US20080190116A1 - Fluid Conduit Cooling Apparatus and Method - Google Patents

Fluid Conduit Cooling Apparatus and Method Download PDF

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Publication number
US20080190116A1
US20080190116A1 US11/720,329 US72032905A US2008190116A1 US 20080190116 A1 US20080190116 A1 US 20080190116A1 US 72032905 A US72032905 A US 72032905A US 2008190116 A1 US2008190116 A1 US 2008190116A1
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Prior art keywords
cooling
fluid
conduit
cylindrical container
chamber
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US11/720,329
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Shachar FLAMM
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Flamm Shachar
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Priority to US63122304P priority Critical
Application filed by Flamm Shachar filed Critical Flamm Shachar
Priority to PCT/IL2005/001274 priority patent/WO2006057002A2/en
Priority to US11/720,329 priority patent/US20080190116A1/en
Publication of US20080190116A1 publication Critical patent/US20080190116A1/en
Abandoned legal-status Critical Current

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Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25DREFRIGERATORS; COLD ROOMS; ICE-BOXES; COOLING OR FREEZING APPARATUS NOT COVERED BY ANY OTHER SUBCLASS
    • F25D5/00Devices using endothermic chemical reactions, e.g. using frigorific mixtures
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25DREFRIGERATORS; COLD ROOMS; ICE-BOXES; COOLING OR FREEZING APPARATUS NOT COVERED BY ANY OTHER SUBCLASS
    • F25D2331/00Details or arrangements of other cooling or freezing apparatus not provided for in other groups of this subclass
    • F25D2331/80Type of cooled receptacles
    • F25D2331/811Pour-throughs

Abstract

A fluid conduit cooling apparatus and method. The cooling of the fluid is achieved by pouring it through a heat exchanger within cold material. The cooling of the material is achieved by means of an endothermic reaction that occurs in a time and place of the user's choice.

Description

    FIELD AND BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • The present invention relates to an apparatus and method for cooling fluid while it flows through a conduit, thus making sure that the fluid arrives colder to its destination.
  • The use of fluid cooling is very common, including cooling of medical fluids and beverages. The most common method for fluid cooling is by use of various sizes of refrigerators. Refrigerators can be operated only with energy sources such as electricity from a home power grid or from batteries, and this greatly limits the possibilities for cooling fluids when the user is away from sources of energy. Furthermore, the weight and size of refrigerators are very limiting with regard to portable use. An additional common option for cooling fluids is putting ice cubes into the fluid. This method changes the composition of the fluid and is not possible in many cases, such as cooling blood samples, or unwanted dilution of a tasty soft drink.
  • There have been previous unsuccessful attempts to introduce endothermic reactions to the consumer market for cooling soft drinks, with the reaction cooling all of the drink within a given container. The disadvantages of such a system include the inability to cool the fluid a second time, as well as the inability to cool fluids in another container. In order to overcome these disadvantages, several attempts have been made to develop systems that cool fluids when they are in motion.
  • A cooling drinking straw is described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,947,378 of Rebotier. FIG. 1 of the prior art illustrates a cooling drinking straw. The cooling drinking straw consists of inserting one or several cores 71 in the central straw 51 of a drinking unit, through which the beverage 21 flows to be cooled or heated. The straw and core can have different shapes. The core needs not have the full length of the straw. A drinking unit can be made of an enclosure 61 containing an active or passive 11 medium delivering cold or heat. The end-pieces of the unit 81, 91 can be made to accommodate detachable extensions such as a mouthpiece or a straw extension. Helical core 71 inserted in tube 51, this tube passes through an enclosure which can contain refrigerant or heating material of various kinds, such as pre-cooled or frozen refrigerant, pre-heated material, endothermic chemical or exothermic chemical.
  • This prior art teaches cooling fluids flowing through a straw immersed in cold material. In order to prevent the material from heating, it needs to be isolated well from the environment, thus complicating the structure of the cooling drinking straw apparatus, and thus making it expensive.
  • The prior art does not teach or suggest a solution that enables storage of the apparatus maintaining all of its components at the temperature of the environment and enabling cooling of the cool material by the user in any place he chooses, at a time that is close to when he wishes to cool the fluid.
  • There is thus a widely recognized need for, and it would be highly advantageous to have, an apparatus and method for cooling a fluid while it flows through a conduit, thus making sure that the fluid arrives colder to its destination without the need for pre-refrigeration, thus saving time, money, and space needed for the pre-refrigeration systems, without the use of ice or of cold water, which dilutes the beverage and its taste; enabling to cool fluids in remote locations, and enabling the cooling of partial amounts of fluid without having to cool the entire fluid supply.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • It is an object of the present invention to provide a fluid conduit cooling apparatus and method for cooling a fluid while it flows through a conduit, thus making sure that the fluid arrives colder to its destination.
  • The operation principle of the fluid conduit cooling apparatus and method is based on powerful heat extraction that is generated in endothermic reactions between two or more materials. This heat extraction causes the material in a container of suitable volume, which can be thermally isolated from the environment, to be at a low temperature, at an order of minus twenty degrees Celsius [C.], for the required period of time.
  • An endothermic reaction is a chemical reaction accompanied by the absorption of heat from the surroundings.
  • According to the present invention, the endothermic reaction, the materials for its creation, the manner of storage of the materials, and the manner of mixing the materials, are all selected with the objective of achieving high efficiency in receiving the desired quantity and temperature of the product of the endothermic reaction.
  • When selecting the materials, they must be nontoxic, as well as user-friendly and environmentally safe.
  • The quantity of cold material and its temperature affect the performance of the cooling apparatus, and if selected optimally, enable the flow of a desirable supply of fluid and cooling it to the desired temperature without freezing, and if possible without interrupting the supply, and even with transferring the apparatus to cool fluid from a different source.
  • Experimentation shows that optimal performance is achieved when the endothermic reaction generates a product at a temperature of approximately −20° C.
  • The following calculation shows the achievement of this temperature in an actual apparatus:
  • Basic heat transfer calculation:
  • This calculation describes the basic calculations for the fluid conduit cooling apparatus idea and concept. The boundary conditions given to the problem described hereunder and based on experiments or literature provided in this context.
  • The configuration is shown in FIG. 1 b
  • The terms used in the calculation are shown in the following table:
  • Symbol Description Nud Nusselt number Red Reynolds number Pr Prandtl number d Diameter L Length μ, μw (mu) Viscosity um Fluid velocity h Heat transfer coefficient k Conductivity m Mass flow ρ (ro) Density cp Specific heat q Energy, Heat transfer Tb2, Tb1, Tw, Tb Temperature ΔT Temperature difference t Time J, KJ Joule ° C. Degree Celsius Ba(OH)2 * H2O + NH4SCN Chemical reaction A The medium in which the fluid flows B The medium of the reaction products
  • The phenomena described here are based on an endothermic reaction with two materials involved: Ba(OH)2*8H2O+NH4SCN. This is a reaction in which heat energy is taken in from the surroundings when a reaction occurs. There is either a fall in temperature when the reaction occurs or heat energy has to be continuously supplied to make a reaction occur. The material reactions chosen for this project can demonstrate temperatures as low as −20° C.
  • Feasibility Study Targets:
  • a. To prove the system parameters can bring the liquid temperature down as required
  • b. To prove the system capable to perform the overall heat exchange.
  • Assumptions:
  • 1. The flow produce forced convection by the user.
  • 2. Only convection heat transfer rules are relevant.
  • 3. The reaction keeps the shell temperature in steady state for the period of the process.
  • 4. Standard dimensions and materials of conduit are used.
  • 5. The concept as shown below has been referred.
  • 6. Plastic tube roughness is neglected.
  • a. To prove the system parameters can do the job:
  • Conduit Parameters:
  • Diameter (d) 4 mm
  • Length (L) 45 mm (standard)
  • Fluid velocity via conduit (um) 25 cm/sec
  • Water Conditions (Based on Hot Countries or Relatively Hot Days):
  • Entering temperature (T1) 25° C.
  • Density (ρ) 995 kg/m3
  • Specific heat (cp) 4.18 kJ/kg*° C.
  • Viscosity (μ) 8.6 e-4 kg/m*sec
  • Conductivity 0.614 W/m*° C.
  • Pr number 5.85
  • Calculating Re Required for Deciding the Flow Regime:

  • Re=ρ*um*d/μ=  1.1156 1.

  • Re*Pr*(d/L)>10   2.

  • μw=1.79 e-3 kg/m*s   3.
  • This is a laminar flow.
  • Now one can use the energy balance to determine the conduit exit temperature Tb2.
  • For laminar heat transfer in tubes the given parameters was used to calculate the empirical relation Nud::

  • Nu d=1.86 (Red Pr)1/3(d/L)1/3(μ/μw)0.14=13.6

  • Thus

  • h=kNu d /d=2093 W/m2*° C.

  • And

  • m=ρπd 2 u m/4=3.12 e-3 kg/sec
  • Knowing the Energy Balance:

  • q=mc p(T b2 −T b1)=hπdL(T w −T b)av
  • When expressing Tb as (Tb1+Tb2)/2
  • Calculated Tb2 for different L the results are:
  • L [m] Tb2 [° C.] 0.05 23 0.3 17 0.4 ~15 0.5 ~13 0.6 10 Tb2 = 10° C. when L = 0.6 m
  • Effective fluid conduit at L=0.6 m can be achieved in several configurations of heat exchangers, including spiral configuration 6 as shown in FIG. 3 a.
  • b. To prove the system capable of performing the overall heat exchange:
  • The Base Lines are:
  • 1. Using the conduit to cool down a can content which is 330 ml of liquid.
  • 2. ΔT=15° C.
  • Using the Energy Formula Needed:

  • q=m c p ΔT=195 J/sec
  • and if

  • m=3.12 Kg/sec˜3.12 ml
  • than the time needed to cool the can content is:

  • t=330/3.12=105 sec
  • and the energy required is
  • E = q * t = 195 J * 105 sec = 20.6 KJ < 102.2 KJ
  • From the literature it is known:
  • Combining 16 g of NH4SCN or NH4NO3 and 32 g of Ba(OH)2*8H2O
  • Thus the Reaction is as Follows:

  • Ba(OH)2*8 H2O+2 NH4SCN→Ba(SCN)2+2 NH3+10 H2O
  • The large increase in the entropy of the system (495 J/mol K) is a result of the large number of molecules present in the sum of the products. This increase in entropy overcomes the endothermicity (102.2 kJ) of the system, so the reaction is spontaneous.
  • Conclusion
  • It could be demonstrated the feasibility of the product in two aspects:
  • 1. The heat transfer to the liquid by the endothermic reaction will be able to reach the exit temperature of 10° C.
  • 2. The overall heat removal will be achieved by the chemical reaction with large safety factor.
  • The fluid designated for cooling is extracted by a conduit from its original location, for example a glass of drink, and is moved to its designation, for example a mouth of a drinking person, via a heat exchanger immersed in the cold material. When passing through the heat exchanger, heat is transferred from the fluid through the shells of the heat exchanger to the previously cooled material from the endothermic reaction.
  • Selection of the types, absolute quantities, and quantity ratios of the suitable material for generating the endothermic reaction is based on experimentation of the following parameters:
  • Minimal volume for single time use with a volume of 330 ml of fluid (a can)
  • Ability to achieve the desired temperature with shaking
  • Ability to reach minimum temperature in a short interval of 10 to 15 seconds
  • Quantity of vaporized ammonium gas for given volume
  • Mixture of air gas at a large ratio that will not cause damage even in case of a leak (malfunction)
  • Receiving minimal intermediate products in the process
  • Ability to use in recycling apparatus
  • Minimum toxicity
  • Materials cost
  • The amount of decrease in temperature of the fluid running through the conduit may be dictated in several ways, the preferred of which are controlling anyone and/or any combination of the following variables:
  • (a) The speed of the passing of the fluid through the conduit;
  • (b) The amount of the materials in the sub-chambers and/or the size of the sub-chambers.
  • (c) The quality and composition of the material lining the inside of the conduit.
  • In another possible embodiment of this invention the material in one sub-chamber is a pressurized cooling gas and there is a vacuum in the other sub-chamber. The cooling effect is achieved through the passage of the gas between the sub-chambers. In this embodiment, the apparatus may further include a pressure-valve/controller.
  • In what is, at this time, the most immediate and commercial application of this invention, the fluid may be a beverage and the conduit may be a drinking conduit (made from appropriate materials).
  • In another embodiment of this invention, the conduit may be a syringe.
  • In another embodiment of this invention, the apparatus is disposable.
  • In another embodiment of this invention, the apparatus does not include a conduit and is used by itself to cool a fluid or a volume of gas, through the touch of the chamber itself, e.g.: as would an ice-cube or “dry ice”.
  • One advantage of this invention is supplying instant and/or instantaneous fluid cooling, without the need for pre-refrigeration, thus saving time, money and space needed for the pre-refrigeration systems.
  • Another advantage of this invention is the cooling of a beverage without the use of ice or of cold water, which dilutes the beverage and its taste.
  • Another advantage of this invention is its extreme portability, which allows the possibility to cool fluids in remote locations, where other fluid cooling means are impossible or too cumbersome and/or to costly and/or inefficient. Such locations may be in the great outdoors, the wilderness and/or in deserts.
  • Another advantage of this invention is the possibility for individual/partial fluid cooling—i.e.: cooling individual/partial amounts of fluids as may be required, without having to cool the entire fluid stock/supply.
  • According to the present invention there is provided a fluid conduit cooling apparatus including: (a) a cooling chamber having external shell, wherein the cooling chamber includes at least two sub-chambers, wherein each of the sub-chamber contains exothermic reagents which, when intermixed, result in an endothermic reaction; (b) at least one partition, wherein the partition can be easily removed; (c) a heat exchanger having a first end and a second end wherein the heat exchanger is situated inside of the cooling chamber; (d) a first conduit disposed at the first end of the heat exchanger; and (e) a second conduit disposed at the second end of the heat exchanger; wherein upon removal of the partition an endothermic reaction occurs, wherein the difference between the temperature of the exothermic reagents prior to the removal of the partition and the temperature of the endothermic reaction's product is at least minus 30 degrees Celsius.
  • According to still further features in the described preferred embodiments the heat exchanger is a spiral tubule.
  • According to still other further features in the described preferred embodiments the heat exchanger has n heat exchanging ribs.
  • According to still further features in the described preferred embodiments the exothermic reagents are solid barium hydroxide 8-hydrate Ba(OH)2 8H2O and ammonium thiocyanate NH4SCN.
  • According to still further features in the described preferred embodiments the exothermic reagents are salt crystals (CL2GH2O) and distilled water.
  • According to still further features in the described preferred embodiments the fluid conduit cooling apparatus further comprising: (f) an additional sub-chamber wherein the additional sub-chamber contains air, wherein the pressure of the air is at most 0.1 atmosphere; (g) an additional partition, wherein the additional partition separate the additional sub-chamber from the at least two sub-chambers; (h) a single-directional valve and filter unit wherein the single-directional valve and filter unit is disposed in the additional partition and enables passage only of gas products of the endothermic reaction from the at least two sub-chambers into the additional sub-chamber; and (i) a substance that neutralizes products of the endothermic reaction;
  • According to still further features in the described preferred embodiments the external shell is of plastic and is impermeable to the fluid and to the exothermic reagents, wherein the external shell having strength and flexibility that enable pressing it and distorting its form without damaging its impermeability, and wherein the heat exchanger has an internal shell of plastic with-impermeability to the fluid, to the exothermic reagents, and to the endothermic reaction's products, wherein the internal shell having strength and flexibility enabling distortion of its form with external pressure without loss of its impermeability, and wherein the internal shell serves as the heat exchanger when the fluid flows between the external shell and the internal shell.
  • According to still further features in the described preferred embodiments the fluid conduit cooling apparatus further including: (f) a connector disposed at the second conduit, wherein the connector enables the connection of the fluid conduit cooling apparatus to a fluid container.
  • According to another further embodiment a fluid conduit cooling apparatus including: (a) a cooling chamber, having external shell; (b) an upper cylindrical container disposed within the cooling chamber, wherein the upper cylindrical container includes at least two sub-chambers, wherein each of the sub-chamber having a bottom, contains exothermic reagents which, when intermixed, result in an endothermic reaction, wherein at the bottom of each the sub-chamber containing the exothermic reagent there is an opening enabling the passage of the exothermic reagent, and wherein in the center of the upper cylindrical container there is a suitable aperture for assembly to an axis in order to enable its rotation; (c) a first lid assembled to the upper cylindrical container; (d) a lower cylindrical container disposed within the cooling chamber beneath the upper cylindrical container; (e) a second lid assembled to the lower cylindrical container with at least two openings; (f) a heat exchanger disposed within the lower cylindrical container; (g) a first conduit disposed at the first end of the heat exchanger, serving as a rotational axis for the upper cylindrical container; and (h)a second conduit disposed at the second end of the heat exchanger; wherein the cooling chamber's external shell has suitable qualities of thermal isolation, strength, and flexibility, wherein the rotational angle of the upper cylindrical container around the first conduit with regard to the lower cylindrical container determines whether the exothermic reagents can pass into the lower cylindrical container, or are prevented from doing so.
  • According to still further features in the described preferred embodiments the exothermic reagents are solid barium hydroxide 8-hydrate Ba(OH)2 8H2O and ammonium thiocyanate NH4SCN.
  • According to still further features in the described preferred embodiments the fluid conduit cooling apparatus further including: (i) a connector disposed at the second conduit, wherein the connector enables the connection of the fluid conduit cooling apparatus to a fluid container.
  • According to the present invention there is provided a method of cooling fluid, comprising the steps of: (a) providing a fluid conduit cooling apparatus including: (i) a cooling chamber, wherein the cooling chamber includes at least two sub-chambers, wherein each of the sub-chamber contains exothermic reagents which, when intermixed, result in an endothermic reaction; (ii) at least one partition, wherein the partition can be easily removed; (iii) a heat exchanger having a first end and a second end wherein the heat exchanger is situated inside of the cooling chamber; (iv) a first conduit disposed at the first end of the heat exchanger; and (v) a second conduit disposed at the second end of the heat exchanger; wherein upon removal of the partition an endothermic reaction occurs, wherein the difference between the temperature of the exothermic reagents prior to the removal of the partition and the temperature of the endothermic reaction's product is at least minus 30 degrees Celsius; (b) removing the partition; (c) shaking fluid conduit cooling apparatus; (d) immersing the first conduit in the fluid; and (f) extracting the fluid by generating sub pressure in the second conduit.
  • According to the present invention the method further including the steps of: (c) shaking fluid conduit cooling apparatus; and (d) inserting the cooling fluid to flow into the first conduit with high pressure.
  • According to still further feature of the method of cooling fluid, the exothermic reagents are solid barium hydroxide 8-hydrate Ba(OH)2 8H2O and ammonium thiocyanate NH4SCN.
  • According to the present invention there is-provided a method of cooling fluid, comprising the steps of: (a) providing a fluid conduit cooling apparatus including: (i) a cooling chamber, having external shell; (ii) an upper cylindrical container disposed within the cooling chamber, wherein the upper cylindrical container includes at least two sub-chambers, wherein each of the sub-chamber having a bottom contains exothermic reagents which, when intermixed, result in an endothermic reaction, wherein at the bottom of each the sub-chamber containing the exothermic reagent there is an opening enabling the passage of the exothermic reagent, and wherein in the center of the upper cylindrical container there is a suitable aperture for assembly to an axis in order to enable its rotation; (iii) a first lid assembled to the upper cylindrical container; (iv) a lower cylindrical container disposed within the cooling chamber beneath the upper cylindrical container; (v) a second lid assembled to the lower cylindrical container with at least two openings; (vi) a heat exchanger disposed within the lower cylindrical container; (vii) a first conduit disposed at the first end of the heat exchanger, serving as a rotational axis for the upper cylindrical container; and (viii) a second conduit disposed at the second end of the heat exchanger; wherein the cooling chamber's external shell has suitable qualities of thermal isolation, strength, and flexibility, wherein the rotational angle of the upper cylindrical container around the first conduit with regard to the lower cylindrical container determines whether the exothermic reagents can pass into the lower cylindrical container, or are prevented from doing so;
  • (b) rotation of the upper cylindrical container with regard to the lower cylindrical container to a disposition in which the exothermic reagents can pass into the lower cylindrical container, wherein this action causes the beginning of the endothermic reaction, wherein when as a result of the endothermic reaction, the difference between the temperature of the exothermic reagents prior to the removal of the partition and the temperature of the endothermic reaction's product is at least minus 30 degrees Celsius; (c) shaking the conduit cooling apparatus wherein the shaking increasing the efficiency of the intermixing of the exothermic reagents; (d) immersing the first conduit in a fluid; and (e) extracting the fluid by generating sub pressure in the second conduit.
  • According to still further feature of the method of cooling fluid, the exothermic reagents are solid barium hydroxide 8-hydrate Ba(OH)2 8H2O and ammonium thiocyanate NH4SCN.
  • According to the present invention there is provided a method of cooling fluid, comprising the steps of: (a) providing a cooling cube including: (i) at least one shell, wherein the shell is of strong and flexible plastic, with excellent impermeability and excellent thermal isolation; (ii) at least one tube, wherein the tube crosses the cooling cube and enables passage of fluids through it; and (iii) at least one fragile partition dividing the internal volume of the cooling cube into at least two chambers, wherein each of the chambers contains an exothermic reagent; (b) pressing the cooling cube and shaking it breaks the partition, intermixing the exothermic reagents and creating an endothermic reaction that results in lowering the temperature within the cooling cube; (c) placing the cooling cube in the fluid to be cooled; and (d) stirring the fluid.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • The invention is herein described, by way of example only, with reference to the accompanying drawings, wherein:
  • FIG. 1 a of the prior art illustrates a cooling drinking straw.
  • FIG. 1 b illustrates a configuration of a conduit cooling apparatus for performance of a basic heat transfer calculation.
  • FIGS. 2 a, 2 b, and 2 c are schematic illustrations of a preferred embodiment of a fluid conduit cooling apparatus according to the present invention.
  • FIGS. 3 a and 3 b is a schematic illustrations of a preferred embodiment of heat exchanger of fluid conduit cooling apparatus according to the present invention.
  • FIG. 4 is a schematic illustration of a section of another preferred embodiment of a fluid conduit cooling apparatus according to the present invention.
  • FIG. 5 is a schematic illustration of a section of another preferred embodiment of a fluid conduit cooling apparatus according to the present invention.
  • FIG. 6 a is a schematic illustration of another preferred embodiment of a fluid conduit cooling apparatus according to the present invention.
  • FIG. 6 b is a schematic illustration of a section of the preferred embodiment of FIG. 6 a.
  • FIG. 6 c is a schematic illustration of another section of the preferred embodiment of FIG. 6 a.
  • FIG. 6 d is an exploded view of the preferred embodiment of FIG. 6 a.
  • FIG. 7 a is a schematic illustration of a preferred embodiment of a cooling cube according to the present invention.
  • FIG. 7 b is a schematic illustration of a section of a preferred embodiment of the cooling cube according to the present invention.
  • FIG. 8 a is a schematic illustration of a fluid conduit cooling apparatus according to the present invention, one end of which is disposed in a container that can contain fluid.
  • FIG. 8 b is a schematic illustration of a fluid conduit cooling apparatus according to the present invention, one end of which is connected to a container that can contain fluid.
  • DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
  • The present invention is a fluid conduit cooling apparatus.
  • The principles and operation of a fluid conduit cooling apparatus according to the present invention may be better understood with reference to the drawings and the accompanying description.
  • Before explaining at least one embodiment of the invention in detail, it is to be understood that the invention is not limited in its application to the details of construction and the arrangement of the components set forth in the following description or illustrated in the drawings.
  • Unless otherwise defined, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art to which this invention belongs. The materials, dimensions, methods, and examples provided herein are illustrative only and are not intended to be limiting.
  • Referring now to the drawings, FIG. 2 a is a schematic illustration of a preferred embodiment of a fluid conduit cooling apparatus 100 according to the present invention. The illustration shows an external view of both external parts of the conduit 1. In the cooling action the entrance part 1 a is immersed in liquid that needs to be cooled, the extraction is performed through the exit part 1 b and the cooled fluid passes through it. The illustration also shows cooling chamber 2 through which the conduit passes. Cooling chamber 2 contains chemical substances designated for performing an endothermic reaction whose product is at approximately −20° C.
  • FIG. 2 b is a schematic illustration of section a-a, of a preferred embodiment of a fluid conduit cooling apparatus 100 according to the present invention. The illustration shows that cooling chamber 2 is divided into two sub-chambers, sub-chamber 3 a containing exothermic reagent 4 a and sub-chamber 3 b containing exothermic reagent 4 b, which are separated by partition 5.
  • Breaking or removal of partition 5 and intermixing the chemical reagents 4 a and 4 b, results in the endothermic reaction. The part of conduit 1 within cooling chamber 2 serves as a heat exchanger 1 c. When fluid that is hotter than the endothermic reaction product passes through it, it cools. Proper selection of chemical substances and adaptation to fluid supply can cool fluid to the desired temperature.
  • FIG. 2 c is a schematic illustration of section a-a of a preferred embodiment of a fluid conduit cooling apparatus 100 according to the present invention. This preferred embodiment has three sub-chambers, two sub-chambers 3 a, each of which contains exothermic reagent 4 a and one sub-chamber 3 b containing exothermic reagent 4 b. There are two partitions 5 between the sub-chambers. This configuration increases the efficiency of the intermixing of exothermic reagents 4 a and 4 b and the endothermic reaction. Increasing the efficiency of intermixing exothermic reagents 4 a and 4 b and of the endothermic reaction is achieved by shaking the fluid conduit cooling apparatus 100. A configuration including three or more sub-chambers can be used in order to store in at least one of the sub-chambers a substance that can neutralize at least one of the products of the endothermic reaction. One such product can be ammonia NH3. Ammonia can be a product of the following endothermic reaction: Ba(OH)2* 8H2O+2 NH4SCN→Ba(SCN)2+2 NH3+10 H2O
  • FIG. 3 a is a schematic illustration of a preferred embodiment of heat exchanger 6 of fluid conduit cooling apparatus 100 according to the present invention. Heat exchanger 6 has a spiral form and is more efficient than heat exchanger 1 c.
  • FIG. 3 b is a schematic illustration of a preferred embodiment of heat exchanger 7 of fluid conduit cooling apparatus 100 according to the present invention. Heat exchanger 7 has n heat exchanging ribs 7 a. . . 7 n.
  • FIG. 4 is a schematic illustration of a section of another preferred embodiment of a fluid conduit cooling apparatus 101 according to the present invention. The illustration shows that the heat exchanger includes several tubes 1 c i, 1 c ii, 1 c iii, and its form from top view, not shown in the illustration, is circular. This preferred embodiment contains two circular sub-chambers, sub-chamber 13 a with shell 18, containing exothermic reagent 14 a, and sub-chamber 13 b with shell 15, containing exothermic reagent 14 b. The volume ratio between both sub-chambers is selected according to the substances and the expected reaction. Furthermore, the illustration shows external shell 16 that is separated from the other casings by gap 17, which contains air, to improve thermal isolation. External shell 16 can be of plastic for isolation and strength. Fluid conduit cooling apparatus 101 can be wrapped with a wrapper 19 such as “shrink nylon” or “shrink paper” than is removed prior to use. Initiations of the endothermic reaction is performed by the-user apply in pressure with his hand on the external shell 16, thus breaking shell 18 and mixing the chemical reagents, 13 a and 13 b.
  • FIG. 5 is a schematic illustration of a section of another preferred embodiment of a fluid conduit cooling apparatus 102 according to the present invention. In this preferred embodiment the fluid flows from the entrance part 1 a to the exit part 1 b at the perimeter-of the cooling chamber 28 between the external shell 20 and the internal shell 29. The external shell 20 is of a suitable material, such as a suitable plastic, that is impermeable to fluids flowing near it, has excellent thermal isolation, and has strength and flexibility that enable pressing on it and distorting its form without damaging its impermeability. The internal shell 29 is also of a suitable material, such as a suitable plastic, is also impermeable to fluids flowing near it and other substances, and also has strength and flexibility that enable distorting its form with external pressure without losing impermeability. Internal shell 29 has high thermal conductivity and serves as a heat exchanger. Both partitions partition 25 and partition 26 have suitable impermeability qualities and divide the volume within internal shell 29 into three separate sub-chambers, sub-chamber 23 a containing exothermic reagent 24 a, sub-chamber 23 b containing exothermic reagent 24 b, and sub-chamber 23 c. Sub-chamber 23 c contains very low pressure. Partition 26 has a single-directional valve and filter unit 27. Operation of the system is performed by pressing the external shell, which causes the collapse of partition 25, while partition. 26 maintains its impermeability. This collapse, particularly when combined with the shaking of fluid conduit cooling apparatus 102 causes the intermixing of exothermic reagent 24 a and exothermic reagent 24 b and the beginning of the endothermic reaction. As soon as gas products of the reaction appear, they are sucked into sub-chamber 23 c. Due to pressure differences, if any gases are produced in the reaction, they pass through the single-directional valve and filter unit 27 and are accumulated in sub-chamber 23 c, while liquid products of the reaction are prevented from passing through the unit.
  • The need for accumulating gases for concentration in a well-isolated chamber is for safety purposes, in cases in which the endothermic reactions produce undesirable gases. A substance 24 c suitable for neutralizing the accumulated gases can be included within sub-chamber 23 c. The remainder of the process, including immersion in liquid, its extraction, and its cooling, is performed similarly to previous descriptions.
  • FIG. 6 a is a schematic illustration of another preferred embodiment of a fluid conduit cooling apparatus 103 according to the present invention. The illustration shows an external view of both external parts of the conduit 1. In the cooling action the entrance part 1 a is immersed in liquid that needs to be cooled, the extraction is performed through the exit part 1 b and the cooled fluid passes through it. The illustration also shows cooling chamber 30 through which the conduit passes, and the cooling chamber's external shell 31. Cooling chamber 2 contains chemical substances designated for performing an endothermic reaction whose product is at approximately −20° C.
  • FIG. 6 b and FIG. 6 c are two schematic illustrations of a section of the preferred embodiment of FIG. 6 a. According to the present preferred embodiment, sub-chamber 33 a and sub-chamber 33 b contain exothermic reagents, which, when intermixed, result in an endothermic reaction. Sub-chamber 33 a and sub-chamber 33 b are disposed within an upper cylindrical container 33 with a round section and with a hole in the center, suitable for assembly to entrance part 1 a, serving as a rotational axis.
  • Beneath upper cylindrical container 33 there is a lower cylindrical container 36, containing heat exchanger 35. The upper cylindrical container 33 has a first lid 32 that moves with the container when it is rotated. The upper cylindrical container 33 has two sectional openings, opening 34 a beneath sub-chamber 33 a and opening 34 b beneath sub-chamber 33 b. Lower cylindrical container 36 has a second lid 37 attached to it with two sectional openings, sectional opening 37 a and sectional opening 37 b conforming in size and shape to sectional openings 33 a and 33 b.
  • Prior to activation of the endothermic reaction, upper cylindrical container 33 is disposed at a rotational angle that ensures that sectional openings 33 a and 33 b are not facing sectional openings 37 a and 37 b. In order to cool the inside of cooling chamber 2, upper cylindrical container 33 needs to be rotated at a rotational angle that ensures that sectional openings 33 a and 33 b will be facing sectional openings 37 a and 37 b and fluid conduit cooling apparatus 103 needs to be shaken.
  • In this disposition, the exothermic reagents are intermixed, resulting in an endothermic reaction. Rotation of the upper cylindrical container 33 is enabled by creation of a bending moment on the cooling chamber's external shell 31 and pressing it towards upper cylindrical container 33 and towards lower cylindrical container 36. This is enabled by the qualities of the material composing the cooling chamber's external shell 31, such as silicon or a suitable plastic. These qualities include suitable strength and flexibility and excellent thermal isolation.
  • FIG. 6 d is an exploded view of the preferred embodiment of FIG. 6 a, showing from top to bottom the following components: the cooling chamber's external shell 31, the first lid 32, upper cylindrical container 33, second lid 37, heat exchanger 35, and lower cylindrical container 36.
  • The entire preferred embodiments of the fluid conduit cooling apparatus can also be used to cool fluid flowing through the heat exchanger with high pressure at the entrance, and the invention is not limited to flow by suction only.
  • FIG. 7 a is a schematic illustration of a preferred embodiment of a cooling cube 104 according to the present invention. The illustration shows three impermeable shells 40 a, 40 b, and 40 c of the cooling cubes 104, and in each one of them the openings of three tubes 41 a, 41 b, and 41 c, crossing the cube from one side to the other.
  • FIG. 7 b is a schematic illustration of a section of a preferred embodiment of a cooling cube 104 according to the present invention. The illustration shows the internal structure of the cooling cube 104 after removal of its three shells 40 a, 40 b, and 40 c. The three tubes 41 a, 41 b, and 41 c are shown in the illustration, as well as partition 42 that divides the internal volume of the cooling cube 104 into two chambers 43 a and 43 b, containing exothermic reagents 44 a and 44 b. The cooling cube 104 serves for cooling fluid, such as a soft drink in a cup, alone or in a group of cooling cubes 104. The cooling process includes pressing the cube whose form is distorted momentarily, breaking partition 42 and shaking the cube, which intermixes exothermic reagents 44 a and 44 b and causes an endothermic reaction, which lowers the temperature within the cooling cube 104. Afterwards, the cooling cube 104 is placed in the fluid and the fluid is stirred. The stirring process causes fluid to flow through tubes 41 a, 41 b, and 41 c and to cool down. Partition 42 is of a fragile plastic material, the cooling cube's shells 40 a, 40 b, and 40 c, and others, are of a flexible and strong plastic material, which can be distorted without losing impermeability. An additional important qualify of this material is excellent thermal isolation that ensures that in case a person touches the cooling cube 104, he will not get frostbite.
  • The cooling cube can have various three-dimensional shapes, such as a spherical shape, pyramid shape, etc., as well as various tube configurations, from one tube with a round section through many tubes with a variety of sections.
  • FIG. 8 a is schematic illustrations of a fluid conduit cooling apparatus 104 according to the present invention, one end 1 a of which is in a container 50 that can contain fluid. The illustration shows the integration of the fluid conduit cooling apparatus 104 in a container, such as a glass containing a beverage, for the purpose of suction of the fluid for cooling. Fluid conduit cooling apparatus 104 can be any of the possible fluid conduit cooling apparatuses according to the present invention.
  • FIG. 8 b is a schematic illustration of a fluid conduit cooling apparatus 105 according to the present invention, one end of which is connected to a container 51 that can contain fluid. The illustration shows the integration of fluid conduit cooling apparatus 105 in a container containing fluid, such as a soft drink can, for the purpose of passing the fluid through it, by means of gravity. Fluid conduit cooling apparatus 105 is connected to the container with connector 52. The connection can be by screwing or by any other known method of connection. The connector or the container can have a valve that enables the entry of air into container 51 when the fluid is flowing out of it. Fluid conduit cooling apparatus 105 can be any of the possible fluid conduit cooling apparatuses according to the present invention.
  • Although the invention has been described in conjunction with specific embodiments thereof, it is evident that many alternatives, modifications and variations will be apparent to those skilled in the art. Accordingly, it is intended to embrace all such alternatives, modifications and variations that fall within the spirit and broad scope of the appended claims.

Claims (19)

1. A fluid conduit cooling apparatus comprising:
(a) a cooling chamber having external shell, wherein said cooling chamber includes at least two sub-chambers, wherein each of said sub-chamber contains exothermic reagents which, when intermixed, result in an endothermic reaction;
(b) at least one partition, wherein said partition can be easily removed;
(c) a heat exchanger having a first end and a second end wherein said heat exchanger is situated inside of said cooling chamber;
(d) a first conduit disposed at said first end of said heat exchanger; and
(e) a second conduit disposed at said second end of said heat exchanger;
Wherein upon removal of said partition an endothermic reaction occurs, wherein the difference between the temperature of said exothermic reagents prior to the removal of said partition and the temperature of said endothermic reaction's product is at least minus 30 degrees Celsius.
2. The fluid conduit cooling apparatus of claim 1, wherein said heat exchanger is a spiral tubule.
3. The fluid conduit cooling apparatus of claim 1, wherein said heat exchanger has n heat exchanging ribs.
4. The fluid conduit cooling apparatus of claim 1, wherein said exothermic reagents are solid barium hydroxide 8-hydrate Ba(OH)2 8H2O and ammonium thiocyanate NH4SCN.
5. The fluid conduit cooling apparatus of claim 1, wherein said exothermic reagents are salt crystals (CL2GH2O) and distilled water.
6. The fluid conduit cooling apparatus of claim I further comprising:
(f) an additional sub-chamber, wherein said additional sub-chamber contains air, wherein the pressure of said air is at most 0.1 atmosphere;
(g) an additional partition, wherein said additional partition separate said additional sub-chamber from said at least two sub-chambers; and
(h) a single-directional valve and filter unit wherein said single-directional valve and filter unit is disposed in said additional partition and enables passage only of gas products of said endothermic reaction from said at least two sub-chambers into said additional sub-chamber.
7. The fluid conduit cooling apparatus of claim 6 further comprising:
(i) a substance that neutralizes products of said endothermic reaction.
8. The fluid conduit cooling apparatus of claim 1 wherein said external shell is of plastic and is impermeable to said fluid and to said exothermic reagents, wherein said external shell having strength and flexibility that enable pressing it and distorting its form without damaging its impermeability, and wherein said heat exchanger has an internal shell of plastic with impermeability to said fluid, to said exothermic reagents, and to said endothermic reaction's products, wherein said internal shell having strength and flexibility enabling distortion of its form with external pressure without loss of its impermeability, and wherein said internal shell serves as said heat exchanger when said fluid flows between said external shell and said internal shell.
9. The fluid conduit cooling apparatus of claim 1 further comprising:
(f) a connector disposed at said second conduit, wherein said connector enables the connection of said fluid conduit cooling apparatus to a fluid container.
10. A fluid conduit cooling apparatus comprising:
(a) a cooling chamber, having external shell;
(b) an upper cylindrical container disposed within said cooling chamber, wherein said upper cylindrical container includes at least two sub-chambers, wherein each of said sub-chamber having a bottom, contains exothermic reagents which, when intermixed, result in an endothermic reaction, wherein at the bottom of each said sub-chamber containing said exothermic reagent there is an opening enabling the passage of said exothermic reagent, and wherein in the center of said upper cylindrical container there is a suitable aperture for assembly to an axis in order to enable its rotation;
(c) a lid assembled to said upper cylindrical container;
(d) a lower cylindrical container disposed within said cooling chamber beneath said upper cylindrical container;
(e) a lid assembled to said lower cylindrical container with at least two openings;
(f) a heat exchanger disposed within said lower cylindrical container;
(g) a first conduit disposed at said first end of said heat exchanger, serving as a rotational axis for said upper cylindrical container; and
(h) a second conduit disposed at said second end of said heat exchanger;
Wherein said cooling chamber's external shell has suitable qualities of thermal isolation, strength, and flexibility, wherein the rotational angle of said upper cylindrical container around said first conduit with regard to said lower cylindrical container determines whether said exothermic reagents can pass into said lower cylindrical container, or are prevented from doing so.
11. The fluid conduit cooling apparatus of claim 10 wherein said exothermic reagents are solid barium hydroxide 8-hydrate Ba(OH)2 8H2O and ammonium thiocyanate NH4SCN.
12. The fluid conduit cooling apparatus of claim 10 further comprising:
(i) a connector disposed at said second conduit, wherein said connector enables the connection of said fluid conduit cooling apparatus to a fluid container.
13. A method of cooling fluid, comprising the steps of:
(a) providing a fluid conduit cooling apparatus including:
(i) a cooling chamber, wherein said cooling chamber includes at least two sub-chambers, wherein each of said sub-chamber contains exothermic reagents which, when intermixed, result in an endothermic reaction;
(ii) at least one partition, wherein said partition can be easily removed;
(iii) a heat exchanger having a first end and a second end wherein said heat exchanger is situated inside of said cooling chamber;
(iv) a first conduit disposed at said first end of said heat exchanger; and
(v) a second conduit disposed at said second end of said heat exchanger;
Wherein upon removal of said partition an endothermic reaction occurs, wherein the difference between the temperature of said exothermic reagents prior to the removal of said partition and the temperature of said endothermic reaction's product is at least minus 30 degrees Celsius;
(b) removing said partition.
14. The method of claim 13, further comprising the steps of:
(c) shaking fluid conduit cooling apparatus;
(d) immersing said first conduit in said fluid; and
(e) extracting said fluid by generating sub pressure in said second conduit.
15. The method of claim 13, further comprising the steps of:
(c) shaking fluid conduit cooling apparatus; and
(d) inserting said cooling fluid to flow into said first conduit with high pressure.
16. The method of claim 13 wherein said exothermic reagents are solid barium hydroxide 8-hydrate Ba(OH)2 8H2O and ammonium thiocyanate NH4SCN.
17. A method of cooling fluid, comprising the steps of:
(a) providing a fluid conduit cooling apparatus including:
(i) a cooling chamber, having external shell;
(ii) an upper cylindrical container disposed within said cooling chamber, wherein said upper cylindrical container includes at least two sub-chambers, wherein each of said sub-chamber having a bottom contains exothermic reagents which, when intermixed, result in an endothermic reaction, wherein at the bottom of each said sub-chamber containing said exothermic reagent there is an opening enabling the passage of said exothermic reagent, and wherein in the center of said upper cylindrical container there is a suitable aperture for assembly to an axis in order to enable its rotation;
(iii) a lid assembled to said upper cylindrical container;
(iv) a lower cylindrical container disposed within said cooling chamber beneath said upper cylindrical container;
(v) a lid assembled to said lower cylindrical container with at least two openings;
(vi) a heat exchanger disposed within said lower cylindrical container;
(vii) a first conduit disposed at said first end of said heat exchanger, serving as a rotational axis for said upper cylindrical container; and
(viii) a second conduit disposed at said second end of said heat exchanger;
Wherein said cooling chamber's external shell has suitable qualities of thermal isolation, strength, and flexibility, wherein the rotational angle of said upper cylindrical container around said first conduit with regard to said lower cylindrical container determines whether said exothermic reagents can pass into said lower cylindrical container, or are prevented from doing so;
(b) rotation of said upper cylindrical container with regard to said lower cylindrical container to a disposition in which said exothermic reagents can pass into said lower cylindrical container, wherein this action causes the beginning of the endothermic reaction, wherein when as a result of said endothermic reaction, the difference between the temperature of said exothermic reagents prior to the removal of said partition and the temperature of said endothermic reaction's product is at least minus 30 degrees Celsius;
(c) shaking said conduit cooling apparatus wherein said shaking increasing the efficiency of the intermixing of said exothermic reagents;
(d) immersing said first conduit in a fluid; and
(e) extracting said fluid by generating sub pressure in said second conduit.
18. The method of claim 17 wherein said exothermic reagents are solid barium hydroxide 8-hydrate Ba(OH)2 8H2O and ammonium thiocyanate NH4SCN.
19. A method of cooling fluid, comprising the steps of:
(a) providing a cooling cube including:
(i) at least one shell, wherein said shell is of strong and flexible plastic, with excellent impermeability and excellent thermal isolation;
(ii) at least one tube, wherein said tube crosses said cooling cube and enables passage of fluids through it; and
(iii) at least one fragile partition dividing the internal volume of said cooling cube into at least two chambers, wherein each of said chambers contains an exothermic reagent;
(b) pressing said cooling cube and shaking it breaks said partition, intermixing said exothermic reagents and creating an endothermic reaction that results in lowering the temperature within said cooling cube;
(c) placing said cooling cube in said fluid to be cooled; and
(d) stirring said fluid.
US11/720,329 2004-11-29 2005-11-29 Fluid Conduit Cooling Apparatus and Method Abandoned US20080190116A1 (en)

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PCT/IL2005/001274 WO2006057002A2 (en) 2004-11-29 2005-11-29 Fluid conduit cooling apparatus and method
US11/720,329 US20080190116A1 (en) 2004-11-29 2005-11-29 Fluid Conduit Cooling Apparatus and Method

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1833105A (en) * 1928-10-26 1931-11-24 Louis V Aronson Massage device
US2722109A (en) * 1950-09-11 1955-11-01 Armin H Rodeck Refrigerating device utilizing an endothermic salt
US2746265A (en) * 1955-01-07 1956-05-22 Evan D Mills Container cooling device
US2882691A (en) * 1956-06-15 1959-04-21 Kwik Kold Of America Inc Beverage cooling means
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