US20080076345A1 - Fire protection - Google Patents

Fire protection Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US20080076345A1
US20080076345A1 US11681074 US68107407A US2008076345A1 US 20080076345 A1 US20080076345 A1 US 20080076345A1 US 11681074 US11681074 US 11681074 US 68107407 A US68107407 A US 68107407A US 2008076345 A1 US2008076345 A1 US 2008076345A1
Authority
US
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
installation
power
wind
oxygen
pylon
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US11681074
Inventor
Aloys Wobben
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Wobben Aloys
Original Assignee
Aloys Wobben
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A62LIFE-SAVING; FIRE-FIGHTING
    • A62CFIRE-FIGHTING
    • A62C99/00Subject matter not provided for in other groups of this subclass
    • A62C99/0009Methods of extinguishing or preventing the spread of fire by cooling down or suffocating the flames
    • A62C99/0018Methods of extinguishing or preventing the spread of fire by cooling down or suffocating the flames using gases or vapours that do not support combustion, e.g. steam, carbon dioxide
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A62LIFE-SAVING; FIRE-FIGHTING
    • A62CFIRE-FIGHTING
    • A62C3/00Fire prevention, containment or extinguishing specially adapted for particular objects or places
    • A62C3/16Fire prevention, containment or extinguishing specially adapted for particular objects or places in electrical installations, e.g. cableways
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F03MACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS; WIND, SPRING WEIGHT AND MISCELLANEOUS MOTORS; PRODUCING MECHANICAL POWER; OR A REACTIVE PROPULSIVE THRUST, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F03DWIND MOTORS
    • F03D80/00Details, components or accessories not provided for in groups F03D1/00 - F03D17/00
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02BCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO BUILDINGS, e.g. HOUSING, HOUSE APPLIANCES OR RELATED END-USER APPLICATIONS
    • Y02B10/00Integration of renewable energy sources in buildings
    • Y02B10/30Wind power
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/70Wind energy
    • Y02E10/72Wind turbines with rotation axis in wind direction

Abstract

The present invention concerns a wind power installation comprising a pylon and a pod arranged at the tip of the pylon. The invention further concerns a method of controlling such a wind power installation. In order to prevent a fire from occurring or at least to be able to rapidly extinguish a fire which has occurred, there is provided a first apparatus for producing an inert atmosphere.

Description

    CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION
  • [0001]
    This application is a Divisional of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/502,377, filed Apr. 8, 2005, now pending, which application is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • [0002]
    1. Field of the Invention
  • [0003]
    The present invention concerns a wind power installation comprising a pylon and a pod arranged at the tip of the pylon. The invention further concerns a method of controlling such a wind power installation. In that respect the term wind power installation in accordance with the invention also includes annex buildings in which for example a transformer or the like is disposed.
  • [0004]
    The invention further concerns a method of controlling a wind power installation.
  • [0005]
    2. Description of the Related Art
  • [0006]
    In horizontal-axis wind power installations, the generator which generates the electrical energy is disposed in the pod. That electrical energy is then passed by way of suitable conductors from the pod at the tip of the pylon to the base of the pylon or an annex building and is fed from there into the energy supply network. Provided for that purpose are further components such as for example rectifiers, switching installations, transformers and so forth, which, depending on the design concept of the wind power installation, are arranged in the pod and/or in the pylon of the wind power installation and/or in the annex building.
  • [0007]
    Depending on the operational efficiency of the installation, a power of certainly several MWs is to be transmitted. In that respect, once again depending on the design concept of the wind power installation, at least a part of the power—and frequently the entire power—is passed by way of rectifiers, where generally semiconductors are used as switching elements which have to switch considerable currents.
  • [0008]
    It will be appreciated that it is precisely when high levels of power are involved that high temperatures also inevitably occur, for example in the semiconductors but also in other components of a wind power installation, for example bearings. By virtue of the various causes, those high temperatures can result in the occurrence of a fire in such a wind power installation. A risk of fire also arises if for example, as a consequence of a technical fault, an arc is produced which in turn ignites combustible material in the proximity thereof. Such a fire can then easily result in damage to or destruction of important parts of the wind power installation so that the installation is prevented from continuing to operate. In that respect, in addition to the damage which is caused by the fire, there is then also a loss of output, until the wind power installation is repaired and brought back into operation again.
  • [0009]
    Since 1999, in accordance with the statutory regulations, wind power installations have already been equipped with fire extinguishing devices in the pod or in the pylon. Those devices are manually operable, which makes the use thereof difficult in an actual fire situation, more specifically if staying in the entire wind power installation should be life-threatening.
  • [0010]
    DE 100 05 190 discloses a wind power installation with a fire extinguishing arrangement for discharging an extinguishing agent in the pod, there referred to as the receiving space, by which a fire which has broken out is to be extinguished. Suitable devices are provided for that purpose in the pod of the wind power installation. A disadvantage with such a wind power installation however is that considerable amounts of extinguishing agent are already required to extinguish a fire in the pod of that known wind power installation. Considerably more extinguishing agent is required to extinguish a fire in the pylon of the wind power installation. A further disadvantage with that known wind power installation is that damage already occurs when a fire breaks out.
  • BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • [0011]
    Therefore one object of the present invention is to provide a wind power installation which prevents the occurrence of a fire or at least minimizes the damage.
  • [0012]
    In a wind power installation of the kind set forth in the opening part of this specification, that object is attained by at least one first apparatus for producing an inert atmosphere in the wind power installation or a part thereof. In that respect the invention is based on the realization that the occurrence of a fire is very substantially prevented in an inert atmosphere and it is therefore possible to forego expensive extinguishing apparatuses.
  • [0013]
    That object is further attained by a method having the characterizing features recited in claim 13.
  • [0014]
    In a preferred embodiment of the invention, at least one respective apparatus for producing an inert atmosphere is provided in each of the pylon and the pod of the wind power installation. The relatively large number of apparatuses for producing an inert atmosphere means that an inert atmosphere can be correspondingly more quickly produced in the wind power installation and thus the risk of fire can be correspondingly more quickly eliminated.
  • [0015]
    In a particularly preferred embodiment of the present invention, an apparatus for producing an inert atmosphere is in the form of a fuel cell. In addition there is provided at least one apparatus for producing hydrogen and for feeding the hydrogen to the fuel cell. As a reaction takes place in fuel cells, in which water is formed from hydrogen and oxygen, the oxygen contained in the air in the interior of the wind power installation can thus be used up. As the atmosphere contains a nitrogen proportion of about 78%, an oxygen proportion of about 21%, and negligible proportions of other gases, the fact that the oxygen is used up in the wind power installation essentially results in a nitrogen atmosphere which is highly inert. Accordingly, in regard to the further considerations herein, the consumption of oxygen and the production of nitrogen can be equated to each other. As soon as the oxygen in the wind power installation is used up, the fuel cells can no longer operate and therefore it also no longer can deliver any electrical energy. That in turn can be used as an indicator that an inert atmosphere has been produced within the wind power installation.
  • [0016]
    In a particularly preferred development of the invention the electrical energy generated by the fuel cell is fed to the apparatus for producing hydrogen. In that way the amount of electrical energy which is produced by the wind power installation and which has to be used to produce hydrogen is correspondingly reduced.
  • [0017]
    In a particularly preferred feature the wind power installation according to the invention has a closable drain for water from the wind power installation. In that way the water which is produced in operation of the fuel cell or cells can be removed from the wind power installation. The closability of the drain contributes to preventing fresh air and thus oxygen from re-entering the wind power installation.
  • [0018]
    In order to permit people to be present in the wind power installation without involving conditions which are made more difficult by virtue of wearing breathing equipment, a preferred development of the invention provides that the wind power installation is provided with closable ventilation openings in the pylon and/or the pod. In that way the installation can be vented quickly before people enter it.
  • [0019]
    In order to ensure that the installation can only be entered by people when there is a sufficient amount of oxygen available within the installation, there can be provided a multi-stage lock system for access to the wind power installation and an interlinking of the lock system to at least one sensor in the wind power installation. The door of the wind power installation can be unlocked with the lock system only when the sensor has detected a predetermined level of oxygen concentration in the installation.
  • [0020]
    In a preferred embodiment of the invention the wind power installation includes a storage container with a predetermined capacity for a gas. An inert gas can be collected in that storage container during normal operation of the wind power installation. That inert gas is then ready to be able to immediately flood at least a part of the wind power installation with that gas when required. Therefore, even if all oxygen in the wind power installation has not yet been used up, the (nitrogen) gas can be conveyed immediately into the installation if required during operation of the wind power installation in order immediately to produce a nitrogen atmosphere for example in a part of the installation which is particularly at risk with a fire, and thus reliably to prevent a fire from breaking out.
  • [0021]
    In a particularly preferred development of the invention the cross-section of the pylon of the wind power installation has at least one floor passing entirely therethrough, the floor having a closable passage opening therethrough. In that way, a part of the wind power installation which is separated off by the floor can already have an inert atmosphere while an oxygen-bearing atmosphere is still present in the other part of the wind power installation. In the case of a fire, that floor can also prevent the spread of soot and smoke and thus limit damage in the installation. In that respect the passage opening can be automatically closable so that for example in the case of an acute fire risk the part of the installation which is endangered by the fire can be separated off and flooded with (nitrogen) gas.
  • [0022]
    Operating conditions of a wind power installation at which there is an increased risk of fire can already be detected at an early time by one or more sensors for detecting physical parameters such as current, temperature, insulation resistance or conductivity etc. In that way for example the affected part of the wind power installation can be separated off from the rest of the installation by closing the passage openings, and as a precaution flooded with nitrogen. The outbreak of a fire can be prevented in that way. Even if a fire nonetheless breaks out, the damage for example due to soot deposit is limited by the spatial separation effect.
  • [0023]
    In order to minimize the outage time of the wind power installation after a fault, automatic venting of the wind power installation can be effected as a consequence of predetermined faults. If therefore the nature of the fault already means that service engineers must enter the installation, the time that those service engineers require to travel to the installation can already be used for venting the installation so that, when the service engineers arrive, there is no longer any waiting time that is lost, while waiting for venting to occur. Therefore the work can then be started on the installation immediately.
  • [0024]
    In addition in a particularly preferred embodiment of the method the lock system can permit access to the installation only when an adequate concentration of oxygen within the installation is detected.
  • [0025]
    A preferred embodiment of the present invention may include the provision of a display device for displaying the nitrogen/oxygen concentration in the wind power installation. That display device may be mounted clearly visibly at the entrance to the wind power installation.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE SEVERAL VIEWS OF THE DRAWINGS
  • [0026]
    Further advantageous embodiments of the invention are set forth in the appendant claims.
  • [0027]
    An embodiment of the invention is described in greater detail hereinafter with reference to the Figures in which:
  • [0028]
    FIG. 1 shows a simplified view of a wind power installation according to the invention,
  • [0029]
    FIG. 2 shows a simplified view of the method when opening the access to the wind power installation, and
  • [0030]
    FIG. 3 shows a simplified view of the method when closing the wind power installation.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  • [0031]
    In FIG. 1 reference 10 denotes the pylon of a wind power installation and reference 12 denotes the pod on which rotor blades 14 are illustrated. The pylon 10 is arranged on a foundation 30 and is divided by intermediate floors 20 into a plurality of portions. In that respect the intermediate floors 20 may have flaps 22, by means of which passage openings can be closed. In that way the pylon 10 can be subdivided into a plurality of portions.
  • [0032]
    Provided within the pylon 10 and the pod 12 are apparatuses for producing an inert atmosphere as indicated at 24. In a preferred embodiment those apparatuses 24 include fuel cells in order to take oxygen from the air within the wind power installation. When hydrogen is fed to those fuel cells 24 they produce electrical energy as long as oxygen is present in the corresponding portions of the pylon 10.
  • [0033]
    As the hydrogen is preferably produced by electrolysis, the electrical energy produced by the fuel cells 24 can be used in turn for the electrolysis procedure. In that respect, on the one hand the water which has condensed on the wall of the pylon as a consequence of air humidity with the pylon 10 and which has been collected can be used for the electrolysis procedure. On the other hand, particularly in respect of offshore locations, any amount of hydrogen gas can be obtained from the water of the surrounding sea. The water which occurs during operation of the fuel cell 24 can be collected and discharged in a specifically targeted fashion out of the pylon.
  • [0034]
    When only hydrogen gas is fed to the fuel cells 24, the oxygen within the portion of the wind power installation in which the respective fuel cell 24 is arranged is used up by operation of that fuel cell 24. In other words, the fuel cell 24 will generate electrical energy as long as oxygen is available within the portion of the pylon in which the fuel cell is disposed. As soon as the oxygen is used up, the fuel cell 24 will cease to generate electrical energy. That therefore affords a particularly simple possible way of establishing whether oxygen is still present in the air within the portion of the wind power installation which has the fuel cell 24.
  • [0035]
    In order to feed as far as possible all oxygen in the pylon to the fuel cells, it is advantageous to provide a ventilation means or other means for thoroughly mixing all the air in the wind power installation so it is not just the oxygen in the air around the fuel cell that is consumed, but all oxygen disposed in the whole of the wind power installation.
  • [0036]
    A portion for example of the pylon 10 of the wind power installation can be separated by an intermediate floor 20 with a passage opening which is closable by a flap 22, so that the fuel cell 24 in that portion only has to remove the oxygen from a reduced volume in that separated-off portion of the pylon, in order to produce an inert atmosphere there. By virtue of the normal composition of the ambient air consisting of about 21% oxygen, 78% nitrogen and small proportions of other gases, the inert atmosphere, after the oxygen has been consumed, is substantially a nitrogen atmosphere.
  • [0037]
    In addition, provided in a portion of the pylon 10 is a storage container 28. A fuel cell 24 is also arranged in the same portion of the pylon. A nitrogen atmosphere is also produced in that portion, by virtue of operation of the fuel cell 24. As soon as the oxygen is consumed, that nitrogen can then be pumped into the storage container 28. That portion of the pylon is then ventilated again with ambient air and the procedure is repeated so that a stock of nitrogen can be collected in the storage container 28 (gas tank).
  • [0038]
    It will be appreciated that, in place of a portion of the pylon, it is also possible to provide a space 25 which is separated off, outside the pylon 10 of the wind power installation, for example in the form of a container or an annex building. The first apparatus 24 for producing an inert atmosphere can be contained in that container. In that way, none of the portions of the pylon has to be repeatedly ventilated so that the risk of unintentionally ventilating other portions of the pylon is avoided. If it is necessary, a given part of the wind power installation, such as for example a portion of the pylon 10 or the pod 12, can be very rapidly flooded with nitrogen by way of suitable conduits and pumps, by the nitrogen being pumped there from the storage container 28. In that way a nitrogen atmosphere can be produced immediately in certain regions when required without having to wait until the fuel cell 24 has consumed the oxygen.
  • [0039]
    FIG. 2 shows a flow chart representing the progress of the control method when opening the wind power installation, for example to permit access for the service personnel. It will be assumed that the initial situation is normal operation of the wind power installation, in which, by virtue of sufficiently long periods of operation of the fuel cells (reference 24 in FIG. 1), an inert nitrogen atmosphere has been produced within the wind power installation or after a part of the wind power installation has been flooded with nitrogen. If the installation is stopped for example due to a fault and if the nature of the fault is already such that the service personnel must enter the installation, the stopped installation can already be ventilated, prior to the entry of the service personnel, for example by means of closable ventilation flaps in the door and the pod. The service personnel can therefore immediately enter the installation when they arrive, and begin with the repair procedure.
  • [0040]
    In order however to be sure of preventing people from entering a wind power installation in which an inert atmosphere prevails, there can be provided a lock system which enables access to the installation only when a sufficient oxygen concentration is detected in the interior of the installation. Therefore, at the first query in FIG. 2, a check is made to ascertain whether the wind power installation is already vented. If that is not the case the installation is firstly vented and then it is detected whether there is an adequate oxygen concentration within the installation.
  • [0041]
    If the wind power installation has already been vented, a check is immediately made to ascertain whether there is an adequate oxygen concentration. If that is not the case the installation continues to be vented. When there is an adequate oxygen concentration, the lock is released so that the access to the wind power installation can be unlocked and access is then possible. Preferably the oxygen/nitrogen concentration should be checked not just at a single location, for example in the pod, but at a plurality of locations between the pod and the base of the pylon. With nitrogen in the air it is necessary at any event to ensure that a person in the lower part of the pylon does not climb up and there suffocate due to a lack of oxygen. The fans (not shown) which are usually provided in the wind power installation must also be used to provide for fresh air for a rapid and equally distributed atmosphere of air with an adequate oxygen content (21%), right at the beginning of the ventilation procedure.
  • [0042]
    FIG. 3 diagrammatically shows the procedure when closing the installation, for example after concluding the work and bringing the installation back into operation again. Firstly, a check is made to ascertain whether the access opening such as for example a door is closed. As long as the door is not closed, any access to the installation is possible and thus the creation of an inert atmosphere is already prevented for that reason. In addition, oxygen always continues to flow through the open door so that it is already impossible to produce an inert atmosphere for that reason.
  • [0043]
    As soon as the door is closed, a check is made to ascertain whether the lock has been actuated, that is to say whether the door is locked fast. This ensures that the installation cannot be accidentally entered or that the control means, on the basis of the closing procedure required before entering the installation, can detect that someone is trying to enter the wind power installation and can thus initiate ventilation of the installation in good time.
  • [0044]
    When therefore the door is closed and the lock locked, the control means can set the fuel cells in operation and thus begin to produce an inert atmosphere (nitrogen atmosphere) within the wind power installation.
  • [0045]
    As it is precisely after the execution of repair operations that the risk of a fire is particularly severe, for example as a consequence of assembly errors or technical faults on the spare parts, and as the oxygen concentration within the wind power installation is still high in the time shortly after the service personnel have left the installation, a certain part of the wind power installation, for example a part thereof which is equipped with switching equipment, can be flooded with nitrogen from a storage means. In that way the risk of fire is immediately considerably reduced. The fact that, when the entire wind power installation is flooded with nitrogen and the inert atmosphere produced therewith in the wind power installation, the normal fire extinguishing service personnel cannot enter the installation, is acceptable because in any case, in the event of a fire within a wind power installation, the extinguishing service personnel can scarcely pass into the interior thereof without themselves suffering injury.
  • [0046]
    It will be appreciated that further technical measures are possible, which prevent a person from being mistakenly locked inside a wind power installation and thus exposed to a nitrogen atmosphere. That can be implemented for example by motion sensors such as infrared sensors. An additional or alternative measure can be expressly signing-in and signing-out of any person who enters the wind power installation and leaves it again. In addition, it is also possible to envisage providing that the fuel cells or pumps with which a certain portion of the wind power installation is flooded with nitrogen are switched on with a time delay so that, even after a person is by mistake locked inside the wind power installation, there is still a certain period of time available to notice the mistake and to free the person from the installation in good time. Finally the access to the installation from the interior can be provided with an emergency opening device which makes it possible to leave the installation even without a key.
  • [0047]
    Supplying the interior of the wind power installation with an inert atmosphere such as a nitrogen gas is not just limited to the pod or to the interior of the pylon. As the pod is also directly connected to the rotor and thus the rotor blades of the wind power installation, the rotor blades can also be supplied in the interior with a suitable nitrogen atmosphere in order also to prevent a fire from breaking out in the rotor blades. In addition, one skilled in the art can appreciate that a fire protection system as described herein may also be utilized in any enclosure within which people are not present in large numbers, such as in aircraft wings and empennage or in watercraft and ship containers and compartments. It can also be appreciated that even in enclosures within which people are present in higher numbers, such as buildings, factories, and aircraft fuselage, an embodiment of the present invention may interact with the enclosure alarm system such that it activates after a predetermined amount of time from when the alarm is set off to allow for either the vacation of occupants from the enclosure or the provision of oxygen delivery device to the occupants.
  • [0048]
    All of the above U.S. patents, U.S. patent application publications, U.S. patent applications, foreign patents, foreign patent applications and non-patent publications referred to in this specification and/or listed in the Application Data Sheet, are incorporated herein by reference, in their entirety.
  • [0049]
    From the foregoing it will be appreciated that, although specific embodiments of the invention have been described herein for purposes of illustration, various modifications may be made without deviating from the spirit and scope of the invention. Accordingly, the invention is not limited except as by the appended claims.

Claims (6)

  1. 1. A method of controlling the atmosphere in a wind power installation comprising:
    providing a source of inert gas in the wind power installation;
    feeding an inert gas into a selected region of the wind power installation if at least one selected physical parameter of the wind power installation exceeds a threshold value.
  2. 2. The method according to claim 1 further including:
    closing passage openings to delimit the selected region.
  3. 3. The method of controlling a wind power installation according to claim 1 further including:
    selecting a wind power installation for maintenance; and
    ventilating of the wind power installation, to include oxygen, before a person enters the wind power installation.
  4. 4. The method according to claim 1 further including:
    blocking access to the wind power installation by a lock system when inert gas is substantially filling the predetermined region; and
    permitting opening of the lock system only when an adequate oxygen concentration is reached in the wind power installation.
  5. 5. The method according to claim 1 further including:
    activating the apparatuses for producing an inert atmosphere only when a predetermined closed condition of the lock system is reached.
  6. 6. The method according to claim 5 wherein the apparatus for producing an inert atmosphere is activated again only when a predetermined period of time has elapsed after the predetermined closed condition is reached.
US11681074 2002-02-09 2007-03-01 Fire protection Abandoned US20080076345A1 (en)

Priority Applications (5)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE10205373.1 2002-02-09
DE2002105373 DE10205373B4 (en) 2002-02-09 2002-02-09 Fire protection
US10502377 US7372171B2 (en) 2002-02-09 2003-02-07 Fire protection
PCT/EP2003/001224 WO2003066169A1 (en) 2002-02-09 2003-02-07 Fire protection
US11681074 US20080076345A1 (en) 2002-02-09 2007-03-01 Fire protection

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US11681074 US20080076345A1 (en) 2002-02-09 2007-03-01 Fire protection

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20080076345A1 true true US20080076345A1 (en) 2008-03-27

Family

ID=27618490

Family Applications (3)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US10502377 Expired - Fee Related US7372171B2 (en) 2002-02-09 2003-02-07 Fire protection
US11681079 Expired - Fee Related US7378751B2 (en) 2002-02-09 2007-03-01 Fire protection
US11681074 Abandoned US20080076345A1 (en) 2002-02-09 2007-03-01 Fire protection

Family Applications Before (2)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US10502377 Expired - Fee Related US7372171B2 (en) 2002-02-09 2003-02-07 Fire protection
US11681079 Expired - Fee Related US7378751B2 (en) 2002-02-09 2007-03-01 Fire protection

Country Status (10)

Country Link
US (3) US7372171B2 (en)
EP (2) EP1476226B1 (en)
JP (1) JP4102759B2 (en)
KR (2) KR100850231B1 (en)
CN (1) CN100526638C (en)
CA (1) CA2473723C (en)
DE (2) DE10205373B4 (en)
DK (2) DK1985334T3 (en)
ES (2) ES2321598T3 (en)
WO (1) WO2003066169A1 (en)

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US9101866B2 (en) 2010-11-16 2015-08-11 Gregory R. Miller Room air purifier
US9254459B2 (en) 2013-09-17 2016-02-09 Gregory R. Miller Room air purifier with pressurization relief

Families Citing this family (21)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE10344188B3 (en) * 2003-09-22 2005-05-25 Minimax Gmbh & Co. Kg A device for fire, smoke and function monitoring of rotor blades in wind turbines and wind turbine
DE102004005179B4 (en) 2004-02-02 2006-07-13 Wobben, Aloys, Dipl.-Ing. Wind turbine
DE102005009573B4 (en) * 2005-02-28 2017-11-02 Minimax Gmbh & Co. Kg Plant for Permanentinertisierung a fire hazardous area
EP1945315B8 (en) 2005-11-10 2012-04-11 Airbus Operations GmbH Use of a fuel cell system for extinguishing fires
DE102005053692B3 (en) * 2005-11-10 2007-01-11 Airbus Deutschland Gmbh Fire protection system for reducing the fire risk in an airplane, ship or building comprises a fuel cell for producing nitrogen-enriched cathode outgoing air and a line for feeding the outgoing air into a space
DE102005053694B3 (en) * 2005-11-10 2007-01-04 Airbus Deutschland Gmbh Fuel cell for extinguishing aircraft fires has air and fuel used to produce nitrogen discharge at cathode to suppress fire
WO2008017471A1 (en) * 2006-08-09 2008-02-14 Lars Frahm Mobile fire extinguishing system
DE102006037265B4 (en) * 2006-08-09 2008-09-25 Lars Frahm Mobile fire extinguishing system
DK1913980T3 (en) * 2006-10-19 2009-05-11 Amrona Ag Inerting device with safety device
DE102007046381B4 (en) 2007-09-27 2011-07-28 Airbus Operations GmbH, 21129 Fuel cell system having suction for an aircraft, method for operating the fuel cell system and aircraft with such a fuel cell system
DE102008012664A1 (en) * 2008-01-30 2009-08-06 Repower Systems Ag Wind turbine and a tower or tower segment and a door frame for
ES2361100B2 (en) * 2008-02-28 2011-12-23 Gamesa Innovation & Technology S.L. Multiplier turbine with controlled atmosphere.
DE102009040920A1 (en) * 2009-09-11 2011-04-07 Volkswind Gmbh Fire extinguishing method for wind power plant, involves directing fire extinguishing agent toward fire place after detection of fire, where fire extinguishing agent is stored at extinguishing agent storage associated with power plant
DE102010050742A1 (en) * 2010-11-08 2012-05-10 Li-Tec Battery Gmbh Method and apparatus for the control or prevention of fire on the inside, on the surface or in the vicinity of an electrochemical energy storage device
JP5538192B2 (en) * 2010-11-29 2014-07-02 本田技研工業株式会社 The fuel cell system
EP2691044A2 (en) * 2011-03-30 2014-02-05 Vestas Wind Systems A/S Fault-tolerant fire protection system
KR101297424B1 (en) * 2011-07-27 2013-08-14 이재홍 windpower generator with the fire protection method
KR101291177B1 (en) * 2011-09-19 2013-07-31 삼성중공업 주식회사 Windmill
CN104941090A (en) * 2014-03-26 2015-09-30 中航商用航空发动机有限责任公司 Aircraft engine fire extinguishing system and aircraft engine fire extinguishing method
CN105089970A (en) * 2014-05-15 2015-11-25 双馀实业有限公司 Inflator with fan power generation device
DE102014218804A1 (en) * 2014-09-18 2016-03-24 Wobben Properties Gmbh Wind turbine with an access control system

Citations (97)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4116889A (en) * 1976-08-19 1978-09-26 Allied Chemical Corporation Bipolar membranes and method of making same
US4140121A (en) * 1976-06-11 1979-02-20 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Implantable dosing device
US4519938A (en) * 1982-11-17 1985-05-28 Chevron Research Company Electroactive polymers
US4691718A (en) * 1985-06-29 1987-09-08 Kabushiki Kaisha Sangi Toothbrush
US4731049A (en) * 1987-01-30 1988-03-15 Ionics, Incorporated Cell for electrically controlled transdermal drug delivery
US4744787A (en) * 1984-10-29 1988-05-17 Medtronic, Inc. Iontophoresis apparatus and methods of producing same
US4747819A (en) * 1984-10-29 1988-05-31 Medtronic, Inc. Iontophoretic drug delivery
US4752285A (en) * 1986-03-19 1988-06-21 The University Of Utah Research Foundation Methods and apparatus for iontophoresis application of medicaments
US4767606A (en) * 1986-11-14 1988-08-30 United Technologies Corporation Process and apparatus for producing nitrogen
US4915685A (en) * 1986-03-19 1990-04-10 Petelenz Tomasz J Methods and apparatus for iontophoresis application of medicaments at a controlled ph through ion exchange
US4927408A (en) * 1988-10-03 1990-05-22 Alza Corporation Electrotransport transdermal system
US4931046A (en) * 1987-05-15 1990-06-05 Newman Martin H Iontophoresis drug delivery system
US4944296A (en) * 1987-08-10 1990-07-31 Hideo Suyama Electronic toothbrush
US5203768A (en) * 1991-07-24 1993-04-20 Alza Corporation Transdermal delivery device
US5238613A (en) * 1987-05-20 1993-08-24 Anderson David M Microporous materials
US5298017A (en) * 1992-12-29 1994-03-29 Alza Corporation Layered electrotransport drug delivery system
US5310404A (en) * 1992-06-01 1994-05-10 Alza Corporation Iontophoretic delivery device and method of hydrating same
US5312326A (en) * 1992-06-02 1994-05-17 Alza Corporation Iontophoretic drug delivery apparatus
US5320597A (en) * 1991-02-08 1994-06-14 Becton, Dickinson And Company Device and method for renewing electrodes during iontophoresis
US5322502A (en) * 1988-10-03 1994-06-21 Alza Corporation Membrane for electrotransport transdermal drug delivery
US5326341A (en) * 1990-03-30 1994-07-05 Alza Corporation Iontorphoretic delivery device
US5380272A (en) * 1993-01-28 1995-01-10 Scientific Innovations Ltd. Transcutaneous drug delivery applicator
US5380271A (en) * 1992-09-24 1995-01-10 Alza Corporation Electrotransport agent delivery device and method
US5385543A (en) * 1990-10-29 1995-01-31 Alza Corporation Iontophoretic delivery device and method of hydrating same
US5405317A (en) * 1991-05-03 1995-04-11 Alza Corporation Iontophoretic delivery device
US5425703A (en) * 1990-05-07 1995-06-20 Feiring; Andrew J. Method and apparatus for inducing the permeation of medication into internal tissue
US5445606A (en) * 1991-12-11 1995-08-29 Alza Corporation Indicator for iontophoresis system
US5543098A (en) * 1991-03-11 1996-08-06 Alza Corporation Iontophoretic delivery device and method of making same
US5637084A (en) * 1992-03-10 1997-06-10 Kontturi; Kyoesti E. A. Electrochemical method and device for drug delivery
US5723130A (en) * 1993-05-25 1998-03-03 Hancock; Gerald E. Adjuvants for vaccines against respiratory syncytial virus
US5725817A (en) * 1992-11-12 1998-03-10 Implemed, Inc. Iontophoretic structure for medical devices
US6012533A (en) * 1997-10-14 2000-01-11 Cramer; Frank B. Fire safety system
US6032073A (en) * 1995-04-07 2000-02-29 Novartis Ag Iontophoretic transdermal system for the administration of at least two substances
US6047208A (en) * 1997-08-27 2000-04-04 Becton, Dickinson And Company Iontophoretic controller
US6049733A (en) * 1994-04-08 2000-04-11 Alza Corporation Electrotransport system with ion exchange material competitive ion capture
US6064908A (en) * 1996-11-07 2000-05-16 Elf Aquitaine Device for ionophoresis comprising at least a membrane electrode assembly, for the transcutaneous administration of active principles to a subject
US6086572A (en) * 1996-05-31 2000-07-11 Alza Corporation Electrotransport device and method of setting output
US6103078A (en) * 1997-06-03 2000-08-15 Lynntech, Inc. Methods for preparing membranes with fluid distribution passages
US6109852A (en) * 1996-01-18 2000-08-29 University Of New Mexico Soft actuators and artificial muscles
US6169920B1 (en) * 1992-06-02 2001-01-02 Alza Corporation Iontophoretic drug delivery apparatus
US6195582B1 (en) * 1998-01-28 2001-02-27 Alza Corporation Electrotransport device electrode assembly having lower initial resistance
US6228206B1 (en) * 1997-07-30 2001-05-08 Drug Delivery Technologies, Inc. Bonding agent composition containing conductive filler and method of bonding electrode to printed conductive trace with same
US6258276B1 (en) * 1996-10-18 2001-07-10 Mcmaster University Microporous membranes and uses thereof
US6336049B1 (en) * 1998-07-08 2002-01-01 Nitto Denko Corporation Electrode structure for reducing irritation to the skin
US20020022795A1 (en) * 2000-08-14 2002-02-21 Reynolds John R. Bilayer electrodes
US6377847B1 (en) * 1993-09-30 2002-04-23 Vyteris, Inc. Iontophoretic drug delivery device and reservoir and method of making same
US6405875B1 (en) * 1998-12-18 2002-06-18 Corning Incorporated Water filtration device and method
US20020099320A1 (en) * 2001-01-22 2002-07-25 Beck Jon E. Iontophoretic electrode with improved current distribution
US6505069B2 (en) * 1998-01-28 2003-01-07 Alza Corporation Electrochemically reactive cathodes for an electrotransport device
US6553255B1 (en) * 2000-10-27 2003-04-22 Aciont Inc. Use of background electrolytes to minimize flux variability during iontophoresis
US6560483B1 (en) * 2000-10-18 2003-05-06 Minnesota High-Tech Resources, Llc Iontophoretic delivery patch
US6584349B1 (en) * 1995-09-29 2003-06-24 Vyteris, Inc. Low cost electrodes for an iontophoretic device
US6597947B1 (en) * 1999-04-13 2003-07-22 Hisamitsu Pharmaceutical Co., Inc. Iontophoresis device
US6678554B1 (en) * 1999-04-16 2004-01-13 Johnson & Johnson Consumer Companies, Inc. Electrotransport delivery system comprising internal sensors
US6708050B2 (en) * 2002-03-28 2004-03-16 3M Innovative Properties Company Wireless electrode having activatable power cell
US20040071765A1 (en) * 1999-09-01 2004-04-15 Hisamitsu Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. Composition and device structure for iontophoresis
US6743015B2 (en) * 2000-09-08 2004-06-01 Thomas J. Magnani Iontophoretic apparatus
US6745071B1 (en) * 2003-02-21 2004-06-01 Birch Point Medical, Inc. Iontophoretic drug delivery system
US20040105881A1 (en) * 2002-10-11 2004-06-03 Gregor Cevc Aggregates with increased deformability, comprising at least three amphipats, for improved transport through semi-permeable barriers and for the non-invasive drug application in vivo, especially through the skin
US20040138604A1 (en) * 2002-12-31 2004-07-15 Sigurjonsson Gudmundur Fertram Wound dressing
US20040143210A1 (en) * 2002-07-29 2004-07-22 Eemso, Inc. System and method for iontophoretic transdermal delivery of one or more therapeutic agents
US20040167459A1 (en) * 2003-02-21 2004-08-26 Higuchi William I. Methods and systems for controlling and/or increasing iontophoretic flux
US20050011826A1 (en) * 2001-07-20 2005-01-20 Childs Ronald F. Asymmetric gel-filled microporous membranes
US6855441B1 (en) * 1999-04-14 2005-02-15 Power Paper Ltd. Functionally improved battery and method of making same
US20050070840A1 (en) * 2001-10-31 2005-03-31 Akihiko Matsumura Iontophoresis device
US20050131336A1 (en) * 2002-01-24 2005-06-16 Kenji Mori Electrode structure
US6915159B1 (en) * 1999-05-13 2005-07-05 Hisamitsu Pharmaceutical Co., Inc. Electrode structure for iontophoresis device and method of producing the same
US20050148996A1 (en) * 2003-06-30 2005-07-07 Ying Sun Device for treatment of a barrier membrane
US20050169976A1 (en) * 2002-04-08 2005-08-04 Kenji Mori Insulin administration apparatus
US7018370B2 (en) * 1995-06-05 2006-03-28 Alza Corporation Device for transdermal electrotransport delivery of fentanyl and sufentanil
US20060095001A1 (en) * 2004-10-29 2006-05-04 Transcutaneous Technologies Inc. Electrode and iontophoresis device
US20060116628A1 (en) * 2004-11-30 2006-06-01 Transcutaneous Technologies Inc. Iontophoresis device
US20060129085A1 (en) * 2004-12-09 2006-06-15 Transcutaneous Technologies Inc. Iontophoresis device
US20060135906A1 (en) * 2004-11-16 2006-06-22 Akihiko Matsumura Iontophoretic device and method for administering immune response-enhancing agents and compositions
US20060173401A1 (en) * 2005-02-03 2006-08-03 Transcutaneous Technologies Inc. Iontophoresis device
US20070021711A1 (en) * 2005-06-23 2007-01-25 Transcutaneous Technologies, Inc. Iontophoresis device controlling administration amount and administration period of plurality of drugs
US20070027426A1 (en) * 2005-06-24 2007-02-01 Transcutaneous Technologies Inc. Iontophoresis device to deliver active agents to biological interfaces
US20070048362A1 (en) * 2005-08-29 2007-03-01 Transcutaneous Technologies Inc. General purpose electrolyte solution composition for iontophoresis
US20070060860A1 (en) * 2005-08-18 2007-03-15 Transcutaneous Technologies Inc. Iontophoresis device
US20070060859A1 (en) * 2005-08-08 2007-03-15 Transcutaneous Technologies Inc. Iontophoresis device
US20070066932A1 (en) * 2005-09-15 2007-03-22 Transcutaneous Technologies Inc. Iontophoresis device
US20070066930A1 (en) * 2005-06-20 2007-03-22 Transcutaneous Technologies, Inc. Iontophoresis device and method of producing the same
US20070071807A1 (en) * 2005-09-28 2007-03-29 Hidero Akiyama Capsule-type drug-releasing device and capsule-type drug-releasing device system
US20070073212A1 (en) * 2005-09-28 2007-03-29 Takehiko Matsumura Iontophoresis apparatus and method to deliver active agents to biological interfaces
US20070074590A1 (en) * 2005-09-30 2007-04-05 Transcutaneous Technologies Inc. Method and system to detect malfunctions in an iontophoresis device that delivers active agents to biological interfaces
US20070078375A1 (en) * 2005-09-30 2007-04-05 Transcutaneous Technologies Inc. Iontophoretic delivery of active agents conjugated to nanoparticles
US20070078374A1 (en) * 2005-09-30 2007-04-05 Transcutaneous Technologies Inc. Iontophoretic delivery of vesicle-encapsulated active agents
US20070078376A1 (en) * 2005-09-30 2007-04-05 Smith Gregory A Functionalized microneedles transdermal drug delivery systems, devices, and methods
US20070083147A1 (en) * 2005-09-30 2007-04-12 Transcutaneous Technologies Inc. Iontophoresis apparatus and method to deliver antibiotics to biological interfaces
US20070083186A1 (en) * 2005-09-30 2007-04-12 Darrick Carter Transdermal drug delivery systems, devices, and methods employing novel pharmaceutical vehicles
US20070088332A1 (en) * 2005-08-22 2007-04-19 Transcutaneous Technologies Inc. Iontophoresis device
US20070093787A1 (en) * 2005-09-30 2007-04-26 Transcutaneous Technologies Inc. Iontophoresis device to deliver multiple active agents to biological interfaces
US20070112294A1 (en) * 2005-09-14 2007-05-17 Transcutaneous Technologies Inc. Iontophoresis device
US20070135754A1 (en) * 2005-09-30 2007-06-14 Hidero Akiyama Electrode assembly for iontophoresis for administering active agent enclosed in nanoparticle and iontophoresis device using the same
US20070197955A1 (en) * 2005-10-12 2007-08-23 Transcutaneous Technologies Inc. Mucous membrane adhesion-type iontophoresis device
US20080033338A1 (en) * 2005-12-28 2008-02-07 Smith Gregory A Electroosmotic pump apparatus and method to deliver active agents to biological interfaces
US20080033398A1 (en) * 2005-12-29 2008-02-07 Transcutaneous Technologies Inc. Device and method for enhancing immune response by electrical stimulation

Family Cites Families (30)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3567952A (en) * 1966-02-03 1971-03-02 George D Doland Process for electrical power generation and water purification system
US3724212A (en) * 1969-11-26 1973-04-03 Wheeler Foster J Brown Boilers Power plants
JPS521997A (en) * 1975-06-16 1977-01-08 Kimimichi Monma Quick system for extinguishing fire of a multistorey building
US4191893A (en) * 1978-03-03 1980-03-04 The United States Of America As Represented By The Administrator Of The National Aeronautics And Space Administration Natural turbulence electrical power generator
FR2511128B1 (en) * 1981-08-04 1985-09-27 Panol Sa A ventilation device has automatic control
JPS62367A (en) * 1985-06-26 1987-01-06 Fujita Corp Non-combustible building
US4807706A (en) * 1987-07-31 1989-02-28 Air Products And Chemicals, Inc. Breathable fire extinguishing gas mixtures
JP2771360B2 (en) * 1991-09-27 1998-07-02 日本碍子株式会社 Sodium - extinguishing in sulfur battery device
DE4204382C1 (en) * 1992-02-14 1993-05-27 Andreas 5102 Wuerselen De Fueg Fire protection device for single object, e.g. computer - comprises frame surrounding object for releasably supporting venetian shutters that surround object when fire detected by alarm unit
US5642984A (en) * 1994-01-11 1997-07-01 Northeastern University Helical turbine assembly operable under multidirectional fluid flow for power and propulsion systems
US5507539A (en) * 1994-06-06 1996-04-16 Carrier Corporation Safety device for an enclosure door
US5440176A (en) * 1994-10-18 1995-08-08 Haining Michael L Ocean current power generator
DE19625559C1 (en) 1996-06-26 1997-10-09 Daimler Benz Aerospace Ag Fighting fires in enclosed spaces and buildings
JPH114901A (en) 1997-06-13 1999-01-12 Kokusai Gijutsu Kaihatsu Kk Fire prevention
GB9804770D0 (en) * 1998-03-07 1998-04-29 Engineering Business Ltd Apparatus for extracting power from moving water
DE19811851C2 (en) * 1998-03-18 2001-01-04 Wagner Alarm Sicherung Inerting fire prevention and extinguishing in enclosed spaces
JP2000048847A (en) * 1998-07-29 2000-02-18 Jac Sutorakuto:Kk Method and device for separating gas
WO2000041769A1 (en) 1999-01-11 2000-07-20 New World Technologies Corp. Fire suppression apparatus and method
CA2346824C (en) * 1999-03-03 2003-05-06 Fmc Corporation Explosion prevention system for internal turret mooring system
KR100291041B1 (en) * 1999-06-07 2001-05-15 황해웅 Fire suppressing cold inert gas generator
GB9916779D0 (en) * 1999-07-16 1999-09-15 Kelly H P G Sea wave to electrical energy conversion plant
GB9916778D0 (en) * 1999-07-16 1999-09-15 Kelly H P G Safeguarding wave to electrical power generating apparatus
DE10005190C1 (en) * 2000-02-05 2001-09-06 Theo Wiemken Wind turbine
DE10018181B4 (en) * 2000-04-12 2004-07-08 Messer Griesheim Gmbh Process and apparatus for emergency inertization
FR2810796B1 (en) * 2000-06-26 2003-03-21 Cit Alcatel generators electrochemical battery comprising a safety device
DE10033650A1 (en) * 2000-07-11 2002-01-31 Messer Griesheim Gmbh A method of storing and / or processing of articles under inert conditions conditioning and
US6531788B2 (en) * 2001-02-22 2003-03-11 John H. Robson Submersible electrical power generating plant
US7075189B2 (en) * 2002-03-08 2006-07-11 Ocean Wind Energy Systems Offshore wind turbine with multiple wind rotors and floating system
US7019412B2 (en) * 2002-04-16 2006-03-28 Research Sciences, L.L.C. Power generation methods and systems
US7215036B1 (en) * 2005-05-19 2007-05-08 Donald Hollis Gehring Current power generator

Patent Citations (100)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4140121A (en) * 1976-06-11 1979-02-20 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Implantable dosing device
US4116889A (en) * 1976-08-19 1978-09-26 Allied Chemical Corporation Bipolar membranes and method of making same
US4519938A (en) * 1982-11-17 1985-05-28 Chevron Research Company Electroactive polymers
US4747819A (en) * 1984-10-29 1988-05-31 Medtronic, Inc. Iontophoretic drug delivery
US4744787A (en) * 1984-10-29 1988-05-17 Medtronic, Inc. Iontophoresis apparatus and methods of producing same
US4691718A (en) * 1985-06-29 1987-09-08 Kabushiki Kaisha Sangi Toothbrush
US4915685A (en) * 1986-03-19 1990-04-10 Petelenz Tomasz J Methods and apparatus for iontophoresis application of medicaments at a controlled ph through ion exchange
US4752285A (en) * 1986-03-19 1988-06-21 The University Of Utah Research Foundation Methods and apparatus for iontophoresis application of medicaments
US4752285B1 (en) * 1986-03-19 1995-08-22 Univ Utah Res Found Methods and apparatus for iontophoresis application of medicaments
US4767606A (en) * 1986-11-14 1988-08-30 United Technologies Corporation Process and apparatus for producing nitrogen
US4731049A (en) * 1987-01-30 1988-03-15 Ionics, Incorporated Cell for electrically controlled transdermal drug delivery
US4931046A (en) * 1987-05-15 1990-06-05 Newman Martin H Iontophoresis drug delivery system
US5238613A (en) * 1987-05-20 1993-08-24 Anderson David M Microporous materials
US4944296A (en) * 1987-08-10 1990-07-31 Hideo Suyama Electronic toothbrush
US5322502A (en) * 1988-10-03 1994-06-21 Alza Corporation Membrane for electrotransport transdermal drug delivery
US4927408A (en) * 1988-10-03 1990-05-22 Alza Corporation Electrotransport transdermal system
US5326341A (en) * 1990-03-30 1994-07-05 Alza Corporation Iontorphoretic delivery device
US5425703A (en) * 1990-05-07 1995-06-20 Feiring; Andrew J. Method and apparatus for inducing the permeation of medication into internal tissue
US5385543A (en) * 1990-10-29 1995-01-31 Alza Corporation Iontophoretic delivery device and method of hydrating same
US5320597A (en) * 1991-02-08 1994-06-14 Becton, Dickinson And Company Device and method for renewing electrodes during iontophoresis
US5543098A (en) * 1991-03-11 1996-08-06 Alza Corporation Iontophoretic delivery device and method of making same
US5405317A (en) * 1991-05-03 1995-04-11 Alza Corporation Iontophoretic delivery device
US5203768A (en) * 1991-07-24 1993-04-20 Alza Corporation Transdermal delivery device
US5445606A (en) * 1991-12-11 1995-08-29 Alza Corporation Indicator for iontophoresis system
US5637084A (en) * 1992-03-10 1997-06-10 Kontturi; Kyoesti E. A. Electrochemical method and device for drug delivery
US5310404A (en) * 1992-06-01 1994-05-10 Alza Corporation Iontophoretic delivery device and method of hydrating same
US6169920B1 (en) * 1992-06-02 2001-01-02 Alza Corporation Iontophoretic drug delivery apparatus
US5312326A (en) * 1992-06-02 1994-05-17 Alza Corporation Iontophoretic drug delivery apparatus
US5380271A (en) * 1992-09-24 1995-01-10 Alza Corporation Electrotransport agent delivery device and method
US5725817A (en) * 1992-11-12 1998-03-10 Implemed, Inc. Iontophoretic structure for medical devices
US5298017A (en) * 1992-12-29 1994-03-29 Alza Corporation Layered electrotransport drug delivery system
US5380272A (en) * 1993-01-28 1995-01-10 Scientific Innovations Ltd. Transcutaneous drug delivery applicator
US5723130A (en) * 1993-05-25 1998-03-03 Hancock; Gerald E. Adjuvants for vaccines against respiratory syncytial virus
US6862473B2 (en) * 1993-09-30 2005-03-01 Vyteris, Inc. Iontophoretic drug delivery device and reservoir and method of making same
US6377847B1 (en) * 1993-09-30 2002-04-23 Vyteris, Inc. Iontophoretic drug delivery device and reservoir and method of making same
US6049733A (en) * 1994-04-08 2000-04-11 Alza Corporation Electrotransport system with ion exchange material competitive ion capture
US6032073A (en) * 1995-04-07 2000-02-29 Novartis Ag Iontophoretic transdermal system for the administration of at least two substances
US7018370B2 (en) * 1995-06-05 2006-03-28 Alza Corporation Device for transdermal electrotransport delivery of fentanyl and sufentanil
US6584349B1 (en) * 1995-09-29 2003-06-24 Vyteris, Inc. Low cost electrodes for an iontophoretic device
US6109852A (en) * 1996-01-18 2000-08-29 University Of New Mexico Soft actuators and artificial muscles
US6086572A (en) * 1996-05-31 2000-07-11 Alza Corporation Electrotransport device and method of setting output
US6258276B1 (en) * 1996-10-18 2001-07-10 Mcmaster University Microporous membranes and uses thereof
US6064908A (en) * 1996-11-07 2000-05-16 Elf Aquitaine Device for ionophoresis comprising at least a membrane electrode assembly, for the transcutaneous administration of active principles to a subject
US6103078A (en) * 1997-06-03 2000-08-15 Lynntech, Inc. Methods for preparing membranes with fluid distribution passages
US6228206B1 (en) * 1997-07-30 2001-05-08 Drug Delivery Technologies, Inc. Bonding agent composition containing conductive filler and method of bonding electrode to printed conductive trace with same
US6047208A (en) * 1997-08-27 2000-04-04 Becton, Dickinson And Company Iontophoretic controller
US6012533A (en) * 1997-10-14 2000-01-11 Cramer; Frank B. Fire safety system
US6195582B1 (en) * 1998-01-28 2001-02-27 Alza Corporation Electrotransport device electrode assembly having lower initial resistance
US6505069B2 (en) * 1998-01-28 2003-01-07 Alza Corporation Electrochemically reactive cathodes for an electrotransport device
US6336049B1 (en) * 1998-07-08 2002-01-01 Nitto Denko Corporation Electrode structure for reducing irritation to the skin
US6405875B1 (en) * 1998-12-18 2002-06-18 Corning Incorporated Water filtration device and method
US6597947B1 (en) * 1999-04-13 2003-07-22 Hisamitsu Pharmaceutical Co., Inc. Iontophoresis device
US6855441B1 (en) * 1999-04-14 2005-02-15 Power Paper Ltd. Functionally improved battery and method of making same
US6678554B1 (en) * 1999-04-16 2004-01-13 Johnson & Johnson Consumer Companies, Inc. Electrotransport delivery system comprising internal sensors
US6915159B1 (en) * 1999-05-13 2005-07-05 Hisamitsu Pharmaceutical Co., Inc. Electrode structure for iontophoresis device and method of producing the same
US20040071765A1 (en) * 1999-09-01 2004-04-15 Hisamitsu Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. Composition and device structure for iontophoresis
US20020022795A1 (en) * 2000-08-14 2002-02-21 Reynolds John R. Bilayer electrodes
US6743015B2 (en) * 2000-09-08 2004-06-01 Thomas J. Magnani Iontophoretic apparatus
US6560483B1 (en) * 2000-10-18 2003-05-06 Minnesota High-Tech Resources, Llc Iontophoretic delivery patch
US6553255B1 (en) * 2000-10-27 2003-04-22 Aciont Inc. Use of background electrolytes to minimize flux variability during iontophoresis
US6731977B2 (en) * 2001-01-22 2004-05-04 Iomed, Inc. Iontophoretic electrode with improved current distribution
US20020099320A1 (en) * 2001-01-22 2002-07-25 Beck Jon E. Iontophoretic electrode with improved current distribution
US20050011826A1 (en) * 2001-07-20 2005-01-20 Childs Ronald F. Asymmetric gel-filled microporous membranes
US20050070840A1 (en) * 2001-10-31 2005-03-31 Akihiko Matsumura Iontophoresis device
US20050131336A1 (en) * 2002-01-24 2005-06-16 Kenji Mori Electrode structure
US6708050B2 (en) * 2002-03-28 2004-03-16 3M Innovative Properties Company Wireless electrode having activatable power cell
US20050169976A1 (en) * 2002-04-08 2005-08-04 Kenji Mori Insulin administration apparatus
US20040143210A1 (en) * 2002-07-29 2004-07-22 Eemso, Inc. System and method for iontophoretic transdermal delivery of one or more therapeutic agents
US20040105881A1 (en) * 2002-10-11 2004-06-03 Gregor Cevc Aggregates with increased deformability, comprising at least three amphipats, for improved transport through semi-permeable barriers and for the non-invasive drug application in vivo, especially through the skin
US20040138604A1 (en) * 2002-12-31 2004-07-15 Sigurjonsson Gudmundur Fertram Wound dressing
US6745071B1 (en) * 2003-02-21 2004-06-01 Birch Point Medical, Inc. Iontophoretic drug delivery system
US20040167459A1 (en) * 2003-02-21 2004-08-26 Higuchi William I. Methods and systems for controlling and/or increasing iontophoretic flux
US20050148996A1 (en) * 2003-06-30 2005-07-07 Ying Sun Device for treatment of a barrier membrane
US20060095001A1 (en) * 2004-10-29 2006-05-04 Transcutaneous Technologies Inc. Electrode and iontophoresis device
US20060135906A1 (en) * 2004-11-16 2006-06-22 Akihiko Matsumura Iontophoretic device and method for administering immune response-enhancing agents and compositions
US20060116628A1 (en) * 2004-11-30 2006-06-01 Transcutaneous Technologies Inc. Iontophoresis device
US20060129085A1 (en) * 2004-12-09 2006-06-15 Transcutaneous Technologies Inc. Iontophoresis device
US20060173401A1 (en) * 2005-02-03 2006-08-03 Transcutaneous Technologies Inc. Iontophoresis device
US20070066930A1 (en) * 2005-06-20 2007-03-22 Transcutaneous Technologies, Inc. Iontophoresis device and method of producing the same
US20070021711A1 (en) * 2005-06-23 2007-01-25 Transcutaneous Technologies, Inc. Iontophoresis device controlling administration amount and administration period of plurality of drugs
US20070027426A1 (en) * 2005-06-24 2007-02-01 Transcutaneous Technologies Inc. Iontophoresis device to deliver active agents to biological interfaces
US20070060859A1 (en) * 2005-08-08 2007-03-15 Transcutaneous Technologies Inc. Iontophoresis device
US20070060860A1 (en) * 2005-08-18 2007-03-15 Transcutaneous Technologies Inc. Iontophoresis device
US20070088332A1 (en) * 2005-08-22 2007-04-19 Transcutaneous Technologies Inc. Iontophoresis device
US20070048362A1 (en) * 2005-08-29 2007-03-01 Transcutaneous Technologies Inc. General purpose electrolyte solution composition for iontophoresis
US20070112294A1 (en) * 2005-09-14 2007-05-17 Transcutaneous Technologies Inc. Iontophoresis device
US20070066932A1 (en) * 2005-09-15 2007-03-22 Transcutaneous Technologies Inc. Iontophoresis device
US20070071807A1 (en) * 2005-09-28 2007-03-29 Hidero Akiyama Capsule-type drug-releasing device and capsule-type drug-releasing device system
US20070073212A1 (en) * 2005-09-28 2007-03-29 Takehiko Matsumura Iontophoresis apparatus and method to deliver active agents to biological interfaces
US20070083186A1 (en) * 2005-09-30 2007-04-12 Darrick Carter Transdermal drug delivery systems, devices, and methods employing novel pharmaceutical vehicles
US20070078376A1 (en) * 2005-09-30 2007-04-05 Smith Gregory A Functionalized microneedles transdermal drug delivery systems, devices, and methods
US20070083147A1 (en) * 2005-09-30 2007-04-12 Transcutaneous Technologies Inc. Iontophoresis apparatus and method to deliver antibiotics to biological interfaces
US20070078374A1 (en) * 2005-09-30 2007-04-05 Transcutaneous Technologies Inc. Iontophoretic delivery of vesicle-encapsulated active agents
US20070135754A1 (en) * 2005-09-30 2007-06-14 Hidero Akiyama Electrode assembly for iontophoresis for administering active agent enclosed in nanoparticle and iontophoresis device using the same
US20070093787A1 (en) * 2005-09-30 2007-04-26 Transcutaneous Technologies Inc. Iontophoresis device to deliver multiple active agents to biological interfaces
US20070078375A1 (en) * 2005-09-30 2007-04-05 Transcutaneous Technologies Inc. Iontophoretic delivery of active agents conjugated to nanoparticles
US20070074590A1 (en) * 2005-09-30 2007-04-05 Transcutaneous Technologies Inc. Method and system to detect malfunctions in an iontophoresis device that delivers active agents to biological interfaces
US20070197955A1 (en) * 2005-10-12 2007-08-23 Transcutaneous Technologies Inc. Mucous membrane adhesion-type iontophoresis device
US20080033338A1 (en) * 2005-12-28 2008-02-07 Smith Gregory A Electroosmotic pump apparatus and method to deliver active agents to biological interfaces
US20080033398A1 (en) * 2005-12-29 2008-02-07 Transcutaneous Technologies Inc. Device and method for enhancing immune response by electrical stimulation

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US9101866B2 (en) 2010-11-16 2015-08-11 Gregory R. Miller Room air purifier
US9254459B2 (en) 2013-09-17 2016-02-09 Gregory R. Miller Room air purifier with pressurization relief

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
US20050173929A1 (en) 2005-08-11 application
US7378751B2 (en) 2008-05-27 grant
EP1985334B1 (en) 2011-06-01 grant
DK1985334T3 (en) 2011-08-29 grant
CA2473723A1 (en) 2003-08-14 application
KR100815219B1 (en) 2008-03-19 grant
EP1985334A2 (en) 2008-10-29 application
ES2364707T3 (en) 2011-09-12 grant
DE10205373A1 (en) 2003-08-21 application
EP1476226A1 (en) 2004-11-17 application
DK1476226T3 (en) 2009-06-22 grant
EP1985334A3 (en) 2008-11-05 application
CN100526638C (en) 2009-08-12 grant
JP2005522239A (en) 2005-07-28 application
ES2321598T3 (en) 2009-06-09 grant
US20070145752A1 (en) 2007-06-28 application
CN1700940A (en) 2005-11-23 application
KR20040076886A (en) 2004-09-03 application
US7372171B2 (en) 2008-05-13 grant
DE10205373B4 (en) 2007-07-19 grant
EP1476226B1 (en) 2009-03-25 grant
KR20060106934A (en) 2006-10-12 application
DE50311336D1 (en) 2009-05-07 grant
KR100850231B1 (en) 2008-08-04 grant
CA2473723C (en) 2008-05-20 grant
WO2003066169A1 (en) 2003-08-14 application
JP4102759B2 (en) 2008-06-18 grant

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US20100236796A1 (en) Fire suppression system and method
US5074137A (en) Programmable atmospheric stabilizer
US5808541A (en) Hazard detection, warning, and response system
US7104336B2 (en) Method for fighting fire in confined areas using nitrogen expanded foam
US4380187A (en) Method and system for providing life-sustaining air to persons entrapped within a burning building
US6317053B1 (en) Switch cabinet with a fire extinguishing system
US20040054921A1 (en) Integrated monitoring and damage assessment system
US4668940A (en) Portable hazard warning apparatus
US6739399B2 (en) Inerting method and apparatus for preventing and extinguishing fires in enclosed spaces
US6341572B1 (en) Explosion prevention system for internal turret mooring system
WO1993020544A1 (en) Fire crisis management expert system
JPH11219732A (en) Charging and discharging apparatus for battery
US20060220386A1 (en) Method for the erection of a wind energy plant and wind energy plant
US20070193132A1 (en) Shelter System And Associated Devices
Peatross et al. Ventilation effects on compartment fire characterization
US5016715A (en) Elevator cab fire extinguishing system
US4010822A (en) Building emergency exit means
JP2003190312A (en) Fire extinguisher for chamber space
JP2004008566A (en) Disaster prevention equipment for vehicle
US7156184B2 (en) Inert rendering method with a nitrogen buffer
US7455120B2 (en) System and method for suppressing fires
CN201738951U (en) Movable refuge chamber
JP2004350758A (en) Fire defense system
US20120192503A1 (en) Fireproof Refuges
US20030074917A1 (en) Hyperbaric hypoxic fire escape and suppression systems for multilevel buildings, transportation tunnels and other human-occupied environments