US20080103644A1 - Method and system for using database and gps data to linearize vor and ils navigation data - Google Patents

Method and system for using database and gps data to linearize vor and ils navigation data Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US20080103644A1
US20080103644A1 US11965227 US96522707A US2008103644A1 US 20080103644 A1 US20080103644 A1 US 20080103644A1 US 11965227 US11965227 US 11965227 US 96522707 A US96522707 A US 96522707A US 2008103644 A1 US2008103644 A1 US 2008103644A1
Authority
US
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
transmitter
deviation
flight
vor
glide
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US11965227
Inventor
Michael Oberg
Zhe Lin
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Garmin International Inc
Original Assignee
Garmin International Inc
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S1/00Beacons or beacon systems transmitting signals having a characteristic or characteristics capable of being detected by non-directional receivers and defining directions, positions, or position lines fixed relatively to the beacon transmitters; Receivers co-operating therewith
    • G01S1/02Beacons or beacon systems transmitting signals having a characteristic or characteristics capable of being detected by non-directional receivers and defining directions, positions, or position lines fixed relatively to the beacon transmitters; Receivers co-operating therewith using radio waves
    • G01S1/08Systems for determining direction or position line
    • G01S1/44Rotating or oscillating beam beacons defining directions in the plane of rotation or oscillation
    • G01S1/46Broad-beam systems producing at a receiver a substantially continuous sinusoidal envelope signal of the carrier wave of the beam, the phase angle of which is dependent upon the angle between the direction of the receiver from the beacon and a reference direction from the beacon, e.g. cardioid system
    • G01S1/50Broad-beam systems producing at a receiver a substantially continuous sinusoidal envelope signal of the carrier wave of the beam, the phase angle of which is dependent upon the angle between the direction of the receiver from the beacon and a reference direction from the beacon, e.g. cardioid system wherein the phase angle of the direction-dependent envelope signal is compared with a non-direction-dependent reference signal, e.g. VOR
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S1/00Beacons or beacon systems transmitting signals having a characteristic or characteristics capable of being detected by non-directional receivers and defining directions, positions, or position lines fixed relatively to the beacon transmitters; Receivers co-operating therewith
    • G01S1/02Beacons or beacon systems transmitting signals having a characteristic or characteristics capable of being detected by non-directional receivers and defining directions, positions, or position lines fixed relatively to the beacon transmitters; Receivers co-operating therewith using radio waves
    • G01S1/08Systems for determining direction or position line
    • G01S1/14Systems for determining direction or position line using amplitude comparison of signals transmitted simultaneously from antennas or antenna systems having differently oriented overlapping directivity-characteristics
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S19/00Satellite radio beacon positioning systems; Determining position, velocity or attitude using signals transmitted by such systems
    • G01S19/01Satellite radio beacon positioning systems transmitting time-stamped messages, e.g. GPS [Global Positioning System], GLONASS [Global Orbiting Navigation Satellite System] or GALILEO
    • G01S19/13Receivers
    • G01S19/14Receivers specially adapted for specific applications
    • G01S19/15Aircraft landing systems
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S19/00Satellite radio beacon positioning systems; Determining position, velocity or attitude using signals transmitted by such systems
    • G01S19/38Determining a navigation solution using signals transmitted by a satellite radio beacon positioning system
    • G01S19/39Determining a navigation solution using signals transmitted by a satellite radio beacon positioning system the satellite radio beacon positioning system transmitting time-stamped messages, e.g. GPS [Global Positioning System], GLONASS [Global Orbiting Navigation Satellite System] or GALILEO
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S3/00Direction-finders for determining the direction from which infrasonic, sonic, ultrasonic, or electromagnetic waves, or particle emission, not having a directional significance, are being received
    • G01S3/02Direction-finders for determining the direction from which infrasonic, sonic, ultrasonic, or electromagnetic waves, or particle emission, not having a directional significance, are being received using radio waves
    • G01S3/14Systems for determining direction or deviation from predetermined direction
    • G01S3/28Systems for determining direction or deviation from predetermined direction using amplitude comparison of signals derived simultaneously from receiving antennas or antenna systems having differently-oriented directivity characteristics

Abstract

A method and system for determining a deviation of a vehicle from a desired course are described. The method includes receiving bearing signals from a transmitter, accessing a database, on the vehicle, to obtain transmitter position information identifying a position of the transmitter, obtaining vehicle position information using GPS identifying a current position of the vehicle, and determining a deviation of the vehicle from the desired course utilizing the transmitter position information, the vehicle position information, and the bearing signal.

Description

    RELATED APPLICATION
  • [0001]
    This application is a divisional of U.S. application Ser. No. 10/736,969, filed Dec. 16, 2003, entitled “Method and System for Using Database and GPS Data to Linearize VOR and ILS Navigation Data,” which is incorporated herein by reference.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • [0002]
    The present invention relates generally to aircraft navigation and landing. More specifically, embodiments of the invention relate to methods and systems for navigating and landing aircraft.
  • [0003]
    A VHF Omni-directional Range (VOR) navigation system is implemented by dispersing VOR transmitter facilities across a geographic area. VOR receivers are located on aircraft which navigate through such a geographic area. The basic principle of operation of the VOR navigation system includes transmission from the VOR transmitter facilities transmitting two signals at the same time. One VOR signal is transmitted constantly in all directions, while the other is rotatably transmitted about the VOR transmission facility. The airborne VOR receiver receives both signals, analyzes a phase difference between the two signals, and interprets the result as a radial to or from the VOR transmitter 100. The VOR navigation system allows a pilot to simply, accurately, and without ambiguity navigate from VOR transmitter facility to VOR transmitter facility. Each VOR transmission facility operates at frequencies that are different from surrounding VOR transmitters. Therefore a pilot can tune their VOR receiver to the VOR transmission facility to which they wish to navigate. Widely introduced in the 1950s, VOR remains one of the primary navigation systems used in aircraft navigation.
  • [0004]
    The rotating transmission signal is achieved through use of a phased array antenna at the VOR transmission facility. Separation between elements of the array causes nulls in the signal received at the aircraft. Element separation may also cause erratic signal reception when an aircraft is within an area above the antenna array. Such nulls result in a conically shaped area originated at the VOR transmitter and extending upward and outward at a known angle. The conically shaped area is sometimes referred to as a cone of confusion. When an aircraft is within the cone of confusion, a pilot typically navigates utilizing only heading information, a process sometimes referred to as dead-reckoning. It is advantageous for a pilot to know that he or she is entering the cone of confusion.
  • [0005]
    An instrument landing system (ILS), also includes ground based transmitters, located at runways, and airborne receivers. The ILS transmitters transmit signals, received by the receivers on the aircraft, which are utilized to align an aircraft's approach to a runway. Typically, an ILS consists of two portions, a localizer portion and a glide slope portion. The localizer portion is utilized to provide lateral guidance and includes a localizer transmitter located at the far end of the runway. The glide slope provides vertical guidance to a runway and includes a glide slope transmitter located at the approach end of the runway. More specifically, a localizer signal provides azimuth, or lateral, deviation information which is utilized in guiding the aircraft to the centerline of the runway. The localizer signal is similar to a VOR signal except that it provides radial information for only a single course, the runway heading. The localizer signal includes two modulated signals, and a null between the two signals is along the centerline path to the runway.
  • [0006]
    The glide slope provides vertical guidance to the aircraft during the ILS approach. The glide slope includes two modulated signals, with a null between the two signals being oriented along the glide path angle to the runway. If the aircraft is properly aligned with the glide slope signal, the aircraft should land in a touchdown area of the runway. A standard glide slope or glide path angle is three degrees from horizontal, downhill, to the approach-end of the runway. Known flight guidance systems, sometimes referred to as flight control systems, are configured to assume a nominal glide path angle, for example, three degrees. Some known flight guidance systems have difficulty capturing the null in the glide slope signal at runways whose glide path angle varies significantly from the assumed glide path angle.
  • [0007]
    The VOR, localizer, and glide slope all provide an angular deviation from a desired flight path. The angular deviation is the angle between the current flight path and the desired flight path. Depending on a distance from a transmitter, a linear change to the flight path to correct an angular deviation can vary widely. A linear deviation is the current distance between the current flight path and the desired flight path. Furthermore, most flight guidance systems are better suited to receive and process linear deviations from a desired flight path. Known flight guidance systems utilize data from DME and radar altimeters to convert angular deviations in one or more of VOR, localizer, and glide slope, into linear deviations that can be acted upon by a pilot or a flight guidance system. Therefore, aircraft not equipped with DME or a radar altimeter are not able to convert the angular deviations into linear deviations that can be optimally acted upon by the flight guidance system.
  • [0008]
    Known flight guidance systems utilize distance information from distance measuring equipment (DME) to estimate a distance to a VOR transmitter. The estimated distance, along with an angular deviation as determined from the VOR bearing is utilized to determine a linear deviation from a desired flight path and detect a cone of confusion. However, this approach assumes a default VOR transmitter station elevation, that the aircraft is equipped with DME, and that a DME station is co-located with the VOR transmitter.
  • [0009]
    Known flight guidance systems also utilize altitude information from, for example, a radar altimeter to estimate localizer deviations. The altitude, along with an angular deviation as determined by the localizer receiver is utilized along with an assumption of runway length to determine a localizer linear deviation from a desired flight path. For glide slope linear deviations, the altitude, an angular deviation as determined by a glide slope receiver, and an assumed glide path angle are utilized to estimate the linear deviation from a desired glide slope. These estimations assume that the aircraft is equipped with an altitude measuring device (e.g. radar altimeter). It would be advantageous to utilize actual data relating to VOR, localizers, glide slopes, and runway lengths and altitudes when providing a pilot or an auto pilot system navigation data. Similarly, it would be advantageous to provide such navigation data in aircraft which are not equipped with radar altimeters or distance measuring equipment.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  • [0010]
    In one embodiment of the present invention, a method for determining the deviation of a vehicle from a desired course is provided. The method comprises receiving bearing signals from a transmitter, accessing a database, on the vehicle, to obtain transmitter position information identifying a position of the transmitter, obtaining vehicle position information using GPS identifying a current position of the vehicle, and determining a deviation of the vehicle from the desired course utilizing the transmitter position information, the vehicle position information, and the bearing signal.
  • [0011]
    In another embodiment of the present invention, a system for determining a deviation of a vehicle from a desired course is provided. The system comprises a receiver receiving a bearing signal from a transmitter, a database storing transmitter position information identifying a position of the transmitter, a GPS receiver obtaining vehicle position information identifying a current position of the vehicle based on a GPS signal, and a controller determining a deviation of the vehicle from the desired course utilizing the transmitter position information, the vehicle position information, and the bearing signal.
  • [0012]
    In still another embodiment of the present invention, a flight control system is provided that comprises a database and a flight director. The data from the database is available to the flight director, and pitch and roll commands initiating from the flight director are based at least partially on the data within the database.
  • [0013]
    In yet another embodiment of the present invention, a computer program product embodied on a computer readable medium for determining a deviation of a vehicle from a desired course is provided which comprises a data reception source code segment, a database access source code segment, and a determination source code segment. The data reception source code segment receives data relating to an angular deviation of the vehicle as determined from bearing signals received from a transmitter, and data relating to a position of the vehicle. The database access source code segment retrieves data from a database relating to a position of the transmitter supplying the bearing signals. The determination source code segment determines a linear deviation from a desired path utilizing the data relating to angular deviation, the data relating to transmitter position, and the data relating to vehicle position.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • [0014]
    The objects and features of the invention noted above are explained in more detail with reference to the drawings which form a part of the specification and which are to be read in conjunction therewith, and in which like reference numerals denote like elements in the various views.
  • [0015]
    FIG. 1 is a block diagram of a portion of a flight guidance system according to one embodiment of the present invention.
  • [0016]
    FIG. 2 is a diagram illustrating a number of parameters utilized in calculating a linear deviation from a desired path to a VOR transmitter.
  • [0017]
    FIG. 3 is a diagram illustrating a number of parameters utilized in estimating of a cone of confusion above a VOR transmitter.
  • [0018]
    FIG. 4 is a diagram illustrating a number of parameters utilized in calculating a linear deviation from a desired path to a localizer transmitter.
  • [0019]
    FIG. 5 is a diagram illustrating a number of parameters utilized in calculating a linear deviation from a desired back course path to a localizer transmitter.
  • [0020]
    FIG. 6 is a diagram illustrating a number of parameters utilized in calculating a linear deviation from a desired path to a glide slope transmitter.
  • [0021]
    FIG. 7 is a flowchart describing a method for determining a linear deviation from a desired path to a VOR transmitter.
  • [0022]
    FIG. 8 is a flowchart describing a method for determining a linear deviation from a desired path to a localizer transmitter.
  • [0023]
    FIG. 9 is a flowchart describing a method for determining a linear deviation from a desired glide slope angle.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  • [0024]
    FIG. 1 is a block diagram of a portion of a flight guidance system 10 according to one embodiment of the present invention. The flight guidance system 10, typically including a flight director and autopilot function, includes a microprocessor 12 that is coupled to each of a program memory 14, a database 16, pilot controls 18, and a pilot display 20. In the embodiment shown, the flight guidance system 10 receives aircraft position data from GPS receiver 30, which is connected to GPS antenna 32. The flight guidance system 10 also receives inputs from a VHF Omni-directional Range (VOR) receiver 40, which is connected to VOR antenna 42. As described above, the VOR system is utilized to navigate from VOR transmitter to VOR transmitter along a planned flight path. VOR transmitters are interspersed across a geographic area to provide navigation references for aircraft equipped with VOR receivers 40.
  • [0025]
    Once an aircraft has navigated past the last VOR transmitter in the planned flight path, it will begin an approach to an airport, and may begin to receive signals from an instrument landing system (ILS). As the air vehicle (not shown in FIG. 1) in which the flight guidance system 10 is installed approaches the runway for landing, it will receive input data from the ILS. An ILS may include a localizer receiver 50, localizer antenna 52, a glide slope receiver 60, and a glide slope antenna 62. The flight guidance system 10 also receives altitude data 70 from an altitude source, for example, an altimeter corrected for barometric pressure (not shown).
  • [0026]
    The localizer receiver 50, and the glide slope receiver 60 receive signals from corresponding transmitters (not shown in FIG. 1). A localizer transmitter is located at a far end of a runway and a glide slope transmitter is located at an approach end of the runway. The localizer and glide slope transmitters and receivers (50,60) aid a pilot in properly aligning an aircraft with the runway for landing. The localizer is utilized for a lateral alignment, and the glide slope for maintaining a proper vertical approach angle to the runway.
  • [0027]
    The database 16 may include location information (i.e. latitude, longitude, and elevation) for each respective VOR transmitter, localizer transmitter, and glide slope transmitter. In addition, runway lengths and glide path angles are maintained in database 16 for various runways. In one embodiment, data within database 16 relating to VOR transmitter latitude and longitude are utilized along with aircraft position (latitude and longitude from GPS receiver) to determine a horizontal distance to the transmitter. As utilized herein, a horizontal distance is the distance along the ground between two points. The horizontal distance from the transmitter is utilized along with an angular deviation from a desired flight path, for example from VOR receiver 40, to determine a linear deviation from a desired flight path. Utilizing the linear deviation, the flight guidance system 10 determines, for example, pitch and roll commands to steer the vehicle to the desired flight path.
  • [0028]
    In the case of VOR, the height above the VOR transmitter, sometimes referred to as a VOR station, is also utilized to determine a cone of confusion for the VOR station, as further described below. Data relating to runway length for individual runways is stored in database 16 which is utilized, along with an angular deviation from the desired flight path provided by localizer receiver 50, to determine a linear deviation from a desired lateral approach to a runway. Data relating to glide path angles for individual runways is also stored in database 16. Such data, along with an angular deviation from the desired glide path angle provided by glide slope receiver 60, is utilized in determining a linear deviation from the desired glide path angle to a runway.
  • [0029]
    FIG. 2 is a diagram illustrating the parameters utilized in calculating a linear deviation, d, from the desired flight path to VOR transmitter 100. VOR transmitter 100 operates to provide a direction to the transmitter 106, sometimes referred to as VOR bearing, for an air vehicle 104. The microprocessor 12 (shown in FIG. 1) determines the difference between the desired course 102 and the current VOR bearing 106 as an angular deviation 108, denoted as ε. While a pilot would want to change their flight path to that of the desired course 102, an angular deviation does not provide much guidance. For example, if air vehicle 104 is 100 miles from the VOR transmitter 100, an angular deviation of three degrees results in a linear deviation 110 in excess of five miles from the desired flight path 102. However, if air vehicle 104 is only five miles from the VOR transmitter 100, an angular deviation of three degrees results in a linear deviation of about 0.26 miles from the desired flight path 102. From this simple example it is seen that a linear deviation is most useful in correcting a flight path of an air vehicle 104.
  • [0030]
    In one embodiment, for VOR operation, the flight guidance system 10 (shown in FIG. 1) uses the VOR transmitter 100 location data stored in the database 16 along with the current air vehicle position from GPS receiver 30 to determine a horizontal distance, D, to the VOR transmitter 100. This distance is used along with the angular deviation 108, ε, as determined by VOR receiver 40 to determine a linearized deviation 110 from the desired flight path 102. The determination of the linear deviation 108 results in improved flight director and auto pilot tracking. For example, a bank (or turn) angle needed to reduce or eliminate the linear deviation 108 is displayed on pilot display 20 (shown in FIG. 1).
  • [0031]
    Therefore, to linearize the signal from VOR receiver 40, all that is needed is the horizontal distance to the VOR transmitter 100 and the angular deviation 108, ε, provided by VOR receiver 40. Using data relating to the VOR transmitter latitude and longitude from database 16 along with the GPS data for present latitude and longitude provides the horizontal distance, D. The resultant linearized deviation is calculated according to: VOR linear deviation=d=D×Sin(ε). Utilizing the linear deviation, d, the flight guidance system 10 determines roll commands to steer the vehicle to the desired path 102.
  • [0032]
    Flight guidance system 10 also utilizes an elevation of VOR transmitter 100 from database 16 and barometric altitude data to determine a height of air vehicle 104 above the VOR transmitter 100. With such data and the horizontal distance D, flight guidance system 10 is able to determine a consistent “cone of confusion” extending above the VOR transmitter. As is further described below, the flight guidance system 10 will use dead reckoning to navigate the air vehicle through the cone of confusion, since the transmitter antenna pattern of VOR transmitter 100 will preclude stable signals being received by VOR receiver 40 (shown in FIG. 1) in this region.
  • [0033]
    FIG. 3 illustrates a cone of confusion 150 created by an antenna array pattern at VOR transmitter 100. To estimate a boundary for the cone of confusion 150, a height, H, above the VOR transmitter 100 is required. This height is found by utilization of the elevation data for VOR transmitter 100 from database 16 and the present aircraft baro-corrected altitude from an air data system (e.g. altitude data 70). The difference between the two is the height, H. The cone of confusion is then defined by the ratio of height, H above the station to the distance to the station, D, as defined above. Determination of whether air vehicle 104 is within the cone of confusion 150, and therefore signals originating from VOR transmitter 100 are no longer useful, is a logical expression. If H>D×tan(Cone Angle), where Cone Angle is nominally 60 degrees, then air vehicle 104 is in the cone of confusion 150, and a pilot should utilize dead-reckoning to navigate through the cone, essentially acting as if the linear deviation, d, is zero.
  • [0034]
    FIG. 4 illustrates operation of the localizer portion of the ILS for linearization of an angular deviation from a desired path, according to another embodiment of the present invention. As described above, a localizer transmitter 200 transmits localizer signals which are received by localizer receiver 50 which then determines an azimuth, or angular lateral deviation from a desired path 204 to guide the air vehicle 104 to the centerline 206 of runway 208. As is shown in FIG. 4, localizer transmitter 200 is located at an end of runway 208 that is opposite an approaching air vehicle 104.
  • [0035]
    To determine a linear deviation from desired path 204 utilizing the localizer signal, the flight guidance system 10 utilizes the data relating to location for the localizer transmitter 200 from the database 16 along with the current position of air vehicle 104 as determined through GPS receiver 30 to determine a horizontal distance, D, to the localizer transmitter 200. This distance, D is utilized along with a runway length, RL, from the database 16, and the angular deviation, ε, as determined by the localizer system (transmitter 200, localizer receiver 50) into a linear deviation 210, d, with a constant scale factor to improve auto pilot tracking and performance of the flight guidance system 10.
  • [0036]
    Specifically, to linearize the deviation from the localizer portion of the ILS, an end of runway deviation, y, is first determined through normalization of the localizer angular deviation by accounting for the constant beam width of 350 feet full scale at the threshold (approach end) of all runways. A full scale value (350 feet from a centerline of the runway 208 at the end of the runway opposite the localizer transmitter 200) for localizer angular deviation is represented as 0.155 DDM (difference in depth of modulation) at an output of the localizer receiver 50. A difference in depth of modulation occurs because the localizer transmitter 200 transmits two modulated signals.
  • [0037]
    Therefore, an end of runway deviation is calculated as y = ɛ 0.155 DDM × 350 feet = 2258 ɛ ( ft ) = 688.258 ɛ ( m ) .
    To then determine a linear deviation, d, at the air vehicle 104 from the desired path 204, the distance D, to localizer transmitter, and the database value for the length of the runway, RL, along with the end of runway deviation, y, is are utilized according to d = D × y RL 2 + y 2 .
    Such an approach by an air vehicle 104 is sometimes referred to as an ILS front course approach.
  • [0038]
    Sometimes, perhaps due to wind conditions, an aircraft 104 must approach the runway 208 in a direction that is opposite to the approach direction intended when the localizer transmitter 200 was installed. Such an approach is sometimes referred to as a back course approach. Determination of a linear deviation from a desired back course approach is illustrated in FIG. 5. During a back course approach, the localizer transmitter 200 is located at the approach end of the runway 208. As above, the localizer transmitter 200 transmits localizer signals which are received by localizer receiver 50 which then determines an azimuth, or angular lateral deviation from a desired path 230 to guide the air vehicle 104 to the centerline 206 of runway 208, albeit from the opposite direction. The linearization equations are the same for back course approach as the ILS front course approach described above except for a change in sign.
  • [0039]
    Therefore, an end of runway deviation is calculated as y = ɛ 0.155 DDM × 350 feet = 2258 ɛ ( ft ) = 688.258 ɛ ( m ) .
    To then determine a linear deviation 232, d, at the air vehicle 104 from the desired path 204, the distance D, to the localizer transmitter, and the database value for the length of the runway, RL, along with the end of runway deviation, y, is are utilized according to d = - D × y RL 2 + y 2 .
  • [0040]
    FIG. 6 illustrates operation of the glide slope portion of the ILS. Specifically, to determine a linear deviation from the glide slope path 250, the flight guidance system 10 uses data relating to a location for the glide slope transmitter 252 from the database 16 along with the current aircraft position from GPS receiver 30 to determine a horizontal distance, D, to the glide slope transmitter 252. This horizontal distance, D, is used along with the glide path angle 254 from the database 16 to convert an angular altitude deviation signal received from glide slope receiver 60 into a linearized deviation, d, 256 with a constant scale factor to improve autopilot tracking and operation of flight guidance system 10.
  • [0041]
    To linearize the angular error from the glide path angle utilizing the glide slope portion of the ILS, the distance, D, to the glide slope transmitter 252 is used. The distance, D, is determined as the difference between air vehicle position, provided by GPS receiver 30 and data relating to the location of the glide slope transmitter 252 from database 16. In one embodiment, the database 16 does not include data relating to a position of the glide slope transmitter 252. Rather, in such an embodiment, data relating to a position of the localizer transmitter 200 along with data relating to runway length are utilized to estimate a position of the glide slope transmitter 252.
  • [0042]
    The glide path angle, GPA, stored in database 16, and height above the station, H, which is derived from the transmitter 252 elevation in database 16, and elevation of air vehicle 104 (from either a GPS or an air data computer 70 (shown in FIG. 1)) are utilized to determine if an unwanted side lobe of the glide slope signal is being received, as opposed to the desired main beam. This determination of main/side lobe helps to prevents false captures.
  • [0043]
    FIG. 6 shows the geometry of the linearization, where ε is the GS deviation error in DDM, and the full scale (F.S.) value for glide slope deviation is represented as 0.175DDM at the glide slope receiver 60 output, corresponding to 0.2× the glide path angle (GPA) from the database 16. The glide slope deviation error angle in radians is α = ɛ 0.175 DDM × 0.2 GPA ,
    and the glide slope linear deviation is d = D cos ( GPA - α ) × sin ( α ) .
    If (0.75×GPA)<arctan(H/D)<(1.5×GPA), then capture is allowed.
  • [0044]
    FIG. 7 is a flowchart 300 illustrating the methods disclosed herein for linearizing a deviation from a VOR bearing signal. Referring to flowchart 300, a pilot selects 302 a flight course. Flight guidance system 10 (shown in FIG. 1) receives 304 a VOR bearing from the VOR receiver 40 (shown in FIG. 1). The flight guidance system 10 retrieves 306 a position (i.e. latitude, longitude, and elevation) of the VOR transmitter 100 (shown in FIG. 2). The flight guidance system 10 then receives 308 a vehicle position (i.e. latitude, longitude, and elevation) from a GPS receiver 30 (shown in FIG. 1). The flight guidance system 10 calculates 310 a linear deviation from the VOR bearing utilizing the methodology described with respect to FIG. 2. Upon calculation 310 of the linear deviation, the flight guidance system 10 is configured to calculate 312 a roll command that corresponds to a roll that is needed to minimize the deviation from the VOR bearing signal. The pilot then decides 314 whether the roll command is to be executed manually or through an auto pilot system.
  • [0045]
    FIG. 8 is a flowchart 350 illustrating the methods disclosed herein for linearizing a deviation from a center of a localizer signal that is a portion of the functionality provided by an ILS. The method is similar to that associated with determining a linear deviation from a VOR bearing (shown in FIG. 7). Referring to flowchart 350, a pilot selects 352 a flight course. Flight guidance system 10 (shown in FIG. 1) receives 354 localizer data from the localizer receiver 50 (shown in FIG. 1). The localizer data is in the form of a deviation from a null between the localizer's transmitted beams. The flight guidance system 10 retrieves 356 a position (i.e. latitude, longitude, elevation, and runway length) of the runway associated with the localizer transmitter 200 (shown in FIG. 4). The flight guidance system 10 then receives 358 a vehicle position (i.e. latitude, longitude, and elevation) from a GPS receiver 30 (shown in FIG. 1). The flight guidance system 10 calculates 360 a linear deviation from the localizer signal utilizing the methodology described with respect to FIG. 4. Upon calculation 360 of the linear deviation, the flight guidance system 10 is configured to calculate 362 a roll command that corresponds to a roll that is needed to minimize the deviation from the localizer signal. The pilot then decides 364 whether the roll command is to be executed manually or through an auto pilot system. A method similar to that illustrated by flowchart 350 is utilized in determining a linear deviation from a desired path for a back course approach to a runway.
  • [0046]
    FIG. 9 is a flowchart 400 illustrating the methods disclosed herein for linearizing an angular altitude deviation from the ILS glide path. The glide slope angular altitude deviation is a portion of the functionality provided by an ILS. The method is similar to that associated with determining a linear deviation from a VOR bearing (shown in FIG. 7). Referring to flowchart 400, a pilot selects 402 a flight course. Flight guidance system 10 (shown in FIG. 1) receives 404 a glide slope error angle from the glide slope receiver 60 (shown in FIG. 1). The flight guidance system 10 retrieves 406 a position (i.e. latitude, longitude, elevation) and a glide path angle that is defined for the runway associated with glide slope transmitter 252 (shown in FIG. 6). The flight guidance system 10 then receives 408 a vehicle position (i.e. latitude, longitude, and elevation) from a GPS receiver 30 (shown in FIG. 1). The flight guidance system 10 calculates 410 a linear deviation from the glide path angle utilizing the methodology described with respect to FIG. 6. Upon calculation 410 of the linear deviation, the flight guidance system 10 calculates 412 a roll command that is needed to reduce the deviation from the glide path angle. The pilot then decides 414 whether the roll command is to be executed manually or through an auto pilot system.
  • [0047]
    The described systems and methods are able to achieve improved performance over classical linearization methods, due to the use of database parameters to get actual values for different installations rather than assuming default values.
  • [0048]
    While the invention has been described in terms of various specific embodiments, those skilled in the art will recognize that the invention can be practiced with modification within the spirit and scope of the claims.

Claims (18)

  1. 1. A flight control system comprising:
    a database stored on a vehicle; and
    a flight director accessing said database and determining pitch and roll commands for the vehicle based at least partially on the data from said database.
  2. 2. The flight control system according to claim 1 wherein said database comprises data relating to position information of at least one of a VOR transmitter, a localizer transmitter, a runway length and a glide path angle associated with the glide slope transmitter, and an elevation of the runway.
  3. 3. The flight control system according to claim 1 wherein said flight director determines a linear VOR deviation of the vehicle from a desired path based on VOR transmitter position information stored in said database that identifies latitude and longitude for a VOR transmitter.
  4. 4. The flight control system according to claim 1 wherein said flight director determines a lateral deviation of the vehicle from a desired approach to a runway based on transmitter position information stored in said database that identifies a latitude and a longitude of a localizer transmitter.
  5. 5. The flight control system according to claim 1 wherein said flight director determines an altitude deviation of the vehicle from a desired altitude approach to a runway based on transmitter position information stored in said database that identifies a latitude, a longitude, and an elevation of a glide slope transmitter.
  6. 6. The flight control system according to claim 1 wherein said flight director determines an altitude deviation of the vehicle from a desired altitude approach to a runway based on transmitter position information stored in said database that identifies a latitude, a longitude, a length of the runway and an elevation of a localizer transmitter.
  7. 7. The flight control system according to claim 1 wherein said flight director identifies when the vehicle is in a cone of confusion extending from a VOR transmitter based on the transmitter position information stored in said database.
  8. 8. The flight control system according to claim 1 wherein said flight director:
    identifies when the vehicle is in a cone of confusion extending from a VOR transmitter based on the transmitter position information;
    initiates roll commands utilizing deviations from a desired course when the vehicle is not within the cone of confusion extending from the transmitter; and
    initiates roll commands based on a previous heading when the vehicle is within the cone of confusion.
  9. 9. The flight control system according to claim 1 wherein pitch and roll commands initiating from said flight director are calculated utilizing a linear deviation from a selected course, the linear deviation based on one or more of the data within said database, an angular deviation received by said flight director, GPS data received by said flight director, and an altitude received by said flight director.
  10. 10. The flight control system according to claim 1 wherein said flight director comprises multiple processors that perform simultaneous processing.
  11. 11. A method for controlling flight of a vehicle comprising:
    storing a database on the vehicle;
    accessing the database; and
    determining pitch and roll commands for the vehicle based at least partially on the data accessed in the database.
  12. 12. The method according to claim 11 wherein said storing step comprises storing data relating to position information of at least one of a VOR transmitter, an instrument landing system (ILS) transmitter, a runway length associated with the ILS transmitter, and an elevation of the runway.
  13. 13. The method according to claim 11 wherein said determining step comprises determining a linear VOR deviation of the vehicle from a desired path based on VOR transmitter position information stored in the database that identifies latitude and longitude for a VOR transmitter.
  14. 14. The method according to claim 11 wherein said determining step comprises determining a lateral deviation of the vehicle from a desired approach to a runway based on transmitter position information stored in the database that identifies a latitude and a longitude of a localizer transmitter.
  15. 15. The method according to claim 11 wherein said determining step comprises determining an altitude deviation of the vehicle from a desired altitude approach to a runway based on transmitter position information stored in the database that identifies a latitude, a longitude, and an elevation of a glide slope transmitter.
  16. 16. The method according to claim 11 wherein said determining step comprise determining an altitude deviation of the vehicle from a desired altitude approach to a runway based on transmitter position information stored in the database that identifies a latitude, a longitude, a length of the runway and an elevation of a localizer transmitter.
  17. 17. The method according to claim 11 wherein said determining step comprises determining when the vehicle is in a cone of confusion extending from a VOR transmitter based on the transmitter position information stored in said database.
  18. 18. The method according to claim 11 wherein said determining step comprises calculating a linear deviation from a selected course based on one or more of the data within the database, a received angular deviation, received GPS data, and a received altitude.
US11965227 2003-12-16 2007-12-27 Method and system for using database and gps data to linearize vor and ils navigation data Abandoned US20080103644A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US10736969 US7337063B1 (en) 2003-12-16 2003-12-16 Method and system for using database and GPS data to linearize VOR and ILS navigation data
US11965227 US20080103644A1 (en) 2003-12-16 2007-12-27 Method and system for using database and gps data to linearize vor and ils navigation data

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US11965227 US20080103644A1 (en) 2003-12-16 2007-12-27 Method and system for using database and gps data to linearize vor and ils navigation data

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20080103644A1 true true US20080103644A1 (en) 2008-05-01

Family

ID=39103709

Family Applications (2)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US10736969 Active 2025-10-25 US7337063B1 (en) 2003-12-16 2003-12-16 Method and system for using database and GPS data to linearize VOR and ILS navigation data
US11965227 Abandoned US20080103644A1 (en) 2003-12-16 2007-12-27 Method and system for using database and gps data to linearize vor and ils navigation data

Family Applications Before (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US10736969 Active 2025-10-25 US7337063B1 (en) 2003-12-16 2003-12-16 Method and system for using database and GPS data to linearize VOR and ILS navigation data

Country Status (1)

Country Link
US (2) US7337063B1 (en)

Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US7428450B1 (en) * 2003-12-16 2008-09-23 Garmin International, Inc Method and system for using a database and GPS position data to generate bearing data
US20090192732A1 (en) * 2008-01-24 2009-07-30 Robert Bosch Gmbh Procedure for diagnosing a metering valve of an exhaust gas treatment device and device for implementing the procedure
US8200379B2 (en) 2008-07-03 2012-06-12 Manfredi Dario P Smart recovery system
US20120265376A1 (en) * 2011-04-12 2012-10-18 The Boeing Company Airplane Position Assurance Monitor
CN104281149A (en) * 2013-07-12 2015-01-14 空中客车运营简化股份公司 Method and device for displaying in real time a pitch instruction on an aircraft during manual piloting
US20150115848A1 (en) * 2013-10-28 2015-04-30 Iris Dynamics Ltd. Electric linear actuator
US9098999B2 (en) 2013-09-13 2015-08-04 The Boeing Company Systems and methods for assuring the accuracy of a synthetic runway presentation

Families Citing this family (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US7337063B1 (en) * 2003-12-16 2008-02-26 Garmin International, Inc. Method and system for using database and GPS data to linearize VOR and ILS navigation data
US8784107B2 (en) * 2005-03-14 2014-07-22 Cubic Corporation Flight training system
US8794970B2 (en) * 2005-03-14 2014-08-05 Steven G. Testrake Control systems to emulate jet aircraft in reciprocating engine-powered trainers
US9099012B2 (en) * 2005-03-14 2015-08-04 Cubic Corporation Adjustment of altitude measurements
US20070010921A1 (en) * 2005-07-05 2007-01-11 Honeywell International Inc. Method, apparatus, and database products for automated runway selection
FR2889316B1 (en) * 2005-07-27 2009-05-08 Airbus France Sas System for displaying on a first movable indication dependent position of a second mobile position
US7546183B1 (en) * 2006-03-10 2009-06-09 Frank Marcum In-flight verification of instrument landing system signals
US7698026B2 (en) * 2007-06-14 2010-04-13 The Boeing Company Automatic strategic offset function
FR2917823B1 (en) * 2007-06-22 2011-05-13 Airbus France Method and device simulation of navigation instruments
US7948403B2 (en) * 2007-12-04 2011-05-24 Honeywell International Inc. Apparatus and method for aligning an aircraft
FR3016222B1 (en) * 2014-01-03 2016-02-05 Airbus Operations Sas Method and vertical guidance device for an aircraft during an approach to a runway along a lateral approach path.

Citations (31)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6182005B2 (en) *
US2801051A (en) * 1954-06-28 1957-07-30 Butler Co Navigational system
US3427622A (en) * 1967-02-14 1969-02-11 Communication Systems Inc Vor antenna
US3534399A (en) * 1968-07-22 1970-10-13 Rca Corp Area navigation method and apparatus for aircraft with vhf-omnirange (vor) and distance measuring equipment (dme)
US3574283A (en) * 1967-12-27 1971-04-13 William R Albers A numeric collimated display including means for projecting elevation, attitude and speed information
US3754259A (en) * 1970-07-22 1973-08-21 R Redlich Omnirange navigation apparatus and method
US3781891A (en) * 1972-04-17 1973-12-25 R Moose Aircraft glide slope instrumentation system
US4495473A (en) * 1982-07-19 1985-01-22 Rockwell International Corporation Digital phase shifting apparatus which compensates for change of frequency of an input signal to be phase shifted
US4604625A (en) * 1983-07-14 1986-08-05 Davidson Eldon F Phase-locked digital very high frequency omni-range (VOR) receiver
US4886458A (en) * 1988-06-27 1989-12-12 Roman Robert J Mechanical analog computer device
US5305010A (en) * 1993-03-12 1994-04-19 Wayne C. Clemens Crystal oscillator synchronized digital very high frequency omni-range (VOR) instrumentation unit
US5343395A (en) * 1992-08-26 1994-08-30 Watts Alan B Aircraft landing guidance system and method
US5714948A (en) * 1993-05-14 1998-02-03 Worldwide Notifications Systems, Inc. Satellite based aircraft traffic control system
US5833467A (en) * 1997-06-30 1998-11-10 Dodd; Donald K. VOR flight instructional aid and method of use
US6057786A (en) * 1997-10-15 2000-05-02 Dassault Aviation Apparatus and method for aircraft display and control including head up display
US6112141A (en) * 1997-10-15 2000-08-29 Dassault Aviation Apparatus and method for graphically oriented aircraft display and control
US6182005B1 (en) * 1990-10-09 2001-01-30 Harold Roberts Pilley Airport guidance and safety system incorporating navigation and control using GNSS compatible methods
JP2001249172A (en) * 2000-03-07 2001-09-14 Tsutomu Tokifuji Vor/dme (very-high frequency omnidirectional radio beacon facility/distance measuring device) and vortac (strategic navigation system) antenna deterioration equipment diagnostic system
US6314366B1 (en) * 1993-05-14 2001-11-06 Tom S. Farmakis Satellite based collision avoidance system
US6567069B1 (en) * 1998-11-25 2003-05-20 Alliedsignal Inc. Integrated display and yoke mechanism
US6587046B2 (en) * 1996-03-27 2003-07-01 Raymond Anthony Joao Monitoring apparatus and method
US20040220722A1 (en) * 2003-05-01 2004-11-04 Honeywell International Inc. Radio navigation system
US20040225432A1 (en) * 1991-02-25 2004-11-11 H. Robert Pilley Method and system for the navigation and control of vehicles at an airport and in the surrounding airspace
US20060216674A1 (en) * 2003-07-25 2006-09-28 Baranov Nikolai A Flight simulator
US7302316B2 (en) * 2004-09-14 2007-11-27 Brigham Young University Programmable autopilot system for autonomous flight of unmanned aerial vehicles
US20070288128A1 (en) * 2006-06-09 2007-12-13 Garmin Ltd. Automatic speech recognition system and method for aircraft
US7337063B1 (en) * 2003-12-16 2008-02-26 Garmin International, Inc. Method and system for using database and GPS data to linearize VOR and ILS navigation data
US7428450B1 (en) * 2003-12-16 2008-09-23 Garmin International, Inc Method and system for using a database and GPS position data to generate bearing data
FR2921635A1 (en) * 2007-09-27 2009-04-03 Eurocopter France Method and device detection and signaling the approach of the vortex domain by a rotorcraft
US20090319100A1 (en) * 2008-06-20 2009-12-24 Honeywell International Inc. Systems and methods for defining and rendering a trajectory
US7652621B2 (en) * 2005-11-04 2010-01-26 Thales Method for automatically selecting radionavigation beacons

Family Cites Families (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4451830A (en) * 1980-12-17 1984-05-29 The Commonwealth Of Australia VHF Omni-range navigation system antenna
US5323306A (en) * 1992-02-24 1994-06-21 Troll Avionics Navigation system for converting bearing to waypoint data from a universal navigation system to signals usable by an omni bearing selector

Patent Citations (36)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6182005B2 (en) *
US2801051A (en) * 1954-06-28 1957-07-30 Butler Co Navigational system
US3427622A (en) * 1967-02-14 1969-02-11 Communication Systems Inc Vor antenna
US3574283A (en) * 1967-12-27 1971-04-13 William R Albers A numeric collimated display including means for projecting elevation, attitude and speed information
US3534399A (en) * 1968-07-22 1970-10-13 Rca Corp Area navigation method and apparatus for aircraft with vhf-omnirange (vor) and distance measuring equipment (dme)
US3754259A (en) * 1970-07-22 1973-08-21 R Redlich Omnirange navigation apparatus and method
US3781891A (en) * 1972-04-17 1973-12-25 R Moose Aircraft glide slope instrumentation system
US4495473A (en) * 1982-07-19 1985-01-22 Rockwell International Corporation Digital phase shifting apparatus which compensates for change of frequency of an input signal to be phase shifted
US4604625A (en) * 1983-07-14 1986-08-05 Davidson Eldon F Phase-locked digital very high frequency omni-range (VOR) receiver
US4886458A (en) * 1988-06-27 1989-12-12 Roman Robert J Mechanical analog computer device
US6182005B1 (en) * 1990-10-09 2001-01-30 Harold Roberts Pilley Airport guidance and safety system incorporating navigation and control using GNSS compatible methods
US20040225432A1 (en) * 1991-02-25 2004-11-11 H. Robert Pilley Method and system for the navigation and control of vehicles at an airport and in the surrounding airspace
US5343395A (en) * 1992-08-26 1994-08-30 Watts Alan B Aircraft landing guidance system and method
US5305010A (en) * 1993-03-12 1994-04-19 Wayne C. Clemens Crystal oscillator synchronized digital very high frequency omni-range (VOR) instrumentation unit
US5714948A (en) * 1993-05-14 1998-02-03 Worldwide Notifications Systems, Inc. Satellite based aircraft traffic control system
US20020133294A1 (en) * 1993-05-14 2002-09-19 Farmakis Tom S. Satellite based collision avoidance system
US6314366B1 (en) * 1993-05-14 2001-11-06 Tom S. Farmakis Satellite based collision avoidance system
US6587046B2 (en) * 1996-03-27 2003-07-01 Raymond Anthony Joao Monitoring apparatus and method
US5833467A (en) * 1997-06-30 1998-11-10 Dodd; Donald K. VOR flight instructional aid and method of use
US6112141A (en) * 1997-10-15 2000-08-29 Dassault Aviation Apparatus and method for graphically oriented aircraft display and control
US6057786A (en) * 1997-10-15 2000-05-02 Dassault Aviation Apparatus and method for aircraft display and control including head up display
US6567069B1 (en) * 1998-11-25 2003-05-20 Alliedsignal Inc. Integrated display and yoke mechanism
JP2001249172A (en) * 2000-03-07 2001-09-14 Tsutomu Tokifuji Vor/dme (very-high frequency omnidirectional radio beacon facility/distance measuring device) and vortac (strategic navigation system) antenna deterioration equipment diagnostic system
US20040220722A1 (en) * 2003-05-01 2004-11-04 Honeywell International Inc. Radio navigation system
US7054739B2 (en) * 2003-05-01 2006-05-30 Honeywell International Inc. Radio navigation system
US20060216674A1 (en) * 2003-07-25 2006-09-28 Baranov Nikolai A Flight simulator
US7337063B1 (en) * 2003-12-16 2008-02-26 Garmin International, Inc. Method and system for using database and GPS data to linearize VOR and ILS navigation data
US20080297397A1 (en) * 2003-12-16 2008-12-04 Garmin International, Inc. Method and system for using a database and gps position data to generate bearing data
US7428450B1 (en) * 2003-12-16 2008-09-23 Garmin International, Inc Method and system for using a database and GPS position data to generate bearing data
US8059030B2 (en) * 2003-12-16 2011-11-15 Garmin Switzerland Gmbh Method and system for using a database and GPS position data to generate bearing data
US7302316B2 (en) * 2004-09-14 2007-11-27 Brigham Young University Programmable autopilot system for autonomous flight of unmanned aerial vehicles
US7652621B2 (en) * 2005-11-04 2010-01-26 Thales Method for automatically selecting radionavigation beacons
US20070288129A1 (en) * 2006-06-09 2007-12-13 Garmin International, Inc. Automatic speech recognition system and method for aircraft
US20070288128A1 (en) * 2006-06-09 2007-12-13 Garmin Ltd. Automatic speech recognition system and method for aircraft
FR2921635A1 (en) * 2007-09-27 2009-04-03 Eurocopter France Method and device detection and signaling the approach of the vortex domain by a rotorcraft
US20090319100A1 (en) * 2008-06-20 2009-12-24 Honeywell International Inc. Systems and methods for defining and rendering a trajectory

Non-Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
Investigation of spurious emissions from cellular phones and the possible effect on aircraft navigation equipment; Kuriger, G.; Grant, H.; Cartwright, A.; Heirman, D.; Electromagnetic Compatibility, IEEE Transactions on; Volume: 45 , Issue: 2; Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/TEMC.2003.811309; Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 281 - 292 *
Lateral and longitudinal guidance and control design of a UAV in auto landing phase; Ilyas Salfi, M.; Ahsun, U.; Bhatti, H.A.Applied Sciences and Technology (IBCAST), 2009 6th International Bhurban Conference on; Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 162 - 168 *
The stingray AUV: A small and cost-effective solution for ecological monitoring; Barngrover, C.; Kastner, R.; Denewiler, T.; Mills, G.OCEANS 2011; Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1 - 8 *

Cited By (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US7428450B1 (en) * 2003-12-16 2008-09-23 Garmin International, Inc Method and system for using a database and GPS position data to generate bearing data
US20090192732A1 (en) * 2008-01-24 2009-07-30 Robert Bosch Gmbh Procedure for diagnosing a metering valve of an exhaust gas treatment device and device for implementing the procedure
US8200379B2 (en) 2008-07-03 2012-06-12 Manfredi Dario P Smart recovery system
US20120265376A1 (en) * 2011-04-12 2012-10-18 The Boeing Company Airplane Position Assurance Monitor
US8630756B2 (en) * 2011-04-12 2014-01-14 The Boeing Company Airplane position assurance monitor
US20140100720A1 (en) * 2011-04-12 2014-04-10 The Boeing Company Airplane Position Assurance Monitor
US9257050B2 (en) * 2011-04-12 2016-02-09 The Boeing Company Airplane position assurance monitor
CN104281149A (en) * 2013-07-12 2015-01-14 空中客车运营简化股份公司 Method and device for displaying in real time a pitch instruction on an aircraft during manual piloting
US9098999B2 (en) 2013-09-13 2015-08-04 The Boeing Company Systems and methods for assuring the accuracy of a synthetic runway presentation
US20150115848A1 (en) * 2013-10-28 2015-04-30 Iris Dynamics Ltd. Electric linear actuator

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
US7337063B1 (en) 2008-02-26 grant

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US3815132A (en) Radar for automatic terrain avoidance
US6018698A (en) High-precision near-land aircraft navigation system
US5210540A (en) Global positioning system
US5600329A (en) Differential satellite positioning system ground station with integrity monitoring
US4060809A (en) Tracking and position determination system
US6233522B1 (en) Aircraft position validation using radar and digital terrain elevation database
US4384293A (en) Apparatus and method for providing pointing information
US20020165669A1 (en) Attitude measurement using a single GPS receiver with two closely-spaced antennas
US5225842A (en) Vehicle tracking system employing global positioning system (gps) satellites
US6157876A (en) Method and apparatus for navigating an aircraft from an image of the runway
US5914687A (en) Combined phase-circle and multiplatform TDOA precision emitter location
US4914436A (en) Ground proximity approach warning system without landing flap input
US4402049A (en) Hybrid velocity derived heading reference system
US3739380A (en) Slant range tracking terrain avoidance system
US5142478A (en) Computerized aircraft landing and takeoff system
US7859449B1 (en) System and method for a terrain database and/or position validation
US4954833A (en) Method for determining astronomic azimuth
US5883595A (en) Method and apparatus for mitigating multipath effects and smoothing groundtracks in a GPS receiver
US4881080A (en) Apparatus for and a method of determining compass headings
US6314366B1 (en) Satellite based collision avoidance system
US6865477B2 (en) High resolution autonomous precision positioning system
US20090024325A1 (en) AINS enhanced survey instrument
US6553322B1 (en) Apparatus and method for accurate pipeline surveying
US7852236B2 (en) Aircraft synthetic vision system for approach and landing
US6516272B2 (en) Positioning and data integrating method and system thereof