Accordingly, and referring to FIG. 27, when the pen 101 connects to the computing system, the controller 134 notifies the system of the pen ID, nib ID 175, current absolute time 176, and the last absolute time it obtained from the system prior to going offline. The pen ID allows the computing system to identify the pen when there is more than one pen being operated with the computing system.
  • [0361]
    The nib ID allows the computing system to identify which nib (stylus nib 121 or ink cartridge nib 119) is presently being used. The computing system can vary its operation depending upon which nib is being used. For example, if the ink cartridge nib 119 is being used the computing system may defer producing feedback output because immediate feedback is provided by the ink markings made on the surface. Where the stylus nib 121 is being used, the computing system may produce immediate feedback output.
  • [0362]
    Since a user may change the nib 119, 121 between one stroke and the next, the pen 101 optionally records a nib ID for a stroke 175. This becomes the nib ID implicitly associated with later strokes.
  • [0363]
    Cartridges having particular nib characteristics may be interchangeable in the pen. The pen controller 134 may interrogate a cartridge to obtain the nib ID 175 of the cartridge. The nib ID 175 may be stored in a ROM or a barcode on the cartridge. The controller 134 notifies the system of the nib ID whenever it changes. The system is thereby able to determine the characteristics of the nib used to produce a stroke 175, and is thereby subsequently able to reproduce the characteristics of the stroke itself.
  • [0364]
    The controller chip 134 is mounted on the second flex PCB 129 in the pen 101. FIG. 10 is a block diagram illustrating in more detail the architecture of the controller chip 134. FIG. 10 also shows representations of the RF chip 133, the image sensor 132, the tri-color status LED 116, the IR illumination LED 131, the IR force sensor LED 143, and the force sensor photodiode 144.
  • [0365]
    The pen controller chip 134 includes a controlling processor 145. Bus 146 enables the exchange of data between components of the controller chip 134. Flash memory 147 and a 512 KB DRAM 148 are also included. An analog-to-digital converter 149 is arranged to convert the analog signal from the force sensor photodiode 144 to a digital signal.
  • [0366]
    An image sensor interface 152 interfaces with the image sensor 132. A transceiver controller 153 and base band circuit 154 are also included to interface with the RF chip 133 which includes an RF circuit 155 and RF resonators and inductors 156 connected to the antenna 112.
  • [0367]
    The controlling processor 145 captures and decodes location data from tags from the surface via the image sensor 132, monitors the force sensor photodiode 144, controls the LEDs 116, 131 and 143, and handles short-range radio communication via the radio transceiver 153. It is a medium-performance (˜40 MHz) general-purpose RISC processor.
  • [0368]
    The processor 145, digital transceiver components (transceiver controller 153 and baseband circuit 154), image sensor interface 152, flash memory 147 and 512 KB DRAM 148 are integrated in a single controller ASIC. Analog RF components (RF circuit 155 and RF resonators and inductors 156) are provided in the separate RF chip.
  • [0369]
    The image sensor is a 215×215 pixel CCD (such a sensor is produced by Matsushita Electronic Corporation, and is described in a paper by Itakura, K T Nobusada, N Okusenya, R Nagayoshi, and M Ozaki, “A 1 mm 50 k-Pixel IT CCD Image Sensor for Miniature Camera System”, IEEE Transactions on Electronic Devices, Volt 47, number 1, January 2000, which is incorporated herein by reference) with an IR filter.
  • [0370]
    The controller ASIC 134 enters a quiescent state after a period of inactivity when the pen 101 is not in contact with a surface. It incorporates a dedicated circuit 150 which monitors the force sensor photodiode 144 and wakes up the controller 134 via the power manager 151 on a pen-down event.
  • [0371]
    The radio transceiver communicates in the unlicensed 900 MHz band normally used by cordless telephones, or alternatively in the unlicensed 2.4 GHz industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) band, and uses frequency hopping and collision detection to provide interference-free communication.
  • [0372]
    In an alternative embodiment, the pen incorporates an Infrared Data Association (IrDA) interface for short-range communication with a base station or netpage printer.
  • 7.3 Alternative Motion Sensor
  • [0373]
    In a further embodiment, the pen 101 includes a pair of orthogonal accelerometers mounted in the normal plane of the pen 101 axis. The accelerometers 190 are shown in FIGS. 9 and 10 in ghost outline.
  • [0374]
    The provision of the accelerometers enables this embodiment of the pen 101 to sense motion without reference to surface location tags. Each location tag ID can then identify an object of interest rather than a position on the surface. For example, if the object is a user interface input element (e.g. a command button), then the tag ID of each location tag within the area of the input element can directly identify the input element.
  • [0375]
    The acceleration measured by the accelerometers in each of the x and y directions is integrated with respect to time to produce an instantaneous velocity and position.
  • [0376]
    Since the starting position of the stroke may not be known, only relative positions within a stroke are calculated. Although position integration accumulates errors in the sensed acceleration, accelerometers typically have high resolution, and the time duration of a stroke, over which errors accumulate, is short.
  • [0377]
    It will be appreciated that a number of alternative (or additional) motion sensors may be employed in a Netpage pen 101. These typically either measure absolute displacement or relative displacement. For example, an optical mouse that measures displacement relative to an external grid (see U.S. Pat. No. 4,390,873 and U.S. Pat. No. 4,521,772) measures absolute displacement, whereas a mechanical mouse that measures displacement via the movement of a wheel or ball in contact with the surface (see U.S. Pat. No. 3,541,541 and U.S. Pat. No. 4,464,652) measures relative displacement because measurement errors accumulate. An optical mouse that measures displacement relative to surface texture (see U.S. Pat. No. 6,631,218, U.S. Pat. No. 6,281,882, U.S. Pat. No. 6,297,513 and U.S. Pat. No. 4,794,384), measures relative displacement for the same reason. Motion sensors based on point interferometry (see U.S. Pat. No. 6,246,482) or acceleration (see U.S. Pat. No. 4,787,051) also measure relative displacement. The contents of all US patents identified in the preceding paragraph relating to motion sensors are herein incorporated by reference.
  • 7.4 GUI Control
  • [0378]
    As discussed in U.S. application Ser. No. 11/672,950 filed on Feb. 8, 2007 (the contents of which is herein incorporated by reference), a Netpage pen 101 can be used to generate cursor control commands (i.e. typically mouse events) to allow seamless transitions between paper interactions and on-screen interactions.
  • [0379]
    A computer system associated with the display device may receive cursor control data (in the form of relative motion data) directly from the pen 101, with the pen performing the necessary processing to generate the cursor control data from the interaction data. Alternatively, the computer system may receive interaction data as usual from the pen 101, and then generate cursor control commands for an associated display device. Alternatively, the computer system may be a remote server which receives interaction data from the Netpage pen 101 and transmits cursor control commands to a display device near the user (e.g. mobile phone). Any of these system architectures may support cursor control, although generation of cursor control commands in the pen is generally preferred.
  • [0380]
    As discussed in U.S. application Ser. No. 11/672,950, a cursor control behaviour can be selected in various ways, including via a momentary or persistent mode switch. Alternatively, cursor control behaviour may also be automatically selected in the absence of a Netpage tag pattern, if the Netpage pen 101 incorporates a motion sensor that functions in the absence of a tag pattern.
  • [0381]
    When positions generated by a Netpage pen 101 are intrinsically absolute, such as when generated at least partially with reference to a Netpage tag pattern, then such positions can be trivially converted into absolute cursor control commands. The extent of the physical surface with which the sensing device is interacting is ideally mapped to the extent of a display device for the purposes of translating sensing device positions into cursor control commands.
  • [0382]
    However, cursor control commands commonly specify changes in position rather than absolute positions—i.e. they are relative position changes. Absolute positions generated by a Netpage pen 101 by reading tags 4 may be trivially converted into relative cursor control commands. The relative scale of physical displacements of the Netpage reader and corresponding screen displacements can be specified as a matter of user preference, as well as whether the mapping is absolute or relative.
  • [0383]
    Although relative displacements of the pen 101 may be readily calculated from absolute motion data, the implementation of cursor control behaviour from absolute positions is problematic in practice. In order for cursor control behaviour to appear ‘natural’ from a user's perspective, cursor movements on a screen should always follow substantially the movement of the pen 101 i.e. a left pen movement moves the on-screen cursor to the left, an up pen movement moves the on-screen cursor upwards etc. If a surface is orientated in the same way as a displayed page, then on-screen cursor movements naturally reflect movement of the pen 101. However, if the surface is upside down, then the on-screen cursor movements will be confusing and unnatural for the user i.e. a left pen movement would move the on-screen cursor to the right.
  • [0384]
    Since users are not accustomed to orienting their traditional mousepads in a certain way, they equally would not expect to orient their Netpage-tagged surface in a certain way in order to invoke natural cursor-control behaviour. In other words, it is desirable that the surface and pen 101 should invoke natural mouse behaviour irrespective of how the surface is oriented.
  • [0385]
    This problem is solved by making used of the orientation information contained in the Netpage tags 4. As explained above in Sections 2.3 to 2.5, the yaw of the pen 101 relative to the surface may be calculated by making use of this orientation information. If orientation data as well as absolute motion data is received by a computer system, then the computer system can determine movement of the pen 101 relative to itself by taking into account the yaw of the pen relative to the surface. Hence, movement of the pen, from a user's perspective, is substantially translated into a corresponding on-screen cursor movement. In this way, the pen 101 may be used to control naturally the movement of the cursor, irrespective of the orientation of the surface.
  • [0386]
    Of course, when positions generated by a Netpage pen 101 are intrinsically relative, such as when they are generated using a relative motion sensing mechanism (e.g. accelerometers, mechanical mouse, optical mouse etc), then they map naturally to relative cursor control commands, again with a (potentially user-specified) scale factor.
  • [0387]
    Cursor control is a subset of graphical user interface (GUI) input and control in general, including functions such as:
      • scrolling
      • web browser back/forward
      • page up/down etc.
      • cut/copy/paste
      • tab between GUI applications
      • launch specific GUI application (word processor, e-mail, web browser, etc.)
      • volume control (up/down/mute)
      • log off, sleep
      • keyboard entry in general
  • [0397]
    Scrolling can be supported in the conventional way via a scroll wheel on the Netpage pen 101. It can also be provided implicitly as part of a cursor control behaviour, when motion sensing at least partially occurs with reference to a Netpage tag pattern, by reserving part of the extent of each printed Netpage tag pattern as a scroll region. For example, the right-hand couple of inches of each printed Netpage might be reserved for vertical scrolling, and the bottom couple of inches might be reserved for horizontal scrolling. This scroll region may be active when it is determined that the pen 101 is operating in a cursor mode (for example, by a mode switch on the pen).
  • [0398]
    Scrolling, like cursor control, can be absolute or relative, and can be specified as a matter of user preference. As an alternative to separate vertical and horizontal scrolling areas, the dominant direction of the user's scroll gesture within a single scroll region, relative to the orientation of the tag pattern, can also be used to distinguish vertical from horizontal scrolling. In order to allow diagonal scrolling, a threshold can be imposed on the vertical and horizontal components of the user's gesture to prevent inadvertent diagonal scrolling. As an alternative to reserving a scroll region, one or two scroll mode selection switches can be provided on the pen 101.
  • [0399]
    FIG. 15 shows cursor control and scrolling functions mapped onto an arbitrary Netpage tagged page. The functions are only operative when the Netpage pen's cursor control behaviour is selected. The user readily learns from experience that if the pen's cursor control behaviour is selected then cursor control and scrolling actions may be performed via certain regions of any Netpage, even though there may be no explicit visual indication of this functionality in the visible content of the page. For example, scroll regions along a righthand and bottom edge region may be standard for any Netpage. These scroll regions would be active only in the cursor mode.
  • [0400]
    FIG. 16 shows cursor control and scrolling functions explicitly mapped onto a page with a matching visual layout. Hence, the page shown in FIG. 16 is a dedicated cursor control page, specifically tailored for GUI control, including cursor control and scrolling actions. FIG. 17 shows cursor control, scrolling functions and keyboard keys explicitly mapped onto a page with a matching visual layout. In the explicitly mapped cases the functions are self-selecting, and so can be operative in any pen behaviour.
  • [0401]
    Any function or key input can also be generated via a suitable Netpage tagged surface, either via tags specifically coded to indicate corresponding functions or keys, or via a page description that indicates corresponding functions or keys in the usual way. The former has the advantage that the input can be identified without consulting the page description 5. This allows the user's relay device 601, which may commonly be the user's display device, to capture such input without recourse to the Netpage server 10. In the latter case any function or key input generated by the server with reference to the page description can be routed to the user's display device via the netpage architecture (see FIG. 1 and US Patent Publication No. 2006/025175, the contents of which is herein incorporated by reference). This has the advantage that it supports a display device that is separate from the relay device.
  • [0402]
    Printed controls can also be provided for selecting one-shot or persistent modes, such as a scrolling mode. Printed controls may be selected via a typical netpage interaction, whereby a user selects an interactive control element on a page, and this interaction is interpreted as a mode selection in the computer system via the page description.
  • [0403]
    The present invention has been described with reference to a preferred embodiment and number of specific alternative embodiments. However, it will be appreciated by those skilled in the relevant fields that a number of other embodiments, differing from those specifically described, will also fall within the spirit and scope of the present invention. Accordingly, it will be understood that the invention is not intended to be limited to the specific embodiments described in the present specification, including documents incorporated by cross-reference as appropriate. The scope of the invention is only limited by the attached claims.

Claims (18)

  1. 1. A sensing device for interaction with a surface, said sensing device having automatic mode selection, said sensing device comprising:
    an image sensor for imaging the surface and generating image data;
    a motion sensor configured for determining one or more relative position changes of the sensing device;
    a processor configured for:
    receiving the image data; and
    automatically selecting, using said image data, either an interaction mode or a cursor mode for said sensing device; and
    communication means for transmitting either interaction data or cursor data to a computer system, dependent on said selected mode,
    wherein said processor is configured to:
    select the interaction mode and generate interaction data from the image data if said image data indicates that said sensing device is interacting with a first surface having a position-coding pattern disposed thereon, said interaction data being indicative of at least one absolute location of the sensing device relative to the surface; and
    select the cursor mode if said image data indicates that said sensing device is interacting with a second surface lacking a position-coding pattern, said cursor data being indicative of said one or more relative position changes of the sensing device.
  2. 2. The sensing device of claim 1, wherein the motion sensor is selected from any one of the group comprising: at least one accelerometer; a mechanical mouse; an optical mouse; and a point interferometry device.
  3. 3. The sensing device of claim 2, wherein said motion sensor is an optical mouse utilizing at least one of: a pattern-based optical mouse technique; a texture-based optical mouse technique; and a laser-speckle-based optical mouse technique.
  4. 4. The sensing device of claim 1, wherein the position-coding pattern of the first surface is indicative of a plurality of locations on the surface and of an identity of a region.
  5. 5. The sensing device of 4, wherein, in said interaction mode, said processor is configured for determining the identity of the region using the imaged position-coding pattern, and said interaction data is further indicative of the identity of the region.
  6. 6. The sensing device of claim 4, wherein the identity of the region is coincident with an identity of the surface.
  7. 7. The method of claim 1, wherein the position-coding pattern is comprised of a plurality of tags, each tag identifying the identity of the surface and a location of the tag on the surface.
  8. 8. A system for initiating an action corresponding to interaction of a sensing device relative to a surface, said system comprising:
    (A) the sensing device comprising:
    an image sensor for imaging the surface and generating image data;
    a motion sensor configured for determining one or more relative position changes of the sensing device;
    a processor configured for:
    receiving the image data; and
    automatically selecting, using said image data, either an interaction mode or a cursor mode for said sensing device; and
    communication means for transmitting either interaction data or cursor data to a computer system, dependent on said selected mode,
    wherein said processor is configured to:
    select the interaction mode and generate interaction data if said image data indicates that said sensing device is interacting with a first surface having a position-coding pattern disposed thereon, said interaction data being indicative of an absolute location of the sensing device relative to the surface; and
    select the cursor mode if said image data indicates that said sensing device is interacting with a second surface lacking a position-coding pattern, said cursor data being indicative of said one or more relative position changes of the sensing device; and
    (B) the computer system configured for:
    receiving the interaction data and the cursor data from the sensing device;
    interpreting said interaction data to initiate an action corresponding to said interaction with said surface; and
    interpreting said cursor data to control movement of a cursor on a display device.
  9. 9. The system of claim 8, wherein said action initiated by said interaction data is selected from at least one of: hyperlinking; form-filling; searching; and content-extraction.
  10. 10. The system of claim 8, wherein the position-coding pattern of the first surface is indicative of a plurality of locations on the surface and of an identity of a region.
  11. 11. The system of 10, wherein, in said interaction mode, said processor is configured for determining the identity of the region using the imaged position-coding pattern, and said interaction data is further indicative of the identity of the region.
  12. 12. The system of claim 11, wherein said computer system is configured to interpret said interaction data by the steps of:
    identifying and retrieving a page description corresponding to the first surface using the identity of the region;
    determining a request using the retrieved page description and the interaction data; and
    initiating an action based on said request.
  13. 13. The sensing device of claim 10, wherein the identity of the region is coincident with an identity of the surface.
  14. 14. The method of claim 8, wherein the position-coding pattern is comprised of a plurality of tags, each tag identifying the identity of the surface and a location of the tag on the surface.
  15. 15. The system of claim 8, wherein display device is selected from at least one of:
    a display device associated with the computer system
    a display device integral with the computer system; and
    a display device remote from the computer system.
  16. 16. A method of automatically selecting a mode of a sensing device interacting with a surface, said sensing device comprising a motion sensor configured for determining one or more relative position changes of the sensing device, said method comprising the steps of:
    imaging the surface and generating image data;
    automatically selecting, using said image data, either an interaction mode or a cursor mode for said sensing device; and
    transmitting either interaction data or cursor data to a computer system, dependent on said selected mode,
    wherein:
    the interaction mode is selected and the interaction data is generated from the image data if said image data indicates that said sensing device is interacting with a first surface having a position-coding pattern disposed thereon, said interaction data being indicative of at least one absolute location of the sensing device relative to the surface; and
    the cursor mode is selected and one or more relative position changes of the sensing device are determined if said image data indicates that said sensing device is interacting with a second surface lacking a position-coding pattern, said cursor data being indicative of said one or more relative position changes of the sensing device.
  17. 17. The method of claim 16, further comprising the steps of:
    receiving the interaction data in the computer system; and
    interpreting said interaction data to initiate an action corresponding to said interaction with said surface.
  18. 18. The method of claim 16, further comprising the steps of:
    receiving the cursor data from the sensing device;
    interpreting said cursor data to control movement of a cursor on a display device.
US12015509 2007-02-08 2008-01-17 Sensing device having automatic mode selection Abandoned US20080192022A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US88877507 true 2007-02-08 2007-02-08
US12015509 US20080192022A1 (en) 2007-02-08 2008-01-17 Sensing device having automatic mode selection

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US12015509 US20080192022A1 (en) 2007-02-08 2008-01-17 Sensing device having automatic mode selection

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20080192022A1 true true US20080192022A1 (en) 2008-08-14

Family

ID=39681171

Family Applications (28)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US12015509 Abandoned US20080192022A1 (en) 2007-02-08 2008-01-17 Sensing device having automatic mode selection
US12015511 Abandoned US20080192006A1 (en) 2007-02-08 2008-01-17 System for enabling user input and cursor control
US12015513 Expired - Fee Related US7878404B2 (en) 2007-02-08 2008-01-17 Bar code reading method
US12015508 Expired - Fee Related US8416188B2 (en) 2007-02-08 2008-01-17 System for controlling movement of a cursor on a display device
US12015507 Abandoned US20080192234A1 (en) 2007-02-08 2008-01-17 Method of sensing motion of a sensing device relative to a surface
US12015510 Abandoned US20080192004A1 (en) 2007-02-08 2008-01-17 System for scrolling page displayed on a display device
US12025768 Abandoned US20080191021A1 (en) 2007-02-08 2008-02-05 Method of Imaging Coding Pattern using Flags for Determining Tag Data or Block Data
US12025765 Abandoned US20080193030A1 (en) 2007-02-08 2008-02-05 Coding Pattern Comprising Replicated and Non-Replicated Coordinate Data
US12025751 Expired - Fee Related US8118234B2 (en) 2007-02-08 2008-02-05 Coding pattern comprising translation symbols for aligning cells with tags
US12025764 Expired - Fee Related US8107732B2 (en) 2007-02-08 2008-02-05 Method of imaging coding pattern comprising tags with divided x and y coordinate data
US12025762 Expired - Fee Related US8320678B2 (en) 2007-02-08 2008-02-05 Coding pattern comprising tags with X and Y coordinate data divided into respective halves of each tag
US12025746 Expired - Fee Related US8028925B2 (en) 2007-02-08 2008-02-05 Coding pattern with optimal number of target elements in each tag
US12025756 Expired - Fee Related US7913923B2 (en) 2007-02-08 2008-02-05 Method of imaging a coding pattern with data elements encoding by pulse-position modulation
US12025750 Expired - Fee Related US8016204B2 (en) 2007-02-08 2008-02-05 Coding pattern with fragments of common data distributed in each tag
US12025749 Expired - Fee Related US8011595B2 (en) 2007-02-08 2008-02-05 Coding pattern with replicated local tag data in each tag
US12025747 Expired - Fee Related US7604182B2 (en) 2007-02-08 2008-02-05 Coding pattern with data elements encoding by pulse-position modulation
US12025754 Expired - Fee Related US8204307B2 (en) 2007-02-08 2008-02-05 Method of imaging a coding pattern and calculating a perspective transform using optimal numbers of target elements
US12025761 Expired - Fee Related US7905406B2 (en) 2007-02-08 2008-02-05 Method of imaging a coding pattern and determining translation of imaged cells relative to tags
US12025766 Expired - Fee Related US8006912B2 (en) 2007-02-08 2008-02-05 Coding pattern with flags for determining tag data or block data
US12025748 Expired - Fee Related US7905423B2 (en) 2007-02-08 2008-02-05 Coding pattern with plurality of orientation features in each tag
US12025760 Expired - Fee Related US7905405B2 (en) 2007-02-08 2008-02-05 Method of imaging a coding pattern having fragments of common data distributed in each tag
US12025767 Expired - Fee Related US8107733B2 (en) 2007-02-08 2008-02-05 Method of imaging coding pattern comprising replicated and non-replicated coordinate data
US12025759 Expired - Fee Related US7959081B2 (en) 2007-02-08 2008-02-05 Method of imaging a coding pattern with replicated local tag data in each tag
US12025757 Abandoned US20080191017A1 (en) 2007-02-08 2008-02-05 Method of Imaging a Coding Pattern With Plurality of Orientation Features in Each Tag
US12560360 Expired - Fee Related US7793855B2 (en) 2007-02-08 2009-09-15 Position-coding pattern comprised of tags containing contiguous cells
US12973492 Abandoned US20110084141A1 (en) 2007-02-08 2010-12-20 Method for reading barcodes in absence of location-indicating tags
US13236586 Abandoned US20120006906A1 (en) 2007-02-08 2011-09-19 Coding pattern with cells having translation data defining a translation of the cell
US13684238 Abandoned US20130075482A1 (en) 2007-02-08 2012-11-22 Coding pattern comprising tags with x and y coordinate data divided into respective halves of each tag

Family Applications After (27)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US12015511 Abandoned US20080192006A1 (en) 2007-02-08 2008-01-17 System for enabling user input and cursor control
US12015513 Expired - Fee Related US7878404B2 (en) 2007-02-08 2008-01-17 Bar code reading method
US12015508 Expired - Fee Related US8416188B2 (en) 2007-02-08 2008-01-17 System for controlling movement of a cursor on a display device
US12015507 Abandoned US20080192234A1 (en) 2007-02-08 2008-01-17 Method of sensing motion of a sensing device relative to a surface
US12015510 Abandoned US20080192004A1 (en) 2007-02-08 2008-01-17 System for scrolling page displayed on a display device
US12025768 Abandoned US20080191021A1 (en) 2007-02-08 2008-02-05 Method of Imaging Coding Pattern using Flags for Determining Tag Data or Block Data
US12025765 Abandoned US20080193030A1 (en) 2007-02-08 2008-02-05 Coding Pattern Comprising Replicated and Non-Replicated Coordinate Data
US12025751 Expired - Fee Related US8118234B2 (en) 2007-02-08 2008-02-05 Coding pattern comprising translation symbols for aligning cells with tags
US12025764 Expired - Fee Related US8107732B2 (en) 2007-02-08 2008-02-05 Method of imaging coding pattern comprising tags with divided x and y coordinate data
US12025762 Expired - Fee Related US8320678B2 (en) 2007-02-08 2008-02-05 Coding pattern comprising tags with X and Y coordinate data divided into respective halves of each tag
US12025746 Expired - Fee Related US8028925B2 (en) 2007-02-08 2008-02-05 Coding pattern with optimal number of target elements in each tag
US12025756 Expired - Fee Related US7913923B2 (en) 2007-02-08 2008-02-05 Method of imaging a coding pattern with data elements encoding by pulse-position modulation
US12025750 Expired - Fee Related US8016204B2 (en) 2007-02-08 2008-02-05 Coding pattern with fragments of common data distributed in each tag
US12025749 Expired - Fee Related US8011595B2 (en) 2007-02-08 2008-02-05 Coding pattern with replicated local tag data in each tag
US12025747 Expired - Fee Related US7604182B2 (en) 2007-02-08 2008-02-05 Coding pattern with data elements encoding by pulse-position modulation
US12025754 Expired - Fee Related US8204307B2 (en) 2007-02-08 2008-02-05 Method of imaging a coding pattern and calculating a perspective transform using optimal numbers of target elements
US12025761 Expired - Fee Related US7905406B2 (en) 2007-02-08 2008-02-05 Method of imaging a coding pattern and determining translation of imaged cells relative to tags
US12025766 Expired - Fee Related US8006912B2 (en) 2007-02-08 2008-02-05 Coding pattern with flags for determining tag data or block data
US12025748 Expired - Fee Related US7905423B2 (en) 2007-02-08 2008-02-05 Coding pattern with plurality of orientation features in each tag
US12025760 Expired - Fee Related US7905405B2 (en) 2007-02-08 2008-02-05 Method of imaging a coding pattern having fragments of common data distributed in each tag
US12025767 Expired - Fee Related US8107733B2 (en) 2007-02-08 2008-02-05 Method of imaging coding pattern comprising replicated and non-replicated coordinate data
US12025759 Expired - Fee Related US7959081B2 (en) 2007-02-08 2008-02-05 Method of imaging a coding pattern with replicated local tag data in each tag
US12025757 Abandoned US20080191017A1 (en) 2007-02-08 2008-02-05 Method of Imaging a Coding Pattern With Plurality of Orientation Features in Each Tag
US12560360 Expired - Fee Related US7793855B2 (en) 2007-02-08 2009-09-15 Position-coding pattern comprised of tags containing contiguous cells
US12973492 Abandoned US20110084141A1 (en) 2007-02-08 2010-12-20 Method for reading barcodes in absence of location-indicating tags
US13236586 Abandoned US20120006906A1 (en) 2007-02-08 2011-09-19 Coding pattern with cells having translation data defining a translation of the cell
US13684238 Abandoned US20130075482A1 (en) 2007-02-08 2012-11-22 Coding pattern comprising tags with x and y coordinate data divided into respective halves of each tag

Country Status (6)

Country Link
US (28) US20080192022A1 (en)
EP (3) EP2132615A4 (en)
JP (1) JP4986186B2 (en)
CN (2) CN101606167B (en)
CA (2) CA2675689A1 (en)
WO (6) WO2008095226A1 (en)

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20120084729A1 (en) * 2010-10-01 2012-04-05 Poshen Lin Proactive browsing method with swing gesture in free space
US20130293477A1 (en) * 2012-05-03 2013-11-07 Compal Electronics, Inc. Electronic apparatus and method for operating the same

Families Citing this family (45)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US7213989B2 (en) * 2000-05-23 2007-05-08 Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd Ink distribution structure for a printhead
JP4556705B2 (en) * 2005-02-28 2010-10-06 富士ゼロックス株式会社 2-dimensional coordinate identification device, an image forming apparatus and a two-dimensional coordinate identification method
US20080192022A1 (en) * 2007-02-08 2008-08-14 Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd Sensing device having automatic mode selection
US20080256484A1 (en) * 2007-04-12 2008-10-16 Microsoft Corporation Techniques for aligning and positioning objects
WO2009036486A1 (en) * 2007-09-21 2009-03-26 Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd Coding pattern comprising direction codes
US7546694B1 (en) * 2008-04-03 2009-06-16 Il Poom Jeong Combination drawing/measuring pen
US20100084481A1 (en) * 2008-10-02 2010-04-08 Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd Coding pattern having merged data symbols
JP4385169B1 (en) 2008-11-25 2009-12-16 健治 吉田 Handwriting input system, handwriting input sheet, the information input system, the information input help sheet
JP2010185692A (en) * 2009-02-10 2010-08-26 Hitachi High-Technologies Corp Device, system and method for inspecting disk surface
US8947400B2 (en) * 2009-06-11 2015-02-03 Nokia Corporation Apparatus, methods and computer readable storage mediums for providing a user interface
US20110128258A1 (en) * 2009-11-30 2011-06-02 Hui-Hu Liang Mouse Pen
US20110182514A1 (en) * 2010-01-27 2011-07-28 Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd Method of decoding coding pattern having self-encoded format
US20110182521A1 (en) * 2010-01-27 2011-07-28 Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd Method of decoding coding pattern with variable number of missing data symbols positioned outside imaging field-of-view
US8276828B2 (en) * 2010-01-27 2012-10-02 Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd Method of decoding coding pattern comprising control symbols
US8292190B2 (en) * 2010-01-27 2012-10-23 Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd Coding pattern comprising registration codeword having variants corresponding to possible registrations
US8276827B2 (en) * 2010-01-27 2012-10-02 Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd Coding pattern comprising control symbols
WO2011091465A1 (en) * 2010-01-27 2011-08-04 Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd Coding pattern comprising control symbols
WO2011091464A1 (en) * 2010-01-27 2011-08-04 Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd Coding pattern comprising registration codeword having variants corresponding to possible registrations
US20110180612A1 (en) * 2010-01-27 2011-07-28 Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd Coding pattern comprising multi-ppm data symbols with minimal clustering of macrodots
US20110180602A1 (en) * 2010-01-27 2011-07-28 Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd Method of imaging coding pattern using variant registration codewords
US20110180611A1 (en) * 2010-01-27 2011-07-28 Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd Coding pattern comprising multi-ppm data symbols in a format identified by registration symbols
US20110181916A1 (en) * 2010-01-27 2011-07-28 Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd Method of encoding coding pattern to minimize clustering of macrodots
JP5589597B2 (en) * 2010-06-22 2014-09-17 コニカミノルタ株式会社 Image forming apparatus and operation control method and a control program
US9025850B2 (en) * 2010-06-25 2015-05-05 Cireca Theranostics, Llc Method for analyzing biological specimens by spectral imaging
US8415968B2 (en) 2010-07-30 2013-04-09 The Board Of Regents Of The University Of Texas System Data tag control for quantum-dot cellular automata
US9483677B2 (en) 2010-09-20 2016-11-01 Hid Global Corporation Machine-readable symbols
EP2619711A4 (en) 2010-09-20 2017-06-07 Hid Global Corp Machine-readable symbols
US8823645B2 (en) * 2010-12-28 2014-09-02 Panasonic Corporation Apparatus for remotely controlling another apparatus and having self-orientating capability
BE1019809A3 (en) * 2011-06-17 2012-12-04 Inventive Designers Nv Tool for designing a process for document flows
US8619267B2 (en) * 2011-07-08 2013-12-31 Avago Technologies General Ip (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. Proximity sensor with motion detection
KR101785010B1 (en) 2011-07-12 2017-10-12 삼성전자주식회사 Nonvolatile memory device
US20130033460A1 (en) * 2011-08-03 2013-02-07 Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd Method of notetaking using optically imaging pen with source document referencing
US20130124614A1 (en) * 2011-11-15 2013-05-16 Hitachi, Ltd. Thin client system and server apparatus
US9389679B2 (en) * 2011-11-30 2016-07-12 Microsoft Technology Licensing, Llc Application programming interface for a multi-pointer indirect touch input device
CN102710978B (en) * 2012-04-12 2016-06-29 深圳Tcl新技术有限公司 Cursor moving method and apparatus of the television
US9104933B2 (en) 2013-01-29 2015-08-11 Honeywell International Inc. Covert bar code pattern design and decoding
WO2014145193A1 (en) * 2013-03-15 2014-09-18 Nexref Technologies, Llc Marker-based augmented reality (ar) display with inventory management
US20150058753A1 (en) * 2013-08-22 2015-02-26 Citrix Systems, Inc. Sharing electronic drawings in collaborative environments
KR20150057422A (en) * 2013-11-19 2015-05-28 한국전자통신연구원 Method for transmitting and receiving data, display apparatus and pointing apparatus
US9489048B2 (en) * 2013-12-13 2016-11-08 Immersion Corporation Systems and methods for optical transmission of haptic display parameters
KR101836075B1 (en) * 2013-12-27 2018-03-08 가부시키가이샤 아이피 솔루션즈 Information input assistance sheet
US9582864B2 (en) * 2014-01-10 2017-02-28 Perkinelmer Cellular Technologies Germany Gmbh Method and system for image correction using a quasiperiodic grid
CN104793762B (en) * 2014-01-17 2018-01-05 禾瑞亚科技股份有限公司 Active stylus having a switching function
EP3271862A1 (en) 2014-06-19 2018-01-24 Samsung Pay, Inc. Methods and apparatus for barcode reading and encoding
WO2016164473A1 (en) * 2015-04-07 2016-10-13 Gen-Probe Incorporated Systems and methods for reading machine-readable labels on sample receptacles

Citations (18)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4864618A (en) * 1986-11-26 1989-09-05 Wright Technologies, L.P. Automated transaction system with modular printhead having print authentication feature
US5051736A (en) * 1989-06-28 1991-09-24 International Business Machines Corporation Optical stylus and passive digitizing tablet data input system
US5477012A (en) * 1992-04-03 1995-12-19 Sekendur; Oral F. Optical position determination
US5652412A (en) * 1994-07-11 1997-07-29 Sia Technology Corp. Pen and paper information recording system
US5661506A (en) * 1994-11-10 1997-08-26 Sia Technology Corporation Pen and paper information recording system using an imaging pen
US5692073A (en) * 1996-05-03 1997-11-25 Xerox Corporation Formless forms and paper web using a reference-based mark extraction technique
US5852434A (en) * 1992-04-03 1998-12-22 Sekendur; Oral F. Absolute optical position determination
US6076734A (en) * 1997-10-07 2000-06-20 Interval Research Corporation Methods and systems for providing human/computer interfaces
US6592039B1 (en) * 2000-08-23 2003-07-15 International Business Machines Corporation Digital pen using interferometry for relative and absolute pen position
US20040070616A1 (en) * 2002-06-02 2004-04-15 Hildebrandt Peter W. Electronic whiteboard
US20050200610A1 (en) * 2002-10-24 2005-09-15 Anoto Ab Information processing system containing an arrangement for enabling printing on demand of positiom coded bases
US6964374B1 (en) * 1998-10-02 2005-11-15 Lucent Technologies Inc. Retrieval and manipulation of electronically stored information via pointers embedded in the associated printed material
US20060007183A1 (en) * 2000-02-18 2006-01-12 Petter Ericson Input unit arrangement
US7048198B2 (en) * 2004-04-22 2006-05-23 Microsoft Corporation Coded pattern for an optical device and a prepared surface
US20060139338A1 (en) * 2004-12-16 2006-06-29 Robrecht Michael J Transparent optical digitizer
US7342575B1 (en) * 2004-04-06 2008-03-11 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. Electronic writing systems and methods
US20080129711A1 (en) * 2005-02-23 2008-06-05 Anoto Ab Method in Electronic Pen, Computer Program Product, and Electronic Pen
US7760190B2 (en) * 2004-05-25 2010-07-20 Elan Mircoelectronics Corporation Remote controller with touchpad for receiving handwritten input functions

Family Cites Families (91)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US237145A (en) * 1881-02-01 Fkancis h
WO1983003334A1 (en) * 1982-04-02 1983-10-13 Carl Gustaf Folke Ericsson A motor assembly for carrying on the back
US4575581A (en) * 1984-02-06 1986-03-11 Edwin Langberg Digitizer and position encoders and calibration system for same
US5979768A (en) * 1988-01-14 1999-11-09 Intermec I.P. Corp. Enhanced bar code resolution through relative movement of sensor and object
US4924078A (en) * 1987-11-25 1990-05-08 Sant Anselmo Carl Identification symbol, system and method
DE9013392U1 (en) * 1990-09-21 1991-04-25 Siemens Nixdorf Informationssysteme Ag, 4790 Paderborn, De
US5202552A (en) * 1991-04-22 1993-04-13 Macmillan Bloedel Limited Data with perimeter identification tag
US5412194A (en) 1992-03-25 1995-05-02 Storage Technology Corporation Robust coding system
CN1104791A (en) * 1993-12-30 1995-07-05 富冈信 Two dimensional code for processing data
JPH07225515A (en) * 1994-02-16 1995-08-22 Ricoh Co Ltd Developing device
US7387253B1 (en) * 1996-09-03 2008-06-17 Hand Held Products, Inc. Optical reader system comprising local host processor and optical reader
JP2788604B2 (en) * 1994-06-20 1998-08-20 インターナショナル・ビジネス・マシーンズ・コーポレイション Information display tag having a two-dimensional information pattern, the image processing method and image processing apparatus using the same
JP2952170B2 (en) 1994-12-16 1999-09-20 オリンパス光学工業株式会社 Information reproduction system
US5852412A (en) * 1995-10-30 1998-12-22 Honeywell Inc. Differential ground station repeater
US6081261A (en) 1995-11-01 2000-06-27 Ricoh Corporation Manual entry interactive paper and electronic document handling and processing system
US5862271A (en) 1996-12-20 1999-01-19 Xerox Corporation Parallel propagating embedded binary sequences for characterizing and parameterizing two dimensional image domain code patterns in N-dimensional address space
JP3856531B2 (en) * 1997-06-26 2006-12-13 山形カシオ株式会社 Coordinate data converting method and apparatus
JPH11161731A (en) * 1997-11-27 1999-06-18 Olympus Optical Co Ltd Reading auxiliary member having code pattern
JPH11201797A (en) 1998-01-12 1999-07-30 Aichi Tokei Denki Co Ltd Display device of service water meter
WO1999050751A1 (en) 1998-04-01 1999-10-07 Xerox Corporation Routing document identifiers
US6330976B1 (en) * 1998-04-01 2001-12-18 Xerox Corporation Marking medium area with encoded identifier for producing action through network
US6305608B1 (en) * 1998-06-04 2001-10-23 Olympus Optical Co., Ltd. Pen type code reader
US6088482A (en) * 1998-10-22 2000-07-11 Symbol Technologies, Inc. Techniques for reading two dimensional code, including maxicode
US7105753B1 (en) 1999-05-25 2006-09-12 Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd Orientation sensing device
US7793824B2 (en) 1999-05-25 2010-09-14 Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd System for enabling access to information
US7233320B1 (en) 1999-05-25 2007-06-19 Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd Computer system interface surface with reference points
US7762453B2 (en) 1999-05-25 2010-07-27 Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd Method of providing information via a printed substrate with every interaction
US7062651B1 (en) * 1999-05-25 2006-06-13 Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd Network printer registration protocol
US7707082B1 (en) * 1999-05-25 2010-04-27 Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd Method and system for bill management
DE60044458D1 (en) 1999-05-28 2010-07-08 Anoto Ab location
US6570104B1 (en) * 1999-05-28 2003-05-27 Anoto Ab Position determination
US7792298B2 (en) * 1999-06-30 2010-09-07 Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd Method of using a mobile device to authenticate a printed token and output an image associated with the token
CN1877607A (en) 1999-10-01 2006-12-13 阿诺托股份公司 Coded paper for optical reading
WO2001031521A1 (en) 1999-10-25 2001-05-03 Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd Category buttons on interactive paper
US7015901B2 (en) 1999-10-25 2006-03-21 Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd Universal pen with code sensor
EP1096416B2 (en) * 1999-10-26 2017-11-22 Datalogic IP TECH S.r.l. Method for reconstructing a bar code through consecutive scans
EP1107064A3 (en) * 1999-12-06 2004-12-29 Olympus Optical Co., Ltd. Exposure apparatus
US6826547B1 (en) 2000-02-24 2004-11-30 Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd. Printer service denial
US6864880B2 (en) * 2000-03-21 2005-03-08 Anoto Ab Device and method for communication
US7143952B2 (en) * 2000-03-21 2006-12-05 Anoto Ab Apparatus and methods relating to image coding
US20060082557A1 (en) * 2000-04-05 2006-04-20 Anoto Ip Lic Hb Combined detection of position-coding pattern and bar codes
JP4376425B2 (en) 2000-05-08 2009-12-02 株式会社ワコム Variable capacitor and the position indicator
US7025279B2 (en) * 2000-06-30 2006-04-11 Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd Method for generating tags
US6983321B2 (en) * 2000-07-10 2006-01-03 Bmc Software, Inc. System and method of enterprise systems and business impact management
CN1238782C (en) * 2001-04-12 2006-01-25 西尔弗布鲁克研究有限公司 Method for position coding for surface using cyclic position codes
JP3523618B2 (en) 2001-08-02 2004-04-26 シャープ株式会社 Coordinate pattern forming paper for use in a coordinate input system and the coordinate input system
US7145556B2 (en) * 2001-10-29 2006-12-05 Anoto Ab Method and device for decoding a position-coding pattern
US6964437B2 (en) * 2001-12-14 2005-11-15 Superba (Societa Anonyme) Process and device for knotting a yarn on a spool
US6966493B2 (en) * 2001-12-18 2005-11-22 Rf Saw Components, Incorporated Surface acoustic wave identification tag having enhanced data content and methods of operation and manufacture thereof
EP1461709A1 (en) * 2001-12-27 2004-09-29 Anoto AB Activation of products with embedded functionality in an information management system
US20030190056A1 (en) * 2002-04-09 2003-10-09 Eric Metois System and method for encoding and decoding data and position information using angular symbology and beacons
US20030197878A1 (en) * 2002-04-17 2003-10-23 Eric Metois Data encoding and workpiece authentication using halftone information
US7057269B2 (en) * 2002-10-08 2006-06-06 Chippac, Inc. Semiconductor multi-package module having inverted land grid array (LGA) package stacked over ball grid array (BGA) package
US7918404B2 (en) 2002-10-25 2011-04-05 Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd Orientation-indicating cyclic position codes
JP4294025B2 (en) 2002-10-25 2009-07-08 シルバーブルック リサーチ ピーティワイ リミテッド The method of reading methods, and the encoded data to generate the interface surface
US7502507B2 (en) * 2002-10-31 2009-03-10 Microsoft Corporation Active embedded interaction code
JP4348302B2 (en) 2002-12-03 2009-10-21 シルバーブルック リサーチ ピーティワイ リミテッド Rotationally symmetrical tag
US20050024510A1 (en) 2003-02-17 2005-02-03 Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd Image sensor with digital frame store
US7111791B2 (en) 2003-03-04 2006-09-26 Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd Symmetric tags
US7853193B2 (en) * 2004-03-17 2010-12-14 Leapfrog Enterprises, Inc. Method and device for audibly instructing a user to interact with a function
EP1469420B1 (en) * 2003-04-17 2009-03-04 Anoto Group AB Method, system and program for reconstructing a bar code
JP4708186B2 (en) 2003-05-02 2011-06-22 豊 木内 2-dimensional code decoding program
US7637430B2 (en) * 2003-05-12 2009-12-29 Hand Held Products, Inc. Picture taking optical reader
US6833287B1 (en) * 2003-06-16 2004-12-21 St Assembly Test Services Inc. System for semiconductor package with stacked dies
US7364081B2 (en) * 2003-12-02 2008-04-29 Hand Held Products, Inc. Method and apparatus for reading under sampled bar code symbols
JP4301986B2 (en) * 2004-03-30 2009-07-22 アルパイン株式会社 Complex information processing apparatus
KR101103098B1 (en) 2004-05-18 2012-01-04 실버브룩 리서치 피티와이 리미티드 Authentication Of an Object Using Signature Encoded In a Number Of Data Portions
US7672532B2 (en) * 2004-07-01 2010-03-02 Exphand Inc. Dithered encoding and decoding information transference system and method
US7656395B2 (en) * 2004-07-15 2010-02-02 Microsoft Corporation Methods and apparatuses for compound tracking systems
GB0417069D0 (en) * 2004-07-30 2004-09-01 Hewlett Packard Development Co Methods, apparatus and software for validating entries made on a form
CN1993688B (en) 2004-08-03 2012-01-18 西尔弗布鲁克研究有限公司 Printing shortening starting time
US7166924B2 (en) * 2004-08-17 2007-01-23 Intel Corporation Electronic packages with dice landed on wire bonds
US7663608B2 (en) * 2004-11-19 2010-02-16 Au Optronics Corp. Handwriting input apparatus
JP4235167B2 (en) 2004-12-13 2009-03-11 新日本製鐵株式会社 Coil inner diameter holding jig and the coil insertion method using the same
JP4556705B2 (en) * 2005-02-28 2010-10-06 富士ゼロックス株式会社 2-dimensional coordinate identification device, an image forming apparatus and a two-dimensional coordinate identification method
US7729539B2 (en) 2005-05-31 2010-06-01 Microsoft Corporation Fast error-correcting of embedded interaction codes
GB2428124B (en) * 2005-07-07 2010-04-14 Hewlett Packard Development Co Data input apparatus and method
CA2611759A1 (en) 2005-07-25 2007-02-01 Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd Product item having coded data identifying a layout
US7858307B2 (en) * 2005-08-09 2010-12-28 Maxwell Sensors, Inc. Light transmitted assay beads
US7622182B2 (en) 2005-08-17 2009-11-24 Microsoft Corporation Embedded interaction code enabled display
JP4586677B2 (en) * 2005-08-24 2010-11-24 富士ゼロックス株式会社 Image forming apparatus
US7605476B2 (en) * 2005-09-27 2009-10-20 Stmicroelectronics S.R.L. Stacked die semiconductor package
GB0520201D0 (en) * 2005-10-05 2005-11-09 Hewlett Packard Development Co Data-encoding pattern, system and method
JP2007115201A (en) * 2005-10-24 2007-05-10 Fuji Xerox Co Ltd Electronic document management system, medical information system, printing method of chart form and chart form
GB2432341B (en) 2005-10-29 2009-10-14 Hewlett Packard Development Co Marking material
US7934660B2 (en) 2006-01-05 2011-05-03 Hand Held Products, Inc. Data collection system having reconfigurable data collection terminal
JP4813553B2 (en) * 2006-06-16 2011-11-09 パイオニア株式会社 2-dimensional code pattern, the two-dimensional code pattern display device and a reading device
JP4375377B2 (en) * 2006-09-19 2009-12-02 富士ゼロックス株式会社 Writing information processing system, writing information generating apparatus and program
US7479236B2 (en) * 2006-09-29 2009-01-20 Lam Research Corporation Offset correction techniques for positioning substrates
US8291346B2 (en) * 2006-11-07 2012-10-16 Apple Inc. 3D remote control system employing absolute and relative position detection
US20080192022A1 (en) * 2007-02-08 2008-08-14 Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd Sensing device having automatic mode selection

Patent Citations (18)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4864618A (en) * 1986-11-26 1989-09-05 Wright Technologies, L.P. Automated transaction system with modular printhead having print authentication feature
US5051736A (en) * 1989-06-28 1991-09-24 International Business Machines Corporation Optical stylus and passive digitizing tablet data input system
US5852434A (en) * 1992-04-03 1998-12-22 Sekendur; Oral F. Absolute optical position determination
US5477012A (en) * 1992-04-03 1995-12-19 Sekendur; Oral F. Optical position determination
US5652412A (en) * 1994-07-11 1997-07-29 Sia Technology Corp. Pen and paper information recording system
US5661506A (en) * 1994-11-10 1997-08-26 Sia Technology Corporation Pen and paper information recording system using an imaging pen
US5692073A (en) * 1996-05-03 1997-11-25 Xerox Corporation Formless forms and paper web using a reference-based mark extraction technique
US6076734A (en) * 1997-10-07 2000-06-20 Interval Research Corporation Methods and systems for providing human/computer interfaces
US6964374B1 (en) * 1998-10-02 2005-11-15 Lucent Technologies Inc. Retrieval and manipulation of electronically stored information via pointers embedded in the associated printed material
US20060007183A1 (en) * 2000-02-18 2006-01-12 Petter Ericson Input unit arrangement
US6592039B1 (en) * 2000-08-23 2003-07-15 International Business Machines Corporation Digital pen using interferometry for relative and absolute pen position
US20040070616A1 (en) * 2002-06-02 2004-04-15 Hildebrandt Peter W. Electronic whiteboard
US20050200610A1 (en) * 2002-10-24 2005-09-15 Anoto Ab Information processing system containing an arrangement for enabling printing on demand of positiom coded bases
US7342575B1 (en) * 2004-04-06 2008-03-11 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. Electronic writing systems and methods
US7048198B2 (en) * 2004-04-22 2006-05-23 Microsoft Corporation Coded pattern for an optical device and a prepared surface
US7760190B2 (en) * 2004-05-25 2010-07-20 Elan Mircoelectronics Corporation Remote controller with touchpad for receiving handwritten input functions
US20060139338A1 (en) * 2004-12-16 2006-06-29 Robrecht Michael J Transparent optical digitizer
US20080129711A1 (en) * 2005-02-23 2008-06-05 Anoto Ab Method in Electronic Pen, Computer Program Product, and Electronic Pen

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20120084729A1 (en) * 2010-10-01 2012-04-05 Poshen Lin Proactive browsing method with swing gesture in free space
US20130293477A1 (en) * 2012-05-03 2013-11-07 Compal Electronics, Inc. Electronic apparatus and method for operating the same

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
CA2675689A1 (en) 2008-08-14 application
US8016204B2 (en) 2011-09-13 grant
US20080191040A1 (en) 2008-08-14 application
US20080193030A1 (en) 2008-08-14 application
US20080191039A1 (en) 2008-08-14 application
CA2675693A1 (en) 2008-08-14 application
US7604182B2 (en) 2009-10-20 grant
US20120006906A1 (en) 2012-01-12 application
US7905405B2 (en) 2011-03-15 grant
US8416188B2 (en) 2013-04-09 grant
WO2008095227A1 (en) 2008-08-14 application
CN101606167A (en) 2009-12-16 application
US7793855B2 (en) 2010-09-14 grant
US8107733B2 (en) 2012-01-31 grant
US7913923B2 (en) 2011-03-29 grant
US20080191024A1 (en) 2008-08-14 application
US8107732B2 (en) 2012-01-31 grant
US20080193054A1 (en) 2008-08-14 application
JP2010518496A (en) 2010-05-27 application
US8011595B2 (en) 2011-09-06 grant
EP2132615A1 (en) 2009-12-16 application
CN101606167B (en) 2012-04-04 grant
US20130075482A1 (en) 2013-03-28 application
WO2008095228A1 (en) 2008-08-14 application
US20080193044A1 (en) 2008-08-14 application
US8204307B2 (en) 2012-06-19 grant
US20080192004A1 (en) 2008-08-14 application
EP2132615A4 (en) 2012-02-08 application
US20080192234A1 (en) 2008-08-14 application
US20080193053A1 (en) 2008-08-14 application
US20080191017A1 (en) 2008-08-14 application
US8118234B2 (en) 2012-02-21 grant
JP4986186B2 (en) 2012-07-25 grant
US20080191037A1 (en) 2008-08-14 application
US7905406B2 (en) 2011-03-15 grant
CN101636709A (en) 2010-01-27 application
US7905423B2 (en) 2011-03-15 grant
US8320678B2 (en) 2012-11-27 grant
US20110084141A1 (en) 2011-04-14 application
US20080191041A1 (en) 2008-08-14 application
WO2008122070A1 (en) 2008-10-16 application
EP2118819A4 (en) 2011-05-04 application
US20080191020A1 (en) 2008-08-14 application
US8006912B2 (en) 2011-08-30 grant
WO2008095231A1 (en) 2008-08-14 application
US20080193045A1 (en) 2008-08-14 application
EP2118819A1 (en) 2009-11-18 application
EP2118723A1 (en) 2009-11-18 application
US8028925B2 (en) 2011-10-04 grant
US20080193007A1 (en) 2008-08-14 application
US20080191038A1 (en) 2008-08-14 application
US20080191016A1 (en) 2008-08-14 application
US20080191036A1 (en) 2008-08-14 application
EP2118723A4 (en) 2011-06-29 application
US20100001083A1 (en) 2010-01-07 application
US20080191019A1 (en) 2008-08-14 application
US20080191018A1 (en) 2008-08-14 application
US20080191021A1 (en) 2008-08-14 application
US7878404B2 (en) 2011-02-01 grant
WO2008095232A1 (en) 2008-08-14 application
US20080273010A1 (en) 2008-11-06 application
US7959081B2 (en) 2011-06-14 grant
US20080192006A1 (en) 2008-08-14 application
WO2008095226A1 (en) 2008-08-14 application

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US6786397B2 (en) Computer system control via interface surface with coded marks
US7345673B2 (en) Input unit arrangement
US20030103611A1 (en) Method and system for telephone control using sensor with identifier
US6813039B1 (en) Method and system for accessing the internet
US7295193B2 (en) Written command
US6825945B1 (en) Method and system for delivery of a brochure
US20070111713A1 (en) Method for accessing content from a computer network via a mobile phone using a two-step retrieval process
US7233320B1 (en) Computer system interface surface with reference points
US20040174556A1 (en) Copier
US7041916B2 (en) Orientation sensing device with processor
US6792165B1 (en) Sensing device
US20060072828A1 (en) Method and system for digitizing freehand graphics with user-selected properties
US6720985B1 (en) Method and system for object selection
US6995859B1 (en) Method and system for instruction of a computer
US20050243373A1 (en) Graphic design software using an interface surface
US6958747B2 (en) Method for making a product
US20090034018A1 (en) Method of scanning images larger than the scan swath using coded surfaces
US20070125860A1 (en) System for enabling access to information
US20030117378A1 (en) Device and system for retrieving and displaying handwritten annotations
US20080091527A1 (en) Method of charging for ads associated with predetermined concepts
US20030117652A1 (en) Rotationally symmetric tags
US7105753B1 (en) Orientation sensing device
US20070143715A1 (en) Method of providing information via printed substrate and gesture recognition
US20080134101A1 (en) Sensing device with mode changes via nib switch
US6839053B2 (en) Hand-drawing capture via interface surface and processing sensor

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AS Assignment

Owner name: SILVERBROOK RESEARCH PTY LTD, AUSTRALIA

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:SILVERBROOK, KIA;LAPSTUN, PAUL;REEL/FRAME:020379/0687

Effective date: 20071228