US20080097620A1 - Implantable article, method of forming same and method for reducing thrombogenicity - Google Patents

Implantable article, method of forming same and method for reducing thrombogenicity Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US20080097620A1
US20080097620A1 US11/753,878 US75387807A US2008097620A1 US 20080097620 A1 US20080097620 A1 US 20080097620A1 US 75387807 A US75387807 A US 75387807A US 2008097620 A1 US2008097620 A1 US 2008097620A1
Authority
US
United States
Prior art keywords
surface
implantable device
nano
method
craters
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US11/753,878
Inventor
Subramanian Venkatraman
Yin Chiang Boey
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Nanyang Technological University of Singapore
Original Assignee
Nanyang Technological University of Singapore
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to US80855806P priority Critical
Application filed by Nanyang Technological University of Singapore filed Critical Nanyang Technological University of Singapore
Priority to US11/753,878 priority patent/US20080097620A1/en
Assigned to NANYANG TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY reassignment NANYANG TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: BOEY, YIN CHIANG, VENKATRAMAN, SUBRAMANIAN
Publication of US20080097620A1 publication Critical patent/US20080097620A1/en
Application status is Abandoned legal-status Critical

Links

Images

Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/0077Special surfaces of prostheses, e.g. for improving ingrowth
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/04Hollow or tubular parts of organs, e.g. bladders, tracheae, bronchi or bile ducts
    • A61F2/06Blood vessels
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61LMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR STERILISING MATERIALS OR OBJECTS IN GENERAL; DISINFECTION, STERILISATION, OR DEODORISATION OF AIR; CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES; MATERIALS FOR BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES
    • A61L27/00Materials for grafts or prostheses or for coating grafts or prostheses
    • A61L27/14Macromolecular materials
    • A61L27/18Macromolecular materials obtained otherwise than by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61LMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR STERILISING MATERIALS OR OBJECTS IN GENERAL; DISINFECTION, STERILISATION, OR DEODORISATION OF AIR; CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES; MATERIALS FOR BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES
    • A61L27/00Materials for grafts or prostheses or for coating grafts or prostheses
    • A61L27/28Materials for coating prostheses
    • A61L27/34Macromolecular materials
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61LMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR STERILISING MATERIALS OR OBJECTS IN GENERAL; DISINFECTION, STERILISATION, OR DEODORISATION OF AIR; CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES; MATERIALS FOR BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES
    • A61L27/00Materials for grafts or prostheses or for coating grafts or prostheses
    • A61L27/50Materials characterised by their function or physical properties, e.g. injectable or lubricating compositions, shape-memory materials, surface modified materials
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61LMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR STERILISING MATERIALS OR OBJECTS IN GENERAL; DISINFECTION, STERILISATION, OR DEODORISATION OF AIR; CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES; MATERIALS FOR BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES
    • A61L27/00Materials for grafts or prostheses or for coating grafts or prostheses
    • A61L27/50Materials characterised by their function or physical properties, e.g. injectable or lubricating compositions, shape-memory materials, surface modified materials
    • A61L27/56Porous materials, e.g. foams or sponges
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61LMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR STERILISING MATERIALS OR OBJECTS IN GENERAL; DISINFECTION, STERILISATION, OR DEODORISATION OF AIR; CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES; MATERIALS FOR BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES
    • A61L27/00Materials for grafts or prostheses or for coating grafts or prostheses
    • A61L27/50Materials characterised by their function or physical properties, e.g. injectable or lubricating compositions, shape-memory materials, surface modified materials
    • A61L27/58Materials at least partially resorbable by the body
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61LMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR STERILISING MATERIALS OR OBJECTS IN GENERAL; DISINFECTION, STERILISATION, OR DEODORISATION OF AIR; CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES; MATERIALS FOR BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES
    • A61L29/00Materials for catheters, medical tubing, cannulae, or endoscopes or for coating catheters
    • A61L29/08Materials for coatings
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61LMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR STERILISING MATERIALS OR OBJECTS IN GENERAL; DISINFECTION, STERILISATION, OR DEODORISATION OF AIR; CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES; MATERIALS FOR BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES
    • A61L31/00Materials for other surgical articles, e.g. stents, stent-grafts, shunts, surgical drapes, guide wires, materials for adhesion prevention, occluding devices, surgical gloves, tissue fixation devices
    • A61L31/08Materials for coatings
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61LMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR STERILISING MATERIALS OR OBJECTS IN GENERAL; DISINFECTION, STERILISATION, OR DEODORISATION OF AIR; CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES; MATERIALS FOR BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES
    • A61L31/00Materials for other surgical articles, e.g. stents, stent-grafts, shunts, surgical drapes, guide wires, materials for adhesion prevention, occluding devices, surgical gloves, tissue fixation devices
    • A61L31/08Materials for coatings
    • A61L31/10Macromolecular materials
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61LMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR STERILISING MATERIALS OR OBJECTS IN GENERAL; DISINFECTION, STERILISATION, OR DEODORISATION OF AIR; CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES; MATERIALS FOR BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES
    • A61L33/00Antithrombogenic treatment of surgical articles, e.g. sutures, catheters, prostheses, or of articles for the manipulation or conditioning of blood; Materials for such treatment
    • A61L33/0005Use of materials characterised by their function or physical properties
    • A61L33/0011Anticoagulant, e.g. heparin, platelet aggregation inhibitor, fibrinolytic agent, other than enzymes, attached to the substrate
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2210/00Particular material properties of prostheses classified in groups A61F2/00 - A61F2/26 or A61F2/82 or A61F9/00 or A61F11/00 or subgroups thereof
    • A61F2210/0004Particular material properties of prostheses classified in groups A61F2/00 - A61F2/26 or A61F2/82 or A61F9/00 or A61F11/00 or subgroups thereof bioabsorbable
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61LMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR STERILISING MATERIALS OR OBJECTS IN GENERAL; DISINFECTION, STERILISATION, OR DEODORISATION OF AIR; CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES; MATERIALS FOR BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES
    • A61L2400/00Materials characterised by their function or physical properties
    • A61L2400/18Modification of implant surfaces in order to improve biocompatibility, cell growth, fixation of biomolecules, e.g. plasma treatment
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61LMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR STERILISING MATERIALS OR OBJECTS IN GENERAL; DISINFECTION, STERILISATION, OR DEODORISATION OF AIR; CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES; MATERIALS FOR BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES
    • A61L2420/00Materials or methods for coatings medical devices
    • A61L2420/06Coatings containing a mixture of two or more compounds
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61LMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR STERILISING MATERIALS OR OBJECTS IN GENERAL; DISINFECTION, STERILISATION, OR DEODORISATION OF AIR; CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES; MATERIALS FOR BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES
    • A61L2420/00Materials or methods for coatings medical devices
    • A61L2420/08Coatings comprising two or more layers

Abstract

Endothelialization of a bodily fluid or tissue-contacting, particularly blood-contacting, surface may be accomplished to render that surface substantially non-thrombogenic. Thrombosis may also be mitigated or eliminated by providing an eroding layer on the surface that results in the removal of any thrombus formation as the layer erodes. An implantable device may utilize at least one surface having a plurality of nano-craters thereon that enhance or promote endothelialization. Additionally, an implantable device may have at least one first degradable layer for contacting bodily fluid or tissue and disposed about a central core, and at least one second degradable layer between the first degradable layer and the central core. The first degradable layer has a first degradation rate and the second degradable layer has a second degradation rate which degrades more slowly than the first degradable layer on contact with bodily fluid or tissue.

Description

    CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • This application claims the benefit of priority to U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 60/808,558 filed May 26, 2006, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.
  • FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • The present invention relates generally to implantable devices, such as implantable medical devices, and methods for the manufacture thereof. The invention also relates to methods for enhancing and promoting endothelialization and for minimizing thrombus formation on the surface of the implantable device.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • In recent years there has been growing interest in the use of artificial materials, particularly materials formed from polymers, for use in implantable devices that come into contact with bodily tissues or fluids particularly blood. Some examples of such devices are artificial heart valves, stents and vascular prosthesis. Progress in this area has, however, been hampered somewhat by the thrombogenicity of many polymer materials. Reference is made to M. Szycher, J. Biomat Appln (1998) 12: 321 in that regard.
  • Efforts to overcome the problems associated with thrombogenicity of polymer materials used in the production of implantable devices have not met with a great deal of success to date. Some examples of approaches that have bee attempted include heparinization (S. W. Kim, C. D. Ebert, J. Y. Lin, J. C. McRea Am Soc Artif Internal Organs (1983) 6: 76), physical modification of the surface (K. Webb, W. Hlady, P. A Tresco, J. Biomed Mat Res (1998) 41: 421-430; E. W. Merrill, Ann NY Acad Sci (1977) 6: 283-290) and increasing surface hydrophilicity (S. J. Sofia, E. W. Merrill, in “Polyethylene Glycol; Chemistry and Biological Applications”, J. M. Harris and S. Zalipsky (eds.), American Chemical Society (1997) Ch. 22). Although these methods have met with some commercial viability, they are mainly useful for short-term applications, such as in catheter or in dialysis tubing. This is because many of the chemical and physical modifications of the device surfaces have limited shelf-life, both ex vivo and in vivo. Moreover, the methods involved in the production of implantable devices using these approaches are both elaborate and intricate.
  • Attempts have also been made to minimize thrombus formation by promoting endothelialization of the surface of an implantable device that contacts bodily fluids or tissues in use as described, for example, in U.S. Pat. No. 5,744,515, which relates to modification of a porous material with adhesion molecules, and U.S. Pat. No. 6,379,383, which relates to deposition of the material used to form the device so as to control surface heterogenities.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • Thrombus formation is a very complex process involving inter-dependent interactions between a surface of an implantable device, platelets and coagulation proteins. The present invention addresses the problem of thrombosis by endothelialization of a bodily fluid or tissue-contacting, particularly blood-contacting, surface to render that surface substantially non-thrombogenic. The invention also addresses the problem of thrombosis by providing an eroding layer on the surface that results in the removal of any thrombus formation as the layer erodes.
  • According to one aspect of the invention, there is provided an implantable device having at least one surface for contacting bodily fluid or tissue, said at least one surface comprising a plurality of nano-craters thereon that enhance or promote endothelialization of said at last one surface.
  • According to one aspect of the invention, there is provided an implantable device having at least one first degradable layer providing at least one surface of the implantable device for contacting bodily fluid or tissue and disposed about a central core, and at least one second degradable layer between said first degradable layer and the central core, wherein said first degradable layer has a first degradation rate and said second degradable layer has a second degradation rate such that said at least one first degradable layer degrades more rapidly than said at least one second degradable layer on contact with bodily fluid or tissue.
  • The material of the implantable device is not particularly limited. Furthermore, the nano-craters may be formed in the material that constitutes the body of the implantable device, or may be formed in a layer that is applied to a support substrate forming the implantable device. Generally, the nano-craters will be formed in a surface layer of suitable biocompatible material applied to a support structure for the implantable device. The options for the biocompatible material forming the outer layer of the implantable device are generally known and are discussed hereafter.
  • The form of the implantable device is similarly not particularly limited. This may include any device that is intended to come into contact with bodily fluids or tissues, be that during in vivo applications or in vitro applications. Examples of particular devices will be provided hereafter.
  • According to further aspect of the invention, there is provided a method of Manufacturing an implantable device having at least one surface for contacting bodily fluid or tissue comprising: providing on said at least one surface a plurality of nano-craters that enhance or promote endothelialization of said at least one surface.
  • According to a further aspect of the invention, there is provided a method of reducing thrombogenicity of an implantable device having at least one surface for contacting bodily fluid or tissue, or promoting or enhancing endothelialization of an implantable device having at least one surface for contacting bodily fluid or tissue, comprising: providing on said at least one surface a plurality of nano-craters that enhance or promote endothelialization of said at least one surface.
  • According to another aspect of the invention, there is provided a method of manufacturing an implantable device having at least one surface for contacting bodily fluid or tissue, comprising: providing at least one first degradable layer which provides said at least one surface and which is disposed about a central core, and at least one second degradable layer between said first degradable layer and the central core, wherein said first degradable layer has a first degradation rate and second degradable layer has a second degradation rate such that said at least one first degradable layer degrades more rapidly than said at least one second degradable layer on contact with bodily fluid or tissue.
  • According to still another aspect of the invention, there is provided a method of reducing thrombogenicity of an implantable device having at least one surface for contacting bodily fluid or tissue, comprising: providing at least one first degradable layer which provides said at least one surface and which is disposed about a central core, and at least one second degradable layer between said first degradable layer and the central core, wherein said first degradable layer has a first degradation rate and said second degradable layer has a second degradation rate such that said at least one first degradable layer degrades more rapidly than said at least one second degradable layer on contact with bodily fluid or tissue.
  • Other aspects and features of the present invention will become apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art upon review of the following description of specific embodiments of the invention in conjunction with the accompanying figures.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • In the figures, which illustrate, by way of example only, embodiments of the present invention,
  • FIG. 1 is a schematic representation of an implantable device having nano-craters on the surface of the device; and
  • FIG. 2 is a Schematic diagram of a process to form nano-craters in a surface using a mask and etching techniques;
  • FIG. 3 is a schematic representation of an implantable device having two degradable layers.
  • FIG. 4 illustrates some of the results of the number of cells correlated to pore size in a PLLA polymer.
  • FIG. 5 also illustrates some of the results of the number of cells correlated to pore size in a PLGA polymer sample.
  • FIG. 6 illustrates results correlating inter-pore distance to cell attachment and growth of the endothelial cells.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  • When a bodily fluids-contacting or tissue-contacting, particularly blood-contacting, surface is coated with endothelial cells, it is rendered substantially non-thrombogenic. Thus, in one aspect, the reduced thrombogenicity of an implantable device is achieved by enhancing and/or promoting endothelialization of the surface of the implantable device that contacts bodily fluid or tissue.
  • This aspect of the invention is based on the surprising discovery that the inclusion of nano-craters on a surface of an implantable device that is intended to come into contact with bodily fluids or tissues, such as blood, advantageously improves endothelial cell attachment to the surface. The inclusion of the nano-craters therefore assists in the propagation of endothelial cells on the surface of the device. It is believed that the improved attachment and propagation of endothelial cells on the surface is a result of the nano-craters on the surface acting as foci for endothelial cell attachment. This aspect of the invention is particularly suited for manufacture of implantable devices that are intended to be in long-term contact with bodily fluids or tissues, particularly in long-term contact with blood.
  • In another aspect, the reduced thrombogenicity is achieved by providing a surface layer that degrades in a controlled fashion, such that any thrombus that is formed at the surface is removed as the surface layer degrades. This aspect of the invention is based on the discovery that by providing the surface with layers having different degradation rates, it is possible to remove any thrombus formed on the surface in a controlled fashion, by degradation of each successive layer. This aspect of the invention is particularly suited for manufacture of implantable devices that are intended to be in short-term contact with bodily fluids or tissues, particularly blood.
  • The implantable device described herein may be any device that would benefit from the reduced thrombogenicity of a surface, including by enhancement of the endothelialization of a surface or by degradation of surface that comes in contact with bodily fluid or tissue, as described below, so as to reduce or remove thrombus formation on such a surface, particularly where such a surface is a blood-contacting surface, when the device is in use.
  • As used herein, the term “implantable device”, which may also be referred to as a “device” or a “medical device”, refers to any device having at least one surface that comes in contact with bodily tissue or fluid, including blood, and includes a device for implanting in a subject's body, permanently or temporarily, long-term or short-term. The term, as used herein, also refers to any device that forms a part of an article.
  • It is envisaged that the device is useful not only for in vivo applications, but also in vitro applications. As such, the device is not particularly limited, but should be considered to include any device that is intended for contact with bodily fluids or tissues, particularly blood, including conduits, grafts, valves, dialysis tubing and stents. As used herein the term “bodily fluids or tissues” includes biologically derived fluids and tissues as well as synthetic substitutes, for example artificial blood.
  • As used herein, the term “endothelialization” refers to the growth and/or proliferation of endothelial cells on a surface, such as the blood-contacting surface, or an implantable device. Promoting or enhancing endothelialization of a surface refers to promoting, enhancing, facilitation or increasing the attachment of, and growth of, endothelial cells on the surface.
  • As would be appreciated by a skilled person, the surface of a device for implantation into a subject is preferably biocompatible. The term “biocompatible” means that a substance is minimally toxic or irritating to biological tissue, such as to be sufficiently tolerated in the body without adverse effect. The surface may be formed of a material, which is different from the material that forms the surface and which is used as a support. Alternatively, the device and surface may be formed of the same material.
  • Suitable materials for forming the surface include biostable polymers, for example, polyethylene, polyurethane, polyolefin, or polyethylene terephthalate and degradable polymers, including degradable by chemical means or by exposure to radiation, for example, poly-lactide (PLA) including poly-L-lactide (PLLA), poly-glycolide (PGA), poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) or polycaprolactone. In certain other embodiments, the degradable polymer may be biodegradable, meaning that the substance will readily degrade in an environment that is, or that is equivalent to, the body of a subject, for example when in contact with bodily fluid or tissue.
  • Other suitable materials that can be used to form an implantable device, or to provide the surface of an implantable device, are generally known in the art and examples of such materials are outlined in U.S. Pat. No. 5,744,515, which is herein incorporated by reference. For example, preferred materials include synthetic polymers, including oligomers, homopolymers, and copolymers resulting from either addition or condensation polymerization. Examples of suitable addition polymers include, but are not limited to, acrylics such as those polymerized from methyl cerylate, methyl methacrylate, acryli acid, methacrylic acid, acrylamide, hydroxyethy acrylate, hydroxyethyl methacrylate, glyceryl scrylate, glyceryl methacrylate, methacrylamide and ethacrylamide; vinyls such as styrene, vinyl chloride, binaly pyrrolidone, polyvinyl alcohol, and vinyls acetate; polymers formed of ethylene, propylene, and tetrafluoroethylene. Examples of condensation polymers include, but are not limited to, nylons such as polycoprolactam, polylauryl lactam, polyjexamethylene adipamide, and polyexamethylene dodecanediamide, and also polyurethanes, polycarbonates, polyamides, polysulfones, poly(ethylene terephthalate), polyactic acid, polyglycolic acid, polydimethylsiloxanes, and polyetherketones.
  • Other suitable materials include metals and ceramics. The materials include, but are not limited to, nickel, titanium, nickel-titanium alloys such as Nitinol, stainless steel, cobalt and chromium. The ceramics include, but are not limited to, silicon nitride, silicon carbide, zirconia, and alumina, as well as glass and silica, ePTFE (Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene) is a preferred substrate material for use in fabricating implantable devices of the present invention, and particularly for fabricating vascular grafts. Suitable ePTFE is available in the form of vascular grafts from such sources as IMPRA, Inc., Tempe, Ariz. Commercially available grafts are constructed of ePTFE and supplied in sterile form in a variety of configurations, including straight, tapered and stepped configurations.
  • Referring to FIG. 1, in the depicted embodiment, device 100 is stent, with an exterior surface 102 a and an interior surface 102 b which lines the lumen of the stent, both of which have reduced thrombogenicity meaning that they have a reduced tendency to promote, induce or facilitate formation of thrombi when in contact with bodily fluid or tissue. In the case of a coronary stent, since surface 102 b contacts blood, including platelets, it is particularly important that surface 102 b be rendered less thrombogenic, as described herein.
  • Device 100, in one particular variation, may comprise a polymeric stent fabricated as disclosed in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/867,617 filed Jun. 15, 2004 (U.S. Pat. Pub. 2005/0021131 A1), which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. The stent, as shown and described, may comprise a polymer that is at least partially amorphous and which undergoes a transition from a pliable, elastic state at a first higher temperature to a brittle glass-like state at a second lower temperature as it transitions through a particular glass transition temperature. This particular stent may be comprised of at least a first layer and a second layer where the first layer includes a first polymer that is at least partially amorphous and a second layer that is also at least partially amorphous. The stent may be formed to have a first shape at a relatively lower temperature and a second shape at a relatively higher temperature. The inner and/or outer layer of the stent 100 may be processed to have nano-crater 104 as described herein.
  • A substantially uniform layer of nano-craters 104 are distributed on surface 102 a and 102 b, meaning that nano-craters 104 of substantially similar depth are distributed on the surfaces 102 a and 102 b to form a discernible layer having such nano-craters. It has advantageously been found that the provision of such nano-craters 104 enhances endothelialization of surface 102 a and 102 b, resulting in reduced thrombogenicity. The stent 100 is suitable for long-term implantation in the body of a subject.
  • As used herein, the term “nano-crater” means indentations or depressions provided on a surface. Generally the indentations are on the nanometer scale. In different embodiments, the nano-craters have an average diameter of between about 30 m and about 150 nm.
  • The stent 100 has nano-craters 104 sufficiently distributed over surfaces 102 a and 102 b to promote or enhance endothelialization, preferably over the entirety of surface 102 a and 102 b. The nano-craters 104 may be regularly or irregularly distributed over surfaces 102 a and 102 b. In some embodiments, adjacent craters may be spaced about 200 nm or greater apart.
  • Such nano-craters 104 may be suitably shaped, having a regular or irregular shape, provide that endothelialization of the surfaces 102 a and 102 b having the nano-craters 104 is enhanced and/or promoted. For example, the nano-craters 104 may be hemi-spherical, hemi-cylindrical or elliptical.
  • The size and shape of the nano-craters 104 can be controlled to provide a unique surface morphology. By varying this surface morphology, the range of sizes that selectively promote endothelial cell attachment while not being reception to platelet attachment, can be readily ascertained.
  • Optionally, surfaces 102 a and 102 b of the stent 100 can be chemically modified so as to further enhance or promote endothelialization, for example when implanted in a subject's body.
  • By way of background, it is noted that there are two ways by which an implanted device or surface can be covered with endothelial cells. In the first, called the transmural or capillary endothelialization, endothelial cells migrate into the device from tissue that is external to (usually above or below) the implanted device. For this sort of endothelialization to occur, the device itself must be sufficiently porous to permit the endothelial cells to migrate into it. A coronary stent such as the Palmaz stent (U.S. Pat. No. 6,379,383) is an example of such a device. This type of endothelialization may be achieved by coating an implantable device with a radiation-sensitive bioerodible polymer followed by irradiation with an electron beam to generate the nano-craters, as it set out below.
  • The second method of endothelialization involves migration of endothelial cells longitudinally into the device (e.g., in the lumen of a stent implanted in a blood vessel) from tissue adjacent to the device. In this case, porosity of the implantable device is not required, as endothelial cell attachment occurs from within a lumen or cavity of the device. However, the number of endothelial cells that are capable of this type of attachment is lower than those that can be achieved by transmural endothelialization.
  • Hence, it is envisaged that while the nano-cratered surfaces will enhance selective endothelial cell attachment on non-porous devices, the production and attachment of these endothelial cells in vivo may be enhanced using certain growth-stimulating molecules and adhesion-promoting molecules.
  • As used herein, the term “growth-stimulating molecule” refers to a molecule that stimulates or induces the differentiation, growth and proliferation of endothelial cells. Growth-stimulating molecules include peptides, proteins and glycoproteins, including hormones, capable of inducing an endothelial cell to grow and divide.
  • As used herein, the term “adhesion-promoting molecule” refers to a molecule that promotes or encourages adhesion or attachment of an endothelial cell to a surface. Adhesion-promoting molecules include peptides, proteins and glycoproteins capable of binding a cell to a substrate or to an adjacent cell.
  • As such, according to certain embodiments, surfaces 102 a and 102 b of the stent 100 include growth-stimulating molecules and/or adhesion-promoting molecules dispersed therein, which facilitate enhanced production of endothelial cells and their attachment to the nano-cratered surfaces 102 a and 102 b.
  • Suitable growth-stimulating molecules include granulocyte colony stimulating factor (gCSF), platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor (PD-ECGF), fibroblast-derived endothelial cell growth factor alpha, endothelial cell growth factor beta, endothelial cell growth factor 2a and endothelial call growth factor 2b.
  • Suitable adhesion molecules are described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,774,515, which is herein incorporated by references. They are typically large, naturally occurring proteins or carbohydrates, with molecular weights above 100,000 daltons. In vivo, adhesion molecules are typically able to bind to specific cell surface receptors, and mechanically attached cells to the substrate or to adjacent cells. In addition to promoting cell attachment, suitable adhesion molecules can promote other cell responses including cell migration and cell differentiation (which in turn can include the formation of capillary tubes by endothelial cells).
  • Preferred adhesion molecules include substrate adhesion molecules (SAM's) such as the proteins laminin, fibronectin, collagen, vitronectin, and tenascin, and adhesion peptides or functional synthetic analogs derived from SAM's. Other suitable adhesion molecules include cell-to-cell adhesion molecules (CAM's) such as N-cadherin and P-cadherin.
  • Parent (i.e., native) adhesion proteins typically have one or more active peptide domains that bind to cell surface receptors and which domains produce the cell attachment, migration, and differentiation effects of the parent adhesion proteins. These domains consist of specific amino acid sequences, several of which have been synthesized and reported to promote the adhesion of endothelial cells. These domains and functional analogs of these domains are termed “adhesion peptides”. In different embodiments, adhesion molecules are adhesion peptides and desirably, adhesion peptides have about 3 to about 30 amino acid residues in their amino acid sequences.
  • Adhesion peptides from fibronectin include, but are not limited to, RGD (arg-gly-asp) [SEQ ID NO.:1], REDV (arg-glu-asp-val) [SEQ ID NO.:2], and C/H-V (WQPPRARI or trp-gln-pro-pro-arg-ala-arg-ile) [SEQ ID NO.:3]. Adhesion peptides from laminin include, but are not limited to, YIGSR (tyr-ile-gly-ser-arg) [SEQ ID NO.:4] and SIKVAV (ser-ile-lys-val-ala-val) [SEQ ID NO.:5] and F-9 (RYVVLPRPVCFEKGMNYTVR or arg-tyr-val-val-leu-pro-arg-pro-val-cys-phe-glu-lys-gly-met-asn-tyr-thr-val-arg) [SEQ ID NO.: 6]. Adhesion peptides from type IV collagen include, but are not limited to, Hep-III (GEFYFDLRLKGDK or gly-glu-phe-tyr-phe-asp-leu-arg-leu-lys-gly-asp-lys) [SEQ ID NO.:7].
  • While it is believed that nano-craters can selectively promote endothelialization, it is possible that platelet attachment to the nano-cratered surface may also be enhanced, leading to the undesirable effect of clot formation. To minimize any such effect, an anti-thrombotic molecule may be included on the surfaces 102 a and 102 b of the stent 100 by any suitable means, in amounts sufficient to minimize any platelet attachment during the process of endothelialization.
  • As used herein, an “anti-thrombotic molecule” is a molecule that reduces or prevents the formation of thrombi or clots on the surface of an implantable device that contacts bodily fluid or tissue, including when implanted in a subject's body. Anti-thrombotic molecules include, without limitation, heparin, and small molecules, such as benzamidine compounds, bicyclic pyrimidine compounds, nitro compounds, thio acid compounds, and proteins and peptides, including tissue-type plaminogen activator (t-PA), protein S and protein C.
  • The implantable device may be formed entirely from a single material and standard methods know in the art may be used to fashion the device. For example, a mold may be used, and a liquid polymer may be poured into the mold. This methods used will depend on the particular material used and the particular medical device that is to be formed.
  • In the case of the stent 100, the device may be formed by rolling a sheet or film of material, or by winding a thin strip of material into a helix, as is known in the art. In this way, the nano-craters may be readily formed on each side of the sheet or strip, as discussed below, prior to rolling or winding to form the stent.
  • The implantable device may also be formed from a substrate material and another material applied to the substrate material to form a bodily fluid or tissue contracting surface by any suitable means, for example, by spin-coating from a solution or suspension, and the nano-craters are subsequently introduced into the surface. This surface layer should have sufficient thickness to introduce nano-craters having depth sufficient to enhance or promote endothelialization.
  • Without intending to particularly limit the method by which the nano-craters 104 are introduced to the surfaces 102 a and 102 b of the stent 100, the following illustration of two possible approaches for forming the nano-craters 104 are provided.
  • The nano-craters 104 may be introduced through controlled-degradation of the surfaces 102 a and 102 b of the stent 100, as depicted in FIG. 2. According to this approach, discrete portions of surfaces 102 a and 102 b, both of which are formed from a degradable polymer, are etched using a degradative process, for example, by exposing the polymer surface to electron beam radiation or by treating with a chemical that will degrade the surface, for example, strong alkali.
  • The technique of masking certain areas of the surface 102 a and 102 b may be employed to define areas of degradation. A higher density material, for example a silicon-based polymer or an acrylic polymer, may be patterned over surface 102 a and 102 b in which the nano-craters 104 are to be introduced, in a pattern that defines the desired distribution and depth of the nano-craters. For example, a focused ion beam may be used to form the desired pattern in the mask material which is layered on the degradable surface 102 a and 102 b.
  • After exposure to the etching means that degrade the unmasked regions of surface 102 a and 102 b, for example radiation or chemical means, the surface material in the degraded areas may then be leached out using water or solvent in which the degraded portions of the surface material are soluble, but which will not dissolve the non-degraded regions of the surface. The mask material may then be subsequently removed, for example by dissolution in a suitable solvent that dissolves the mask material but not the polymer surface 102 a and 102 b.
  • To illustrate, in one example, PLGA, PLLA, PGA, polycaprolactone or poluethylene may be employed to form the stent 100 or surfaces 102 a and 102 b of the stent 100, both of which degrade in the dry state under electron-beam irradiation.
  • Thus, the degree of degradation may be controlled using the well-known effects of attenuation with depths of an incident electron beam. The depth of penetration of the incident electron beam is generally proportional to the electron energy or the accelerating voltage being used. This depth-dose distribution is determined by the absorption mechanism of mono-energetic electron beams having electron energy, eV, for a material of density p. The higher the density of a given material, the grater the attenuation effect on the electron beam. This attenuation effect will result in a varying radiation dose across the thickness of the surface and patterned higher density material, resulting in a variation of molecular weight of the polymer across the thickness of the surface.
  • An example of utilizing an incident electron beam for patterning a surface of a polymeric sample may include use of electron beam lithography, which is typically used in the semiconductor electronics industry for patterning integrated circuits and biosensors. Generally, a polymeric substrate having a radiation-sensitive film or resist may be placed in a vacuum chamber of a scanning-electron microscope and exposed by an electron beam under digital control. Because the beam width may be adjusted to range from a few picometers to several nanometers, an etched pattern may be formed by the beam across the polymer surface.
  • This variation of molecular weight across the thickness of the surface will result in differing degradation rates at areas masked with the higher density material than those not asked. When these non-masked degraded sections are exposed to water (or another suitable solvent), the leaching of low-molecular weight, water-soluble oligomers from the water-insoluble not-degraded regions of the surface will result in well-defined craters of known lateral dimensions and depth. Thus, the size and shape of the nano-craters 104 may be accurately controlled by this method, for example by controlling the does of the radiation, and the density of the material used to mask, as well as the pattern in which the masking material is applied. This results in a unique surface morphology, as discussed above, that selectively promotes endothelial cell attachment, while not being receptive to platelet attachment.
  • Alternatively, chemical means can be used with the above-described masking method to produce nano-craters at the surfaces 102 a and 102 b. For example, sodium hydroxide may be used to dissolve PLA in regions that are not protected by the alkali-resistant mask material, and the dissolved material may then be rinsed away in water to form nano-craters 104. The mask may be removed as described above.
  • The nano-craters 104 may alternatively be formed on the surfaces 102 a and 102 b of the stent 100 by including nano-particles that are leachable from the surfaces 102 a and 102 b.
  • A “nano-particle” is any granular or particulate material in which the particulates have dimensions in the nano-meter range. The nano-particles may be irregularly shaped, or may be of well-defined size and shape, and may be leached from the surface leaving behind nano-craters corresponding to the size and shape of the nano-particles.
  • The nano-particles may be formed of any granular or particulate material which can be embedded in the material used to form surface 102 a and 102 b, which will not dissolve in or become irreversibly bound to the material, and which can then be subsequently leached from the material. For example, the nano-particles can be formed from an inorganic salt, such as sodium chloride, form gelatin, sugar, chitosan, or polyvinyl pyrrolidone.
  • The nano-particles may be suspended in a dilute solution of a polymer being used to form the implantable device or more preferably, the surface of the implantable device which may then be spin-coated onto the substrate of the device at a desired thickness. The thickness will usually be in the micrometer range. By casting a very thin layer containing the nano-particles, it is possible to form a layer of polymer on an implantable device that has nano-craters only at the surface.
  • Subsequently, these particles on the surface are either leached out upon exposure to water or another suitable solvent, or are eroded once the device comes in contact with bodily fluid or tissue, for example when stent 100 is implanted, leaving behind a surface with well defined nano-craters 104 of know dimensions. Advantageously, the dimensions of the nano-craters 104 may be varied by varying the size and shape of the nano-particles dispersed in the polymer.
  • If the bodily fluid-contacting or tissue-contacting surface of the implantable device is to contain adhesion-promoting molecules, the nano-craters may be created, for example by irradiation, and concurrently the surface may be modified to release adhesion-promoting molecules and/or growth-stimulating molecules, for example into a lumen or cavity of the implantable device. Te adhesion-promoting molecules and/or growth-stimulating molecules may be assessed to a polymer used to form the implantable device or the surface of the implantable device prior to coating the polymer on the substrate of the implantable device, and forming nano-craters.
  • However, adhesion-promoting molecules and growth-stimulating molecules may typically be proteins, which are sensitive biomolecules that may be denatured by addition to a liquid polymer, or when subjected to high intensity radiation. Thus, the adhesion-promoting molecules and/or growth-stimulating molecules may first be encapsulated in nano-particles of well-defined size and shape as it known in the art, for example, as described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,589,562 which is herein fully incorporated by reference. The nano-particles may be leached out as discussed above, leaving behind the nano-craters and simultaneously releasing the adhesion-promoting molecules and/or growth-stimulating molecules, for example into a lumen. The nano-particles, when containing adhesion-promoting molecules and/or growth-stimulating molecules for delivery to bodily fluid or tissue comprise a material that is soluble in bodily fluid or tissue, for example, gelatin.
  • An anti-thrombotic molecule may be included in the nano-crated surface of an implantable device in a similar manner.
  • In an alternative embodiment, an implantable device with reduced thrombogenicity is achieved by providing the device with a surface that will degrade in a layered fashion when it contacts bodily fluid or tissue. This embodiment is useful for applications in which the device will be in contact with bodily fluid or tissue for a relatively short period of time, for example, a catheter or dialysis tubing that is in such contact for less than 24 hours. Preferably, the layers degrade relatively quickly, so as to prevent the formation of thrombi. This means that the degradation time for a given layer upon contacting bodily fluid or tissue may be, for example, between about 5 minutes and about 1 hour.
  • Thus, with reference to FIG. 3, in an illustrative embodiment, a stent 100′ has first degradable layers 106 a and 106 b disposed about a central core 110, and which layers provide surfaces 102a and 102b that comes into contact with bodily fluid or tissue, including blood, and second degradable layers 108 a and 108 b, between layers 106 a and 106 b, respectively, and the central core 110 of stent 100′. In the depicted embodiment, the stent 100′ has a first surface 102a, which forms the exterior surface of the stent and an interior surface 102b which defines the lumen of the stent.
  • The second degradable layers 108 a and 108 b are the inner layer relative to the outer surfaces 102 a′ and 102b, respectively, and have a slower degradation rate than the first degradable layers 106 a and 106 b. Therefore, on contact with bodily fluid or tissue, there is a peeling effect resulting from successive degradation of first degradable layers 106 a and 106 b followed by degradation of the second degradable layers 108 a and 108 b, and any thrombus formation on surface 102a and 102b is removed as the layers erode.
  • As mentioned above, the stent 100′ may also be configured and comprised in the manner as shown and described in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/867,617, which has been incorporated above by reference in its entirety. In one variation, the stent 100′ configured as disclosed in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/867,617 may comprise the central core 110 having the multiple degradable layers disposed thereon. In other variations, it may be possible to have the multiple degradable layers correspond to the multiple layers comprising the stent structure.
  • The degradable layers 106 a and 106 b and 108 a and 108 b may be formed from any biodegradable polymers that are generally known in the art and described above and hereafter. For example, suitable polymers include polylactic acid (PLA) and polyglycolic acid (PGA) and copolymers of PLA and PGA (PLGA). These polymers may be amorphous or semi-crystalline.
  • For example, in one embodiment layers 106 a and 106 b may comprise PLA and the layers 108 a and 108 b may comprise PLGA, particularly PLDA 80/20; PLGA 75/25; or PLGA 53/47, wherein the numbers in the copolymer represent the percentage of PLA and PGA by weight, respectively, included in the copolymer.
  • Preferably, the thickness of each layers 106 a and 106 b and 108 a and 108 b is in the micrometer or sub-micrometer range, for example about 0.5 μm to about 10 μm.
  • In stent 100′, the central core 110 may comprise a different material than layers 106 a, 106 b, 108 a and 108 b, and the material comprising the respective layers may be applied to central core 110. Alternatively, stent 100′ may be formed of a single polymeric material but having first and second degradable layers of different average molecular weights of the polymer than found in central core 110, so as to form the discrete layer 106 a, 106 b, 108 a, and 108 b about central core 110, as described below.
  • Without intending to particularly limit the method by which the degradable layers 106 a and 106 b and 108 a and 108 b having varying degradation rates are provided on the central core 110, the following illustration of two possible approaches for forming the degradable layers are provided.
  • Polymers having different degradation rates can be selected and applied successively such that the layers 108 a and 108 b comprise a polymer with a slower degradation rate. A polymer with a faster degradation rate is selected for layers 106 a and 106 b such that layer 106 a and 106 b degrade more rapidly and remove any thrombus that may have formed on the surfaces 102a and 102b, respectively.
  • A skilled person will appreciate that a layered device having first and second degradable layers may comprise additional degradable layers, and that the degradation rate of each degradable layer increases with each successively inward layer such that the outer-most layer degrades more quickly and that the inner-most layer degrades most slowly. For example, in one particular embodiment, a layered device may comprise the following layers disposed about a central core: PLA; PLGA 80/20; PLGA 75/25; and PLGA 53/47 in the given order with PLGA 53/47 being the outer-most layer.
  • The suitable number of layers to be applied can be readily determined and will depend on the degradation rates of the layers and the particular type of device and its intended use, including the intended duration of contact with bodily fluid or tissue.
  • Each of such layers may be spin-coated or solvent cast on to a substrate material forming the implantable device, using a solution or suspension containing, for example, about 10 to about 40% polymer by weight. As will be appreciated, other suitable means of applying thin layers of a polymer to a substrate may also be employed, for example, vapour deposition.
  • Alternatively, controlled degradation of a surface of an implantable device may be effected, for example, using radiation such as electron beam radiation. This method utilizes the attenuation effect of electron beam radiation within an irradiated material.
  • To illustrate, a single biodegradable material may be applied to the surface of an implantable device as described above and then irradiated to provide layers having different average molecular weights of the biodegradable material, and therefore varying degradation rates.
  • The suitable thickness of the material to be applied will typically be in the micrometer range, for example about 1 micron to about 20 microns, and can be readily determined. The desired thickness will depend on the particular polymer used and on the particular type of device and its intended use, including the intended duration of contact with bodily fluid and tissue.
  • The mechanism of attenuation, as discussed above, can be described as the loss of energy of the accelerating electrons. The depth of penetration is proportional to the electron energy or the accelerating voltage, and is attenuated in a manner proportional to the density of the material being penetrated. This attenuation effect will result in a varying radiation does through the depth of the material as the beam is attenuated as it travels deeper into the material, with the exterior surface receiving the strongest does of radiation. This will result in a variation of molecular weight in the surface material as a function of penetration depth or material thickness. This variation of molecular weight through the depth of the material will in turn result in different degradation rates of the material coated on the device, thereby providing the first degradable layer, which due to the higher radiation does will have a lower molecular weight and will degrade faster then the underlying second degradable layer. This will result in a ‘layer peeling’ effect across the thickness of the polymer when in contact with bodily fluid or tissue.
  • The above-described devices can provide an implantable device having reduced thrombogenicity on contact with bodily fluid or tissue, for example when implanted, as compared to that typically observed with implantable medical devices. Standard surgical methods for implanting medical devices are known in the art. The method of implantation and duration of implantation will depend on the type of implantable device used, for example, a stent or a valve, the purpose of implantation and the disorder or condition that is to be treated with the implantable medical device. Thus, a method for reducing thrombogenicity, and for enhancing or promoting endothelialization, of an implantable device having at least one surface for contacting bodily fluid or tissue is contemplated.
  • The method comprises providing on the at least one surface a plurality of nano-craters that enhance or promote endothelialization of the at least one surface.
  • Alternatively the method comprises providing at least one first degradable layer which provides said at least one surface and which is disposed about a central core, and at least one second degradable layer between said first degradable layer and the central core, wherein said first degradable layer has a first degradation rate and said second degradable layer has a second degradation rate such that said at least one first degradable layer degrades more rapidly then said at least one second degradable layer so as to remove any thrombus that may be formed on said at least one surface.
  • All documents referred to herein are fully incorporated by reference.
  • Although various embodiments of the invention are disclosed herein, many adaptations and modifications may be made within the scope of the invention in accordance with the common general knowledge of those skilled in this art. Such modifications include the substitution of know equivalents for any aspect of the invention in order to achieve the same result in substantially the same way. All technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art of this invention, unless defined otherwise.
  • EXAMPLE 1
  • For the following examples, each polymer was first dissolved in chloroform. Nano-sized salt particles were ground and sieved, and then dispersed in the polymer solution with constant stirring until the particles were visually uniformly dispersed. The polymer concentration was chosen such that it had sufficiently high viscosity to maintain a stable dispersion. The dispersion was then cast as a film of required thickness using a coater. The film was dried in an oven at 37° C., and then left at room temperature for several days in a dry environment. The dried films were immersed in water for 14 days, with constant exchange of the water. The salt nano-particles were thus leached out, and the resulting film was dried again at 37° C. and at room temperature.
  • Control films were prepared as pure polymer films without any surface modification.
  • PLLA and PLGL films having nano-craters in the surface were obtained by leaching out incorporated nano-particles of NaCl, as indicated in Table 1.
  • The best result were obtained with PLLA polymer surfaces prepared by incorporation and leaching out of salt particles (<90 Micron Diameter). Rapid endothelial cell attachment was seen with these surfaces, with significant coverage of the surface by cells.
  • Although early attachment of cells to the PLGA polymer film was observed, the results obtained with PLGA did not result in significant endothelialization of the polymer film. This is likely due to the molecular weight of PLGA chosen, or the ratio of lactide to glycolide in the copolymer, resulting in a polymer that degraded under the conditions used to leach the salt particles, and confirms that the degradation properties of the polymer and dissolution rate of the leachable salt particle can affect the formation of nano-craters. The resulting craters were therefore likely too large and improperly formed to promote confluent growth and attachment of the cells. This problem can be solved by varying the PLGA used to select a more stable form of PLGA and to increase the rate of leaching of salt particles, such that the PLGA is not degraded during the leaching process.
    TABLE 1
    Results of Endothelialization of Nano-Cratered Surfaces.
    Cell First
    Seeding endothrlial
    Sample Surface (cells/ call Result at days
    Material Preparation Treatment sq cm) attachment 4/5
    Control PLLA Polymer + NIL 20000 36 hours Day 5
    Solvent PLLA approximately
    20%
    confluency
    Contold Polymer + NIL As Above 36 hours Day 5
    PLGA Solvent PLGA approximately
    80:20 40%
    confluency
    PLLA with Polymer + Leached NaCl 99% As Above  2 hours At Day 4
    Nanocraters Solvent PLLA purity <90 Microns about 70%
    1% concentration confluency
    Leaching period Seen.
    15 days.
    PLGA with Polymer + Leached NaCl 990% As Above  6 hours At Day 4
    nanocraters Solvent PLGA Purity <90 microns about 5%
    80:20 1% concentration confluency
    Leaching period Seen.
    15 days.
  • EXAMPLE 2
  • In another example of a method for modifying a surface of a polymer for implantation within a patient body, porogen leaching of surfaces may be utilized to yield a surface which enhances endothelial cell growth over a defined range of surface features. In this particular example, surface pores were created by filling polymers such as Poly caprolactone (PCL), Poly L-lactide (PLLA), Poly (lactide-co-glycolide), etc. (although any of the other suitable polymers described herein may be utilized) with leaching agents of sugar and gelatin.
  • The sugar and gelatin particles ranged in size from 20 to 90 microns in diameter (although particles as small as 5 microns may also be utilized) where the average particle sizes typically ranged from 20, 45, and 90 microns. The leaching agents were added in concentrations ranging from 1 to 10% by weight in the polymer. More particularly, the leaching agents were added in concentrations ranging from 1%, 5%, and 10% by weight in the polymer.
  • The leaching agents were then leached out with water from the polymer for a period of 10 to 12 days and the surface porosity was characterized by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) for crater dimensions and inter-crater spacing. With the physical characteristics determined, the surfaces of the polymer were then exposed to endothelial cells over an 11 day period, at the end of which the cells attached to the surface were counted and correlated to the surface features.
  • FIG. 4 illustrates some of the results of the number of cells correlated to pore size in a PLLA polymer sample at day 9, which is representative of the results. FIG. 5 also illustrates some of the results of the number of cells correlated to pore size in a PLGA polymer sample (specifically PLGA 80/20) also at day 9. In both the PLLA and PLGA polymers, each sample was prepared utilizing the methods described above. Generally, endothelial cell growth appeared better on PLGA 80/20 samples than on PLLA samples. Moreover, both gelatin and sugar porogens appear to act similarly and regardless of the porogen used, cell growth appears inversely dependent on pore size. However, gelatin appeared to be optimal for use as a porogen in the size range of about 5 to 40 microns at concentrations of about 5 to 10% in the starting solution. The PCL samples, also prepared as described above, showed growth of endothelial cells although the growth did not appear dependent on pore size in the range studied.
  • Generally, endothelial cell attachment and proliferation is higher at lower crater sizes (between about 5-10 microns) and decreases with higher crater size up to about 90 microns; however, compared to controls (no craters), all the samples showed enhanced endothelial cell attachment.
  • By changing the concentration of the particles in the polymer (prior to leaching), mentioned above as 1%, 5%, and 10% concentrations, the inter-pore distances along the polymer surfaces were varied from an average of about 50 microns to 250 microns. As illustrated by the results in FIG. 6, an inter-pore distance ranging from about 50 to 100 microns and more preferably between 50 to 80 microns appeared optimal for attachment and growth of the endothelial cells.
  • Accordingly, endothelial cell growth appears to correlate inversely to pore size on surfaces of PLLA and PLGA samples, but not to PCL samples. As pore size is decreased (e.g., down to about 5 to 10 microns), endothelial cell growth is increased. However, at all pore sizes, PCL showed good endothelial cell growth on its surface.
  • EXAMPLE 3
  • As mentioned above, chemicals such as sodium hydroxide may be used to dissolve PLA in regions unprotected by an alkali-resistant mask material where the dissolved material may be rinsed away in water to form nano-craters. In another example, the polymer surface may be first irradiated prior to etching with the sodium hydroxide to enhance the etching process.
  • In this example, samples of PLGA, PCL, and PLLA (other suitable polymers described above may alternatively be utilized) were first irradiated with an electron beam and then etched using the sodium hydroxide, as described above, for a period of 16 hours to create surface features. The average surface roughness of the samples was measured using an atomic force microscope (AFM) and the etched samples were then exposed to endothelial cells. Growth was quantified over a period of 15 days and the irradiated and etched samples were compared to control samples after 4 days, 8 days, and 15 days. Table 2 shows a comparison of the results for sample roughness between the irradiated and control samples where the MTS value is an indication of the number of active cells.
    TABLE 2
    Results of Comparison For Irradiated and Control Samples
    With Respect to Sample Roughness and Cell Growth.
    AFM Avg surface MTS Average MTS Average MTS Average
    Roughness (Scan Static Absorbance Absorbance Absorbance
    Size 50 μm) Contact Angle after 4 days after 8 days after 15 days
    PLGA Control 3.3 ± 1  73.2 + 1 0.51 0.37 0.26
    PLGA Modified 93 ± 3 57.4 + 2 0.57 0.29 0.45
    PLLA Control 646 ± 9  94.2 + 2 0.40 0.29 0.40
    PLLA Modified 333 ± 27 63.4 + 1 0.51 0.17 0.27
    PCL Control 259 ± 20 80.2 + 3 0.39 0.24 0.28
    PCL Modified 390 ± 16 61.8 + 1 0.53 0.38 0.39

    * Modified = Ebeam with 2.5 Mrads + 16 hours 0.1N NaOH immersion
  • Generally, irradiating samples prior to etching with sodium hydroxide gives surface features that are rougher than control samples. Table 3 shows a comparison of the results for the irradiated and control samples with respect to live cell growth and total cell growth.
    TABLE 3
    Results of Comparison For Irradiated and Control Samples With Respect to Live Cell Growth and Total Cell Growth.
    Hemocytometer Hemocytometer Hemocytometer Hemocytometer Hemocytometer Hemocytometer
    Avg Live Avg total Avg Live Avg total Avg Live Avg total
    Cells Count Cells Count Cells Count Cells Count Cells Count Cells Count
    after 4 day after 4 day after 8 day after 8 day after 15 day after 15 day
    PLGA Control 5400 9600 9300 15800 9400 22700
    PLGA Modified 8800 12800 9700 17800 17800 31400
    PLLA Control 5300 9000 3800 4900 13500 27700
    PLLA Modified 6500 8800 3300 4800 13600 27400
    PCL Control 4400 9200 1530 3800 3060 12000
    PCL Modified 4100 7600 9830 14200 5300 23400

    * Modified = Ebeam with 2.5 Mrads + 16 hours 0.1N NaOH immersion
  • Generally, the surface-modified samples show enhanced endothelial cell growth for PLGA and PCL samples except for PLLA samples. The endothelial cell growth also appeared to correlate well with overall surface roughness of PLGA and PCL samples where endothelial cell growth increases as surface roughness increases.
  • As can be understood by one skilled in the art, many modifications to the exemplary embodiments described herein are possible. The invention, rather, is intended to encompass all such modification within its scope, as defined by the claims.

Claims (34)

1. An implantable device having at least one surface for contacting bodily fluid or tissue, said at least one surface comprising a plurality of nano-craters thereon that enhance or promote endothelialization of said at least one surface.
2. The implantable device of claim 1, wherein said at least one surface comprises a polymer selected from the group consisting of polyglycolide, poly-lactide, poly-co-glycolactive and polycaprolactone.
3. The implantable device of claim 1, further comprising an adhesion-promoting molecule in said at least one surface.
4. The implantable device of claim 3, wherein the adhesion-promoting molecule is selected from the group consisting of laminin, fibronactin, collagen, vitronectin, tenascin, N-cadherin, P-cadherin and a peptide.
5. The implantable device of claim 1, further comprising a growth-stimulating molecule in said at least one surface.
6. The implantable device of claim 5, wherein the growth-stimulating molecule is selected from the group consisting of granulocyte colony stimulating factor, platelet-derived endothelial call growth factor, fibroblast-derived endothelial call growth factor, NB41 endothelial cell growth factor, endothelial cell growth factor alpha, endothelial cell growth factor beta, endothelial call growth factor 2a and endothelial cell growth factor 2b.
7. The implantable device of claim 1, further comprising an anti-thrombotic molecule in said at least one surface.
8. The implantable device of claim 7, wherein the anti-thrombotic molecule is selected from the group consisting of heparin, a benzamidine compound, a bicyclic pyrimidine compound, a nitro compound, a thio acid compound, a protein, and a peptide.
9. The implantable device of claim 7, wherein the anti-thrombotic molecule is selected from the group consisting of tissue-type plasminogen activator, protein S and protein C.
10. The implantable device of claim 1, wherein the implantable device is selected from the group consisting of a stent, a graft, a conduit, a valve and dialysis tubing.
11. The implantable device of claim 1, wherein a size of the nano-craters is inversely proportional to the endothelialization of the at least one surface whereby a relatively smaller size of the nano-craters is correlated to increased endothelialization.
12. The implantable device of claim 1, further comprising a leaching agent suitable for creating the plurality of nano-craters, wherein the leaching agent is selected from the group consisting of inorganic salt, form gelatin, sugar, chitosan, and polyvinyl pyrrolidone.
13. The implantable device of claim 12, wherein the leaching agent is included in a concentration ranging from 1 to 10% by weight.
14. The implantable device of claim 1, wherein a size of each nano-crater ranges from 5 to 90 microns in diameter.
15. The implantable device of claim 1, wherein a distance between each nano-craters ranges from 50 to 100 microns.
16. The implantable device of claim 15, wherein the distance between each nano-crater ranges from 50 to 80 microns.
17. The implantable device of claim 1, wherein the at least one surface defines a roughness which is correlated to the endothelialization.
18. A method of reducing thrombogenicity of an implantable device by promoting or enhancing endothelialization of the implantable device having at least one surface for contacting bodily fluid or tissue, comprising: providing on said at least one surface a plurality of nano-craters that enhance or promote endothelialization of said at least one surface.
19. The method of claim 18, wherein the implantable device is selected from the group consisting of a stent, a graft, a conduit, a valve and dialysis tubing.
20. The method of claim 18, wherein said at least one surface comprises a polymer selected from the group consisting of polyglycolide, poly-lactide and poly-co-glycolactide.
21. The method of claim 18, further comprising irradiating said at least one surface to degrade portions of the surface prior to providing on said at least one surface a plurality of nano-craters.
22. The method of claim 21, further comprising etching the nano-craters with sodium hydroxide.
23. The method of claim 18, wherein providing comprises incorporating a plurality of leachable nano-particles in said at least one surface.
24. The method of claim 23, wherein incorporating comprises adding the leachable nano-particles in a concentration ranging from 1 to 10% by weight.
25. The method of claim 18, wherein providing comprises providing nano-craters ranging in diameter from 5 to 90 microns.
26. The method of claim 18, wherein providing comprises providing nano-craters having a distance between each nano-crater ranging from 50 to 100 microns.
27. The method of claim 18, wherein providing comprises providing the at least one surface having a roughened surface correlated to enhance endothelialization.
28. The method of claim 18, further comprising including an adhesion-promoting molecule in said at least one surface.
29. The method of claim 28, wherein the adhesion-promoting molecule is selected from the group consisting of laminin, fibronactin, collagen, vitronectin, tenascin, N-cadherin. P-cadherin and a peptide.
30. The method of claim 18, further comprising including a growth-stimulating molecule in said at least one surface.
31. The method of claim 30, wherein the growth-stimulating molecule is selected from the group consisting of granulocyte colony stimulating factor, platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor, fibroblast-derived endothelial cell growth factor, NB41 endothelial cell growth factor. Endothelial call growth factor alpha. Endothelial cell growth factor beta, endothelial cell growth factor 2a and endothelial cell growth factor 2b.
32. The method of claim 18, further comprising including an anti-thrombotic molecule in said at least one surface.
33. The method of claim 32, wherein the anti-thrombotic molecule is selected from the group consisting of heparin, a benzamidine compound, a bicyclic pyrimidine compound, a nitro compound, a thio acid compound, a protein, and a peptide.
34. The method of claim 33, wherein the anti-thrombotic molecule is a tissue-type selected from the group consisting of plasminogen activator, protein S and protein C.
US11/753,878 2006-05-26 2007-05-25 Implantable article, method of forming same and method for reducing thrombogenicity Abandoned US20080097620A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US80855806P true 2006-05-26 2006-05-26
US11/753,878 US20080097620A1 (en) 2006-05-26 2007-05-25 Implantable article, method of forming same and method for reducing thrombogenicity

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US11/753,878 US20080097620A1 (en) 2006-05-26 2007-05-25 Implantable article, method of forming same and method for reducing thrombogenicity

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20080097620A1 true US20080097620A1 (en) 2008-04-24

Family

ID=38779381

Family Applications (2)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US11/753,896 Active 2027-10-15 US8999364B2 (en) 2003-06-16 2007-05-25 Implantable article, method of forming same and method for reducing thrombogenicity
US11/753,878 Abandoned US20080097620A1 (en) 2006-05-26 2007-05-25 Implantable article, method of forming same and method for reducing thrombogenicity

Family Applications Before (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US11/753,896 Active 2027-10-15 US8999364B2 (en) 2003-06-16 2007-05-25 Implantable article, method of forming same and method for reducing thrombogenicity

Country Status (3)

Country Link
US (2) US8999364B2 (en)
EP (1) EP2020956A2 (en)
WO (1) WO2007140320A2 (en)

Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20100087840A1 (en) * 2007-03-06 2010-04-08 Garrett Ebersole Wound closure material
US20100249944A1 (en) * 2009-03-31 2010-09-30 Thomas Jonathan D Multizone Implants
US20100249832A1 (en) * 2009-03-31 2010-09-30 Joshua Stopek Multizone Implants
US20100249854A1 (en) * 2009-03-31 2010-09-30 Thomas Jonathan D Multizone Implants
US20100249838A1 (en) * 2009-03-31 2010-09-30 Joshua Stopek Multizone Implants
US8999364B2 (en) 2004-06-15 2015-04-07 Nanyang Technological University Implantable article, method of forming same and method for reducing thrombogenicity
US20160263276A1 (en) * 2012-10-19 2016-09-15 Tyber Medical Llc Anti-microbial and osteointegation nanotextured surfaces
US9908143B2 (en) 2008-06-20 2018-03-06 Amaranth Medical Pte. Stent fabrication via tubular casting processes

Families Citing this family (57)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US9227243B2 (en) 2009-12-08 2016-01-05 Baker Hughes Incorporated Method of making a powder metal compact
US9243475B2 (en) 2009-12-08 2016-01-26 Baker Hughes Incorporated Extruded powder metal compact
US9101978B2 (en) 2002-12-08 2015-08-11 Baker Hughes Incorporated Nanomatrix powder metal compact
US9109429B2 (en) 2002-12-08 2015-08-18 Baker Hughes Incorporated Engineered powder compact composite material
US10240419B2 (en) 2009-12-08 2019-03-26 Baker Hughes, A Ge Company, Llc Downhole flow inhibition tool and method of unplugging a seat
US7794776B1 (en) * 2006-06-29 2010-09-14 Abbott Cardiovascular Systems Inc. Modification of polymer stents with radiation
US7901452B2 (en) * 2007-06-27 2011-03-08 Abbott Cardiovascular Systems Inc. Method to fabricate a stent having selected morphology to reduce restenosis
AU2008297015B2 (en) 2007-08-30 2013-08-22 Vertex Pharmaceuticals Incorporated Co-crystals and pharmaceutical compositions comprising the same
US8057876B2 (en) * 2008-02-25 2011-11-15 Abbott Cardiovascular Systems Inc. Bioabsorbable stent with layers having different degradation rates
US8661630B2 (en) * 2008-05-21 2014-03-04 Abbott Cardiovascular Systems Inc. Coating comprising an amorphous primer layer and a semi-crystalline reservoir layer
GB2463861B (en) * 2008-09-10 2012-09-26 Univ Manchester Medical device
WO2010138212A2 (en) * 2009-05-29 2010-12-02 Incube Labs, Llc Biodegradable medical implants, polymer compositions and methods of use
US20110066223A1 (en) * 2009-09-14 2011-03-17 Hossainy Syed F A Bioabsorbable Stent With Time Dependent Structure And Properties
US8425587B2 (en) * 2009-09-17 2013-04-23 Abbott Cardiovascular Systems Inc. Method of treatment with a bioabsorbable stent with time dependent structure and properties and regio-selective degradation
US9079246B2 (en) 2009-12-08 2015-07-14 Baker Hughes Incorporated Method of making a nanomatrix powder metal compact
US8403037B2 (en) 2009-12-08 2013-03-26 Baker Hughes Incorporated Dissolvable tool and method
US9682425B2 (en) 2009-12-08 2017-06-20 Baker Hughes Incorporated Coated metallic powder and method of making the same
US8528633B2 (en) 2009-12-08 2013-09-10 Baker Hughes Incorporated Dissolvable tool and method
US8327931B2 (en) 2009-12-08 2012-12-11 Baker Hughes Incorporated Multi-component disappearing tripping ball and method for making the same
US9034363B2 (en) 2010-01-22 2015-05-19 Concept Medical Research Private Limited Drug-eluting insertable medical device for treating acute myocardial infarction, thrombus containing lesions and saphenous-vein graft lesions
US8424610B2 (en) * 2010-03-05 2013-04-23 Baker Hughes Incorporated Flow control arrangement and method
US8425651B2 (en) 2010-07-30 2013-04-23 Baker Hughes Incorporated Nanomatrix metal composite
US8776884B2 (en) 2010-08-09 2014-07-15 Baker Hughes Incorporated Formation treatment system and method
SG188559A1 (en) * 2010-09-22 2013-04-30 Univ Nanyang Tech Method for forming a tissue construct and use thereof
US9090955B2 (en) 2010-10-27 2015-07-28 Baker Hughes Incorporated Nanomatrix powder metal composite
US9127515B2 (en) 2010-10-27 2015-09-08 Baker Hughes Incorporated Nanomatrix carbon composite
US8573295B2 (en) 2010-11-16 2013-11-05 Baker Hughes Incorporated Plug and method of unplugging a seat
WO2012122567A2 (en) * 2011-03-10 2012-09-13 University Of Florida Research Foundation, Inc. Anti-thrombogenic heart valve and medical implements
US8631876B2 (en) 2011-04-28 2014-01-21 Baker Hughes Incorporated Method of making and using a functionally gradient composite tool
US9080098B2 (en) 2011-04-28 2015-07-14 Baker Hughes Incorporated Functionally gradient composite article
US9139928B2 (en) 2011-06-17 2015-09-22 Baker Hughes Incorporated Corrodible downhole article and method of removing the article from downhole environment
US9707739B2 (en) 2011-07-22 2017-07-18 Baker Hughes Incorporated Intermetallic metallic composite, method of manufacture thereof and articles comprising the same
US8783365B2 (en) 2011-07-28 2014-07-22 Baker Hughes Incorporated Selective hydraulic fracturing tool and method thereof
US9833838B2 (en) 2011-07-29 2017-12-05 Baker Hughes, A Ge Company, Llc Method of controlling the corrosion rate of alloy particles, alloy particle with controlled corrosion rate, and articles comprising the particle
US9643250B2 (en) 2011-07-29 2017-05-09 Baker Hughes Incorporated Method of controlling the corrosion rate of alloy particles, alloy particle with controlled corrosion rate, and articles comprising the particle
US9057242B2 (en) 2011-08-05 2015-06-16 Baker Hughes Incorporated Method of controlling corrosion rate in downhole article, and downhole article having controlled corrosion rate
US9033055B2 (en) 2011-08-17 2015-05-19 Baker Hughes Incorporated Selectively degradable passage restriction and method
US9109269B2 (en) 2011-08-30 2015-08-18 Baker Hughes Incorporated Magnesium alloy powder metal compact
US9856547B2 (en) 2011-08-30 2018-01-02 Bakers Hughes, A Ge Company, Llc Nanostructured powder metal compact
US9090956B2 (en) 2011-08-30 2015-07-28 Baker Hughes Incorporated Aluminum alloy powder metal compact
US9643144B2 (en) 2011-09-02 2017-05-09 Baker Hughes Incorporated Method to generate and disperse nanostructures in a composite material
US9187990B2 (en) 2011-09-03 2015-11-17 Baker Hughes Incorporated Method of using a degradable shaped charge and perforating gun system
US9347119B2 (en) 2011-09-03 2016-05-24 Baker Hughes Incorporated Degradable high shock impedance material
US9133695B2 (en) 2011-09-03 2015-09-15 Baker Hughes Incorporated Degradable shaped charge and perforating gun system
US9010416B2 (en) 2012-01-25 2015-04-21 Baker Hughes Incorporated Tubular anchoring system and a seat for use in the same
US9068428B2 (en) 2012-02-13 2015-06-30 Baker Hughes Incorporated Selectively corrodible downhole article and method of use
US9254212B2 (en) 2012-04-06 2016-02-09 Abbott Cardiovascular Systems Inc. Segmented scaffolds and delivery thereof for peripheral applications
US9605508B2 (en) 2012-05-08 2017-03-28 Baker Hughes Incorporated Disintegrable and conformable metallic seal, and method of making the same
AU2013341731B2 (en) 2012-11-12 2017-06-22 Hollister Incorporated Intermittent catheter assembly and kit
LT2919825T (en) 2012-11-14 2018-12-10 Hollister Incorporated Disposable catheter with selectively degradable inner core
US9816339B2 (en) 2013-09-03 2017-11-14 Baker Hughes, A Ge Company, Llc Plug reception assembly and method of reducing restriction in a borehole
CN105744912B (en) 2013-09-19 2019-01-01 巴塞尔大学医院 Artificial blood vessel grafts
US9790375B2 (en) * 2013-10-07 2017-10-17 Baker Hughes Incorporated Protective coating for a substrate
AU2014362368B2 (en) * 2013-12-12 2018-10-04 Hollister Incorporated Flushable catheters
US9910026B2 (en) 2015-01-21 2018-03-06 Baker Hughes, A Ge Company, Llc High temperature tracers for downhole detection of produced water
US10221637B2 (en) 2015-08-11 2019-03-05 Baker Hughes, A Ge Company, Llc Methods of manufacturing dissolvable tools via liquid-solid state molding
US10016810B2 (en) 2015-12-14 2018-07-10 Baker Hughes, A Ge Company, Llc Methods of manufacturing degradable tools using a galvanic carrier and tools manufactured thereof

Citations (91)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4733665A (en) * 1985-11-07 1988-03-29 Expandable Grafts Partnership Expandable intraluminal graft, and method and apparatus for implanting an expandable intraluminal graft
US5288711A (en) * 1992-04-28 1994-02-22 American Home Products Corporation Method of treating hyperproliferative vascular disease
US5383887A (en) * 1992-12-28 1995-01-24 Celsa Lg Device for selectively forming a temporary blood filter
US5607467A (en) * 1990-09-14 1997-03-04 Froix; Michael Expandable polymeric stent with memory and delivery apparatus and method
US5716410A (en) * 1993-04-30 1998-02-10 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Temporary stent and method of use
US5733303A (en) * 1994-03-17 1998-03-31 Medinol Ltd. Flexible expandable stent
US6168619B1 (en) * 1998-10-16 2001-01-02 Quanam Medical Corporation Intravascular stent having a coaxial polymer member and end sleeves
US6338739B1 (en) * 1999-12-22 2002-01-15 Ethicon, Inc. Biodegradable stent
US6338793B1 (en) * 1999-06-24 2002-01-15 Catalytic Distillation Technologies Process for the desulfurization of a diesel fraction
US6508834B1 (en) * 1994-03-17 2003-01-21 Medinol Ltd. Articulated stent
US6517559B1 (en) * 1999-05-03 2003-02-11 O'connell Paul T. Blood filter and method for treating vascular disease
US6520986B2 (en) * 1995-12-14 2003-02-18 Gore Enterprise Holdings, Inc. Kink resistant stent-graft
US20030040771A1 (en) * 1999-02-01 2003-02-27 Hideki Hyodoh Methods for creating woven devices
US6530950B1 (en) * 1999-01-12 2003-03-11 Quanam Medical Corporation Intraluminal stent having coaxial polymer member
US20030050678A1 (en) * 2001-08-07 2003-03-13 Sierra Rafael A. Method of treating acne
US6533808B1 (en) * 1998-03-27 2003-03-18 Intratherapeutics, Inc. Stent with dual support structure
US6533805B1 (en) * 1996-04-01 2003-03-18 General Surgical Innovations, Inc. Prosthesis and method for deployment within a body lumen
US6537295B2 (en) * 2001-03-06 2003-03-25 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Wire and lock mechanism
US6537311B1 (en) * 1999-12-30 2003-03-25 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Stent designs for use in peripheral vessels
US20030060836A1 (en) * 2000-12-05 2003-03-27 Shu Wang Polymer and nerve guide conduits formed thereof
US6673106B2 (en) * 2001-06-14 2004-01-06 Cordis Neurovascular, Inc. Intravascular stent device
US6679911B2 (en) * 2001-03-01 2004-01-20 Cordis Corporation Flexible stent
US6679910B1 (en) * 1999-11-12 2004-01-20 Latin American Devices Llc Intraluminal stent
US20040015187A1 (en) * 2002-04-18 2004-01-22 Mnemoscience Corporation Biodegradable shape memory polymeric sutures
US6687553B2 (en) * 2000-06-29 2004-02-03 Borgwarner Inc. Dual gain variable control system
US6685736B1 (en) * 1993-09-30 2004-02-03 Endogad Research Pty Limited Intraluminal graft
US6689159B2 (en) * 1991-10-28 2004-02-10 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Expandable stents and method for making same
US20040033251A1 (en) * 2002-08-13 2004-02-19 Medtronic, Inc. Active agent delivery system including a polyurethane, medical device, and method
US20040034403A1 (en) * 2002-04-27 2004-02-19 Klaus Schmitt Self-expanding stent
US6699276B2 (en) * 1996-09-26 2004-03-02 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Support structure/membrane composite medical device
US6699256B1 (en) * 1999-06-04 2004-03-02 St. Jude Medical Atg, Inc. Medical grafting apparatus and methods
US6702846B2 (en) * 1996-04-09 2004-03-09 Endocare, Inc. Urological stent therapy system and method
US6702844B1 (en) * 1988-03-09 2004-03-09 Endovascular Technologies, Inc. Artificial graft and implantation method
US20040047909A1 (en) * 1995-06-07 2004-03-11 Ragheb Anthony O. Coated implantable medical device
US6706062B2 (en) * 1998-01-14 2004-03-16 Advanced Stent Technologies, Inc. Extendible stent apparatus
US6709454B1 (en) * 1999-05-17 2004-03-23 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Self-expanding stent with enhanced delivery precision and stent delivery system
US6709453B2 (en) * 2000-03-01 2004-03-23 Medinol Ltd. Longitudinally flexible stent
US6709425B2 (en) * 1998-09-30 2004-03-23 C. R. Bard, Inc. Vascular inducing implants
US20050004684A1 (en) * 2003-07-01 2005-01-06 General Electric Company System and method for adjusting a control model
US20050004654A1 (en) * 1997-03-18 2005-01-06 Farhad Khosravi Coiled sheet graft for single and bifurcated lumens and methods of making and use
US20050010275A1 (en) * 2002-10-11 2005-01-13 Sahatjian Ronald A. Implantable medical devices
US20050010170A1 (en) * 2004-02-11 2005-01-13 Shanley John F Implantable medical device with beneficial agent concentration gradient
US20050012171A1 (en) * 2002-07-09 2005-01-20 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Semiconductor device and method of fabricating the same
US6846323B2 (en) * 2003-05-15 2005-01-25 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Intravascular stent
US20050021131A1 (en) * 2003-06-16 2005-01-27 Subramanian Venkatraman Polymeric stent and method of manufacture
US6849086B2 (en) * 1992-02-21 2005-02-01 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Intraluminal stent and graft
US6855162B2 (en) * 1997-03-24 2005-02-15 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Arterial graft device
US6855125B2 (en) * 1999-05-20 2005-02-15 Conor Medsystems, Inc. Expandable medical device delivery system and method
US20050038505A1 (en) * 2001-11-05 2005-02-17 Sun Biomedical Ltd. Drug-delivery endovascular stent and method of forming the same
US6858037B2 (en) * 1996-03-05 2005-02-22 Evysio Medical Devices Ulc Expandable stent and method for delivery of same
US6860946B2 (en) * 2000-07-25 2005-03-01 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. System for the process of coating implantable medical devices
US6860901B1 (en) * 1988-03-09 2005-03-01 Endovascular Technologies, Inc. Intraluminal grafting system
US6863685B2 (en) * 2001-03-29 2005-03-08 Cordis Corporation Radiopacity intraluminal medical device
US6866805B2 (en) * 2001-12-27 2005-03-15 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Hybrid intravascular stent
US6981985B2 (en) * 2002-01-22 2006-01-03 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Stent bumper struts
US6981986B1 (en) * 1995-03-01 2006-01-03 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Longitudinally flexible expandable stent
US6989071B2 (en) * 2001-01-30 2006-01-24 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Stent with channel(s) for containing and delivering biologically active material and method for manufacturing the same
US20060020330A1 (en) * 2004-07-26 2006-01-26 Bin Huang Method of fabricating an implantable medical device with biaxially oriented polymers
US6991647B2 (en) * 1999-06-03 2006-01-31 Ams Research Corporation Bioresorbable stent
US20060024373A1 (en) * 2000-11-14 2006-02-02 N.V.R. Labs Ltd. Cross-linked hyaluronic acid-laminin gels and use thereof in cell culture and medical implants
US20060025852A1 (en) * 2004-08-02 2006-02-02 Armstrong Joseph R Bioabsorbable self-expanding endolumenal devices
US6997948B2 (en) * 1997-08-01 2006-02-14 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Bioabsorbable self-expanding stent
US6997949B2 (en) * 1993-04-26 2006-02-14 Medtronic, Inc. Medical device for delivering a therapeutic agent and method of preparation
US20060036316A1 (en) * 2004-08-13 2006-02-16 Joan Zeltinger Inherently radiopaque bioresorbable polymers for multiple uses
US7001424B2 (en) * 2000-10-20 2006-02-21 Angiodynamics, Inc. Convertible blood clot filter
US7001419B2 (en) * 2000-10-05 2006-02-21 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Stent delivery system with membrane
US20060041271A1 (en) * 2004-08-20 2006-02-23 Gjalt Bosma Vascular filter with sleeve
US7004966B2 (en) * 1998-09-30 2006-02-28 C. R. Bard, Inc. Selective adherence of stent-graft coverings
US20060045901A1 (en) * 2004-08-26 2006-03-02 Jan Weber Stents with drug eluting coatings
US7008446B1 (en) * 2001-08-17 2006-03-07 James Peter Amis Thermally pliable and carbon fiber stents
US20060051390A1 (en) * 2004-09-03 2006-03-09 Schwarz Marlene C Medical devices having self-forming rate-controlling barrier for drug release
US20060052859A1 (en) * 2002-09-25 2006-03-09 Keiji Igaki Thread for vascular stent and vascular stent using the thread
US20060051394A1 (en) * 2004-03-24 2006-03-09 Moore Timothy G Biodegradable polyurethane and polyurethane ureas
US20060058863A1 (en) * 2004-04-02 2006-03-16 Antoine Lafont Polymer-based stent assembly
US20060058832A1 (en) * 2002-12-12 2006-03-16 Andreas Melzer Vessel filter
US20060069427A1 (en) * 2004-09-24 2006-03-30 Savage Douglas R Drug-delivery endovascular stent and method for treating restenosis
US20060067974A1 (en) * 2004-09-28 2006-03-30 Atrium Medical Corporation Drug delivery coating for use with a stent
US7160592B2 (en) * 2002-02-15 2007-01-09 Cv Therapeutics, Inc. Polymer coating for medical devices
US7169174B2 (en) * 2000-06-30 2007-01-30 Cordis Corporation Hybrid stent
US7169170B2 (en) * 2002-02-22 2007-01-30 Cordis Corporation Self-expanding stent delivery system
US7169177B2 (en) * 2003-01-15 2007-01-30 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Bifurcated stent
US7169173B2 (en) * 2001-06-29 2007-01-30 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Composite stent with regioselective material and a method of forming the same
US7172623B2 (en) * 2001-10-09 2007-02-06 William Cook Europe Aps Cannula stent
US20070032816A1 (en) * 2005-04-04 2007-02-08 B.Braun Medical Removable Filter Head
US7175654B2 (en) * 2003-10-16 2007-02-13 Cordis Corporation Stent design having stent segments which uncouple upon deployment
US20070038290A1 (en) * 2005-08-15 2007-02-15 Bin Huang Fiber reinforced composite stents
US20070038226A1 (en) * 2005-07-29 2007-02-15 Galdonik Jason A Embolectomy procedures with a device comprising a polymer and devices with polymer matrices and supports
US20070038241A1 (en) * 2005-08-04 2007-02-15 Cook Incorporated Embolic protection device having inflatable frame
US7179286B2 (en) * 2003-02-21 2007-02-20 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Stent with stepped connectors
US7179288B2 (en) * 1998-03-30 2007-02-20 Conor Medsystems, Inc. Expandable medical device for delivery of beneficial agent
US20080051866A1 (en) * 2003-02-26 2008-02-28 Chao Chin Chen Drug delivery devices and methods

Family Cites Families (282)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4173689A (en) 1976-02-03 1979-11-06 University Of Utah Synthetic polymer prosthesis material
US4334327A (en) 1979-12-21 1982-06-15 University Of Utah Ureteral prosthesis
SE445884B (en) 1982-04-30 1986-07-28 Medinvent Sa A device for implantation of a tubular prosthesis
NL8202893A (en) 1982-07-16 1984-02-16 Rijksuniversiteit Biological tolerated, antithrombogenic material for reconstructive surgery.
US6814748B1 (en) 1995-06-07 2004-11-09 Endovascular Technologies, Inc. Intraluminal grafting system
SE452404B (en) 1984-02-03 1987-11-30 Medinvent Sa Multilayered prosthesis material and method for its forward tell up
SE452110B (en) 1984-11-08 1987-11-16 Medinvent Sa Multilayered prosthesis material and method for its forward tell up
US5102417A (en) 1985-11-07 1992-04-07 Expandable Grafts Partnership Expandable intraluminal graft, and method and apparatus for implanting an expandable intraluminal graft
SE453258B (en) 1986-04-21 1988-01-25 Medinvent Sa Elastic, sjelvexpanderande prosthesis and method for its forward tell up
US6923828B1 (en) 1987-10-19 2005-08-02 Medtronic, Inc. Intravascular stent
US5133732A (en) 1987-10-19 1992-07-28 Medtronic, Inc. Intravascular stent
JP2561853B2 (en) 1988-01-28 1996-12-11 株式会社ジェイ・エム・エス Compacts and methods of use thereof with a shape memory
US5104400A (en) 1989-05-26 1992-04-14 Impra, Inc. Blood vessel patch
US5152782A (en) 1989-05-26 1992-10-06 Impra, Inc. Non-porous coated ptfe graft
US4955899A (en) 1989-05-26 1990-09-11 Impra, Inc. Longitudinally compliant vascular graft
DE4030998C2 (en) 1989-10-04 1995-11-23 Ernst Peter Prof Dr M Strecker Percutaneous vascular filter
US5139480A (en) 1990-08-22 1992-08-18 Biotech Laboratories, Inc. Necking stents
US5163952A (en) 1990-09-14 1992-11-17 Michael Froix Expandable polymeric stent with memory and delivery apparatus and method
US6248129B1 (en) 1990-09-14 2001-06-19 Quanam Medical Corporation Expandable polymeric stent with memory and delivery apparatus and method
US5630162A (en) 1990-11-13 1997-05-13 International Business Machines Corporation Array processor dotted communication network based on H-DOTs
US5843089A (en) 1990-12-28 1998-12-01 Boston Scientific Corporation Stent lining
USD484979S1 (en) 1991-06-28 2004-01-06 Cook Incorporated Implantable intravascular stent
US7597697B1 (en) 1991-07-03 2009-10-06 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Bypass grafting method
US5302168A (en) 1991-09-05 1994-04-12 Hess Robert L Method and apparatus for restenosis treatment
US5516781A (en) 1992-01-09 1996-05-14 American Home Products Corporation Method of treating restenosis with rapamycin
US7101392B2 (en) 1992-03-31 2006-09-05 Boston Scientific Corporation Tubular medical endoprostheses
EP0888758B1 (en) 1992-05-08 2003-08-20 Schneider (Usa) Inc., Esophageal stent
US5306294A (en) 1992-08-05 1994-04-26 Ultrasonic Sensing And Monitoring Systems, Inc. Stent construction of rolled configuration
US5562725A (en) 1992-09-14 1996-10-08 Meadox Medicals Inc. Radially self-expanding implantable intraluminal device
US5443458A (en) 1992-12-22 1995-08-22 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Multilayered biodegradable stent and method of manufacture
US5964744A (en) 1993-01-04 1999-10-12 Menlo Care, Inc. Polymeric medical device systems having shape memory
US5630840A (en) 1993-01-19 1997-05-20 Schneider (Usa) Inc Clad composite stent
DE69412474T2 (en) 1993-04-28 1998-12-17 Focal Inc Device, product, and use on the intraluminal photothermographic shaping
US5735892A (en) 1993-08-18 1998-04-07 W. L. Gore & Associates, Inc. Intraluminal stent graft
BR9405622A (en) 1993-09-30 1999-09-08 Endogad Res Pty Ltd intraluminal graft
US5989280A (en) 1993-10-22 1999-11-23 Scimed Lifesystems, Inc Stent delivery apparatus and method
US6039749A (en) 1994-02-10 2000-03-21 Endovascular Systems, Inc. Method and apparatus for deploying non-circular stents and graftstent complexes
DE69502746D1 (en) 1994-02-25 1998-07-09 Fischell Robert Stent having a plurality of closed circular structures
US6464722B2 (en) 1994-03-17 2002-10-15 Medinol, Ltd. Flexible expandable stent
US6461381B2 (en) 1994-03-17 2002-10-08 Medinol, Ltd. Flexible expandable stent
US5843120A (en) 1994-03-17 1998-12-01 Medinol Ltd. Flexible-expandable stent
US5478349A (en) 1994-04-28 1995-12-26 Boston Scientific Corporation Placement of endoprostheses and stents
DE69527141T2 (en) 1994-04-29 2002-11-07 Scimed Life Systems Inc Stent with collagen
US6123715A (en) 1994-07-08 2000-09-26 Amplatz; Curtis Method of forming medical devices; intravascular occlusion devices
US6331188B1 (en) 1994-08-31 2001-12-18 Gore Enterprise Holdings, Inc. Exterior supported self-expanding stent-graft
US6818014B2 (en) 1995-03-01 2004-11-16 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Longitudinally flexible expandable stent
AT220308T (en) 1995-03-01 2002-07-15 Scimed Life Systems Inc Longitudinal Flexible and expandable stent
US7204848B1 (en) 1995-03-01 2007-04-17 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Longitudinally flexible expandable stent
US6451047B2 (en) 1995-03-10 2002-09-17 Impra, Inc. Encapsulated intraluminal stent-graft and methods of making same
US6264684B1 (en) 1995-03-10 2001-07-24 Impra, Inc., A Subsidiary Of C.R. Bard, Inc. Helically supported graft
EP1018977B1 (en) 1995-05-26 2004-12-08 SurModics, Inc. Method and implantable article for promoting endothelialization
US6602281B1 (en) 1995-06-05 2003-08-05 Avantec Vascular Corporation Radially expansible vessel scaffold having beams and expansion joints
US5954744A (en) 1995-06-06 1999-09-21 Quanam Medical Corporation Intravascular stent
US5824332A (en) 1995-10-05 1998-10-20 Jannetta; Peter J. Method and apparatus for treatment of neurogenic diabetes mellitus, and other conditions
DE19539449A1 (en) 1995-10-24 1997-04-30 Biotronik Mess & Therapieg A process for preparing intraluminal stents of bioresorbable polymeric material
US5989281A (en) 1995-11-07 1999-11-23 Embol-X, Inc. Cannula with associated filter and methods of use during cardiac surgery
US5769816A (en) 1995-11-07 1998-06-23 Embol-X, Inc. Cannula with associated filter
AT218052T (en) 1995-11-27 2002-06-15 Schneider Europ Gmbh Stent for application in a bodily passage
US6719782B1 (en) 1996-01-04 2004-04-13 Endovascular Technologies, Inc. Flat wire stent
US6746476B1 (en) 1997-09-22 2004-06-08 Cordis Corporation Bifurcated axially flexible stent
US6258116B1 (en) 1996-01-26 2001-07-10 Cordis Corporation Bifurcated axially flexible stent
US6796997B1 (en) 1996-03-05 2004-09-28 Evysio Medical Devices Ulc Expandable stent
CA2192520A1 (en) 1996-03-05 1997-09-05 Ian M. Penn Expandable stent and method for delivery of same
BE1010183A3 (en) 1996-04-25 1998-02-03 Dereume Jean Pierre Georges Em Luminal endoprosthesis FOR BRANCHING CHANNELS OF A HUMAN OR ANIMAL BODY AND MANUFACTURING METHOD THEREOF.
US5922021A (en) 1996-04-26 1999-07-13 Jang; G. David Intravascular stent
JP4636634B2 (en) 1996-04-26 2011-02-23 ボストン サイエンティフィック サイムド,インコーポレイテッドBoston Scientific Scimed,Inc. Intravascular stent
US7081130B2 (en) 1996-04-26 2006-07-25 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Intravascular Stent
US5848987A (en) * 1996-04-30 1998-12-15 Medtronic, Inc. Microtextured catheter and method for preventing catheter fluid reflux
US6592617B2 (en) 1996-04-30 2003-07-15 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Three-dimensional braided covered stent
US6251133B1 (en) 1996-05-03 2001-06-26 Medinol Ltd. Bifurcated stent with improved side branch aperture and method of making same
US5755734A (en) 1996-05-03 1998-05-26 Medinol Ltd. Bifurcated stent and method of making same
WO1997042879A1 (en) 1996-05-14 1997-11-20 Embol-X, Inc. Aortic occluder with associated filter and methods of use during cardiac surgery
US5670161A (en) 1996-05-28 1997-09-23 Healy; Kevin E. Biodegradable stent
US6666883B1 (en) 1996-06-06 2003-12-23 Jacques Seguin Endoprosthesis for vascular bifurcation
US6007573A (en) 1996-09-18 1999-12-28 Microtherapeutics, Inc. Intracranial stent and method of use
US7220275B2 (en) 1996-11-04 2007-05-22 Advanced Stent Technologies, Inc. Stent with protruding branch portion for bifurcated vessels
US6835203B1 (en) 1996-11-04 2004-12-28 Advanced Stent Technologies, Inc. Extendible stent apparatus
US7341598B2 (en) 1999-01-13 2008-03-11 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Stent with protruding branch portion for bifurcated vessels
US6884258B2 (en) 1999-06-04 2005-04-26 Advanced Stent Technologies, Inc. Bifurcation lesion stent delivery using multiple guidewires
WO1998020939A2 (en) 1996-11-15 1998-05-22 Advanced Bio Surfaces, Inc. Biomaterial system for in situ tissue repair
US6551350B1 (en) 1996-12-23 2003-04-22 Gore Enterprise Holdings, Inc. Kink resistant bifurcated prosthesis
US6117168A (en) 1996-12-31 2000-09-12 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Multilayer liquid absorption and deformation devices
US5827321A (en) 1997-02-07 1998-10-27 Cornerstone Devices, Inc. Non-Foreshortening intraluminal prosthesis
US5935164A (en) 1997-02-25 1999-08-10 Pmt Corporaton Laminated prosthesis and method of manufacture
US5911732A (en) 1997-03-10 1999-06-15 Johnson & Johnson Interventional Systems, Co. Articulated expandable intraluminal stent
CA2241558A1 (en) 1997-06-24 1998-12-24 Richard T. Allen Stent with reinforced struts and bimodal deployment
US5897911A (en) 1997-08-11 1999-04-27 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Polymer-coated stent structure
US6165195A (en) 1997-08-13 2000-12-26 Advanced Cardiovascylar Systems, Inc. Stent and catheter assembly and method for treating bifurcations
US6309414B1 (en) 1997-11-04 2001-10-30 Sorin Biomedica Cardio S.P.A. Angioplasty stents
US6626939B1 (en) 1997-12-18 2003-09-30 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Stent-graft with bioabsorbable structural support
US5962007A (en) 1997-12-19 1999-10-05 Indigo Medical, Inc. Use of a multi-component coil medical construct
US6258120B1 (en) 1997-12-23 2001-07-10 Embol-X, Inc. Implantable cerebral protection device and methods of use
US6503271B2 (en) 1998-01-09 2003-01-07 Cordis Corporation Intravascular device with improved radiopacity
DE19801076C1 (en) 1998-01-14 1999-06-24 Voelker Wolfram Priv Doz Dr Me Expansion catheter for by-pass surgery
US6623521B2 (en) 1998-02-17 2003-09-23 Md3, Inc. Expandable stent with sliding and locking radial elements
AT327287T (en) 1998-02-23 2006-06-15 Mnemoscience Gmbh Shape memory polymer
TR200002450T2 (en) 1998-02-23 2001-01-22 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Shape memory biodegradable polymers.
US7500988B1 (en) 2000-11-16 2009-03-10 Cordis Corporation Stent for use in a stent graft
US6241762B1 (en) 1998-03-30 2001-06-05 Conor Medsystems, Inc. Expandable medical device with ductile hinges
DE69935716T2 (en) 1998-05-05 2007-08-16 Boston Scientific Ltd., St. Michael Stent with smooth end
US7285235B2 (en) 1999-05-19 2007-10-23 Medtronic, Inc. Manufacturing conduits for use in placing a target vessel in fluid communication with a source of blood
US6296603B1 (en) 1998-05-26 2001-10-02 Isostent, Inc. Radioactive intraluminal endovascular prosthesis and method for the treatment of aneurysms
US6217815B1 (en) 1998-06-10 2001-04-17 Carter-Wallace, Inc. Method and apparatus for manufacturing prophylactic devices
US6224627B1 (en) 1998-06-15 2001-05-01 Gore Enterprise Holdings, Inc. Remotely removable covering and support
US6153252A (en) 1998-06-30 2000-11-28 Ethicon, Inc. Process for coating stents
US6652581B1 (en) 1998-07-07 2003-11-25 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Medical device with porous surface for controlled drug release and method of making the same
KR100617375B1 (en) 1998-09-08 2006-08-29 가부시키가이샤 이가키 이료 세케이 Stent for vessels
EP1669042A3 (en) 1998-09-10 2006-06-28 Percardia, Inc. TMR shunt
US6290728B1 (en) 1998-09-10 2001-09-18 Percardia, Inc. Designs for left ventricular conduit
US6432126B1 (en) 1998-09-30 2002-08-13 C.R. Bard, Inc. Flexible vascular inducing implants
ES2386339T3 (en) 1998-09-30 2012-08-17 Bard Peripheral Vascular, Inc. selective adhesion covered stent-graft, mandrel and method of making a stent-graft device
US6273909B1 (en) 1998-10-05 2001-08-14 Teramed Inc. Endovascular graft system
US6508252B1 (en) 1998-11-06 2003-01-21 St. Jude Medical Atg, Inc. Medical grafting methods and apparatus
US6281262B1 (en) 1998-11-12 2001-08-28 Takiron Co., Ltd. Shape-memory, biodegradable and absorbable material
US6190403B1 (en) 1998-11-13 2001-02-20 Cordis Corporation Low profile radiopaque stent with increased longitudinal flexibility and radial rigidity
US6503270B1 (en) 1998-12-03 2003-01-07 Medinol Ltd. Serpentine coiled ladder stent
JP2002535075A (en) 1999-02-01 2002-10-22 ボード・オヴ・リージェンツ,ザ・ユニヴァーシティ・オヴ・テキサス・システム Woven intravascular devices and their preparation and their transportation device
US6090134A (en) 1999-02-16 2000-07-18 Polymerex Medical Corp. Surface fluorinated stent and methods thereof
US7029492B1 (en) 1999-03-05 2006-04-18 Terumo Kabushiki Kaisha Implanting stent and dilating device
WO2000053104A1 (en) 1999-03-09 2000-09-14 St. Jude Medical Cardiovascular Group, Inc. Medical grafting methods and apparatus
US6325825B1 (en) 1999-04-08 2001-12-04 Cordis Corporation Stent with variable wall thickness
US6524275B1 (en) 1999-04-26 2003-02-25 Gmp Vision Solutions, Inc. Inflatable device and method for treating glaucoma
US6156373A (en) 1999-05-03 2000-12-05 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Medical device coating methods and devices
US7232421B1 (en) 2000-05-12 2007-06-19 C. R. Bard, Inc. Agent delivery systems
US6168617B1 (en) 1999-06-14 2001-01-02 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Stent delivery system
US6364904B1 (en) 1999-07-02 2002-04-02 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Helically formed stent/graft assembly
AU9473801A (en) 2000-10-31 2002-05-15 Scimed Life Systems Inc Combination self-expandable, balloon-expandable endoluminal device
US6890350B1 (en) 1999-07-28 2005-05-10 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Combination self-expandable, balloon-expandable endoluminal device
US7204847B1 (en) 2000-07-28 2007-04-17 C. R. Bard, Inc. Implant anchor systems
US6253768B1 (en) 1999-08-04 2001-07-03 Percardia, Inc. Vascular graft bypass
US6273901B1 (en) 1999-08-10 2001-08-14 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Thrombosis filter having a surface treatment
US6540774B1 (en) 1999-08-31 2003-04-01 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Stent design with end rings having enhanced strength and radiopacity
US6790228B2 (en) 1999-12-23 2004-09-14 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Coating for implantable devices and a method of forming the same
US6908624B2 (en) 1999-12-23 2005-06-21 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Coating for implantable devices and a method of forming the same
US6585757B1 (en) 1999-09-15 2003-07-01 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Endovascular stent with radiopaque spine
US6491718B1 (en) 1999-10-05 2002-12-10 Amjad Ahmad Intra vascular stent
DE19951607A1 (en) 1999-10-26 2001-05-10 Biotronik Mess & Therapieg Stent with a closed structure
DE19951475A1 (en) 1999-10-26 2001-05-10 Biotronik Mess & Therapieg stent
AU1660901A (en) 1999-11-18 2001-05-30 Howard L. Schrayer Device for the inhibition of cellular proliferation
US6379383B1 (en) 1999-11-19 2002-04-30 Advanced Bio Prosthetic Surfaces, Ltd. Endoluminal device exhibiting improved endothelialization and method of manufacture thereof
US6794485B2 (en) 2000-10-27 2004-09-21 Poly-Med, Inc. Amorphous polymeric polyaxial initiators and compliant crystalline copolymers therefrom
US7169187B2 (en) 1999-12-22 2007-01-30 Ethicon, Inc. Biodegradable stent
US6756094B1 (en) 2000-02-28 2004-06-29 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Balloon structure with PTFE component
US7141062B1 (en) 2000-03-01 2006-11-28 Medinol, Ltd. Longitudinally flexible stent
EP1132058A1 (en) 2000-03-06 2001-09-12 Advanced Laser Applications Holding S.A. Intravascular prothesis
US6638239B1 (en) 2000-04-14 2003-10-28 Glaukos Corporation Apparatus and method for treating glaucoma
US6585747B1 (en) 2000-04-14 2003-07-01 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Interdigitating polymeric endcap for enhanced stent retention
CA2409003C (en) 2000-05-16 2010-10-19 Ortho-Mcneil Pharmaceutical, Inc. Process for coating medical devices using super-critical carbon dioxide
US6783543B2 (en) 2000-06-05 2004-08-31 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Intravascular stent with increasing coating retaining capacity
US6652579B1 (en) 2000-06-22 2003-11-25 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Radiopaque stent
IL137090A (en) 2000-06-29 2010-04-15 Pentech Medical Devices Ltd Polymeric stent
US6808533B1 (en) 2000-07-28 2004-10-26 Atrium Medical Corporation Covered stent and method of covering a stent
AU8303301A (en) 2000-08-04 2002-02-18 Univ Duke Temporary vascular filters and methods
US6544279B1 (en) 2000-08-09 2003-04-08 Incept, Llc Vascular device for emboli, thrombus and foreign body removal and methods of use
US6579310B1 (en) 2000-08-17 2003-06-17 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Stent having overlapping struts
US20020072792A1 (en) 2000-09-22 2002-06-13 Robert Burgermeister Stent with optimal strength and radiopacity characteristics
US6254632B1 (en) * 2000-09-28 2001-07-03 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Implantable medical device having protruding surface structures for drug delivery and cover attachment
US6805898B1 (en) 2000-09-28 2004-10-19 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Surface features of an implantable medical device
US6652574B1 (en) 2000-09-28 2003-11-25 Vascular Concepts Holdings Limited Product and process for manufacturing a wire stent coated with a biocompatible fluoropolymer
US7208011B2 (en) 2001-08-20 2007-04-24 Conor Medsystems, Inc. Implantable medical device with drug filled holes
US6764507B2 (en) 2000-10-16 2004-07-20 Conor Medsystems, Inc. Expandable medical device with improved spatial distribution
US7208010B2 (en) 2000-10-16 2007-04-24 Conor Medsystems, Inc. Expandable medical device for delivery of beneficial agent
US6589562B1 (en) 2000-10-25 2003-07-08 Salvona L.L.C. Multicomponent biodegradable bioadhesive controlled release system for oral care products
US6758859B1 (en) 2000-10-30 2004-07-06 Kenny L. Dang Increased drug-loading and reduced stress drug delivery device
US6582467B1 (en) 2000-10-31 2003-06-24 Vertelink Corporation Expandable fusion cage
US6833153B1 (en) 2000-10-31 2004-12-21 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Hemocompatible coatings on hydrophobic porous polymers
US6607553B1 (en) 2000-11-17 2003-08-19 B. Braun Medical, Inc. Method for deploying a thermo-mechanically expandable stent
DE20119322U1 (en) 2000-11-21 2002-02-21 Schering Ag Tubular vascular implant (stent)
DE60135577D1 (en) 2000-11-22 2008-10-09 Bard Peripheral Vascular Inc A process for producing a tubular structure of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene with high density micro-wall
US6579308B1 (en) 2000-11-28 2003-06-17 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Stent devices with detachable distal or proximal wires
US20020077693A1 (en) 2000-12-19 2002-06-20 Barclay Bruce J. Covered, coiled drug delivery stent and method
US20040030377A1 (en) 2001-10-19 2004-02-12 Alexander Dubson Medicated polymer-coated stent assembly
US6540776B2 (en) 2000-12-28 2003-04-01 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Sheath for a prosthesis and methods of forming the same
US6565599B1 (en) 2000-12-28 2003-05-20 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Hybrid stent
US6635082B1 (en) 2000-12-29 2003-10-21 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems Inc. Radiopaque stent
US6689151B2 (en) 2001-01-25 2004-02-10 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Variable wall thickness for delivery sheath housing
US6790227B2 (en) 2001-03-01 2004-09-14 Cordis Corporation Flexible stent
US6740114B2 (en) 2001-03-01 2004-05-25 Cordis Corporation Flexible stent
WO2005079301A2 (en) 2001-03-20 2005-09-01 Gmp Cardiac Care, Inc. Vena cava rail filter
US6613077B2 (en) 2001-03-27 2003-09-02 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Stent with controlled expansion
DE10118944B4 (en) 2001-04-18 2013-01-31 Merit Medical Systems, Inc. Removable, substantially cylindrical implants
US20020165601A1 (en) 2001-05-04 2002-11-07 Clerc Claude O. Bioabsorbable stent-graft and covered stent
KR20030040203A (en) 2001-05-11 2003-05-22 마쯔시다덴기산교 가부시키가이샤 Encoding device, decoding device, and broadcast system
US6607501B2 (en) 2001-05-14 2003-08-19 Reynolds G. Gorsuch Process and apparatus for utilization of in vivo extracted plasma with tissue engineering devices, bioreactors, artificial organs, and cell therapy applications
US20030069629A1 (en) 2001-06-01 2003-04-10 Jadhav Balkrishna S. Bioresorbable medical devices
US6818013B2 (en) 2001-06-14 2004-11-16 Cordis Corporation Intravascular stent device
US6605110B2 (en) 2001-06-29 2003-08-12 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Stent with enhanced bendability and flexibility
US20030050687A1 (en) 2001-07-03 2003-03-13 Schwade Nathan D. Biocompatible stents and method of deployment
US7331984B2 (en) 2001-08-28 2008-02-19 Glaukos Corporation Glaucoma stent for treating glaucoma and methods of use
GB0120912D0 (en) 2001-08-29 2001-10-17 Bp Exploration Operating Process
US6796999B2 (en) 2001-09-06 2004-09-28 Medinol Ltd. Self articulating stent
US7252679B2 (en) 2001-09-13 2007-08-07 Cordis Corporation Stent with angulated struts
US6753071B1 (en) 2001-09-27 2004-06-22 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Rate-reducing membrane for release of an agent
EP1438083A1 (en) 2001-10-03 2004-07-21 Boston Scientific Limited Medical device with polymer coated inner lumen
US7572287B2 (en) 2001-10-25 2009-08-11 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Balloon expandable polymer stent with reduced elastic recoil
US7294146B2 (en) 2001-12-03 2007-11-13 Xtent, Inc. Apparatus and methods for delivery of variable length stents
US7270668B2 (en) 2001-12-03 2007-09-18 Xtent, Inc. Apparatus and methods for delivering coiled prostheses
US7137993B2 (en) 2001-12-03 2006-11-21 Xtent, Inc. Apparatus and methods for delivery of multiple distributed stents
US7060089B2 (en) 2002-01-23 2006-06-13 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Multi-layer stent
US7029493B2 (en) 2002-01-25 2006-04-18 Cordis Corporation Stent with enhanced crossability
US7326245B2 (en) 2002-01-31 2008-02-05 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Medical device for delivering biologically active material
US7288111B1 (en) 2002-03-26 2007-10-30 Thoratec Corporation Flexible stent and method of making the same
US7485141B2 (en) 2002-05-10 2009-02-03 Cordis Corporation Method of placing a tubular membrane on a structural frame
AU2003225291A1 (en) 2002-05-10 2003-11-11 Cordis Corporation Method of making a medical device having a thin wall tubular membrane over a structural frame
US20030216804A1 (en) 2002-05-14 2003-11-20 Debeer Nicholas C. Shape memory polymer stent
US7195648B2 (en) 2002-05-16 2007-03-27 Cordis Neurovascular, Inc. Intravascular stent device
US6656220B1 (en) 2002-06-17 2003-12-02 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Intravascular stent
US7789908B2 (en) 2002-06-25 2010-09-07 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Elastomerically impregnated ePTFE to enhance stretch and recovery properties for vascular grafts and coverings
US20040034405A1 (en) 2002-07-26 2004-02-19 Dickson Andrew M. Axially expanding polymer stent
EP1530489A1 (en) 2002-08-13 2005-05-18 Medtronic, Inc. Active agent delivery system including a hydrophilic polymer, medical device, and method
EP1528901A1 (en) 2002-08-15 2005-05-11 GMP Cardiac Care, Inc. Stent-graft with rails
US20040127932A1 (en) 2002-09-12 2004-07-01 Shah Tilak M. Dip-molded polymeric medical devices with reverse thickness gradient, and method of making same
US6770729B2 (en) 2002-09-30 2004-08-03 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. Polymer compositions containing bioactive agents and methods for their use
US6702850B1 (en) * 2002-09-30 2004-03-09 Mediplex Corporation Korea Multi-coated drug-eluting stent for antithrombosis and antirestenosis
US7118356B2 (en) 2002-10-02 2006-10-10 Nanyang Technological University Fluid pump with a tubular driver body capable of selective axial expansion and contraction
US20040118686A1 (en) 2002-10-02 2004-06-24 Jan Ma Piezoelectric tubes
EP1553896B1 (en) 2002-10-22 2009-09-09 Medtronic Vascular, Inc. Stent with eccentric coating
US6814746B2 (en) 2002-11-01 2004-11-09 Ev3 Peripheral, Inc. Implant delivery system with marker interlock
EP1415671A1 (en) 2002-11-01 2004-05-06 Polyganics B.V. Biodegradable drains for medical applications
DE10251993B4 (en) 2002-11-06 2012-09-27 Actix Gmbh Method and device for optimizing cellular wireless communication networks
US20050100577A1 (en) 2003-11-10 2005-05-12 Parker Theodore L. Expandable medical device with beneficial agent matrix formed by a multi solvent system
US6899729B1 (en) 2002-12-18 2005-05-31 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Stent for treating vulnerable plaque
US7455687B2 (en) 2002-12-30 2008-11-25 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Polymer link hybrid stent
US6896697B1 (en) 2002-12-30 2005-05-24 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Intravascular stent
US7316710B1 (en) 2002-12-30 2008-01-08 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Flexible stent
US7294214B2 (en) 2003-01-08 2007-11-13 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Medical devices
US7311727B2 (en) 2003-02-05 2007-12-25 Board Of Trustees Of The University Of Arkansas Encased stent
US6878291B2 (en) 2003-02-24 2005-04-12 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Flexible tube for cartridge filter
US20040170685A1 (en) 2003-02-26 2004-09-02 Medivas, Llc Bioactive stents and methods for use thereof
US6932930B2 (en) 2003-03-10 2005-08-23 Synecor, Llc Intraluminal prostheses having polymeric material with selectively modified crystallinity and methods of making same
AU2004224415B2 (en) 2003-03-19 2011-07-14 Vactronix Scientific, Llc Endoluminal stent having mid-interconnecting members
US7264633B2 (en) 2003-03-20 2007-09-04 Cordis Corp. Anvil bridge stent design
US7214240B2 (en) 2003-03-20 2007-05-08 Cordis Corporation Split-bridge stent design
US7323007B2 (en) 2003-06-02 2008-01-29 Nipro Corporation Soft stent with excellent follow-up capability to blood vessel
US6979348B2 (en) 2003-06-04 2005-12-27 Medtronic Vascular, Inc. Reflowed drug-polymer coated stent and method thereof
US8999364B2 (en) 2004-06-15 2015-04-07 Nanyang Technological University Implantable article, method of forming same and method for reducing thrombogenicity
US8465537B2 (en) 2003-06-17 2013-06-18 Gel-Del Technologies, Inc. Encapsulated or coated stent systems
US7285304B1 (en) 2003-06-25 2007-10-23 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Fluid treatment of a polymeric coating on an implantable medical device
US20050037052A1 (en) 2003-08-13 2005-02-17 Medtronic Vascular, Inc. Stent coating with gradient porosity
US7316711B2 (en) 2003-10-29 2008-01-08 Medtronic Vascular, Inc. Intralumenal stent device for use in body lumens of various diameters
WO2005049105A2 (en) 2003-11-10 2005-06-02 Angiotech International Ag Medical implants and anti-scarring agents
US8192752B2 (en) 2003-11-21 2012-06-05 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Coatings for implantable devices including biologically erodable polyesters and methods for fabricating the same
US20060085062A1 (en) 2003-11-28 2006-04-20 Medlogics Device Corporation Implantable stent with endothelialization factor
US20050154455A1 (en) 2003-12-18 2005-07-14 Medtronic Vascular, Inc. Medical devices to treat or inhibit restenosis
US20050154451A1 (en) 2003-12-18 2005-07-14 Medtronic Vascular, Inc. Medical devices to treat or inhibit restenosis
US7258697B1 (en) 2003-12-22 2007-08-21 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Stent with anchors to prevent vulnerable plaque rupture during deployment
US20050154452A1 (en) 2003-12-23 2005-07-14 Medtronic Vascular, Inc. Medical devices to treat or inhibit restenosis
US7284401B2 (en) 2004-01-12 2007-10-23 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Stent reducing system and device
WO2005077303A2 (en) 2004-02-09 2005-08-25 The Government Of The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary, Department Of Health And Human Services Venous filter with detachable fixation members and a venous filter with adjustable biodegradability
US20050187608A1 (en) 2004-02-24 2005-08-25 O'hara Michael D. Radioprotective compound coating for medical devices
WO2005094725A1 (en) 2004-03-31 2005-10-13 Merlin Md Pte Ltd A method for treating aneurysms
US7371424B2 (en) 2004-04-14 2008-05-13 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Method and apparatus for coating a medical device using a coating head
US20060122686A1 (en) 2004-05-10 2006-06-08 Ran Gilad Stent and method of manufacturing same
US8059580B2 (en) 2004-05-14 2011-11-15 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. Internet micro cell
US20050288766A1 (en) 2004-06-28 2005-12-29 Xtent, Inc. Devices and methods for controlling expandable prostheses during deployment
USD516723S1 (en) 2004-07-06 2006-03-07 Conor Medsystems, Inc. Stent wall structure
EP1786361A4 (en) 2004-07-29 2014-12-10 Advanced Bio Prosthetic Surfac Metallic drug-releasing medical devices and method of making same
JP4149980B2 (en) 2004-09-17 2008-09-17 シャープ株式会社 A method of manufacturing a semiconductor manufacturing equipment
US7875233B2 (en) 2004-09-30 2011-01-25 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Method of fabricating a biaxially oriented implantable medical device
US20060122522A1 (en) 2004-12-03 2006-06-08 Abhi Chavan Devices and methods for positioning and anchoring implantable sensor devices
US9545300B2 (en) 2004-12-22 2017-01-17 W. L. Gore & Associates, Inc. Filament-wound implantable devices
WO2006074163A2 (en) 2005-01-03 2006-07-13 Crux Biomedical, Inc. Retrievable endoluminal filter
US20060147491A1 (en) * 2005-01-05 2006-07-06 Dewitt David M Biodegradable coating compositions including multiple layers
US20060193891A1 (en) 2005-02-25 2006-08-31 Robert Richard Medical devices and therapeutic delivery devices composed of bioabsorbable polymers produced at room temperature, method of making the devices, and a system for making the devices
US8221446B2 (en) 2005-03-15 2012-07-17 Cook Medical Technologies Embolic protection device
US7291166B2 (en) 2005-05-18 2007-11-06 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Polymeric stent patterns
US7320702B2 (en) 2005-06-08 2008-01-22 Xtent, Inc. Apparatus and methods for deployment of multiple custom-length prostheses (III)
US7622070B2 (en) 2005-06-20 2009-11-24 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Method of manufacturing an implantable polymeric medical device
US8632562B2 (en) 2005-10-03 2014-01-21 Cook Medical Technologies Llc Embolic protection device
US8048350B2 (en) 2005-10-31 2011-11-01 Scott Epstein Structural hydrogel polymer device
US7618448B2 (en) 2006-02-07 2009-11-17 Tepha, Inc. Polymeric, degradable drug-eluting stents and coatings
US20070202046A1 (en) 2006-02-24 2007-08-30 Vipul Dave Implantable device formed from polymer blends
US8425584B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2013-04-23 W. L. Gore & Associates, Inc. Expandable covered stent with wide range of wrinkle-free deployed diameters
US7971333B2 (en) 2006-05-30 2011-07-05 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Manufacturing process for polymetric stents
US20070281117A1 (en) 2006-06-02 2007-12-06 Xtent, Inc. Use of plasma in formation of biodegradable stent coating
CA2665868C (en) 2006-10-16 2013-08-06 Wilson-Cook Medical Inc. Nonexpandable stent
US20080103584A1 (en) 2006-10-25 2008-05-01 Biosensors International Group Temporal Intraluminal Stent, Methods of Making and Using
US8206635B2 (en) 2008-06-20 2012-06-26 Amaranth Medical Pte. Stent fabrication via tubular casting processes
US8206636B2 (en) 2008-06-20 2012-06-26 Amaranth Medical Pte. Stent fabrication via tubular casting processes
EP2355755B1 (en) 2008-09-15 2017-10-18 Abbott Laboratories Vascular Enterprises Limited Stent with independent stent rings and transitional attachments
CA2778200A1 (en) 2009-10-30 2011-05-05 Abbott Laboratories Vascular Enterprises Limited Medical devices for medical device delivery systems
EP2322118B1 (en) 2009-11-11 2012-12-19 Abbott Laboratories Vascular Enterprises Limited Medical devices for medical device delivery systems

Patent Citations (101)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4733665A (en) * 1985-11-07 1988-03-29 Expandable Grafts Partnership Expandable intraluminal graft, and method and apparatus for implanting an expandable intraluminal graft
US4733665B1 (en) * 1985-11-07 1994-01-11 Expandable Grafts Partnership Expandable intraluminal graft,and method and apparatus for implanting an expandable intraluminal graft
US4733665C2 (en) * 1985-11-07 2002-01-29 Expandable Grafts Partnership Expandable intraluminal graft and method and apparatus for implanting an expandable intraluminal graft
US6702844B1 (en) * 1988-03-09 2004-03-09 Endovascular Technologies, Inc. Artificial graft and implantation method
US6860901B1 (en) * 1988-03-09 2005-03-01 Endovascular Technologies, Inc. Intraluminal grafting system
US7166125B1 (en) * 1988-03-09 2007-01-23 Endovascular Technologies, Inc. Intraluminal grafting system
US5607467A (en) * 1990-09-14 1997-03-04 Froix; Michael Expandable polymeric stent with memory and delivery apparatus and method
US6689159B2 (en) * 1991-10-28 2004-02-10 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Expandable stents and method for making same
US6849086B2 (en) * 1992-02-21 2005-02-01 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Intraluminal stent and graft
US5288711A (en) * 1992-04-28 1994-02-22 American Home Products Corporation Method of treating hyperproliferative vascular disease
US5383887A (en) * 1992-12-28 1995-01-24 Celsa Lg Device for selectively forming a temporary blood filter
US6997949B2 (en) * 1993-04-26 2006-02-14 Medtronic, Inc. Medical device for delivering a therapeutic agent and method of preparation
US5716410A (en) * 1993-04-30 1998-02-10 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Temporary stent and method of use
US6689158B1 (en) * 1993-09-30 2004-02-10 Endogad Research Pty Limited Intraluminal graft
US6685736B1 (en) * 1993-09-30 2004-02-03 Endogad Research Pty Limited Intraluminal graft
US6508834B1 (en) * 1994-03-17 2003-01-21 Medinol Ltd. Articulated stent
US5733303A (en) * 1994-03-17 1998-03-31 Medinol Ltd. Flexible expandable stent
US6981986B1 (en) * 1995-03-01 2006-01-03 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Longitudinally flexible expandable stent
US20040047909A1 (en) * 1995-06-07 2004-03-11 Ragheb Anthony O. Coated implantable medical device
US6520986B2 (en) * 1995-12-14 2003-02-18 Gore Enterprise Holdings, Inc. Kink resistant stent-graft
US6858037B2 (en) * 1996-03-05 2005-02-22 Evysio Medical Devices Ulc Expandable stent and method for delivery of same
US6533805B1 (en) * 1996-04-01 2003-03-18 General Surgical Innovations, Inc. Prosthesis and method for deployment within a body lumen
US6702846B2 (en) * 1996-04-09 2004-03-09 Endocare, Inc. Urological stent therapy system and method
US6699276B2 (en) * 1996-09-26 2004-03-02 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Support structure/membrane composite medical device
US20050004654A1 (en) * 1997-03-18 2005-01-06 Farhad Khosravi Coiled sheet graft for single and bifurcated lumens and methods of making and use
US6855162B2 (en) * 1997-03-24 2005-02-15 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Arterial graft device
US6997948B2 (en) * 1997-08-01 2006-02-14 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Bioabsorbable self-expanding stent
US6706062B2 (en) * 1998-01-14 2004-03-16 Advanced Stent Technologies, Inc. Extendible stent apparatus
US6533808B1 (en) * 1998-03-27 2003-03-18 Intratherapeutics, Inc. Stent with dual support structure
US7179288B2 (en) * 1998-03-30 2007-02-20 Conor Medsystems, Inc. Expandable medical device for delivery of beneficial agent
US7004966B2 (en) * 1998-09-30 2006-02-28 C. R. Bard, Inc. Selective adherence of stent-graft coverings
US6709425B2 (en) * 1998-09-30 2004-03-23 C. R. Bard, Inc. Vascular inducing implants
US6168619B1 (en) * 1998-10-16 2001-01-02 Quanam Medical Corporation Intravascular stent having a coaxial polymer member and end sleeves
US6530950B1 (en) * 1999-01-12 2003-03-11 Quanam Medical Corporation Intraluminal stent having coaxial polymer member
US20030040772A1 (en) * 1999-02-01 2003-02-27 Hideki Hyodoh Delivery devices
US20030040771A1 (en) * 1999-02-01 2003-02-27 Hideki Hyodoh Methods for creating woven devices
US6517559B1 (en) * 1999-05-03 2003-02-11 O'connell Paul T. Blood filter and method for treating vascular disease
US6709454B1 (en) * 1999-05-17 2004-03-23 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Self-expanding stent with enhanced delivery precision and stent delivery system
US6860898B2 (en) * 1999-05-17 2005-03-01 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Self-expanding stent with enhanced delivery precision and stent delivery system
US6855125B2 (en) * 1999-05-20 2005-02-15 Conor Medsystems, Inc. Expandable medical device delivery system and method
US6991647B2 (en) * 1999-06-03 2006-01-31 Ams Research Corporation Bioresorbable stent
US6699256B1 (en) * 1999-06-04 2004-03-02 St. Jude Medical Atg, Inc. Medical grafting apparatus and methods
US6338793B1 (en) * 1999-06-24 2002-01-15 Catalytic Distillation Technologies Process for the desulfurization of a diesel fraction
US6679910B1 (en) * 1999-11-12 2004-01-20 Latin American Devices Llc Intraluminal stent
US20030045924A1 (en) * 1999-12-22 2003-03-06 Arindam Datta Biodegradable stent
US6338739B1 (en) * 1999-12-22 2002-01-15 Ethicon, Inc. Biodegradable stent
US6537312B2 (en) * 1999-12-22 2003-03-25 Ethicon, Inc. Biodegradable stent
US20020019661A1 (en) * 1999-12-22 2002-02-14 Arindam Datta Biodegradable stent
US6537311B1 (en) * 1999-12-30 2003-03-25 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Stent designs for use in peripheral vessels
US6709453B2 (en) * 2000-03-01 2004-03-23 Medinol Ltd. Longitudinally flexible stent
US6687553B2 (en) * 2000-06-29 2004-02-03 Borgwarner Inc. Dual gain variable control system
US7169174B2 (en) * 2000-06-30 2007-01-30 Cordis Corporation Hybrid stent
US6860946B2 (en) * 2000-07-25 2005-03-01 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. System for the process of coating implantable medical devices
US7001419B2 (en) * 2000-10-05 2006-02-21 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Stent delivery system with membrane
US7001424B2 (en) * 2000-10-20 2006-02-21 Angiodynamics, Inc. Convertible blood clot filter
US20060024373A1 (en) * 2000-11-14 2006-02-02 N.V.R. Labs Ltd. Cross-linked hyaluronic acid-laminin gels and use thereof in cell culture and medical implants
US20030060836A1 (en) * 2000-12-05 2003-03-27 Shu Wang Polymer and nerve guide conduits formed thereof
US6989071B2 (en) * 2001-01-30 2006-01-24 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Stent with channel(s) for containing and delivering biologically active material and method for manufacturing the same
US6679911B2 (en) * 2001-03-01 2004-01-20 Cordis Corporation Flexible stent
US6991642B2 (en) * 2001-03-06 2006-01-31 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Wire and lock mechanism
US6537295B2 (en) * 2001-03-06 2003-03-25 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Wire and lock mechanism
US6863685B2 (en) * 2001-03-29 2005-03-08 Cordis Corporation Radiopacity intraluminal medical device
US6673106B2 (en) * 2001-06-14 2004-01-06 Cordis Neurovascular, Inc. Intravascular stent device
US7169173B2 (en) * 2001-06-29 2007-01-30 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Composite stent with regioselective material and a method of forming the same
US20030050678A1 (en) * 2001-08-07 2003-03-13 Sierra Rafael A. Method of treating acne
US7008446B1 (en) * 2001-08-17 2006-03-07 James Peter Amis Thermally pliable and carbon fiber stents
US7172623B2 (en) * 2001-10-09 2007-02-06 William Cook Europe Aps Cannula stent
US20050038505A1 (en) * 2001-11-05 2005-02-17 Sun Biomedical Ltd. Drug-delivery endovascular stent and method of forming the same
US6866805B2 (en) * 2001-12-27 2005-03-15 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Hybrid intravascular stent
US6981985B2 (en) * 2002-01-22 2006-01-03 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Stent bumper struts
US7160592B2 (en) * 2002-02-15 2007-01-09 Cv Therapeutics, Inc. Polymer coating for medical devices
US7169170B2 (en) * 2002-02-22 2007-01-30 Cordis Corporation Self-expanding stent delivery system
US20040015187A1 (en) * 2002-04-18 2004-01-22 Mnemoscience Corporation Biodegradable shape memory polymeric sutures
US20040034403A1 (en) * 2002-04-27 2004-02-19 Klaus Schmitt Self-expanding stent
US20050012171A1 (en) * 2002-07-09 2005-01-20 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Semiconductor device and method of fabricating the same
US20040033251A1 (en) * 2002-08-13 2004-02-19 Medtronic, Inc. Active agent delivery system including a polyurethane, medical device, and method
US20060052859A1 (en) * 2002-09-25 2006-03-09 Keiji Igaki Thread for vascular stent and vascular stent using the thread
US20050010275A1 (en) * 2002-10-11 2005-01-13 Sahatjian Ronald A. Implantable medical devices
US20060058832A1 (en) * 2002-12-12 2006-03-16 Andreas Melzer Vessel filter
US7169177B2 (en) * 2003-01-15 2007-01-30 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Bifurcated stent
US7179286B2 (en) * 2003-02-21 2007-02-20 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Stent with stepped connectors
US20080051866A1 (en) * 2003-02-26 2008-02-28 Chao Chin Chen Drug delivery devices and methods
US6846323B2 (en) * 2003-05-15 2005-01-25 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Intravascular stent
US20050021131A1 (en) * 2003-06-16 2005-01-27 Subramanian Venkatraman Polymeric stent and method of manufacture
US20050004684A1 (en) * 2003-07-01 2005-01-06 General Electric Company System and method for adjusting a control model
US7175654B2 (en) * 2003-10-16 2007-02-13 Cordis Corporation Stent design having stent segments which uncouple upon deployment
US20050010170A1 (en) * 2004-02-11 2005-01-13 Shanley John F Implantable medical device with beneficial agent concentration gradient
US20060051394A1 (en) * 2004-03-24 2006-03-09 Moore Timothy G Biodegradable polyurethane and polyurethane ureas
US20060058863A1 (en) * 2004-04-02 2006-03-16 Antoine Lafont Polymer-based stent assembly
US20060020330A1 (en) * 2004-07-26 2006-01-26 Bin Huang Method of fabricating an implantable medical device with biaxially oriented polymers
US20060025852A1 (en) * 2004-08-02 2006-02-02 Armstrong Joseph R Bioabsorbable self-expanding endolumenal devices
US20060036316A1 (en) * 2004-08-13 2006-02-16 Joan Zeltinger Inherently radiopaque bioresorbable polymers for multiple uses
US20060041271A1 (en) * 2004-08-20 2006-02-23 Gjalt Bosma Vascular filter with sleeve
US20060045901A1 (en) * 2004-08-26 2006-03-02 Jan Weber Stents with drug eluting coatings
US20060051390A1 (en) * 2004-09-03 2006-03-09 Schwarz Marlene C Medical devices having self-forming rate-controlling barrier for drug release
US20060069427A1 (en) * 2004-09-24 2006-03-30 Savage Douglas R Drug-delivery endovascular stent and method for treating restenosis
US20060067974A1 (en) * 2004-09-28 2006-03-30 Atrium Medical Corporation Drug delivery coating for use with a stent
US20070032816A1 (en) * 2005-04-04 2007-02-08 B.Braun Medical Removable Filter Head
US20070038226A1 (en) * 2005-07-29 2007-02-15 Galdonik Jason A Embolectomy procedures with a device comprising a polymer and devices with polymer matrices and supports
US20070038241A1 (en) * 2005-08-04 2007-02-15 Cook Incorporated Embolic protection device having inflatable frame
US20070038290A1 (en) * 2005-08-15 2007-02-15 Bin Huang Fiber reinforced composite stents

Cited By (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US8999364B2 (en) 2004-06-15 2015-04-07 Nanyang Technological University Implantable article, method of forming same and method for reducing thrombogenicity
US20100087840A1 (en) * 2007-03-06 2010-04-08 Garrett Ebersole Wound closure material
US9888924B2 (en) * 2007-03-06 2018-02-13 Covidien Lp Wound closure material
US9908143B2 (en) 2008-06-20 2018-03-06 Amaranth Medical Pte. Stent fabrication via tubular casting processes
US20100249944A1 (en) * 2009-03-31 2010-09-30 Thomas Jonathan D Multizone Implants
US20100249838A1 (en) * 2009-03-31 2010-09-30 Joshua Stopek Multizone Implants
US9592043B2 (en) 2009-03-31 2017-03-14 Covidien Lp Multizone implants
US20100249832A1 (en) * 2009-03-31 2010-09-30 Joshua Stopek Multizone Implants
US20100249854A1 (en) * 2009-03-31 2010-09-30 Thomas Jonathan D Multizone Implants
US20160263276A1 (en) * 2012-10-19 2016-09-15 Tyber Medical Llc Anti-microbial and osteointegation nanotextured surfaces

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
US20120179242A9 (en) 2012-07-12
WO2007140320A2 (en) 2007-12-06
US20070299510A1 (en) 2007-12-27
EP2020956A2 (en) 2009-02-11
WO2007140320A3 (en) 2008-11-20
US8999364B2 (en) 2015-04-07

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
Losic et al. Self-ordered nanopore and nanotube platforms for drug delivery applications
CA2651982C (en) Anisotropic nanoporous coating for medical implants
US5660873A (en) Coating intraluminal stents
EP1180013B1 (en) Local drug delivery
DE69732721T2 (en) Biodegradable plastic films
JP5425364B2 (en) Absorbable stent comprising a degradation control and coatings for pH neutral maintenance
Tezcaner et al. Retinal pigment epithelium cell culture on surface modified poly (hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) thin films
US9283304B2 (en) Absorbable stent having a coating for controlling degradation of the stent and maintaining pH neutrality
JP4755096B2 (en) The method of manufacturing the stent device and the stent
US8449602B2 (en) Methods for using a stent having nanoporous layers
CN101171042B (en) Coating the whole surface of a built-in prothesis and coated built-in prothes
CA2563299C (en) Coated implants and methods of coating
AU2003295535B2 (en) Medical devices having porous layers and methods for making same
EP1527754B1 (en) Porous medicated stent
ES2239701T3 (en) Sterilization of bioactive coatings.
EP1301221B1 (en) Process for coating medical devices using super-critical carbon dioxide
Sheridan et al. Bioabsorbable polymer scaffolds for tissue engineering capable of sustained growth factor delivery
US7803574B2 (en) Medical device applications of nanostructured surfaces
CN1136922C (en) Implantable bioresorbable membrane and method for preparation thereof
CN1649551B (en) Drug-delivery endovascular stent and method for treating restenosis
US6245104B1 (en) Method of fabricating a biocompatible stent
US6759054B2 (en) Ethylene vinyl alcohol composition and coating
EP1550477B1 (en) Stent and process for producing the same
US7597924B2 (en) Surface modification of ePTFE and implants using the same
US20090118813A1 (en) Nano-patterned implant surfaces

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AS Assignment

Owner name: NANYANG TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY, SINGAPORE

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:VENKATRAMAN, SUBRAMANIAN;BOEY, YIN CHIANG;REEL/FRAME:020172/0335

Effective date: 20070619