US20080148678A1 - Frames For Buildings - Google Patents

Frames For Buildings Download PDF

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Publication number
US20080148678A1
US20080148678A1 US11886472 US88647206A US2008148678A1 US 20080148678 A1 US20080148678 A1 US 20080148678A1 US 11886472 US11886472 US 11886472 US 88647206 A US88647206 A US 88647206A US 2008148678 A1 US2008148678 A1 US 2008148678A1
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Patent type
Prior art keywords
frame
elements
vertical supports
supports
metal
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Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US11886472
Inventor
Johann Wolf
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Wolf Modul GmbH
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Wolf Modul GmbH
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/18Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons
    • E04B1/26Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons the supporting parts consisting of wood
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/18Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons
    • E04B1/26Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons the supporting parts consisting of wood
    • E04B1/2604Connections specially adapted therefor
    • E04B2001/2644Brackets, gussets or joining plates
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/18Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons
    • E04B1/26Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons the supporting parts consisting of wood
    • E04B1/2604Connections specially adapted therefor
    • E04B2001/2644Brackets, gussets or joining plates
    • E04B2001/2648Brackets, gussets or joining plates located in slots of the elongated wooden members
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/18Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons
    • E04B1/26Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons the supporting parts consisting of wood
    • E04B2001/2696Shear bracing

Abstract

A building has a frame which includes of several frame elements parallel to one another and located with a distance to one another. Each frame elements has two vertical supports and at least one horizontal beam. The frame elements are connected to one another to form the frame of the building by uprights which are attached outside to their vertical supports. To connect the supports, the beams and the uprights angles of steel sheet are used which in their legs have holes (19) for passage of connecting elements bent out and released from the legs of the angles, in the manner of nail plates. Connecting are located and attached between vertical supports. The girders (37) bear wall elements which adjoin stops on the vertical supports from the inside.

Description

  • The invention relates to a frame for a building of any type, which frame forms the skeletal structure of the building (structure), for example of a residence or a hall.
  • The object of the invention is to make available a frame of the initially mentioned type with which buildings can be built in the desired dimensions and outfitting (commercial building, residence, or the like).
  • The object of the invention is to devise a frame for buildings which satisfies the above explained requirements.
  • This object is achieved as claimed in the invention with a frame for buildings which has the features of claim 1.
  • In order to achieve long durability of buildings, especially the frame of this building must be securely joined; this means that the connections of the vertical and horizontal bearing elements (supports and beams) must be made such that they withstand the loads of the building which has the frame as claimed in the invention. These loads are loads acting from the inside on the building and also loads acting from the outside, such as wind.
  • The object of the invention is furthermore to make available a metal angle which can be advantageously used in the frame as claimed in the invention in order to ensure the required load carrying capacity of the connections of the supports and beams of frame elements of the frame as claimed in the invention.
  • This object is achieved with an angle with the features of the independent claim which is directed at the angle.
  • Preferred and advantageous configurations of the invention are the subject matter of the dependent claims.
  • The construction of the frame proposed as claimed in the invention reliably ensures with simple means the desired flexibility of the size, shape and outfitting of buildings which have the frame as claimed in the invention and the stability of the frame and the building provided with it, regardless of whether it is a residence, a hall structure or another building.
  • If according to one embodiment in the frame as claimed in the invention, the connection (horizontal stiffening) of the frame elements to one another takes place by horizontal girders, there is greater freedom in the configuration of the outside of a building which has the frame as claimed in the invention.
  • Preferably it is within the framework of the invention if the girders which connect the vertical supports of the frame elements to one another bear wall elements on their side pointing towards the outside of the frame. In this way not only is horizontal stiffening of the frame of the invention achieved, but equally facing of the frame is also possible.
  • The wall elements which are connected to the horizontal girders in one embodiment can be made with windows and/or doors.
  • Instead of or in addition to horizontal girders which connect the frame elements of the frame to one another, between the vertical supports of the frame elements there can also be braces which are aligned obliquely to the vertical supports. In this connection it is preferred if the obliquely aligned braces are located in the corner areas of the frame as claimed in the invention. The braces are preferably aligned such that they are located between vertical supports located in the region of the corners of the frame as claimed in the invention, and are aligned running obliquely upward to the support of the frame as claimed in the invention which is located in the region of the corner.
  • The embodiment of the frame with the obliquely running braces between the vertical supports of adjacent frame elements can also be modified such that between the supports, roughly at half the height of the supports, there is a horizontal brace (cross brace), above and below the horizontal brace there is at least one obliquely running brace at a time so that a type of “truss” results.
  • The wall elements provided as claimed in the invention are usually story-high, and the wall elements can abut one another especially in the region of story ceilings or can be made overlapping one another and can be attached to the frame.
  • Wall elements attached to the frame as claimed in the invention, regardless of whether they are made with doors and/or windows, are used in one sample embodiment as additional stiffening elements which connect to one another the frame elements located next to one another and keep them in the desired position so that a frame of stable shape for the building results.
  • Within the framework of the invention it has proven effective if on the vertical supports of the frame as claimed in the invention, on the outside, especially projecting laterally over the two sides of the support, there are stops (hoods) which facilitate alignment of the wall elements which are connected for example to horizontal girders, which alignment is flush with the outside of the frame.
  • The wall elements provided as claimed in the invention can consist of metal (sheet metal), plastic, wood or of a mineral material or combinations of these materials. In one embodiment a wall element can be composed of several strips which are generally aligned vertically.
  • The stops (hoods) provided on the supports of the frame as claimed in the invention can be smooth or profiled and cover strips consist of wood, metal (sheet metal), mineral material or plastic. It is sufficient if the stops have a strength which is sufficient for their being able to perform their function as stops for the wall elements.
  • The wall elements can be produced by first the girders in a corresponding number (usually two girders) being connected to the vertical supports by hardware, brackets, angles or the like and then the wall elements being attached.
  • But it has also been considered and is preferred as claimed in the invention if components are prefabricated from a wall element and girders, are first placed on the floor and/or an intermediate ceiling of the building for which the frame as claimed in the invention is intended (they can also be produced in this location) and then can be simply folded up until they adjoin the stops (hoods) which are attached externally to the vertical supports. This allows mounting of the wall elements and girders from the inside so that erection towers can be dispensed with. It is advantageous that the wall elements are easily interchangeable if they must be replaced or altered for some reason. This is especially the case when the wall elements are fixed with steel screws.
  • But fundamentally mounting of wall elements from the outside is also possible by the wall elements or components consisting of the wall element and girders being “threaded” between the supports and the stops (hoods) located on them.
  • Wall elements, especially those with larger dimensions, therefore wall elements for commercial buildings, can also be pivoted around vertical or horizontal axes which are defined for example by hinges into their position between the vertical supports of the frame elements. This also applies to smaller wall elements for which however it is also considered that they can be moved from the outside or (preferably) from the inside into their position of use between vertical supports, as is described above.
  • Outside the wall elements which can bear an insulating layer externally or (preferably) internally, plaster or the like can be attached. In this connection the plaster can be located between the stops which are made as hoods, so that the plaster is interrupted by the stops.
  • Alternatively it is possible for the plaster to be located between the vertical supports of the frame elements so that the plaster is interrupted by the vertical supports.
  • Wall elements can also be attached to the frame as claimed in the invention such that on the outside of the vertical supports there is especially watertight facing which covers the entire width of the support—this facing is especially advantageous when vertical supports are used which are composed of two wooden parts which adjoin one another in the lengthwise direction. The joint regions between adjacent outside wall elements can be located in the region of the vertical supports lying on the facing of the support. The attachment of the outside wall elements can take place indirectly (from the outside) on the supports, or between the vertical supports cover fillets or girders are provided on which the outside wall elements are attached.
  • In one embodiment of the invention it can be provided that frame elements are aligned not only transversely to the lengthwise extension of a building, but that (at least one) frame element is also aligned parallel to the lengthwise extension of the building.
  • If when using frame elements, the frames as claimed in the invention are produced for multistory buildings, or when vertical supports are formed from several wooden beams located on top of one another (in one piece or from wood parts connected to one another or divided in the lengthwise direction) it is advantageous to place the horizontal beams, not between the abutting ends of the vertical supports, but to connect the horizontal beams adjoining on one lengthwise side of the vertical supports, for example in the joint region between supports which are located on top of one another. This can take place using consoles or using brackets. In this embodiment it is also considered making the horizontal beams between the vertical supports, to which they are articulated (via consoles) with their ends, stiff by their being connected to other vertical supports in an angularly stiff manner.
  • Alternatively it is possible to rigidly attach the horizontal beams to vertical supports via brackets so that additional fixing of horizontal beams takes place.
  • These brackets or consoles can be arranged adjoining the opposite outer sides of the supports and beams and can be connected to supports and beams, or brackets or consoles are inserted into (slotted or gap-shaped) recesses in the ends of the supports and beams.
  • By the circumstance that horizontal beams (filler joists) are not located between sections of vertical supports which are located on top of one another, the load carrying capacity is increased since wooden supports which are loaded on the end side have higher bearing capacity than supports between which there are wooden beams with horizontal alignment of the wood fibers and which are loaded transversely to the wood fibers.
  • The vertical supports of the frame elements which form the frame as claimed in the invention can also be connected to one another in stable position by stiffening panels which are inserted between the vertical supports. These stiffening panels are for example angularly stiff wooden frames which are located between the vertical supports, and which have for example oblique braces. In this connection there can be one oblique brace per stiffening panel or there are two oblique braces and in between, one horizontal cross brace (“truss”).
  • Within the framework of the invention one embodiment is also considered in which stiffening panels and/or oblique braces, regardless of whether they are located in stiffening panels or directly between vertical supports of frame elements, are fixed using detachable wedges, steel screws, or the like. This makes it possible if necessary (for example in a repair), in the case of additional internals and the like, to temporarily remove or replace stiffening panels or oblique braces.
  • Other details, features and advantages of the invention will become apparent from the following description of the invention using sample drawings.
  • FIG. 1 schematically shows a frame for a building,
  • FIG. 2 shows an embodiment for the connection of vertical supports and horizontal beams using metal angles,
  • FIG. 3 shows another embodiment of a connection of vertical supports and horizontal beams using metal angles.
  • FIG. 4 shows one embodiment of the connection of the beam of an intermediate ceiling to a girder which connects the supports of frame elements.
  • FIG. 5 shows three different embodiments of metal angles which can be used within the framework of the invention (shown adjoining one another),
  • FIG. 6 shows an extract from a frame as claimed in the invention in a front view,
  • FIG. 7 a section along line VII-VII in FIG. 6,
  • FIGS. 8 to 11 schematically show other embodiments for the connection between the vertical supports and horizontal beams,
  • FIGS. 12 and 13 show two possible embodiments of horizontal beams of metal (steel),
  • FIG. 14 an oblique brace for stiffening between vertical supports of frame elements.
  • FIG. 15 shows stiffening in the manner of a truss between vertical supports of frame elements,
  • FIG. 16 shows tying of a horizontal beam to a vertical support of frame elements.
  • FIG. 17 shows another embodiment of the tying of horizontal beams to vertical supports and
  • FIG. 18 in a horizontal section shows the arrangement of outside wall elements on a vertical support.
  • FIG. 19 shows a vertical support of metal,
  • FIG. 20 in a view similar to FIG. 7 one embodiment with a foldable wall element and
  • FIG. 21 shows the embodiment from FIG. 20 in a side view.
  • The frame 1 shown in FIG. 1 for a two-story (residential) building consists of several vertical supports 3 and horizontal beams 5 and 7 which are connected to them and which are located in the example in two planes on top of one another. The frame elements 9 formed in this way from two vertical supports 3 at a time and at least one horizontal beam 5 at a time located especially on the top end of the vertical supports 3—in the embodiment with two horizontal beams 5 and 7 at a time—are set up parallel to one another and are attached to the floor using floor anchors or laid out girders and steel angles. Any other attachment of the frame elements 9 to the floor or to the foundation is likewise possible for the frame 1 as claimed in the invention.
  • In order to connect to one another the frame elements 9 which have been set up at distances to one another to form a three-dimensional frame 1, the frame elements 9 are screwed on the two lengthwise sides (the sides of the frame 1 which run parallel to the plane of FIG. 1) to horizontally running bars (girders), in the embodiment uprights 11. Preferably these uprights 11 consist of at least two uprights 15 which are connected to one another using nail plates 13, which adjoin one another in the lengthwise direction and which in the region of each story on the upper and on the lower end of vertical supports 3 on top of one another are connected using metal angles 17 to the frame elements 9. FIG. 4 shows by way-of example a connection between the uprights (girders) 11 and a frame element 9.
  • The connection of the upper horizontal beams 5 to the vertical supports 3 takes place for example using the embodiment and arrangement of metal angles 17 (angle 17 of sheet metal, especially steel sheet) which is shown in FIG. 3. In this connection the outside edges 24 of the vertical legs 23 of the metal angles 17 is flush with the end surfaces of the beam 5.
  • The attachment of the middle horizontal beam 7 (upper ceiling of the lower story or floor of the upper story) on the vertical supports 3 takes place for example using metal angles 17 which are arranged as shown in FIG. 2 (compare also FIG. 4). In this connection the outside edges 24 of the vertical legs 23 of the metal angles 17 project over the end surfaces of the beams 7 by the thickness of the supports 3.
  • On the narrow sides of the frame shown in FIG. 1 which run transversely to the plane of FIG. 1 for a (residential) building, between the outer supports 3 of the end frame elements 9 there are intermediate supports 6. These intermediate supports 6 are connected to the horizontal beams 5, 7 of the end frame elements 9, preferably using metal angles 17. The panels which lie on the narrow sides of the frame 1 as claimed in the invention between the intermediate supports 6, supports 3 and horizontal beams 5, 7 can be partially or completely closed by uprights (girders) 11, for example of the embodiments of uprights 11 shown in FIG. 4. It is also possible to connect (screw) the frame elements 9 which are located on the end side of the frame 1 to panels when there is one blind side.
  • Alternatively or additionally to the described stiffenings between vertical supports 3 of frame elements 9, in the frame 1 as claimed in the invention, especially in the corner region, there can also be braces 70 as are shown in FIGS. 14 and 15. FIG. 14 shows one embodiment with a brace 70 which runs obliquely from bottom to top, the brace 70 preferably being arranged such that it runs obliquely to the top to a vertical support 3 which is arranged as claimed in the invention in the corner of a frame 1 and is angularly stiff.
  • Alternatively, one embodiment in the manner of a truss can be selected (FIG. 15) in which there are at least two obliquely running braces 70 which are located above and below the horizontal cross brace 72 between vertical supports 3 of frame elements 9.
  • The embodiments of braces 70 described using FIGS. 14 and 15 can analogously also be used for stiffening elements which are inserted between vertical supports 3 of frame elements 9 and which have an essentially rectangular frame and in between at least one obliquely running brace 70.
  • Both obliquely running braces 70 as shown in FIGS. 14 and 15 as well as stiffening elements which are inserted between vertical supports 3 can be detachably fixed using wedges 74 (FIG. 15) or other detachable fasteners (locking screws) so that if necessary they can be removed.
  • These obliquely running braces 70 which are inserted directly between vertical supports 3 or are provided in special stiffening panels are especially used in the corner region of the frame 1 as claimed in the invention, and these stiffening panels can be made as grid panels which generally have without doors and/or windows [sic].
  • The tying of a horizontal beam 55 shown in FIG. 16 to vertical supports 3 of frame elements 9 using brackets 76 allows the vertical supports 3, especially for a taller frame 1, to abut one another on the end side without interposition of a binding joist so that the bearing capacity is not adversely affected (wood loaded on the end side has a high bearing capacity, differently than wood loaded transversely to the fiber direction). The brackets 76 can, as shown in FIG. 6, be located on the two outer sides both of the vertical supports 3 and also of the horizontal beam 5.
  • Alternatively it is possible to attach the horizontal beam 3 to the brackets 76 which then act as consoles to be able to pivot around a horizontal axis.
  • Alternatively the brackets 76, which attach to the vertical support 3 a horizontal beam 5 in the joint region between two sections of vertical supports 3 which lie on the face side on one another, can be located within the horizontal beam 5 and the vertical support 3 (in slotted or gap-shaped recesses). This embodiment will be selected when the horizontal beam 5 and/or the vertical support 3 consists of at least two wooden parts which are connected to one another and which lie on the lengthwise side on one another.
  • There can be projections 78 molded integrally on the brackets 76 on their vertically aligned legs. These projections 78 project from the supports 3 on the side opposite the horizontal beams 5, and are used as a rest for horizontal uprights (girders) 11. These projections which point to the outside with respect to the frame elements 9 are especially advantageous when outside wall facing elements are attached to horizontal uprights or girders 11 since the projections 78 divert the vertical forces into the frame 1 as claimed in the invention.
  • The projections 78 can also be parts which are independent of brackets 76 or 60 or metal angles 17 which are attached separately to vertical supports 3 of the frame elements 9 as claimed in the invention wherever they are required.
  • The legs of the brackets 76 can have holes 19 and/or nails 21 which have been bent out, as is explained in conjunction with the metal angles 17 (FIG. 5).
  • Generally the horizontal uprights 11 which connect the frame elements 9 to one another to form the frame 1, will be wooden uprights, as is described for example using FIG. 4. But this is not critical. The horizontal girders 11 can also be metal profile strips; this is especially advantages for girders 11 which are provided on the bottom ends of the vertical supports 3 of the frame elements 9 since they can be made narrower than wooden girders so that not as much construction height is lost there.
  • FIG. 8 shows that the connection between two vertical supports 3 and one horizontal beam 5 or 7 of the frame elements 9 and/or the connection of the frame elements 9 to the uprights (girders) 11 which connect the frame elements 9 to one another takes place by brackets 60 which engage the horizontal beam 5 and also the vertical support 3—each in their end region (in the slotted or gap-shaped recesses provided there). These brackets 60 consist for example of metal and are connected to the vertical supports 3 and the horizontal beams 5 on their ends, for example by screws or bolts.
  • When the supports 3 and/or the beams 5 consist of wood, it is preferred if the supports 3 and/or the beams 5 are composed of at least two wooden parts which are connected to one another. In the joint between the two wooden parts which form the interconnected beams 5 or supports 3, there can be brackets 60 fixed there. Optionally the means (screws, bolts and the like) which connect the wood parts to one another to form vertical supports 3 and/or beams 5 or 7 are also used to fix the brackets 60 (or brackets 76) in the support 3 or in the beam 5.
  • When the horizontal beams 5 are formed from steel I-beams 61 (FIG. 12), the brackets 60 can be arranged flush with the web 62 of the I-beam 61 and are connected to it, for example welded or screwed or riveted. In this case the bracket 60 forms an extension of the web 62 of the I-beam 61 anyway. When vertical supports 3 consist of I-section steel 61, brackets 60 can be connected to the web 62 flush with one leg, projecting from its middle, as is shown in FIG. 19. Brackets 60 projecting on both sides from the support 3 are possible in supports 3 of I-section steel 61.
  • When the horizontal beams 5 consist of two steel U-sections 63 (C-sections) placed back to back against one another, as is indicated in FIG. 13, the brackets 60 can be located between the webs 64 of the U-sections 63 and attached there by means as is indicated above for the embodiment from FIG. 12.
  • The arrangement of brackets 60 as claimed in the invention which are held in the ends of horizontal beams 5 also makes it possible to form panel nodes as is indicated in FIGS. 9 to 11 and FIG. 17. FIG. 9 shows a corner panel node, FIG. 10 shows a T-panel node and FIG. 11 shows a cross panel node, as will be encountered for example within buildings.
  • FIG. 17 shows in more detail how a connection between the support 3 and horizontal beam 5 or 7 or how a panel node can be made as shown in FIGS. 8 to 11, when both the support 3 and also the beams 5 consist of wood. The bracket 60 which connects the horizontal beam 5 to the vertical support 3 is located in the corresponding gap-shaped or slotted recesses, preferably in the lengthwise middle of the vertical support 3 and of the horizontal beam 5. This embodiment is preferable if at least one of the horizontal beams 5, 7 or vertical supports 3 consists of two wood parts which adjoin one another on the lengthwise side and which are connected to one another.
  • If one of the vertical support 3 or horizontal beam 5 or 7 consists of wood and the other part of a frame element 9 consists of metal (steel), the angle 17, bracket 60 or bracket 76 under consideration can be located only within one part (support or beam) of wood.
  • The supports 3, beams 5 and 7 and intermediate supports 6 and uprights (girders) 11 which are joined (screwed) to one another as claimed in the invention using metal angles 17 or brackets 60, 76 impart stability which is high on all sides to the frame 1 of a building. The described embodiment of the frame 1 as claimed in the invention furthermore yields the advantage that in the free spaces (panels) remaining between the supports 3 and uprights 11 there can be windows and/or doors largely freely selected.
  • In any case hardware provided on the uprights 11 allows use of outside wall or facade elements which have been prefabricated for facing of the frame 1, the type and construction of these outside wall or facade elements and the material selected for them being largely freely selectable.
  • In frames 1 for a (residential) building with a bearing middle lengthwise wall it is possible to complete it as a stabilizing factor for the frame 1 as claimed in the invention. For this purpose the supports 3 at the top on both sides are provided with metal angles 17 or brackets 60 (FIGS. 8 to 11), to which overlapping uprights (for example horizontal beams 5 or 7) are screwed. These uprights are used as a rest for ceiling beams which can optionally be screwed to the uprights using metal angles 17, their outer ends being fixed on the outside walls, for example using metal angles.
  • This middle lengthwise wall reinforced in the described manner allows the outside walls to be made lightweight, and especially good insulation, predominantly heat insulation, can be considered.
  • The supports 3, intermediate supports 6, uprights 11 and beams 5, 7 can consist of wood or steel sections, combinations of supports 3, intermediate supports 6, beams 5, 7 and uprights 11 of different materials (wood and steel) also being possible. Steel sections or elements of the frame 1 as claimed in the invention of different materials can be connected to one another using (perforated) metal angles 17 or brackets 60, 76.
  • FIG. 5 shows—adjoining one another—three different embodiments for metal angles 17 which can be used in the frame 1 of the invention. These angles 17 consist of metal sheet, preferably steel sheet, and are rounded to the inside and outside in the corner region 18, as is shown in FIG. 5. These roundings promote the flow of force in the material. To produce the metal angles 17 as claimed in the invention, they can be punched out of a correspondingly wide metal strip, especially steel strip, to save material, as is indicated in FIG. 5.
  • When the metal angles 17, especially steel angles, are punched, depending on the embodiment, holes 21 for passage of fasteners, such as screws or nails 23 (similarly nail plates) or also combinations of holes and nails which have been freely punched and bent (similarly nail plates) can be provided.
  • Thus FIG. 5, bottom, shows a metal angle 17 which has exclusively freely punched nails 21 bent out of the plane of the angle 17 for example by 90° in the two legs 23, so that this embodiment of the metal angle 17 can be used in the manner of a nail plate.
  • FIG. 5 shows in the center one embodiment of a metal angle 17 in which exclusively holes 19 for the passage of fasteners are provided. The holes 19 are provided in the two legs 23 of the metal angle 17.
  • The third embodiment of a metal angle 17 shown in FIG. 5 in the two legs 23 has freely punched nails 21 bent out of the plane of the angle and also holes 19 for passage of fasteners, the embodiment being chosen such that there are punched-out nails 21 (similarly nail plates) in the outer ends of the legs 23 of the metal angle 17 and holes 19 for the passage of fastening screws or the similar fasteners in the vicinity of the corner 18 of the metal angle 17.
  • It is also considered within the framework of the invention that for connection of the components of the frame 1 and its frame elements 9, two metal angles 17 located next to one another are used. In this case metal angles 17 can be used which are connected leg 23 to leg 23 adjoining one another. In particular the angles 17 enclose with one another an angle of 90°. These interconnected (welded together) metal angles 17 jointly form a flat “T” (similarly to the brackets 76 from FIG. 16) or a “T” which is angled in the region of the middle “T” leg.
  • The embodiment of the metal angles 17 which have both holes 19 for passage of fasteners and also freely punched and bent-out nails 21 are especially advantageous since these metal angles 17 facilitate installation since they fix against one another the parts to be connected to one another by hammer blows, whereupon the final connection can then take place without further contrivances which hold the parts together, by setting of fasteners, such as screws, bolts or nails.
  • The frame 1 as claimed in the invention for a building (residence) can be used for example for building halls. The time and cost-saving construction of the frame 1 as claimed in the invention is especially advantageous in hall building, since facades can often be completed without windows, particularly since in hall structures light incidence often takes place through light openings (light domes or the like) in the roof region.
  • The above described execution of the metal angles 17, especially steel angles, for right-angle connection of the components of the frame 1 as claimed in the invention are of inventive importance regardless of the actual frame construction and its structure. In particular, metal angles 17 are considered in which there are combinations of holes 19 and punched nails 21 (similar to those of nail plates).
  • For the stability of the frame 1 as claimed in the invention in one embodiment it is important that there are metal angles 17 in the frame 1 with different alignments. Thus the metal angles 17 which connect the vertical supports 3 to the horizontal beams 5, 7 are aligned in one plane, conversely the metal angles 17 which fix the uprights 11 on the outside of the vertical supports 3 are located in the planes perpendicular to the aforementioned planes. This leads to all-sided stiffness of the frame 1 as claimed in the invention which forms the structure.
  • Even if in the embodiment shown in FIG. 1 the upper horizontal beams 5 of each frame element 9 are made as straight beams 5, within the framework of the invention an embodiment is also possible in which the horizontal beam 5 of each frame element 9 or at least individual frame elements 9 of the frame 1 as claimed in the invention are matched to the roof shape of a building to be produced using the frame 1 as claimed in the invention. Thus, for buildings with a monopitch roof the upper beams 5 of all or individual frame elements 9 of the frame 1 as claimed in the invention to the horizontal can be aligned tilted at the angle of the monopitch roof. In this case the metal angles 17 which connect the beams 5 to the vertical supports 3 are not made with legs which are at a right angle to one another, but the legs of the metal angles 17 are at an angle to one another which corresponds to the oblique position of these beams 5 of the frame elements 9. It applies analogously to other roof shapes, such as a ridge roof, a hipped roof, a mansard roof and the like.
  • FIGS. 6 and 7 show, of the frame 1 as claimed in the invention, only two supports 3 of frame elements 9 and two horizontal beams 7. FIG. 6 shows that especially for taller frame elements 9 the supports 3 can consist of two supports 3 which are arranged standing indirectly on one another (joint 47) without for example horizontal beams 7 connected in between. Thus there is higher bearing strength and load carrying capacity. In the frame 1 as claimed in the invention however there can also be horizontal beams 5, 7 which are arranged engaging between the ends of vertical supports 3 which are located on top of one another.
  • In the example shown in FIG. 6, it is shown that in the region of the height of the horizontal beam 7 there is an intermediate ceiling 30 consisting of the corresponding number of horizontal beams 33 and a ceiling floor 33 which in the illustrated embodiment consists of several strips (wooden boards).
  • Between adjacent supports 3 of adjacent frame elements 9, in the illustrated embodiment two girders 37 which are aligned horizontally are attached. The girders 37 in the embodiment are attached to the vertical supports 3 using metal angles 43, 44 and fastening screws.
  • The girders 37 bear a wall element 39 which in the illustrated embodiment is composed of several vertical strips. These strips can be plastic strips, sheet metal strips or wooden boards. Likewise it is shown in FIG. 7 that on the inside of the wall element 39 there can be insulation 41.
  • In one preferred embodiment the girders 37 are connected to one wall element 39 into a unit before they are placed between vertical supports 3 and attached there. This is a simplified approach since it is for example sufficient to connect one wall element 39 to two girders 37 to form a unit which lies on the ceiling 30 or floor and then is only folded up. In order to facilitate alignment of the wall element 39 with the girders 37 relative to the supports 3, on the outside of the vertical supports 3 there are stops 50 (“hoods”). The stops 50 extend at least over part of the height of the vertical supports 3 and in the illustrated embodiment project on both sides over the vertical supports 3. With the regions projecting laterally over the supports 3 the stops 50 ensure exact alignment of wall elements 39 without special attention being necessary. It is simply enough to move the wall element 39 optionally with the girders 37 attached to it forward until it adjoins the stops 50. Then the girders 37 are in some way attached, especially with angles 43, 44 and/or with locking screws to the vertical supports 3 of the frame elements 9 of the frame 1 as claimed in the invention. Insulation 41 can be attached to the inside of the wall elements 39. This insulation 41 is to be located (compare FIG. 7) between the girders 37 and/or on the side of the girders 37 facing the interior of the building. The insulation 41 can be attached between the supports 3 of the frame 1 when the unit is assembled from wall elements 41 and girders 37 or after installation of the unit.
  • If desired, a layer of plaster 45 can be applied externally to the wall elements 39, the plaster 45 extending simply between the stops 50 or alternatively between the supports 3, therefore is interrupted by the stops 50 and the supports 3.
  • When the supports 3 are located upright on top of one another it is preferable that their joint 47 is located in the region of the horizontal beams 7.
  • In this connection, tying of horizontal beams 5, 7 can preferably be done such as has been explained using FIG. 16.
  • In an embodiment which has been modified compared to FIGS. 6 and 7, a wall element 39, as described below with reference to FIGS. 20 and 21, can be positioned between vertical supports 3.
  • The finished wall element 39 which is of inherently stable shape is nailed via hinges 90 either to horizontal components (for example an intermediate ceiling) between vertical supports 3 or likewise via hinges 90 to the vertical support 3 itself so that it can be pivoted into its position of use exactly between vertical supports 3 either around a horizontal axis (located on the bottom end of the wall element 39) (as in FIGS. 20 and 21) or around a vertical axis which is located in the region of one of the two supports 3 between which a wall element 39 can be positioned. This manner of operation has the advantage that exact positioning of the wall element 39 is easily possible and the wall element 39 if desired can be re-opened.
  • This embodiment also makes it possible to make the stops 50 (hoods) which are attached to the vertical supports 3 narrower so that they project only little over the supports 3.
  • Final fixing of the wall element 39 can be done in any way, for example with separate fasteners or also using wedges which are knocked or pressed into the joints between vertical supports 3 and the wall element 39.
  • When the stops 50 on the outside of the vertical supports 3 are made narrower, a joint seal 91 can be attached, for example from the inside, in the joint region between the wall element 39 and the stops 50.
  • The hinges (articulations) 90 can be attached for example to an intermediate ceiling 30 or a ceiling bearing beam. In any case it is recommended when the hinges 90 are attached to proceed such that some parts of the hinges which are made as journal hinges, for example the “female” parts, are attached to the horizontal component, for example to the intermediate ceiling 30, and then the wall element 39 with the other hinge parts connected to it, for example the hinge pins (“male” parts) into which parts of the hinges attached to the horizontal component are pushed.
  • When the stops 50 project only little over the vertical supports 3, sealing strips between the stops 50 and the vertical edges of the wall elements 39 can be attached from the inside to the stops 50.
  • There are different possibilities for attaching the wall elements 39 which are used as facing of the frame 1 as claimed in the invention, for example wall elements 39 with a structure which is shown by way of example in FIGS. 6, 7, 20, 21, between the vertical supports 3 of the frame elements 9 of the frame 1 as claimed in the invention. With reference to the facing of the frame 1 with the wall elements they are especially
      • wall facings (especially smaller, lighter wall facings, for example for residences) attached from the outside, resting on a lengthwise girder:
      • wall facings (especially smaller, lighter wall facings, for example for residences) attached from the inside, with a stop on stops 50 (hoods) on the vertical supports 3;
      • wall facings (especially larger/heavier wall facings for commercial structures) attached from the inside, with hinge-like mounting; with
        • a. hinge on the floor girder,
        • b. hinge on a vertical support or
        • c. without hinge, set up only in the manner of a hinge in installation—covering of the joint can take place as desired.
  • For small and light wall elements 39, as are used in residences, normally simple threading and hanging by hand are sufficient. What is important is only that wall elements can also be mounted from the inside—for example such that the element is threaded accordingly, then the transverse girder is hung and the wall element is attached to the wall girder.
  • FIG. 18 shows one version of the attachment of the wall elements 39 to the outside of the frame elements 9 which form the frame 1 as claimed in the invention. In particular, on one support 3 which is composed of two wooden parts 4 which lie lengthwise on one another, a water-impermeable intermediate layer 80 is attached outside. Resting on this intermediate layer 80 there are wall elements 39 which abut one another in the region of the vertical support 3 so that their joint 81 is located in the region of the vertical support 3. The wall elements 39 can be attached by fastening elements 82 which engage the support 3. Alternatively or additionally it is possible to attach wall elements 39 to strips 83 or girders 11 which are attached between supports 3, for which reason the wall elements 39 are suspended for example with a pocket via the strip 83 or the girder 11.
  • Regardless of how the wall elements 39 are attached, they can be located overlapping or next to one another, (see FIG. 18) and a ceiling profile strip 84 can be attached in the joint region.
  • The execution as claimed in the invention makes it possible to produce the supports 3 from metal (steel) or wood and the beams 5 likewise from metal (steel) or wood. Thus various combinations between the materials metal and wood are possible, and the supports 3 of metal can be combined with beams of wood, supports 3 of wood with beams 5 of metal, as well as supports 3 of metal with beams 5 of metal and supports 3 of wood with beams 5 of wood.
  • In all embodiments of the invention other hardware for intermediate walls or other horizontal beams 5 can be attached to horizontal beams 5, so that in the frame 1 of a building which is formed from the frame elements 9 as claimed in the invention, at any locations there can be other separating elements (intermediate walls and the like), and bearing elements (other supports and/or beams).
  • In summary, one embodiment can be described as follows:
  • A building, for example a residence or a hall, has a frame 1 which consists of several frame elements 9 which are parallel to one another and are located with a distance to one another. The frame elements 9 consist of two vertical supports 3 each and at least one horizontal beam 5 and 7. The frame elements 9 are connected to one another to form the frame 1 of the building by uprights 11 which are attached outside to their vertical supports 3. To connect the supports 3, the beams 5 and 7 and the uprights 11, angles 17 of steel sheet are used which in their legs 23 have holes 19 for passage of connecting means (screws) and/or nails 21 bent out and detached from the legs 23 of the angles 17, in the manner of nail plates.
  • In a frame 1 of frame elements 9 with vertical supports 3 and horizontal beams 7, to connect the frame elements 9 and for lengthwise stiffening of the frame 1 there are girders 37 which are located and attached between vertical supports 3. The girders 37 bear wall elements 39 which adjoin stops 50 on the vertical supports 3 from the inside. It is preferred if the wall elements 39 and the girders 37 are prefabricated units which are positioned between vertical supports 3 adjoining the stops 50 and then the girders 37 are attached to vertical supports 3.

Claims (84)

  1. 1. Frame for building consisting of vertical supports (3) and horizontal beams (5, 7), characterized in that there are at least two frame elements (9) which consist of at least two vertical supports (3) at a time and at least one horizontal beam (5, 7) connected to them, and that the frame elements (9) are located at a distance to one another and are connected to one another.
  2. 2. Frame as claimed in claim 1, wherein the frame elements (9) are connected to one another by horizontally aligned bars (11) which are attached to vertical supports (3).
  3. 3. Frame as claimed in claim 2, wherein the horizontally aligned bars are wooden uprights (11) or metal strips.
  4. 4. Frame as claimed in claim 2, wherein the bars (11), especially the wooden uprights consist of two interconnected bars (15) at a time, especially individual wooden uprights.
  5. 5. Frame as claimed in claim 2, wherein the lowermost horizontally aligned bar (11) which connects the frame elements (9) to one another is a metal profile strip.
  6. 6. Frame as claimed in claim 5, wherein the metal profile strip (11) is made narrower than a bar (11) in the form of a wooden upright.
  7. 7. Frame as claimed in claim 2, wherein the bars (11) which connect the frame elements (9) to one another are located at least in the region of the bottom ends of the vertical supports (3) and in the region of the top ends of the vertical supports (3).
  8. 8. Frame as claimed in claim 1, wherein for a frame (1) for a multistory building each frame element (9) has at least two horizontal beams (5, 7) which are located at a distance from one another.
  9. 9. Frame as claimed in claim 2, wherein there are bars (11) which connect the frame elements (9) to one another in the region of the height of the horizontal beams (5, 7).
  10. 10. Frame as claimed in claim 1, wherein the vertical supports (3) consist of wood.
  11. 11. Frame as claimed in claim 1, wherein the vertical supports (3) consist of steel sections.
  12. 12. Frame as claimed in claim 1, wherein the horizontal beams (5, 7) consist of wood.
  13. 13. Frame as claimed in claim 1, wherein the horizontal beams (5, 7) consist of steel sections.
  14. 14. Frame as claimed in claim 1, wherein the horizontal beams (5, 7) are connected to the vertical supports (3) by means of the metal angles (17) or brackets (76) which bridge the joint regions between the indicated components.
  15. 15. Frame as claimed in claim 14, wherein the metal angles (17) or brackets (76) are located on both sides adjoining the vertical supports (3) and horizontal beams (5, 7) which are connected to one another.
  16. 16. Frame as claimed in claim 14, wherein the metal angles (17) are located on the upper horizontal beams (3) in the region of the ends of the horizontal beams (3).
  17. 17. Frame as claimed in claim 16, wherein the end surfaces of the horizontal beams (3) are essentially flush with the outside edges (24) of the vertical legs (23) of the metal angles (17) (FIG. 3).
  18. 18. Frame as claimed in claim 16, wherein the metal angles (17) are located on horizontal beams (7) which are located between the bottom end and the top end of the frame element (9), projecting over the end surfaces of the beam (7) (FIG. 2).
  19. 19. Frame as claimed in claim 18, wherein the outside edges (24) of the vertical legs (23) of the metal angles (17) project over the end surfaces of the beam (7).
  20. 20. Frame as claimed in claim 2, wherein for attachment of bars (11) interconnected by vertical supports (3) there are metal angles (17) on the vertical supports (3) of the frame elements (9), of which angles one leg (23) is located on the vertical support (3) and the other leg (23) is located on the bar (11).
  21. 21. Frame as claimed in claim 4, wherein for bars (11) composed of several uprights (15) the horizontal leg (23) of the metal angle (17) is arranged bridging the lengthwise joint between the uprights (15).
  22. 22. Frame as claimed in claim 1, wherein upper beams (5) of frame elements (9) run or are aligned in such a manner as corresponds to the shape of the roof of a building to be produced using the frame (1).
  23. 23. Frame as claimed in claim 1, wherein the vertical supports (3) consist of metal and the horizontal beams (5) consist of wood.
  24. 24. Frame as claimed in claim 1, wherein adjacent vertical supports (3) are interconnected by horizontal girders (37) located between the supports (3).
  25. 25. Frame as claimed in claim 24, wherein the horizontal girders (37) are connected to the vertical supports (3) by angles (43, 44) with locking screws for spreading or the like.
  26. 26. Frame as claimed in claim 24, wherein the horizontal girders (37) on the side facing the outside of the frame (1) bear a wall element (39).
  27. 27. Frame as claimed in claim 26, wherein there are wall elements (39) which have window and/or door openings.
  28. 28. Frame as claimed in claim 26, wherein the wall element (39) is connected to at least two girders (37) to form a unit.
  29. 29. Frame as claimed in claim 26, wherein on the vertical supports (3) of the frame elements (9) on the outside (50) there are stops (50) for wall elements (39).
  30. 30. Frame as claimed in claim 29, wherein the stops (50) project over the vertical supports (3) of the frame elements (9) on either side.
  31. 31. Frame as claimed in claim 26, wherein the wall elements (39) bear a plaster layer (45) on their outer side.
  32. 32. Frame as claimed in claim 26, wherein the wall elements (39) consist of wood, metal, plastic or mineral material.
  33. 33. Frame as claimed in claim 26, wherein the wall elements (39) consist of several strips.
  34. 34. Frame as claimed in claim 29, wherein stops (50) consist of wood, metal, plastic or mineral material.
  35. 35. Frame as claimed in claim 26, wherein the wall elements (39) are made story-high.
  36. 36. Frame as claimed in claim 24, wherein there are at least two horizontal girders (57) between adjacent supports (3) of the frame elements (9) per story of the frame (1) as claimed in the invention.
  37. 37. Frame as claimed in claim 26, wherein the wall elements (39) located on top of one another abut.
  38. 38. Frame as claimed in claim 26, wherein the wall elements (39) located on top of one another overlap one another.
  39. 39. Frame as claimed in claim 38, wherein the upper wall element (39) extends overlapping over the lower wall element (39).
  40. 40. Frame as claimed in claim 24, wherein the supports (3) are divided by the frame elements (9) and stand directly upright on one another in the region of the joint (47).
  41. 41. Frame as claimed in claim 24, wherein there is insulation (41) on the side of the girders (37) which faces the building.
  42. 42. Frame as claimed in claim 26, wherein there is insulation (41) on the side of the wall elements (39) which faces the building.
  43. 43. Frame as claimed in claim 24, wherein the girders (37) consist of wood or metal.
  44. 44. Frame as claimed in claim 24, wherein the metal girders (37) on their ends bear head plates which are connected to vertical supports (3) of the frame elements (9).
  45. 45. Frame as claimed in claim 1, wherein the vertical supports (3) with the horizontal beams (5, 7) are connected to one another by the brackets (60, 76) which engage the ends of the supports (3)/beams (5, 7).
  46. 46. Frame as claimed in claim 1, wherein the bars (11) which connect the frame elements (9) to one another are connected to vertical supports (3) by brackets (60) which engage the ends of the bars (11).
  47. 47. Frame as claimed in claim 45, wherein the brackets (60, 76) engage between the interconnected wooden parts which form the beams (5, 7), supports (3) and/or beams (11).
  48. 48. Frame as claimed in claim 45, wherein the brackets (60) are attached to the web (62) of the metal I-sections which form the beams (5, 7, 11).
  49. 49. Frame as claimed in claim 45, wherein brackets (60) are attached between webs (64) of C-sections (63) of metal which are interconnected adjoining one another back to back and which form beams (5, 7, 11).
  50. 50. Frame as claimed in claim 45, wherein on the support (3) there are at least two brackets (60) which include with one another an angle, especially an angle of 90°.
  51. 51. Frame as claimed in claim 1, wherein at least two horizontal beams (5) which point in different directions are connected to the horizontal supports (3).
  52. 52. Frame as claimed in claim 51, wherein there are slotted or gap-shaped brackets (60, 76) which engage recesses in the end of at least one horizontal beam (5) and of the vertical support (3) and which are intended for attachment of horizontal beams (5, 7) to vertical supports (3).
  53. 53. Frame as claimed in claim 52, wherein the brackets (60) are rectangular.
  54. 54. Frame as claimed in claim 53, wherein the brackets (76) are T-shaped.
  55. 55. Frame as claimed in claim 51, wherein horizontal beams (5) connected to the horizontal parts of the brackets (76) can be pivoted around the horizontal axis.
  56. 56. Frame as claimed in claim 1, wherein there are projections (78) protruding to the outside on vertical supports (3) for resting of horizontal uprights (11).
  57. 57. Frame as claimed in claim 56, wherein the projections (78) are made integral with the brackets (76).
  58. 58. Frame as claimed in claim 1, wherein between the vertical supports (3) of the frame elements (9) there is at least one obliquely aligned brace (70) at a time.
  59. 59. Frame as claimed in claim 58, wherein there is a brace between a support (3) of the frame element (9) located in the corner region of the frame (1) and of the next inner support (3) of an adjacent frame element (9).
  60. 60. Frame as claimed in claim 58, wherein the braces (70) are aligned running obliquely up to the corner of the frame (1).
  61. 61. Frame as claimed in claim 58, wherein there are two braces (70) which extend between a cross brace (72) which is provided roughly in the middle of the height of the vertical supports (3).
  62. 62. Frame as claimed in claim 1, wherein the outside wall elements (39) are attached to vertical supports (3) of frame elements (9) with a rest (80) connected in between.
  63. 63. Frame as claimed in claim 62, wherein the joint (81) between bordering outside wall elements (39) is covered by a cover strip (84).
  64. 64. Frame as claimed in claim 1, wherein the wall elements (39) between the supports (3) are attached to strips (83) which are attached between supports (3), especially hung.
  65. 65. Frame as claimed in claim 1, wherein there are stiffening panels between the supports (3) of adjacent frame elements (9).
  66. 66. Frame as claimed in claim 65, wherein the stiffening fields have a rectangular frame.
  67. 67. Frame as claimed in claim 65, wherein in the stiffening elements there is at least one obliquely (diagonally) running brace (70).
  68. 68. Frame as claimed in claim 58, wherein the obliquely running braces (70) are fixed by wedges (74) between vertical supports (3) of adjacent frame elements (9).
  69. 69. Frame as claimed in claim 65, wherein the stiffening panels between vertical supports (3) of adjacent frame elements (9) are detachably fixed by wedges (74) or locking screws.
  70. 70. Frame as claimed in claim 1, wherein there are wall elements (39) which are to be placed between vertical supports (3) and which can be pivoted into their position of use which is located between the vertical supports (3).
  71. 71. Frame as claimed in claim 70, wherein the wall elements (39) can be pivoted in around a horizontal axis.
  72. 72. Frame as claimed in claim 70, wherein the wall elements (39) can be pivoted in around a vertical axis.
  73. 73. Frame as claimed in claim 70, wherein the wall elements (39) can be pivoted around hinges (90).
  74. 74. Frame as claimed in claim 70, wherein the covers (50) on the outside of the vertical supports (3) do not project over the supports (3).
  75. 75. Frame as claimed in claim 70, wherein strips for sealing the joints between the cover (50) and the wall element (39) are attached to the covers (50) from the inside.
  76. 76. Frame as claimed in claim 70, wherein the wall element (39) after pivoting into its position of use is fixed in its position by fasteners, for example wedges which have been hammered or pressed in.
  77. 77. Metal angle (17) for use in a frame (1) for a building as claimed in claim 76, characterized by two legs (23) which are at an angle to one another and in which there are through holes (19) for fasteners such as screws, bolts, nails or the like and/or stamped-out nail tongues (21) in the manner of nail plates.
  78. 78. Angle as claimed in claim 77, wherein the metal angles (17) are rounded in the corner region (18) between the legs (23).
  79. 79. Angle as claimed in claim 78, wherein the metal angles (17) are rounded in the corner region (18) inside and outside.
  80. 80. Angle as claimed in claim 77, wherein there are stamped-out nail tongues (21) in the end regions of the legs (23) and through holes (19) for fasteners in the region of the corner (18) of the metal angles (17).
  81. 81. Angle as claimed in claim 77, wherein two metal angles (17) are connected, especially welded, to one another.
  82. 82. Angle as claimed in claim 81, wherein two metal angles (17) are connected to one another to form a T-like metal angle, one leg (23) of one metal angle (17) with its outside edge being connected to the outside edge of one leg (23) of the other metal angle (17), and the two other legs (23) project in opposite directions from the interconnected legs (23).
  83. 83. Angle as claimed in claim 82, wherein the metal angles (17) lie on one plane.
  84. 84. Angle as claimed in claim 83, wherein the metal angles (17) lie in two planes which are at an angle to one another, especially at an angle of 90°.
US11886472 2005-03-17 2006-03-16 Frames For Buildings Abandoned US20080148678A1 (en)

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ATA450/2005 2005-03-17
AT4502005 2005-03-17
AT11232005 2005-07-04
ATA1123/2005 2005-07-04
PCT/AT2006/000111 WO2006096899A3 (en) 2005-03-17 2006-03-16 Frames for buildings

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US20080148678A1 true true US20080148678A1 (en) 2008-06-26

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US11886472 Abandoned US20080148678A1 (en) 2005-03-17 2006-03-16 Frames For Buildings

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US (1) US20080148678A1 (en)
EP (1) EP1859108B1 (en)
CA (1) CA2601590A1 (en)
RU (1) RU2397295C2 (en)
WO (1) WO2006096899A3 (en)

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WO2006096899A2 (en) 2006-09-21 application
EP1859108B1 (en) 2011-08-10 grant
CA2601590A1 (en) 2006-09-21 application
RU2007138387A (en) 2009-04-27 application
RU2397295C2 (en) 2010-08-20 grant
WO2006096899A3 (en) 2007-04-19 application
EP1859108A2 (en) 2007-11-28 application

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