US20080168009A1 - Business methods of renewable hydrocarbon-based fuel - Google Patents

Business methods of renewable hydrocarbon-based fuel Download PDF

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Publication number
US20080168009A1
US20080168009A1 US12/006,427 US642708A US2008168009A1 US 20080168009 A1 US20080168009 A1 US 20080168009A1 US 642708 A US642708 A US 642708A US 2008168009 A1 US2008168009 A1 US 2008168009A1
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United States
Prior art keywords
fuel
carbon
hydrogen
hydrocarbon
purchase
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Abandoned
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US12/006,427
Inventor
Robert Paul Johnson
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Robert Paul Johnson
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Publication date
Priority to US87909607P priority Critical
Priority to US96350007P priority
Application filed by Robert Paul Johnson filed Critical Robert Paul Johnson
Priority to US12/006,427 priority patent/US20080168009A1/en
Publication of US20080168009A1 publication Critical patent/US20080168009A1/en
Application status is Abandoned legal-status Critical

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Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01DNON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, e.g. STEAM TURBINES
    • F01D15/00Adaptations of machines or engines for special use; Combinations of engines with devices driven thereby
    • F01D15/10Adaptations for driving, or combinations with, electric generators
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS OR COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J15/00Chemical processes in general for reacting gaseous media with non-particulate solids, e.g. sheet material; Apparatus specially adapted therefor
    • B01J15/005Chemical processes in general for reacting gaseous media with non-particulate solids, e.g. sheet material; Apparatus specially adapted therefor in the presence of catalytically active bodies, e.g. porous plates
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS OR COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J19/00Chemical, physical or physico-chemical processes in general; Their relevant apparatus
    • B01J19/08Processes employing the direct application of electric or wave energy, or particle radiation; Apparatus therefor
    • B01J19/12Processes employing the direct application of electric or wave energy, or particle radiation; Apparatus therefor employing electromagnetic waves
    • B01J19/122Incoherent waves
    • B01J19/127Sunlight; Visible light
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS OR COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J19/00Chemical, physical or physico-chemical processes in general; Their relevant apparatus
    • B01J19/18Stationary reactors having moving elements inside
    • B01J19/1806Stationary reactors having moving elements inside resulting in a turbulent flow of the reactants, such as in centrifugal-type reactors, or having a high Reynolds-number
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10GCRACKING HYDROCARBON OILS; PRODUCTION OF LIQUID HYDROCARBON MIXTURES, e.g. BY DESTRUCTIVE HYDROGENATION, OLIGOMERISATION, POLYMERISATION; RECOVERY OF HYDROCARBON OILS FROM OIL-SHALE, OIL-SAND, OR GASES; REFINING MIXTURES MAINLY CONSISTING OF HYDROCARBONS; REFORMING OF NAPHTHA; MINERAL WAXES
    • C10G1/00Production of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures from oil-shale, oil-sand, or non-melting solid carbonaceous or similar materials, e.g. wood, coal
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10GCRACKING HYDROCARBON OILS; PRODUCTION OF LIQUID HYDROCARBON MIXTURES, e.g. BY DESTRUCTIVE HYDROGENATION, OLIGOMERISATION, POLYMERISATION; RECOVERY OF HYDROCARBON OILS FROM OIL-SHALE, OIL-SAND, OR GASES; REFINING MIXTURES MAINLY CONSISTING OF HYDROCARBONS; REFORMING OF NAPHTHA; MINERAL WAXES
    • C10G1/00Production of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures from oil-shale, oil-sand, or non-melting solid carbonaceous or similar materials, e.g. wood, coal
    • C10G1/06Production of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures from oil-shale, oil-sand, or non-melting solid carbonaceous or similar materials, e.g. wood, coal by destructive hydrogenation
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10GCRACKING HYDROCARBON OILS; PRODUCTION OF LIQUID HYDROCARBON MIXTURES, e.g. BY DESTRUCTIVE HYDROGENATION, OLIGOMERISATION, POLYMERISATION; RECOVERY OF HYDROCARBON OILS FROM OIL-SHALE, OIL-SAND, OR GASES; REFINING MIXTURES MAINLY CONSISTING OF HYDROCARBONS; REFORMING OF NAPHTHA; MINERAL WAXES
    • C10G1/00Production of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures from oil-shale, oil-sand, or non-melting solid carbonaceous or similar materials, e.g. wood, coal
    • C10G1/08Production of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures from oil-shale, oil-sand, or non-melting solid carbonaceous or similar materials, e.g. wood, coal with moving catalysts
    • C10G1/086Characterised by the catalyst used
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F03MACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS; WIND, SPRING, OR WEIGHT MOTORS; PRODUCING MECHANICAL POWER OR A REACTIVE PROPULSIVE THRUST, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F03GSPRING, WEIGHT, INERTIA OR LIKE MOTORS; MECHANICAL-POWER PRODUCING DEVICES OR MECHANISMS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR OR USING ENERGY SOURCES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F03G6/00Devices for producing mechanical power from solar energy
    • F03G6/06Devices for producing mechanical power from solar energy with means for concentrating solar rays
    • F03G6/065Devices for producing mechanical power from solar energy with means for concentrating solar rays having a Rankine cycle
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06QDATA PROCESSING SYSTEMS OR METHODS, SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES; SYSTEMS OR METHODS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G06Q50/00Systems or methods specially adapted for specific business sectors, e.g. utilities or tourism
    • G06Q50/06Electricity, gas or water supply
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS OR COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J2219/00Chemical, physical or physico-chemical processes in general; Their relevant apparatus
    • B01J2219/08Processes employing the direct application of electric or wave energy, or particle radiation; Apparatus therefor
    • B01J2219/0869Feeding or evacuating the reactor
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS OR COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J2219/00Chemical, physical or physico-chemical processes in general; Their relevant apparatus
    • B01J2219/08Processes employing the direct application of electric or wave energy, or particle radiation; Apparatus therefor
    • B01J2219/0871Heating or cooling of the reactor
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS OR COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J2219/00Chemical, physical or physico-chemical processes in general; Their relevant apparatus
    • B01J2219/08Processes employing the direct application of electric or wave energy, or particle radiation; Apparatus therefor
    • B01J2219/0873Materials to be treated
    • B01J2219/0881Two or more materials
    • B01J2219/0886Gas-solid
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS OR COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J2219/00Chemical, physical or physico-chemical processes in general; Their relevant apparatus
    • B01J2219/08Processes employing the direct application of electric or wave energy, or particle radiation; Apparatus therefor
    • B01J2219/0873Materials to be treated
    • B01J2219/0892Materials to be treated involving catalytically active material
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02KDYNAMO-ELECTRIC MACHINES
    • H02K7/00Arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with dynamo-electric machines, e.g. structural association with mechanical driving motors or auxiliary dynamo-electric machines
    • H02K7/18Structural association of electric generators with mechanical driving motors, e.g. turbine
    • H02K7/1807Rotary generators
    • H02K7/1823Rotary generators structurally associated with turbines or similar engines
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/40Solar thermal energy
    • Y02E10/46Conversion of thermal power into mechanical power, e.g. Rankine, Stirling solar thermal engines
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P20/00Technologies relating to chemical industry
    • Y02P20/10General improvement of production processes causing greenhouse gases [GHG] emissions
    • Y02P20/12Energy input
    • Y02P20/133Renewable energy sources
    • Y02P20/134Sunlight

Abstract

A business process where hydrogen-depleted carbon, a fuel byproduct, that is removed from pumped-ion, electrochemical engines, or a similar device derived therefrom, is used directly or indirectly to supply carbon that is used as a reactant in solar-powered, liquid-hydrocarbon-fuel synthesizers, or a similar device derived therefrom, the reuse of the recovered carbon thereby yielding a renewable supply of hydrocarbon-based fuel. The synthesized fuel produced by the solar-powered, liquid-hydrocarbon-fuel synthesizers is converted to useful work by the pumped-ion, electrochemical engines. Little to no carbon dioxide gas is exhausted into the atmosphere when solar energy is the sole source of process heat used by the synthesizer.

Description

    CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • This application claims priority and benefits of provisional patent application Ser. No. 60/879,096, filed Jan. 08, 2007, and priority and benefits of provisional patent application, Ser. No. 60/963,500, filed Aug. 6, 2007.
  • FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH
  • Not Applicable
  • SEQUENCE LISTING
  • Not Applicable
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • 1. Field of Invention
  • This invention is business methods applicable to purchasing and recycling transactions, and advertising of a renewable, hydrocarbon-based fuel cycle.
  • 2. Description of Prior Art
  • Hydrocarbons of various forms are used throughout the world to produce heat and work. Most hydrocarbon-fueled processes use atmospheric oxygen and exhaust reaction products into the air. Liquid hydrocarbon fuel is used extensively in transportation. Liquid hydrocarbon fuel is refined from crude oil that is extracted from subterranean deposits. Additional sources of liquid hydrocarbon fuels are from commercial crops and naturally occurring grasses.
  • Great strides, including increased efficiencies, have been made in reducing pollution. Burning any hydrocarbon fuel in air produces carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas. Governments are beginning to treat manmade carbon-dioxide gas emissions as a climate-changing environmental concern, and social pressure to switch from present-day hydrocarbon fuels is growing. Solar, geothermal, wind and wave energy are non-polluting energy sources.
  • Fuel cells are another means of producing work. Fuel cells use hydrogen gas as a fuel. Hydrogen gas is expensive to produce and pressurize. Production of hydrogen gas often involves the consumption of fossil fuels. Additional sources of hydrogen gas production are nuclear and solar energy. Nuclear energy produces nuclear waste. Solar energy includes photovoltaics used for electrolysis of water. The cost of photovoltaic panels is expensive, as the electron band gap is small and the resulting surface area is usually large. Another source of hydrogen gas is thermally cracking water. The gas must be separated, filtered, and compressed.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • The carbon atom is an ideal storage medium for hydrogen used as fuel. Unpressurized storage is part of the high utility of a liquid hydrocarbon fuel. Liquid hydrocarbon fuel is the fuel of choice for transportation because it is easily contained. The fuel tanks are usually unpressurized and lightweight. The ION PUMP AND AN ELECTROCHEMICAL ENGINE USING SAME, that is disclosed in provisional patent application, Ser. No. 60/963,500, filed Aug. 6, 2007, abridged hereinafter to pumped-ion, electrochemical engine, recovers hydrogen-depleted carbon as a fuel byproduct when converting a liquid hydrocarbon fuel to work. The SOLAR-POWERED, LIQUID-HYDROCARBON-FUEL SYNTHESIZER, that is disclosed in provisional patent application, Ser. No. 60/879,096, filed Jan. 08, 2007, hydrogenates carbon that is used as a raw material to produce a hydrocarbon-based fuel. Together, the two devices might use carbon as a reusable storage medium for hydrogen that is used as a fuel.
  • This invention is the business processes that link the operations of the pumped-ion, electrochemical engine and the solar-powered, liquid-hydrocarbon-fuel synthesizer. Hydrogen-depleted carbon, a fuel byproduct that is collected and stored in, and later removed from the pumped-ion, electrochemical engine, is used as a source of carbon that is used as a reactant in the solar-powered, liquid-hydrocarbon-fuel synthesizer. Synthesized fuel is used in the pumped-ion, electrochemical engine to produce work. The hydrogen-depleted carbon might have value other than its use as a reactant used in the solar-powered, liquid-hydrocarbon-fuel synthesizers. Transferring ownership of recovered fuel byproduct for its economic value includes ways and means of measuring the quantity of fuel byproduct that is recovered, determining the monetary or other value of the quantity of fuel byproduct, and processing the transaction, which might include both a credit for the fuel byproduct recovered and a debit for fuel purchased. The purchase price of fuel might be advertised as a net value of the fuel price, less the value of recycled byproduct.
  • NO DRAWINGS INCLUDED

Claims (11)

1. A business process where hydrogen-depleted carbon, a fuel byproduct, that is removed from one or more pumped-ion, electrochemical engines, or a similar device derived therefrom, is used either directly or indirectly to supply carbon that is used as a reactant in one or more solar-powered, liquid-hydrocarbon-fuel synthesizers, or a similar device derived therefrom, said reuse of the carbon thereby yielding a renewable, hydrocarbon-based fuel supply,
and/or where said hydrogen-depleted carbon, that is removed from one or more pumped-ion, electrochemical engines, or a similar device derived therefrom, is used as a raw material in another production or product having economic value,
and/or where hydrogen-depleted carbon, that is removed from other devices that collect the byproduct, is used to supply carbon that is used as a reactant in one or more solar-powered, liquid-hydrocarbon-fuel synthesizers, or a similar device derived therefrom,
such that said business process of reusing the carbon produces a variety of monetary or other economic benefits while reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
2. The business process of claim 1 where a purchase of fuel, or a license or other right to use a quantity of fuel or the hydrogen and/or carbon contained therein, is directly or indirectly reduced by the monetary or other value of a quantity of hydrogen-depleted, carbon recovered from fuel, said fuel purchase and purchase discount, refund, rebate or other fuel-byproduct-credit realized being done in one or more transactions at one or more business entities.
3. The business process of claim 1 where the retail purchase price per a standard unit-of-measure of fuel is advertised or otherwise quoted as a net fuel price, discounted for the value of carbon that would be normally recovered at a standardized carbon content of the fuel, if an amount equal to the standardized carbon content were also returned at the time and place of refueling, even though the discount or credit that is given at the time and place of the transaction might be determined by measuring the actual quantity of fuel byproduct returned.
4. The business process of claim 1 in which the quantity of hydrogen-depleted carbon removed from said pumped-ion, electrochemical engine, or a similar device derived therefrom, is measured by a means such as measuring weight by deflection of a spring or balance, measuring mass by deflection of a surface including that of a piezoelectric material, measuring volume flow by rotation of a wheel or propeller turned by the flow, measuring flow density by use of an optical property, or measuring by another property, or any combination of such means, and in which the device that measures the quantity of hydrogen-depleted carbon removed might include a means of calculating the monetary value of the quantity of hydrogen-depleted carbon removed, by multiplying said quantity removed by the monetary value per unit-of-measure of weight, mass, volume, density, charge or other measure used, and in which the calculation of said monetary value might include a conversion from the original unit-of-measure used to measure said quantity removed, to another more widely accepted or better understood unit-of-measure.
5. The business process of claim 1 using a device, that might include or be part of a pump station that dispenses fuel, such as a gasoline pump at a service station, which includes a means of deducting from the purchase of fuel dispensed by the refueling device, the monetary value of hydrogen-depleted carbon that has been removed from said pumped-ion, electrochemical engine, or a similar device derived therefrom, where the means of deducting said monetary value from said purchase might use one or more algorithms performed by microprocessors or another means of performing the calculation, thereby yielding a net transaction for the fuel dispensed and the hydrogen-depleted carbon byproduct recovered, and the net transaction being either completed as a cash purchase or refund, or recorded to a credit or debit card account as fuel purchases at service stations are presently and commonly done.
6. The business process of claim 1 where conversion to said renewable, hydrocarbon-based fuel is done in a manner that yields “carbon credits” deriving from the Kyoto Accord, which is intended to reduce greenhouse gases including carbon dioxide that cause global warming, and where said “carbon credits” thereby yielded are sold or are otherwise converted to monetary or other value, which might include, but is not limited to, selling said “carbon credits” to others who purchase hydrocarbon fuel for vehicles that do not recover or recycle carbon as a fuel byproduct, or where said conversion eliminates a requirement to purchase said “carbon credits.”
7. The business process of claim 1 where implementation and use of said renewable, hydrocarbon-based fuel reduces expenditures, including government expenditures, for pollution control or environmental testing and protection and where the reduction in said expenditures is not equally reflected in lower taxes or other fees paid by citizens to fund the expenditures, but instead, are redirected to government expenditures for other non-environment-related concerns, said implementation and use or said renewable fuel thereby producing a source of government revenue for non-environment-related concerns.
8. A business process where water vapor, which is produced by said pumped-ion, electrochemical engine, or by fuel cells, internal combustion engines or other gas expansion devices that produce work, is not exhausted, but is instead condensed and held in a reservoir until it is removed therefrom, and is reused for the production of a renewable hydrogen-based fuel or for any other use or purpose having value.
9. The business process of claim 11 where a purchase of fuel, or a license or other right to use a quantity of fuel or the hydrogen and/or carbon contained therein, is directly or indirectly reduced by the monetary or other value of a quantity of hydrogen recovered from fuel as water, said fuel purchase and purchase discount, refund, rebate or other fuel-byproduct-credit realized being done in one or more transactions at one or more business entities.
10. The business process of claim 11 where recovery and recycling of water vapor is done in a manner that yields “water vapor credits” similar to said “carbon credits” deriving from the Kyoto Accord, which is intended to reduce greenhouse gases that cause global warming, water vapor being a greenhouse gas, and where said “water vapor credits” thereby yielded are sold or are otherwise converted to monetary or other value, which might include, but is not limited to, selling said “water vapor credits” to purchasers of a vehicles that do not recover and recycle hydrogen as a fuel byproduct in the form of water, or where said conversion eliminates a requirement to purchase said “water vapor credits.”
11. A business process where the value of land is increased by advertising or otherwise communicating its suitability for installation of an array of heliostats that reflect sunlight onto one or more solar-powered, liquid-hydrocarbon-fuel synthesizers, or devices derived therefrom, the increase in value of said land directly or indirectly deriving from the economic value of the fuel, renewable fuel, or other product that might be produced by solar-powered, liquid-hydrocarbon-fuel synthesizers, or a use in combination with said heliostat array, when suitability for a dual use derives from lower ground surface temperatures or an increase in the availability of water that might result as a consequence of the installation of said solar-powered, liquid-hydrocarbon-fuel synthesizer or synthesizers and surrounding heliostats.
US12/006,427 2007-01-08 2008-01-02 Business methods of renewable hydrocarbon-based fuel Abandoned US20080168009A1 (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US87909607P true 2007-01-08 2007-01-08
US96350007P true 2007-08-06 2007-08-06
US12/006,427 US20080168009A1 (en) 2007-01-08 2008-01-02 Business methods of renewable hydrocarbon-based fuel

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US12/006,427 US20080168009A1 (en) 2007-01-08 2008-01-02 Business methods of renewable hydrocarbon-based fuel

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US12/006,427 Abandoned US20080168009A1 (en) 2007-01-08 2008-01-02 Business methods of renewable hydrocarbon-based fuel

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