New! View global litigation for patent families

US20080055149A1 - Ground-based collision alerting and avoidance system - Google Patents

Ground-based collision alerting and avoidance system Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US20080055149A1
US20080055149A1 US11977852 US97785207A US2008055149A1 US 20080055149 A1 US20080055149 A1 US 20080055149A1 US 11977852 US11977852 US 11977852 US 97785207 A US97785207 A US 97785207A US 2008055149 A1 US2008055149 A1 US 2008055149A1
Authority
US
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
system
array
antenna
collision
range
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US11977852
Inventor
Frank Rees
William Cotton
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Applied Science Products Inc
Original Assignee
Applied Science Products Inc
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QAERIALS
    • H01Q21/00Aerial arrays or systems
    • H01Q21/06Arrays of individually energised active aerial units similarly polarised and spaced apart
    • H01Q21/061Two dimensional planar arrays
    • H01Q21/064Two dimensional planar arrays using horn or slot aerials
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QAERIALS
    • H01Q1/00Details of, or arrangements associated with, aerials
    • H01Q1/27Adaptation for use in or on movable bodies
    • H01Q1/28Adaptation for use in or on aircraft, missiles, satellites, or balloons
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QAERIALS
    • H01Q1/00Details of, or arrangements associated with, aerials
    • H01Q1/42Housings not intimately mechanically associated with radiating elements, e.g. radome
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QAERIALS
    • H01Q13/00Waveguide horns or mouths; Slot aerials; Leaky-waveguide aerials; Equivalent structures causing radiation along the transmission path of a guided wave
    • H01Q13/02Waveguide horns
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QAERIALS
    • H01Q21/00Aerial arrays or systems
    • H01Q21/06Arrays of individually energised active aerial units similarly polarised and spaced apart
    • H01Q21/20Arrays of individually energised active aerial units similarly polarised and spaced apart the units being spaced along or adjacent to a curvilinear path
    • H01Q21/205Arrays of individually energised active aerial units similarly polarised and spaced apart the units being spaced along or adjacent to a curvilinear path providing an omnidirectional coverage

Abstract

A collision alerting and avoidance system is presented herein. The system comprises at least one antenna array disposed on a structure on the ground and at least one transmitter/receiver probe coupled to the antenna array. The transmitter/receiver probe operates in a transmit mode to transmit electromagnetic waves and in a receive mode to receive an echo signal reflected from an obstacle in the area of an aerial vehicle. The system also comprises at least one transmitter/receiver module coupled to the transmitter/receiver probe. The transmitter/receiver module operates in a transmit mode to produce electromagnetic waves for transmission and in a receive mode to receive the echo signal. The system also comprises a processor coupled to the transmitter/receiver module. The processor controls transmission of the electromagnetic waves from the antenna array and processes the echo signal to provide an output signal containing information regarding the obstacle.

Description

    PRIORITY CLAIM
  • [0001]
    This application is a continuation-in-part of and claims priority to NonProvisional patent application Ser. No. 11/266,031, entitled “Collision Alerting and Avoidance System” filed on Nov. 2, 2005, which claims priority Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 60/624,982, entitled “Collision Avoidance System” filed on Nov. 3, 2004, the disclosures of which are incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.
  • BACKGROUND
  • [0002]
    In conditions of crowded air traffic and/or low visibility, it is necessary that the pilot of one aircraft be warned of the presence of a nearby aircraft so that he may maneuver his aircraft to avoid a disastrous collision. Systems known as TCAS (Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System) employ an interrogator mounted on a commercial jet aircraft and transponders carried by each aircraft it is likely to encounter. In this way, an interrogation is communicated by secondary radar between the aircraft carrying TCAS and other threat aircraft in the vicinity. This is done so that an enhanced radar signal is returned to the TCAS-equipped aircraft to enable its pilot to avoid a collision. The transponder also encodes the returned radar signal with information unique to the threat aircraft on which it is installed. With TCAS, the burden is on the pilot of the TCAS-equipped aircraft to avoid a collision when an alert is received.
  • [0003]
    These systems however are very complicated and very costly and are used primarily on large commercial aircraft and required on all aircraft with more than 31 seats operating in the United States. Because of their high cost, these systems are rarely incorporated on smaller, general aviation aircraft, even when they are flying under adverse weather and traffic conditions, a situation which often leads to a collision hazard. General aviation pilots primarily rely on the “see and avoid” practice for collision avoidance and are often even reluctant to incur the cost of installing a transponder without gaining a direct collision avoidance benefit.
  • [0004]
    Presently, most unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) rely on operations in military restricted airspace to avoid the potential of collision with civilian aircraft. Planned operations in unrestricted portions of the National Airspace System require the ability to “see and avoid” all other air traffic; the same as for manned aircraft. Present air traffic control and TCAS type airborne systems cannot protect UAVs from non-cooperative (i.e., non-transponder equipped) aircraft collision threats. Also there is no present capability for the operator to detect a potential hazard and correct for a potential collision except to keep it in sight from the ground or from a manned chase plane. A primary radar system could provide an equivalent or better “sense and avoid” capability for these aircraft. Further, marine vehicles could also benefit from a system that detects and avoids potential hazards both small (i.e., buoys, logs, etc.) and large (i.e., other ships).
  • [0005]
    What is needed in the art is a low cost, reliable, collision avoidance system that is particularly useful to protect against a wide variety of non-cooperative vehicles.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES
  • [0006]
    Referring now to the figures, wherein like elements are numbered alike:
  • [0007]
    FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a large winged UAV having an exemplary antenna array of the present invention;
  • [0008]
    FIG. 2 is a perspective view of an exemplary antenna array of the present invention;
  • [0009]
    FIG. 3 is a perspective view of the individual horns of the exemplary antenna array of the present invention in FIG. 2;
  • [0010]
    FIG. 4 is a perspective view of a radome enclosing an exemplary antenna array of the present invention;
  • [0011]
    FIG. 5 is a block diagram of the system of the present invention;
  • [0012]
    FIG. 6 is a side view of a conventional small, tactical UAV having a patch antenna array of the present invention;
  • [0013]
    FIG. 7 is a top perspective view of a hybrid system of the present invention disposed on a marine vehicle;
  • [0014]
    FIG. 8 is a side view of a ground-based collision avoidance and alerting system of the present invention; and
  • [0015]
    FIG. 9 is a side view of another ground-based collision avoidance and alerting system of the present invention.
  • SUMMARY
  • [0016]
    The following presents a simplified summary of the present disclosure in order to provide a basic understanding of some aspects of the present disclosure. This summary is not an extensive overview of the present disclosure. It is not intended to identify key or critical elements of the present disclosure or to delineate the scope of the present disclosure. Its sole purpose is to present some concepts of the present disclosure in a simplified form as a prelude to the more detailed description that is presented herein.
  • [0017]
    The disclosure is directed toward a collision alerting and avoidance system. The system comprises at least one antenna array disposed on a structure on the ground and at least one transmitter/receiver probe coupled to the antenna array. The transmitter/receiver probe is configured to operate in a transmit mode to transmit electromagnetic waves and a receive mode to receive an echo signal reflected from an obstacle in the area of an aerial vehicle. The system also comprises at least one transmitter/receiver module coupled to the transmitter/receiver probe. The transmitter/receiver module is configured to operate in a transmit mode to produce electromagnetic waves for transmission and a receive mode to receive the echo signal. The system also comprises a processor coupled to the transmitter/receiver module. The processor is configured to control transmission of the electromagnetic waves from the antenna array and to process the echo signal to provide an output signal containing information regarding the obstacle.
  • [0018]
    A method of using a collision alerting and avoidance system disposed on the ground is also disclosed. The method comprises disposing at least one antenna array on a structure on the ground and coupling at least one transmitter/receiver probe to the antenna array. The transmitter/receiver probe is configured to operate in a transmit mode and a receive mode. The method also comprises coupling at least one transmitter/receiver module to the transmitter/receiver probe. The transmitter/receiver module is configured to produce at least one electromagnetic wave in a transmit mode and to receive an echo signal in a receive mode. The method also comprises transmitting the electromagnetic wave from the transmitter/receiver probe and detecting the echo signal reflected from an obstacle in the area of an aerial vehicle in the transmitter/receiver probe and the transmitter/receiver module. The method also comprises transmitting another electromagnetic wave from the transmitter/receiver probe and the transmitter/receiver module upon receipt of the echo signal and processing the echo signal in a processor coupled to the transmitter/receiver module to provide an output signal containing information regarding the obstacle.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • [0019]
    Persons of ordinary skill in the art will realize that the following disclosure is illustrative only and not in any way limiting. Other embodiments of the invention will readily suggest themselves to such skilled persons having the benefit of this disclosure.
  • [0020]
    The present invention is a collision avoidance system that utilizes an antenna array configured to operate with a “sing-around” transmitter/receiver to detect any obstacle in its field of view. While the invention may be used on commercial and military aircraft of any size, the collision avoidance system is particularly useful in general aviation aircraft, as well as for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), and marine vehicles. For the purpose of this disclosure, two types of UAVs are described: large, winged UAVs and small, tactical UAVs. Both may be either remotely piloted or autonomous. In general, however, most UAVs are remotely piloted with some varying degree of autonomy.
  • [0021]
    There are two features of the present invention that set it apart from other radar systems. They are (1) the use of a fixed waveguide horn array, and (2) the use of the “sing-around” method to estimate range rate while maximizing radar information rate. The present invention utilizes an array of fixed, fuselage- or ground-mounted horns, each responsible for covering a particular sector of the surrounding volume (given by a range of azimuth angle, elevation angle and radial distance from the aircraft) such that the field of view can be as high as 4π-steradians out to a range of about two to about seven nautical miles, depending upon the total number of antenna horns used, the local environmental conditions confronting the radar, the type of signal generation and processing used and the radar cross-section of the threat aircraft. The azimuth and elevation angle coverage of each sector is dependent on the antenna design and the number of horns employed. The radial range of coverage is dependent on the power, pulse duration and repetition frequency. Each horn is connected to at least one independent transmitter and receiver (T/R) module.
  • [0022]
    The present invention employs a “sing-around” control processor that synchronizes the T/R module to provide both radial range and range-rate to any threatening obstacle in its field of view. The “sing-around” method utilizes a constant pulse repetition frequency (PRF); however when a potential obstacle is detected in a particular range-cell, the return pulse (or echo of electromagnetic waves) triggers the transmission of the next pulse (or electromagnetic wave) transmission. As the range to the obstacle changes, the “sing-around” method estimates the range-rate by measuring the changing time-delay between return pulses. This reduction in time between pulses provides an accurate estimation of the range-rate and minimizes the impact of the elapsed time on making critical decisions. When the return pulse is superimposed on system noise, the reduced time-between pulses would generally not give a more accurate estimate of range rate. However, when the range is decreasing, as it does in a potential collision, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) increases with time. This steady increase in SNR compensates for the effect of noise on the range-rate computation.
  • [0023]
    The “sing-around” method allows for the use of relatively inexpensive and small application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) in the T/R module. The “sing-around” method utilizes deferred decision processing to reduce the false-alarm rate for each channel. The “sing-around” method is able to adjust the PRF for affecting correspondingly rapid increases in information rate on rapidly closing targets.
  • [0024]
    As indicated above, the present invention is contemplated for use in general aviation aircraft as well as UAVs. Referring now to FIG. 1, a large, winged UAV 10 is illustrated having a top portion 12 mounted antenna array 16 and a bottom portion 14 mounted antenna array 18. Although a top mounted antenna array 16 and a bottom mounted antenna array 18 are illustrated and described herein as being used together, it is contemplated that only one antenna, either top or bottom mounted, can be utilized in some applications. The antenna array 16, 18 are mounted on the UAV 10 such that the horns (see FIG. 2) of the antenna array 16, 18 are pointing away from the UAV 10. Preferably, as illustrated in FIG. 1, and herein in FIG. 4, the antenna configuration is covered by a low-drag radome 20, 22.
  • [0025]
    Referring now to FIG. 2, an exemplary narrow-band radar antenna array 16, 18 is illustrated. This exemplary antenna array 16, 18 can be disposed on either the top portion 12 or bottom portion 14 of a UAV 10, or on both. Each antenna array 16, 18 has a series of horns including at least one equatorial horn 24, at least one 45-degree horn 26, and at least one polar horn 28. In a preferred embodiment, the horns 24, 26 are disposed both radially and circumferentially about the polar horn 28 in order to transmit and receive electromagnetic waves from all possible angles in order to detect obstacles. In a preferred embodiment, both the top antenna array 16 and the bottom antenna array 18 are utilized cooperatively.
  • [0026]
    As illustrated in FIG. 3, each horn 24, 26, 28 has an interior 30 and an exterior 32 opposite the interior 30, and a flared portion 34 opposite a waveguide portion 36. The horns 24, 26, 28 attach to a mounting plate (not shown), which is then disposed on the UAV 10. Referring again to FIG. 2, in one embodiment, if indicated as necessary, an electromagnetic-field choke 29 can be disposed on the flared portion 34 of the 45-degree horn 26 as a possible means to decouple the 45-degree horn 26 from the nearest equatorial horns 24 and to reduce interference between the horns 24, 26.
  • [0027]
    As illustrated in FIG. 3, the interior 30 and the exterior 32 of the horns 24, 26, 28 are illustrated. Within the interior 30 of the equatorial horn 24 is a passive parasitic probe 37 and a T/R probe 38, within the interior 30 of the 45-degree horn 26 is a T/R probe 40, and within the interior 30 of the polar horn 28 are multiple T/R probes 42, 44, 46. Each of these T/R probes 38, 40, 42, 44, 46 is connected to an individual radar T/R module 48 (illustrated only for T/R probe 38 in equatorial horn 28) via coaxial connectors 50, 52, 54, 56, 58, respectively. As illustrated with equatorial horn 24, a cable 60 couples the coaxial connector 50 with the radar T/R module 48.
  • [0028]
    Although a total of nineteen horns 24, 26, 28 are illustrated, with twelve equatorial horns, six 45-degree horns, and one polar horn, any number of horns are contemplated for use in the antenna arrays, depending on the precise requirements of the application (e.g., field of view, bearing resolution, etc.). One skilled in the art can determine the proper number of horns required for the particular application. Each of the horns 24, 26, 28 is shaped to minimize interference and to maximize the gain and achieve a requisite electromagnetic wave pattern shape as a function of elevation and azimuth. The shapes contemplated for the three types of horns are circular, rectangular, octagonal, trapezoidal, and the like. The polar horn is preferably circular. Other shapes can be readily determined by one skilled in the art based on the configuration of the other horns and the size and shape of the UAV or aircraft fuselage.
  • [0029]
    The horns 24, 26, 28 can be manufactured of any material that is easily formed, light weight, and able to withstand extreme changes in temperature. Preferred materials include a plastic material, preferably injection molded plastics. As such, the interior surface of the interior 30 of the horns 24, 26, 28 can be coated with a conductive metal coating, such as silver, copper, brass, and the like from a metal sputtering process, vapor deposition process, or equivalent process. The coating applied to the interior surface facilitates the transmission and reception of the electromagnetic waves, and either directs the waves out of the flared portion 34 or into the wave guide portion 36. It is contemplated that the conductive metal coating can also be disposed on the edge of the flared portion 34 and can extend to a portion of the exterior of the horn.
  • [0030]
    FIG. 4 illustrates a perspective view of an antenna array 16 partially covered by a low-drag radome 20 in order to show the antenna array 16 beneath the radome 20. The low-drag radome 20 serves to reduce aerodynamic drag while protecting the antenna array 16, without interfering with the operation of the antenna array 16. In use, the radome 20 completely covers the antenna array 16.
  • [0031]
    As indicated above, the exemplary antenna 16 has nineteen horns. In this embodiment, there are a total of 20 channels for transmitting and receiving microwave signals (i.e., one per equatorial horn, one per 45-degree horn, and two for the polar horn). In order to adapt to other preferred ranges, the exemplary antenna array can be modified to have any number of horns. However, it is preferred to utilize two array antennae 16, 18 which would total thirty-eight horns in order to provide a radial range of about two to about seven nautical miles and accomplish a 4π-steradian coverage.
  • [0032]
    In use, each horn 24, 26, 28, via the T/R probe, transmits an electromagnetic wave (not shown) and is able to receive the echo of the electromagnetic wave (not shown). Each horn 24, 26, 28 can also receive the echo of transmitted electromagnetic waves generated by adjacent horns 24, 26, 28. The coated, conducting interior surface (or dielectric surface) guides (or funnels) the reflected electromagnetic waves received inwardly to the edge 62 located immediately adjacent to its associated probe 37. By detecting the echo of the adjacent horns as well, the collision alerting and avoidance system can use “angle interpolation” to more precisely determine the location of a threat aircraft (not shown). The comparison of the relative strength or phase of the received echoes of electromagnetic waves in two adjacent horns is an indication of the direction of the target in relation to the two receiving horns.
  • [0033]
    FIG. 5 illustrates a block diagram of the collision alerting and avoidance system. In this embodiment, an upper antenna array 64 is utilized in conjunction with a lower antenna array 66. Each antenna array 64, 66 is electrically coupled to a radar T/R module 68 as described above and illustrated in FIG. 3. The radar T/R module 68 transmits and receives electromagnetic waves through the T/R probes. The T/R probes, when in the transmit mode, operate to drive simultaneously in phase all the horns 24, 26, 28 so as to transmit electromagnetic waves around the antenna array 64, 66. The T/R probes, when in the receive mode, operate to receive any return electromagnetic waves (or echoes) reflected back from a nearby aircraft or threat events.
  • [0034]
    The radar module 68 is electrically coupled to a signal processor 70 and a controller 72. The controller 72 decides when to transmit an electromagnetic wave from the individual microwave transmitters, based upon information received from the signal processor. When the signal processor identifies a potential target, the controller enters into “sing-around” mode, as described above. The controller 72 is connected to an existing audible and visual indicator display unit 74 mounted in the cockpit within the pilot's normal field of view. As such, the display unit is readily visible to the pilot without obstructing his normal forward view. In another embodiment, the controller 72 is connected to an existing audible and visual indicator unit 74 in a ground control station. The ground control station may be operated by an air traffic controller or by a remote pilot of an unmanned aerial vehicle. In other embodiments, the controller 72 can be coupled to the flight control system 76, which can display information on an existing cockpit multi-function electronic display. Other electronics can be used to monitor the range and the range rate of each tracked target and calculate the ratio of these values to provide aural and visual alerting to potential collision threats.
  • [0035]
    In a preferred embodiment, the antenna array of the present invention can be mounted on an aerial vehicle and its re-transmit cycling almost immediately following after each receive cycle may be controlled by a digital clock and a counter/clock-pulse synchronizer, which is the central element in a “sing-around” feedback loop. In this way, the threat-aerial vehicle information rate may be closely matched to the threat-aerial vehicle's relative closure rate. In its quiescent mode, the clock feeds timing pulses to the pulse modulator at a minimum pulse repetition range consistent with a desired radius of a “sphere of safety” around the aerial vehicle. Pulses from the modulator are then fed to a power amplifier/oscillator, which is tuned to one of certain microwave frequencies.
  • [0036]
    It is contemplated that the collision alerting and avoidance system can be operated in two embodiments. The first embodiment supports a collision and terrain alerting, as well as ground proximity warning for use as an affordable way of autonomously providing safety for a broad class of general aviation aircraft. This embodiment utilizes a power amplifier/oscillator that drives the T/R probes of the antenna array. When in the threat-target acquisition transmit mode, the T/R modules operate to drive every horn simultaneously without phase coherency being maintained between all sectors, which thereby transmit electromagnetic waves around the antenna array and the aerial vehicle. This lack of phase coherency results in the reduction of potential adjacent electromagnetic wave interference during the post-detection integration process. Once the “sing-around” mode is initiated, after the threat-target acquisition, simultaneous transmission is perturbed in that channel (or channels), which, respectively, has or have acquired a threat target or threat targets, so that averaging reduced through the consequential reduction in the number of pulses subjected to post-detection integration is compensated by the associated lack of pulse-repetition synchronism; thereby, also avoiding electromagnetic wave interference.
  • [0037]
    The second embodiment is intended to support collision, terrain and ground-proximity avoidance for UAVs through an automatic flight controller. In addition to methods described in the first embodiment, phase coherency is needed between transmitted pulses and transmitted pulses transmitted on adjacent channels. This is accomplished by utilizing phase comparison (or logarithmic-amplitude and phase form of sum-difference signal feedback angle estimation loop) and replacing logarithmic-amplitude comparison. Such will be necessitated for improving angle-interpolation accuracy in a manner required for the UAV Detection, Sense and Avoid (DS&A) function; while also providing the degree of phase coherency required to support high resolution, space-time Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) ground-surveillance imaging. When phase injection locking is performed to support these UAV requisite functions, there are various forms of desired pulsed-waveform modulation and the attendant signal processing needed to support these functions; while also allowing the use of non-interfering coded pulse transmissions to avoid beam-pattern distortion during simultaneous transmissions, which actions may be facilitated through the use of phase-locked frequency “hopping” coding of “burst” waveforms. In addition, the introduction of phase coherency allows the use of multiple-pulse Doppler or moving-target-indicator (MTI) signal processing techniques for enhancing radar clutter rejection; while also improving radial-range-rate estimation accuracy; but not to the exclusion of the “sing-around method” that also maximizes radar information rate as desired for achieving optimum reaction time.
  • [0038]
    When the T/R modules are in a receive mode, any electromagnetic wave reflected off either a threat aerial vehicle, a forward-terrain feature, or the ground below (called threat events) and returning to a corresponding or adjacent sector will be detected by one of a cluster of microwave-radar T/R modules, which is associated with that sector or, for beam-interpolation purposes, an adjacent sector.
  • [0039]
    The returning echo of electromagnetic waves will provide return energy that will arrive at one of the receiver sectors close to the Maximum Response Axis (MRA) of the receiver beam pattern of that segment. Beam-angle interpolation will be performed through this and its adjacent channel, both subjected to logarithmic-amplifier compression after which a subtraction of one from the other will provide a close to linear interpolation of angle around the cross-over axis residing between the MRA of these neighboring beams.
  • [0040]
    For the non-coherent phase application to general aviation, prior to entering the bi-polar end of a bi-polar to uni-polar logarithmic amplifier, as a preferred embodiment, intermediate frequency (IF) surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) filters are used to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). These IF SAW filters have also been chosen to allow selection of one of at least two different SAW-filter bandwidths to more closely match a transmit pulse duration that is changed with the “sing-around” pulse-repetition rate so as to approximately maintain a constant pulse duty cycle. After IF filtering, the uni-polar end of each logarithmic amplifier contains detector-diode operations that provide a unidirectional rectified pulsed signal corresponding to a post-detection radar video threat-event pulse. These video pulses are first subjected to a pulse integrator that continues to accumulate multiple pulses for integration over a period determined by its beam-channel related deferred-decision (upper/lower) threshold logic. Potential threat events which exceed the upper threshold are declared as threat-event detections, while their counterparts that fall below the lower threshold are rejected as false alarms. However, the decision is deferred on counterparts which fall between these two thresholds; thereby also requiring that another video pulse be added to the integration process and subjected to retesting by the deferred-decision logic. Converging upper/lower thresholds are employed so as to naturally truncate this process before the decision-making elapse time has become too prolonged.
  • [0041]
    A sensitivity time control (STC) amplifier can be employed to reduce the dynamic range stress on the analog logarithmic amplifier and a limited dynamic range analog-to-digital converter. An STC amplifier, whose control waveform is selectively well-matched to various forms of intruding clutter, can reduce the dynamic range of clutter variations. In addition, so as to maintain a constant false alarm probability (CFAP), a fast time constant (FTC) filter or, instead, through the enhanced action of an iterative digital-processing counterpart can be employed. This is applied as a post-detection process after the logarithmic amplifier has compressed noise fluctuations to a constant standard-deviation level. The purpose of this logarithmic-amplifier/FTC filter combination is to remove any slowly time-varying mean of the clutter variations about which this logarithmically compressed fluctuating noise-waveform and any video-signal (that is subsequently passed by the FTC filter) occurs. While, at the same time, the almost pulse-duration matched IF SAW filter selected serves to limit both the clutter and the, otherwise, wide-band thermal noise to roughly the same bandwidth so that the CFAP action also translates into the constant false alarm rate (CFAR) action desired by most radars. The false contact rate (e.g., from clutter or other echoes) is further reduced by use of a split range gate that indicates when a video signal, that has exceeded its respective threshold, exactly straddles between an early and a late range gate window. This is indicated by differencing the area of the portion of the video pulse, where area is obtained through short-term integration and that falls in the early versus the late range gate. When the difference indication passes through zero, the center of the video pulse is located. Logic is provided to ensure that the first contact is normally selected. All of these actions provide a way of ensuring that adjacent channel threat-event signals are strong enough via SNR to constitute valid threat-event detection and have been localized by the range gate before the dual logarithmic-amplifier channel amplitude comparisons are made for angle-interpolation purposes.
  • [0042]
    Generally speaking, when mounted on an aerial vehicle, the upper sub-array of the antenna array of the present invention is used to make threat-event aerial vehicle detections, validations, (range, range-rate, azimuth-angle, elevation-angle and a tau=range/range-rate time to CPA or encounter estimation), localizations and tracking over the upper 2-pi steradians. Whereas, the lower sub-array provides much the same functions in generating terrain alerts and ground-proximity warnings; while also detecting aerial-vehicle threat events on received echoes which might occur earlier in arrival time than the terrain or ground-proximity threat events. The two arrays can be operated together to provide effective elevation resolution.
  • [0043]
    In either the aerial or ground-based system, when one of the sectors detects a threat aerial vehicle and selector ultimately provides a signal, which is processed through a threshold device, and range gate and then passed onto logic circuitry, that first threat contact is selected by that circuitry and a corresponding priority output signal is captured by the “sing-around” feedback loop. Signal is passed to “sing-around” rate counter threshold circuitry, which ensures that a ground-proximity alarm will not be sounded or indicated during a normal landing glide-slope-descent rate situation. A signal is passed from the circuitry to the clock to activate the next “sing-around” feedback loop cycle.
  • [0044]
    Each of the signals from the microwave radar modules may override the first threat contact of signal by way of override determination circuitry in logic so conditioned that the output signal is representative of the highest priority threat. For example, if a ground echo were to arrive in one of the channels of the sectors, the highest priority signal (rather than the closest signal in range) selected by logic would be derived from the output signal. In addition, the conditioning logic can facilitate the interleaving of transmit cycles to be associated with another iterated sequence of the “sing-around” subsystem that also captures aerial threat events occurring as an earlier echo arrival in the receiver.
  • [0045]
    The “sing-around” rate control/threshold already has been described above. It is noted that apart from maximizing the information rate in concert with a shortening time to react during the relative closing of a threat target, because radial-range information is implicit in the time between “sing-around” feedback loop cycles, the changes in the PRF of those cycles convey information on relative radial-range closure rate. This latter quantity is an important measure in gauging the imminence of a collision. However, under certain low closure rate circumstances (e.g., the descent rate in approaching ground proximity during a normal glide-slope landing), an audible alarm or a visual warning indication would be distracting. Therefore, by countering and applying a threshold to the rate-of-change in radial range occurring at time information may be derived in order to prevent the “sing-around” feedback loop from being prematurely triggered during benign circumstances. Then, the triggering of a ground-proximity warning, for example, is only affected when logic dictates it is reasonable to consider the event as possibly threatening; otherwise, the controller returns the “sing-around” feedback loop to its quiescent state.
  • [0046]
    The aural and visual display symbols are designed to provide the pilot or controller with rapid, unambiguous and clear indications of impending collision situations. The present invention also provides concise information that would enable an immediate autonomous collision avoidance maneuver or sufficient early warning to not only obviate a collision but, also, to facilitate reducing the chance of a near miss. The cockpit speaker can be used to reproduce various audible alarm messages.
  • [0047]
    There is a desire to make the present invention compatible with other cooperative collision alerting systems, which may be present on other types of aircraft and aerial vehicles. For example, smaller aircraft lacking a strong radar cross section (RCS) may respond to a transponder interrogation or may provide an Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) message with GPS position (if available) and other information useful in rapidly assessing the likelihood of a collision. The antenna array for such may be fabricated as an L-band pair of cross-dipole antenna etched into one or both sides of a sheet of plastic substrate onto which conducting surfaces were bonded. Other T/R module components may have leads etched into the conducting sheet connecting with the antenna with the whole assembly further laminated in a flexible plastic a wrap-around and zip Elizabethan-type collar sandwich. Such a sandwich would be designed to be capable of being opened for insertion and, then, zipped-up into position when settled into a wedge-like space existing in between the equatorial horns and the 45-degree tilted horns. Along with the necessary received interrogation the decoding and message encoding repeater electronics, which may be accommodated with the microwave-radar modules mounted inside of the radome cavity, the sandwich antenna required for this combined mode may be easily accommodated as an upgraded option. In addressing a concern about mutual interference, which would be much less prevalent with the lower microwave power levels associated with a system of the present invention, for example, relative to an L-band full-blown TCAS system, a “whisper and shout” mode might be employed. This “whisper and shout” mode entails the pulsing of the PA/OSC module to radiate lower power during the quiescent mode than would be employed at full power once an alert cycle was being initiated.
  • [0048]
    An upgrade to the collision avoidance system can include an ADS-B communications and surveillance link. ADS-B, with the associated broadcast services called Traffic Information Service-Broadcast (TIS-B) and Flight Information Service-Broadcast (FIS-B), can be made available through a C-band or a S-band antenna array of the present invention. The traffic information from such cooperatively-equipped aircraft can be correlated with the present invention's primary radar returns.
  • [0049]
    In another embodiment, the present invention is also designed to be utilized on small, tactical UAVs. Small, tactical UAVs are used to detect smaller, close-in fixed targets, constituting obstacles, such as power lines, telephone poles and trees, as well as airborne targets such as other UAVs. In order to detect smaller, close-in fixed targets using the collision avoidance system of the present invention, a higher radial range resolution is required. It is contemplated that an ultra-wide band (UWB) version of the present invention must be utilized for small, tactical UAVs in order to obtain the necessary range resolution.
  • [0050]
    As illustrated in FIG. 6, a conventional small, tactical UAV 78 is illustrated having an array 80 of patch-array antenna 82. Although a total of ten patch-array antenna 82 are illustrated, any number of patch-array antennae 82 is contemplated, depending on the precise requirements of the application (e.g., field of view, bearing resolution, etc.). One skilled in the art can determine the proper number of patch-array antenna 82 required for the particular application.
  • [0051]
    A patch (or microstrip patch)-array antenna 82 is a microwave antenna, which consists of a thin metallic conductor bonded to each side of a thin grounded dielectric substrate. Each individual patch-array antenna 82 independently operates to transmit and receive signals. When combined with other patch-array antenna, a phased array is formed that is capable of covering a larger multiple fixed-beam coverage area. Patch-array antenna, generally, are utilized when wide band (WB) or UWB band transmission and reception is desired.
  • [0052]
    The patch-array antenna 82 may be distributed as a conformal array 80 on the outer shell of the UAV 78 airframe with their microwave T/R components integrated into a package (not shown) mounted immediately behind each patch-subarray antenna module. This is because multiple modes within waveguides or substantial fringe-field losses with long lines of patch antenna 82, generally, rule out the WB or UWB use for communicating microwave electromagnetic energy over long lengths between the T/R subarrays groups 84, 86. This does not apply if the proximities of these subarrays 84, 86 are somewhat overlapped or immediately contiguous to one another in a compact array whose so limited field-of-view could satisfy operational needs. It is contemplated that the appropriate configuration of the patch-array antenna for sensing pending collisions can be readily determined by one skilled in the art. The array 80 of patch-array antenna 82 can be operated utilizing the “sing-around” method as described herein. One skilled in the art can readily determine the appropriate components for implementing the “sing-around” with the patch-array antenna 82.
  • [0053]
    In yet another embodiment, the collision avoidance system of the present invention can utilize both narrow-band and UWB versions. The narrow-band version is designed to detect large, distant obstacles, while the UWB version is designed to detect small, close-in obstacles.
  • [0054]
    Marine vehicles can be adapted to utilize a hybrid system consisting of both narrow-band and UWB, as illustrated in FIG. 7. Ships and boats must be able to avoid collisions with obstacles that have a wide range of scales, from the small (e.g., buoys, small craft, etc) to the large (e.g., other ships).
  • [0055]
    FIG. 7 illustrates a top perspective view of the hybrid antenna system 88 of the present invention disposed on the roof 90 of a marine vessel (not shown). Preferably, the exemplary hybrid antenna system 88 is located up on the highest portion of the marine vessel. The hybrid antenna system 88 has a plurality of equatorial horns 92 disposed on a cylindrical base 94. The horns 92 are positioned in order to allow the hybrid antenna system 88 to perform angle interpolation around the direction of the center 96 of this single-sector aligned cluster 98. Most likely, such a marine system would require a ring of contiguous horns 92 in order to facilitate 360-degree coverage. Although a total of twelve pyramidal horns are illustrated, with 30-degrees between the maximum response axes of these horns 92, any number of horns is contemplated. For example, a cluster of horns can contain eight equatorial horns having a 45-degree spacing to cover all of the “quarter-beam” compass regions around the marine vessel (with sixteen equatorial horns needed to cover all one-sixteenth compass directions). Another example is four equatorial horns to cover the primary compass directions, with the design choice being dictated by a compromise between the desired concept of operations and unit cost considerations.
  • [0056]
    The hybrid antenna system 88 also includes a circumferential array of patch-array antenna 100, which is disposed about the cylindrical base 94, following the previously described considerations related to interspersing patch-subarray antenna 100 in between the horns 92.
  • [0057]
    The shapes, construction and materials contemplated for the horns 92 and patch-array antenna 100 are as indicated above. The hybrid system of the present invention is contemplated to operate using the “sing-around” methodology as described herein. Specifically, the hybrid system is contemplated to operate in the 3.65 to 3.70 GHz joint marine/FAA microwave S-band.
  • [0058]
    It is noted that both the first (non-coherent) embodiment and the second (phase coherent) embodiment of the present invention may be disposed on the ground as part of a ground-based collision avoidance and alerting system. In this embodiment, the collision avoidance and alerting system is disposed on the ground and acts primarily as an alerting system to de-conflict the adjacent airspace. The information generated by the collision avoidance and alerting system concerning the presence of an obstacle in the vicinity of any aerial vehicles is provided to air traffic controllers, remote pilots operating unmanned aerial vehicles, and pilots of manned vehicles. Thus, providing key information to avoid the obstacle. An obstacle is any stationary or moving object with which an aerial vehicle may collide. Obstacles include (but are not limited to) manned aerial vehicles, unmanned aerial vehicles, towers, parachutes, and lighter-than-air vehicles.
  • [0059]
    Referring now to FIGS. 8 and 9, a ground-based collision avoidance and alerting system 102 is illustrated. The system 102 utilizes an upward-looking array 104 that is similar to the upward-looking array disposed on the top of an aerial vehicle in the airborne embodiment as described herein. The array 104 is mounted on a tower (or structure or housing or a building) 106 that is disposed on the ground 108. In a preferred embodiment illustrated in FIG. 8, a radome 110 (or similar covering) is disposed over the array 104. The radome 110 serves to protect the array 104, without interfering with the operation of the array 104.
  • [0060]
    As described herein, the array 104 can be comprised of an array of horns (FIG. 8), patch antennae, or a combination thereof (FIG. 9). The array 104 is configured to transmit and receive information as described herein. The array 104 has appropriate electronics (illustrated as 112) in order to be coupled either physically or remotely to a system (or user) utilizing the “sing-around” technology, as discussed herein. The user can be air traffic controllers, remote pilots operating unmanned aerial vehicles, and pilots of manned vehicles.
  • [0061]
    In use, the ground-based collision alerting and avoidance system displays the information regarding any obstacle to a ground-based air traffic controller or remote pilot of an unmanned aerial vehicle. The information enables the air traffic controller or the remote pilot to take action to avoid collisions between aircraft operating in the vicinity of the collision avoidance and alerting system.
  • [0062]
    As opposed to the previously mentioned examples of aircraft and terrain alerting and ground-proximity warning for general aviation applications, as well as Detection, See and Avoid (DS&A) operation for UAV applications, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) can be used in the context of SAR operations involving high-resolution imagery for ground-surveillance and mapping purposes. Large strategic UAVs are too small to accommodate the physical size of a real microwave aperture required for ground surveillance and mapping. Therefore, in order to form a virtual microwave aperture for the present invention requires resorting to SAR-type transmissions and space-time reception digital recording and processing (replacing the original photographic recording and optical processing) as well as digital image processing. In order to operate a SAR in a focused mode, a form of coded-waveform transmission (usually, a continuous wave, frequency modulated (CT-FM) waveform) is described herein to be consistent with making the radial-range resolution equal to the focused SAR cross-range resolution imagery. Such a form of SAR produces cross-range resolution that is no smaller than half the physical dimension of the transmitting real aperture. This implies that the receiving virtual aperture (or cold aperture) must be governed in the SAR side-looking mode by setting half of the physical dimension of the transmitting aperture equal to the product of the virtual (or synthetic) aperture F-number (i.e., given by the intended maximum radial range of the port or the starboard “swath” coverage divided by the length of the virtual aperture) times the radar wavelength. In other words, the synthetic aperture length needed equals twice the intended maximum radial range (i.e., wherein, ground range is the radial range times the cosine of the elevation angle) times the radar wavelength divided by the cold aperture length. Such a synthetic aperture length is determined by the smaller of the space-time coherency limitation and the accuracy to which a GPS-guided inertial navigation system (GPS/INS) can measure the exact space-time trajectory of the UAV. By way of contrast, instead of utilizing a downward looking broadside-azimuth pointed 45-degree horn to support a SAR side-looking mode, one of the downward looking off-broadside-azimuth pointing 45-degree horns can be used. The consequence is that the synthetic aperture length is foreshortened by the cosine of the azimuth angle referenced to the broadside azimuth angle and, hence, the cross-range resolution is worsened by a factor of the secant of the azimuth-angle offset from broadside. For example, at 65-degrees from broadside, the cross-range resolution is worsened by a factor of 2.37:1; an unfortunate consequence in order to obtain SAR imagery prior to reaching the surveillance area.
  • [0063]
    Most of the passive Electro-Optical (EO) and Infrared (IR) designed for DS&A purposes or ground-surveillance imaging system applications installed upon UAVs, do not use stereo-optical systems for determining radial range within the forward Field-Of-View (FOV) (i.e., usually confined to +/−110-degrees of azimuth and +/−15-degrees of elevation). These passive EO/IR systems lack the ability to provide a radial-range, radial-range-rate and tau time-to-CPA or collision point. Most passive EO/IR systems intended to provide both a DS&A as well as a ground-surveillance imaging capability for UAVs use, three contiguous, canted digital camera apertures arrayed to provide coverage in both vertical and azimuthal directions. In a preferred embodiment, a hybrid system can utilize three equatorial pyramidal horns and a one up and one down 45-degree tilted pyramidal horns (i.e., for a total of a five-channel cluster capable of being scanned to any angle in 360-degrees of azimuth). These horns can be co-mounted upon a UAV “chin-mounted” 360-degree mechano-optical rotated table to provide radial range, radial range rate (and, hence, a tau estimate) as well as azimuth and elevation angle. This embodiment allows for the elevation angle to be interpolated to within about a degree of accuracy over the +/−110-degrees of azimuth and the +/−15-degrees of elevation FOV coverage around any scan angle.
  • [0064]
    There are several advantages of the collision alerting and avoidance system of the present invention. The present invention utilizes an array of fixed, fuselage-mounted horns, each responsible for covering a particular sector of the surrounding volume (given by a range of azimuth angle, elevation angle and radial distance from the aircraft) such that the total coverage adds up to as high as 4π-steradians in field of view and out to a range of about two to about seven nautical miles. The “sing-around” method allows for the use of relatively inexpensive and small application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs). The “sing-around” method utilizes a single channel per beam for deferred decision processing to reduce the false-alarm rate. The “sing-around” method is able to adjust the PRF for affecting correspondingly rapid increases in information rate on rapidly closing targets.
  • [0065]
    The exemplary embodiment for use with general aviation aircraft and large UAVs provides several safety and efficiency benefits. The present invention provides a safety backup for the event of electronics failure on cooperative aircraft (which would make ADS-B unavailable or transponder detectors useless). In the future, when Airborne Separation Assistance System (ASAS) applications are sought using ADS-B, the primary surveillance from the present invention can facilitate the certification of such applications by providing an independent primary radar surveillance mode. The present invention provides an independent primary radar surveillance mode and provides a complete collision prevention function against all aircraft, making use of the best surveillance information available and providing protection against failure modes.
  • [0066]
    The collision avoidance system of the present invention utilized with small, tactical UAV encompasses UWB to detect smaller, close-in fixed targets, constituting obstacles. This embodiment provides range, bearing and closure rate, as well as off-to-the-side range rate. All of this is achieved through the use of the “sing-around” design and without the use of expensive and heavy phased array components. The resulting system is expected to be light weight (less than about 10 lb), low power (less than about 10 Watts) and low cost.
  • [0067]
    The collision avoidance system of the present invention utilized with marine vehicles encompasses both narrow-band and UWB to detect both small and large obstacles. This provides ample detection area and protection for the marine vessels.
  • [0068]
    The ground-based collision avoidance system can be utilized from the ground to project upwards to a specific area of interest. The ground-based system can detect both small and large obstacles. This system is light-weight and portable. The ground-based system provides an independent primary radar surveillance mode and a complete collision prevention function against all aircraft, making use of the best surveillance information available.
  • [0069]
    While the invention has been described with reference to an exemplary embodiment, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that various changes may be made and equivalents may be substituted for elements thereof without departing from the scope of the invention. In addition, many modifications may be made to adapt a particular situation or material to the teachings without departing from the essential scope thereof. Therefore, it is intended that the invention not be limited to the particular embodiment disclosed as the best mode contemplated for carrying out this invention.

Claims (19)

  1. 1. A collision alerting and avoidance system comprising:
    at least one antenna array disposed on a structure on the ground;
    at least one transmitter/receiver probe coupled to said at least one antenna array, said at least one transmitter/receiver probe configured to operate in a transmit mode to transmit electromagnetic waves and in a receive mode to receive an echo signal reflected from an obstacle in the area of an aerial vehicle;
    at least one transmitter/receiver module coupled to said at least one transmitter/receiver probe, said at least one transmitter/receiver module configured to operate in a transmit mode to produce electromagnetic waves for transmission and in a receive mode to receive said echo signal; and
    a processor coupled to said at least one transmitter/receiver module, said processor configured to control transmission of said electromagnetic waves from said at least one antenna array and to process said echo signal to provide an output signal containing information regarding said obstacle.
  2. 2. The collision alerting and avoidance system of claim 1, wherein said at least one antenna array comprises at least one of a plurality of horns and a patch array antenna.
  3. 3. The collision alerting and avoidance system of claim 2, wherein said plurality of horns comprises at least one of a polar horn, a 45-degree horn, and an equatorial horn.
  4. 4. The collision alerting and avoidance system of claim 1, further comprising:
    a display coupled to said processor for displaying said information to an operator of the collision alerting and avoidance system, said information enables said operator to take appropriate action to avoid said obstacle.
  5. 5. The collision alerting and avoidance system of claim 1, wherein said processor is remotely coupled to a flight control system for processing said information in order to take action to avoid said obstacle.
  6. 6. The collision alerting and avoidance system of claim 1, wherein the collision alerting and avoidance system acts primarily as an alerting system.
  7. 7. The collision alerting and avoidance system of claim 1, wherein a user of the collision alerting and avoidance system is at least one of an operator of an unmanned aerial vehicle, an air traffic controller, and an operator of a manned aerial vehicle.
  8. 8. The collision alerting and avoidance system of claim 1, further comprising:
    a radome covering said at least one antenna array.
  9. 9. The collision alerting and avoidance system of claim 1, further comprising:
    a plurality of communication links selected from the group consisting of TCAS, ADS-B, TIS-B, and FIS-B, electrically coupled to the collision alerting and avoidance system and configured to operate with the collision alerting and avoidance system.
  10. 10. The collision alerting and avoidance system of claim 1, wherein said at least one transmitter/receiver probe transmits another said electromagnetic wave upon receipt of said echo signal.
  11. 11. The collision alerting and avoidance system of claim 1, wherein said processor is configured to determine a range-rate estimation of said obstacle to said aerial vehicle by varying a pulse-repetition frequency based on said information and to determine a time to closest approach to said obstacle as a ratio of a range to said range-rate estimation.
  12. 12. A method of using a collision alerting and avoidance system disposed on the ground comprising:
    disposing at least one antenna array on a structure on the ground;
    coupling at least one transmitter/receiver probe to said at least one antenna array, said at least one transmitter/receiver probe configured to operate in a transmit mode and a receive mode;
    coupling at least one transmitter/receiver module to said at least one transmitter/receiver probe, said at least one transmitter/receiver module configured to produce at least one electromagnetic wave in a transmit mode and to receive an echo signal in a receive mode;
    transmitting said at least one electromagnetic wave from said at least one transmitter/receiver probe;
    detecting said echo signal reflected from an obstacle in the area of an aerial vehicle in said at least one transmitter/receiver probe and said at least one transmitter/receiver module;
    transmitting another electromagnetic wave from said at least one transmitter/receiver probe and said at least one transmitter/receiver module upon receipt of said echo signal; and
    processing said echo signal in a processor coupled to said at least one transmitter/receiver module to provide an output signal containing information regarding said obstacle.
  13. 13. The method of claim 12, further comprising:
    determining a range-rate estimation of said obstacle to said aerial vehicle by varying a pulse-repetition frequency based on said information; and
    determining a time to closest approach to said obstacle as a ratio of range to said range-rate estimation.
  14. 14. The method of claim 12, further comprising:
    displaying said information to an operator of the collision alerting and avoidance system, wherein said information enables said operator to take action to avoid said obstacle.
  15. 15. The method of claim 12, further comprising:
    coupling a flight control system remotely to said processor for processing said information to enable the aerial vehicle to take action to avoid said obstacle.
  16. 16. The method of claim 12, wherein said aerial vehicle is at least one of a general aviation aircraft and an unmanned aerial vehicle.
  17. 17. The method of claim 12, further comprising:
    disposing a radome over said at least one antenna array.
  18. 18. The method of claim 12, further comprising:
    electrically coupling a plurality of communication links to the collision alerting and avoidance system and configured to operate with the collision alerting and avoidance system, said plurality of communication links selected from the group consisting of TCAS, ADS-B, TIS-B, and FIS-B.
  19. 19. The method of claim 12, wherein a user of the collision alerting and avoidance system is at least one of an operator of an unmanned aerial vehicle, an air traffic controller, and an operator of a manned aerial vehicle.
US11977852 2004-11-03 2007-10-25 Ground-based collision alerting and avoidance system Abandoned US20080055149A1 (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US62498204 true 2004-11-03 2004-11-03
US11266031 US7307579B2 (en) 2004-11-03 2005-11-02 Collision alerting and avoidance system
US11977852 US20080055149A1 (en) 2004-11-03 2007-10-25 Ground-based collision alerting and avoidance system

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US11977852 US20080055149A1 (en) 2004-11-03 2007-10-25 Ground-based collision alerting and avoidance system

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20080055149A1 true true US20080055149A1 (en) 2008-03-06

Family

ID=37431709

Family Applications (3)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US11266031 Expired - Fee Related US7307579B2 (en) 2004-11-03 2005-11-02 Collision alerting and avoidance system
US11900336 Expired - Fee Related US7443334B2 (en) 2004-11-03 2007-09-10 Collision alerting and avoidance system
US11977852 Abandoned US20080055149A1 (en) 2004-11-03 2007-10-25 Ground-based collision alerting and avoidance system

Family Applications Before (2)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US11266031 Expired - Fee Related US7307579B2 (en) 2004-11-03 2005-11-02 Collision alerting and avoidance system
US11900336 Expired - Fee Related US7443334B2 (en) 2004-11-03 2007-09-10 Collision alerting and avoidance system

Country Status (5)

Country Link
US (3) US7307579B2 (en)
EP (1) EP1809327A2 (en)
JP (1) JP2008518844A (en)
KR (1) KR20070092959A (en)
WO (1) WO2006124063A3 (en)

Cited By (101)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20080150784A1 (en) * 2006-12-22 2008-06-26 Intelligent Automation, Inc. Ads-b radar system
US20090174590A1 (en) * 2005-06-01 2009-07-09 Albert Gezinus Huizing Radar system for aircraft
US20090248287A1 (en) * 2008-02-15 2009-10-01 Kutta Technologies, Inc. Unmanned aerial system position reporting system and related methods
US20100087967A1 (en) * 2008-10-03 2010-04-08 Honeywell International Inc. Multi-sector radar sensor
US20100315281A1 (en) * 2009-06-10 2010-12-16 The University Of North Dakota Airspace risk mitigation system
US7868817B2 (en) 2008-10-03 2011-01-11 Honeywell International Inc. Radar system for obstacle avoidance
US20120039422A1 (en) * 2010-08-09 2012-02-16 Stayton Gregory T Systems and methods for providing surface multipath mitigation
CN102364553A (en) * 2011-10-21 2012-02-29 广州航新航空科技股份有限公司 Regional airspace management monitoring system based on traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS)
US20120112957A1 (en) * 2010-11-09 2012-05-10 U.S. Government As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army Multidirectional target detecting system and method
US20120146783A1 (en) * 2009-05-20 2012-06-14 Stephan Harms Method for controlling an obstruction light
US20120158219A1 (en) * 2010-12-21 2012-06-21 Michael Richard Durling Trajectory based sense and avoid
US20120166073A1 (en) * 2009-09-17 2012-06-28 Serge Poirier Method and system for avoiding an intercepting vehicle by an airborne moving body
US20120182175A1 (en) * 2009-07-14 2012-07-19 Robert Bosch Gmbh UWB Measuring Device
US20120203450A1 (en) * 2011-02-08 2012-08-09 Eads Deutschland Gmbh Unmanned Aircraft with Built-in Collision Warning System
US8477063B2 (en) 2008-10-03 2013-07-02 Honeywell International Inc. System and method for obstacle detection and warning
US20140062754A1 (en) * 2011-10-26 2014-03-06 Farrokh Mohamadi Remote detection, confirmation and detonation of buried improvised explosive devices
US20140222246A1 (en) * 2011-11-18 2014-08-07 Farrokh Mohamadi Software-defined multi-mode ultra-wideband radar for autonomous vertical take-off and landing of small unmanned aerial systems
US20140303884A1 (en) * 2012-12-19 2014-10-09 Elwha LLC, a limited liability corporation of the State of Delaware Automated hazard handling routine activation
CN104155654A (en) * 2014-08-13 2014-11-19 芜湖航飞科技股份有限公司 Airborne radar
US9235218B2 (en) 2012-12-19 2016-01-12 Elwha Llc Collision targeting for an unoccupied flying vehicle (UFV)
US20160012731A1 (en) * 2008-02-15 2016-01-14 Kutta Technologies, Inc. Unmanned aerial system position reporting system
US9322917B2 (en) * 2011-01-21 2016-04-26 Farrokh Mohamadi Multi-stage detection of buried IEDs
US9405296B2 (en) 2012-12-19 2016-08-02 Elwah LLC Collision targeting for hazard handling
US9525210B2 (en) 2014-10-21 2016-12-20 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Guided-wave transmission device with non-fundamental mode propagation and methods for use therewith
US9527587B2 (en) 2012-12-19 2016-12-27 Elwha Llc Unoccupied flying vehicle (UFV) coordination
US9527586B2 (en) 2012-12-19 2016-12-27 Elwha Llc Inter-vehicle flight attribute communication for an unoccupied flying vehicle (UFV)
US9544006B2 (en) 2014-11-20 2017-01-10 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Transmission device with mode division multiplexing and methods for use therewith
US9540102B2 (en) 2012-12-19 2017-01-10 Elwha Llc Base station multi-vehicle coordination
US20170033464A1 (en) * 2015-07-31 2017-02-02 At&T Intellectual Property I, Lp Radial antenna and methods for use therewith
US20170033447A1 (en) * 2012-12-12 2017-02-02 Electronics And Telecommunications Research Institute Antenna apparatus and method for handover using the same
US9567074B2 (en) 2012-12-19 2017-02-14 Elwha Llc Base station control for an unoccupied flying vehicle (UFV)
US9577306B2 (en) 2014-10-21 2017-02-21 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Guided-wave transmission device and methods for use therewith
US9596001B2 (en) 2014-10-21 2017-03-14 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Apparatus for providing communication services and methods thereof
US9608692B2 (en) 2015-06-11 2017-03-28 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Repeater and methods for use therewith
US9608740B2 (en) 2015-07-15 2017-03-28 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Method and apparatus for launching a wave mode that mitigates interference
US9615269B2 (en) 2014-10-02 2017-04-04 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Method and apparatus that provides fault tolerance in a communication network
US9628116B2 (en) 2015-07-14 2017-04-18 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Apparatus and methods for transmitting wireless signals
US9628854B2 (en) 2014-09-29 2017-04-18 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Method and apparatus for distributing content in a communication network
US9640850B2 (en) 2015-06-25 2017-05-02 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Methods and apparatus for inducing a non-fundamental wave mode on a transmission medium
US9654173B2 (en) 2014-11-20 2017-05-16 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Apparatus for powering a communication device and methods thereof
US9653770B2 (en) 2014-10-21 2017-05-16 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Guided wave coupler, coupling module and methods for use therewith
US9661505B2 (en) 2013-11-06 2017-05-23 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Surface-wave communications and methods thereof
US9667317B2 (en) 2015-06-15 2017-05-30 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Method and apparatus for providing security using network traffic adjustments
US9669926B2 (en) 2012-12-19 2017-06-06 Elwha Llc Unoccupied flying vehicle (UFV) location confirmance
US9685092B2 (en) 2015-10-08 2017-06-20 Honeywell International Inc. Stationary obstacle identification system
US20170178520A1 (en) * 2015-12-17 2017-06-22 Honeywell International Inc. On-ground vehicle collision avoidance utilizing shared vehicle hazard sensor data
US9692101B2 (en) 2014-08-26 2017-06-27 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Guided wave couplers for coupling electromagnetic waves between a waveguide surface and a surface of a wire
US9699785B2 (en) 2012-12-05 2017-07-04 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Backhaul link for distributed antenna system
US9705561B2 (en) 2015-04-24 2017-07-11 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Directional coupling device and methods for use therewith
US9712350B2 (en) 2014-11-20 2017-07-18 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Transmission device with channel equalization and control and methods for use therewith
US9722318B2 (en) 2015-07-14 2017-08-01 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Method and apparatus for coupling an antenna to a device
US9729197B2 (en) 2015-10-01 2017-08-08 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Method and apparatus for communicating network management traffic over a network
US9735833B2 (en) 2015-07-31 2017-08-15 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Method and apparatus for communications management in a neighborhood network
US9742462B2 (en) 2014-12-04 2017-08-22 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Transmission medium and communication interfaces and methods for use therewith
US9748626B2 (en) 2015-05-14 2017-08-29 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Plurality of cables having different cross-sectional shapes which are bundled together to form a transmission medium
US9749013B2 (en) 2015-03-17 2017-08-29 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Method and apparatus for reducing attenuation of electromagnetic waves guided by a transmission medium
US9749053B2 (en) 2015-07-23 2017-08-29 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Node device, repeater and methods for use therewith
US9762289B2 (en) 2014-10-14 2017-09-12 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Method and apparatus for transmitting or receiving signals in a transportation system
US9769020B2 (en) 2014-10-21 2017-09-19 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Method and apparatus for responding to events affecting communications in a communication network
US9769128B2 (en) 2015-09-28 2017-09-19 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Method and apparatus for encryption of communications over a network
US9768833B2 (en) 2014-09-15 2017-09-19 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Method and apparatus for sensing a condition in a transmission medium of electromagnetic waves
US9780834B2 (en) 2014-10-21 2017-10-03 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Method and apparatus for transmitting electromagnetic waves
US9776716B2 (en) 2012-12-19 2017-10-03 Elwah LLC Unoccupied flying vehicle (UFV) inter-vehicle communication for hazard handling
US9787412B2 (en) 2015-06-25 2017-10-10 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Methods and apparatus for inducing a fundamental wave mode on a transmission medium
US9793955B2 (en) 2015-04-24 2017-10-17 At&T Intellectual Property I, Lp Passive electrical coupling device and methods for use therewith
US9793954B2 (en) 2015-04-28 2017-10-17 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Magnetic coupling device and methods for use therewith
US9794003B2 (en) 2013-12-10 2017-10-17 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Quasi-optical coupler
US9793951B2 (en) 2015-07-15 2017-10-17 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Method and apparatus for launching a wave mode that mitigates interference
US9800327B2 (en) 2014-11-20 2017-10-24 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Apparatus for controlling operations of a communication device and methods thereof
US9810789B2 (en) 2012-12-19 2017-11-07 Elwha Llc Unoccupied flying vehicle (UFV) location assurance
US9820146B2 (en) 2015-06-12 2017-11-14 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Method and apparatus for authentication and identity management of communicating devices
US9838078B2 (en) 2015-07-31 2017-12-05 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Method and apparatus for exchanging communication signals
US9836957B2 (en) 2015-07-14 2017-12-05 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Method and apparatus for communicating with premises equipment
US9838896B1 (en) 2016-12-09 2017-12-05 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Method and apparatus for assessing network coverage
US9847850B2 (en) 2014-10-14 2017-12-19 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Method and apparatus for adjusting a mode of communication in a communication network
US9847566B2 (en) 2015-07-14 2017-12-19 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Method and apparatus for adjusting a field of a signal to mitigate interference
US9853342B2 (en) 2015-07-14 2017-12-26 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Dielectric transmission medium connector and methods for use therewith
US9860075B1 (en) 2016-08-26 2018-01-02 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Method and communication node for broadband distribution
US9866276B2 (en) 2014-10-10 2018-01-09 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Method and apparatus for arranging communication sessions in a communication system
US9865911B2 (en) 2015-06-25 2018-01-09 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Waveguide system for slot radiating first electromagnetic waves that are combined into a non-fundamental wave mode second electromagnetic wave on a transmission medium
US9866309B2 (en) 2015-06-03 2018-01-09 At&T Intellectual Property I, Lp Host node device and methods for use therewith
US9871282B2 (en) 2015-05-14 2018-01-16 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. At least one transmission medium having a dielectric surface that is covered at least in part by a second dielectric
US9871283B2 (en) 2015-07-23 2018-01-16 At&T Intellectual Property I, Lp Transmission medium having a dielectric core comprised of plural members connected by a ball and socket configuration
US9876571B2 (en) 2015-02-20 2018-01-23 At&T Intellectual Property I, Lp Guided-wave transmission device with non-fundamental mode propagation and methods for use therewith
US9876264B2 (en) 2015-10-02 2018-01-23 At&T Intellectual Property I, Lp Communication system, guided wave switch and methods for use therewith
US9876587B2 (en) 2014-10-21 2018-01-23 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Transmission device with impairment compensation and methods for use therewith
US9876605B1 (en) 2016-10-21 2018-01-23 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Launcher and coupling system to support desired guided wave mode
US9882277B2 (en) 2015-10-02 2018-01-30 At&T Intellectual Property I, Lp Communication device and antenna assembly with actuated gimbal mount
US9882257B2 (en) 2015-07-14 2018-01-30 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Method and apparatus for launching a wave mode that mitigates interference
US9887447B2 (en) 2015-05-14 2018-02-06 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Transmission medium having multiple cores and methods for use therewith
US9893795B1 (en) 2016-12-07 2018-02-13 At&T Intellectual Property I, Lp Method and repeater for broadband distribution
US9904535B2 (en) 2015-09-14 2018-02-27 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Method and apparatus for distributing software
US9906269B2 (en) 2014-09-17 2018-02-27 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Monitoring and mitigating conditions in a communication network
US9913139B2 (en) 2015-06-09 2018-03-06 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Signal fingerprinting for authentication of communicating devices
US9912027B2 (en) 2015-07-23 2018-03-06 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Method and apparatus for exchanging communication signals
US9911020B1 (en) 2016-12-08 2018-03-06 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Method and apparatus for tracking via a radio frequency identification device
US9912382B2 (en) 2015-06-03 2018-03-06 At&T Intellectual Property I, Lp Network termination and methods for use therewith
US9917341B2 (en) 2015-05-27 2018-03-13 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Apparatus and method for launching electromagnetic waves and for modifying radial dimensions of the propagating electromagnetic waves
US9927517B1 (en) 2016-12-06 2018-03-27 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Apparatus and methods for sensing rainfall
US9930668B2 (en) 2013-05-31 2018-03-27 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Remote distributed antenna system
US9935703B2 (en) 2016-03-15 2018-04-03 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Host node device and methods for use therewith

Families Citing this family (49)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US7307579B2 (en) * 2004-11-03 2007-12-11 Flight Safety Technologies, Inc. Collision alerting and avoidance system
US7876258B2 (en) * 2006-03-13 2011-01-25 The Boeing Company Aircraft collision sense and avoidance system and method
US20110184593A1 (en) * 2006-04-19 2011-07-28 Swope John M System for facilitating control of an aircraft
US20100121574A1 (en) * 2006-09-05 2010-05-13 Honeywell International Inc. Method for collision avoidance of unmanned aerial vehicle with other aircraft
US20100283661A1 (en) * 2007-01-16 2010-11-11 The Mitre Corporation Observability of unmanned aircraft and aircraft without electrical systems
US20090027254A1 (en) * 2007-02-16 2009-01-29 James Roy Troxel Method and apparatus to improve the ability to decode ads-b squitters through multiple processing paths
US7961135B2 (en) * 2007-05-02 2011-06-14 Aviation Communication & Surveillance Systems Llc Systems and methods for air traffic surveillance
EP2153245A1 (en) * 2007-05-04 2010-02-17 Teledyne Australia Pty Ltd. Collision avoidance system and method
FR2919731A1 (en) * 2007-08-03 2009-02-06 Thales Sa Modular radar architecture
GB0715368D0 (en) 2007-08-07 2007-09-19 Qinetiq Ltd Range-finding method and apparatus
US8255153B2 (en) * 2008-01-23 2012-08-28 Honeywell International Inc. Automatic alerting method and system for aerial vehicle target tracking
US7970507B2 (en) * 2008-01-23 2011-06-28 Honeywell International Inc. Method and system for autonomous tracking of a mobile target by an unmanned aerial vehicle
US8358677B2 (en) * 2008-06-24 2013-01-22 Honeywell International Inc. Virtual or remote transponder
US7969346B2 (en) * 2008-10-07 2011-06-28 Honeywell International Inc. Transponder-based beacon transmitter for see and avoid of unmanned aerial vehicles
US8543265B2 (en) * 2008-10-20 2013-09-24 Honeywell International Inc. Systems and methods for unmanned aerial vehicle navigation
ES2409210T3 (en) * 2008-11-12 2013-06-25 Saab Ab Distance estimation device
US8626361B2 (en) * 2008-11-25 2014-01-07 Honeywell International Inc. System and methods for unmanned aerial vehicle navigation
US8570211B1 (en) * 2009-01-22 2013-10-29 Gregory Hubert Piesinger Aircraft bird strike avoidance method and apparatus
JP5438993B2 (en) * 2009-02-25 2014-03-12 三菱重工業株式会社 Induction flying object
JP5398366B2 (en) * 2009-06-11 2014-01-29 株式会社東芝 Pulse detecting device
FR2946780B1 (en) * 2009-06-12 2011-07-15 Thales Sa Method and device for displaying flight margins limits for an aircraft
US8368583B1 (en) * 2009-06-18 2013-02-05 Gregory Hubert Piesinger Aircraft bird strike avoidance method and apparatus using axial beam antennas
US20110148578A1 (en) * 2009-12-09 2011-06-23 Oakland University Automotive direction finding system based on received power levels
US8581794B1 (en) * 2010-03-04 2013-11-12 Qualcomm Incorporated Circular antenna array systems
US8828163B2 (en) * 2010-03-09 2014-09-09 Pti Industries, Inc. Housing for aircraft mounted components
US9428261B2 (en) 2010-03-09 2016-08-30 Pti Industries, Inc. Housing for aircraft mounted components
US8378881B2 (en) * 2010-10-18 2013-02-19 Raytheon Company Systems and methods for collision avoidance in unmanned aerial vehicles
US8451165B2 (en) * 2010-12-06 2013-05-28 Raytheon Company Mobile radar system
US8319679B2 (en) * 2010-12-16 2012-11-27 Honeywell International Inc. Systems and methods for predicting locations of weather relative to an aircraft
US20120200458A1 (en) 2011-02-09 2012-08-09 Qualcomm Incorporated Ground station antenna array for air to ground communication system
WO2012149035A3 (en) * 2011-04-25 2013-01-17 University Of Denver Radar-based detection and identification for miniature air vehicles
US9319172B2 (en) 2011-10-14 2016-04-19 Qualcomm Incorporated Interference mitigation techniques for air to ground systems
US9405005B1 (en) 2012-04-24 2016-08-02 The United States Of America As Represented By The Administrator Of The National Aeronautics And Space Administration Automatic dependent surveillance broadcast (ADS-B) system for ownership and traffic situational awareness
US8970423B2 (en) 2012-05-30 2015-03-03 Honeywell International Inc. Helicopter collision-avoidance system using light fixture mounted radar sensors
GB2511732B (en) * 2013-02-01 2015-11-18 Cambridge Comm Systems Ltd Antenna arrangement of a wireless node
JP6135184B2 (en) * 2013-02-28 2017-05-31 セイコーエプソン株式会社 Ultrasonic transducer device, the head unit, the probe and ultrasound imaging device
JP6135185B2 (en) * 2013-02-28 2017-05-31 セイコーエプソン株式会社 Ultrasonic transducer device, the head unit, a probe, an ultrasonic image device and electronic equipment
US20140324255A1 (en) * 2013-03-15 2014-10-30 Shahid Siddiqi Aircraft emergency system using ads-b
US9705185B2 (en) 2013-04-11 2017-07-11 Raytheon Company Integrated antenna and antenna component
CN103592948B (en) * 2013-12-04 2016-04-06 成都纵横自动化技术有限公司 UAV flight collision avoidance method
EP3103043A4 (en) * 2014-09-05 2017-04-19 Sz Dji Technology Co Ltd Multi-sensor environmental mapping
JP6181300B2 (en) 2014-09-05 2017-08-16 エスゼット ディージェイアイ テクノロジー カンパニー リミテッドSz Dji Technology Co.,Ltd A system for controlling the speed of the unmanned aircraft
EP3008535A4 (en) 2014-09-05 2016-08-03 Sz Dji Technology Co Ltd Context-based flight mode selection
US9685992B2 (en) 2014-10-03 2017-06-20 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Circuit panel network and methods thereof
US9564947B2 (en) 2014-10-21 2017-02-07 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Guided-wave transmission device with diversity and methods for use therewith
US9705571B2 (en) 2015-09-16 2017-07-11 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Method and apparatus for use with a radio distributed antenna system
WO2017051961A1 (en) * 2015-09-25 2017-03-30 엘지전자 주식회사 Terminal apparatus and control method therefor
US20170288303A1 (en) * 2016-03-30 2017-10-05 Raytheon Company Systems and techniques for improving signal levels in a shadowing region of a seeker system
US9912419B1 (en) 2016-08-24 2018-03-06 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Method and apparatus for managing a fault in a distributed antenna system

Citations (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4855748A (en) * 1988-03-18 1989-08-08 Allied-Signal Inc. TCAS bearing estimation receiver using a 4 element antenna
US5933099A (en) * 1997-02-19 1999-08-03 Mahon; James Collision avoidance system
US6211808B1 (en) * 1999-02-23 2001-04-03 Flight Safety Technologies Inc. Collision avoidance system for use in aircraft
US6278396B1 (en) * 1999-04-08 2001-08-21 L-3 Communications Corporation Midair collision and avoidance system (MCAS)
US6314366B1 (en) * 1993-05-14 2001-11-06 Tom S. Farmakis Satellite based collision avoidance system
US20020138200A1 (en) * 2001-03-26 2002-09-26 William Gutierrez System and method for aircraft and watercraft control and collision prevention
US20040046687A1 (en) * 2002-09-05 2004-03-11 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Surveillance system and method for aircraft approach and landing
US20060007035A1 (en) * 1999-11-25 2006-01-12 Nigel Corrigan Airport safety system
US20070252748A1 (en) * 2004-11-03 2007-11-01 Flight Safety Technologies, Inc. Collision alerting and avoidance system

Family Cites Families (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPS57123704A (en) * 1981-01-22 1982-08-02 Mitsubishi Electric Corp Curved-surface array antenna
JPS60111503A (en) * 1983-11-21 1985-06-18 Mitsubishi Electric Corp Array antenna device
JPH07109963B2 (en) * 1987-05-28 1995-11-22 株式会社トキメック Antenna pointing system
JPH01254007A (en) * 1988-04-02 1989-10-11 Sony Corp Stationary antenna for radar
JP2939561B2 (en) * 1989-09-08 1999-08-25 東洋通信機株式会社 Microstrip antenna system
JPH0897632A (en) * 1994-09-21 1996-04-12 Nippon Telegr & Teleph Corp <Ntt> Radio transmitter-receiver
NL1011421C2 (en) * 1999-03-02 2000-09-05 Tno A volumetric phased array antenna system.
GB0117257D0 (en) * 2001-07-14 2001-09-05 Seabait Ltd Aquaculture of marine worms
JP2004125746A (en) * 2002-10-07 2004-04-22 Mitsubishi Electric Corp Horn antenna for radar
JP2004158911A (en) * 2002-11-01 2004-06-03 Murata Mfg Co Ltd Sector antenna system and on-vehicle transmitter-receiver

Patent Citations (14)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4855748A (en) * 1988-03-18 1989-08-08 Allied-Signal Inc. TCAS bearing estimation receiver using a 4 element antenna
US6314366B1 (en) * 1993-05-14 2001-11-06 Tom S. Farmakis Satellite based collision avoidance system
US5933099A (en) * 1997-02-19 1999-08-03 Mahon; James Collision avoidance system
USRE39053E1 (en) * 1999-02-23 2006-04-04 Flight Safety Technologies, Inc. Collision avoidance system for use in aircraft
US6211808B1 (en) * 1999-02-23 2001-04-03 Flight Safety Technologies Inc. Collision avoidance system for use in aircraft
US6278396B1 (en) * 1999-04-08 2001-08-21 L-3 Communications Corporation Midair collision and avoidance system (MCAS)
US20060007035A1 (en) * 1999-11-25 2006-01-12 Nigel Corrigan Airport safety system
US20020138200A1 (en) * 2001-03-26 2002-09-26 William Gutierrez System and method for aircraft and watercraft control and collision prevention
US6809679B2 (en) * 2002-09-05 2004-10-26 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Surveillance system and method for aircraft approach and landing
US20040046687A1 (en) * 2002-09-05 2004-03-11 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Surveillance system and method for aircraft approach and landing
US20070252748A1 (en) * 2004-11-03 2007-11-01 Flight Safety Technologies, Inc. Collision alerting and avoidance system
US7307579B2 (en) * 2004-11-03 2007-12-11 Flight Safety Technologies, Inc. Collision alerting and avoidance system
US20080169962A1 (en) * 2004-11-03 2008-07-17 Flight Safety Technologies, Inc. Collision alerting and avoidance system
US7443334B2 (en) * 2004-11-03 2008-10-28 Rees Frank L Collision alerting and avoidance system

Cited By (137)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20090174590A1 (en) * 2005-06-01 2009-07-09 Albert Gezinus Huizing Radar system for aircraft
US8184037B2 (en) * 2005-06-01 2012-05-22 Nederlandse Organisatie Voor Toegepast-Natuurwetenschappelijk Onderzoek Tno Radar system for aircraft
US20080150784A1 (en) * 2006-12-22 2008-06-26 Intelligent Automation, Inc. Ads-b radar system
US7414567B2 (en) * 2006-12-22 2008-08-19 Intelligent Automation, Inc. ADS-B radar system
US9595198B2 (en) * 2008-02-15 2017-03-14 Kutta Technologies, Inc. Unmanned aerial system position reporting system
US8386175B2 (en) * 2008-02-15 2013-02-26 Kutta Technologies, Inc. Unmanned aerial system position reporting system
US9129520B2 (en) * 2008-02-15 2015-09-08 Kutta Technologies, Inc. Unmanned aerial system position reporting system
US20100066604A1 (en) * 2008-02-15 2010-03-18 Limbaugh Douglas V Unmanned aerial system position reporting system
US20090248287A1 (en) * 2008-02-15 2009-10-01 Kutta Technologies, Inc. Unmanned aerial system position reporting system and related methods
US20140025282A1 (en) * 2008-02-15 2014-01-23 Kutta Technologies, Inc. Unmanned aerial system position reporting system
US20160012731A1 (en) * 2008-02-15 2016-01-14 Kutta Technologies, Inc. Unmanned aerial system position reporting system
US8437956B2 (en) 2008-02-15 2013-05-07 Kutta Technologies, Inc. Unmanned aerial system position reporting system and related methods
US7898462B2 (en) * 2008-10-03 2011-03-01 Honeywell International Inc. Multi-sector radar sensor
US20100087967A1 (en) * 2008-10-03 2010-04-08 Honeywell International Inc. Multi-sector radar sensor
US7868817B2 (en) 2008-10-03 2011-01-11 Honeywell International Inc. Radar system for obstacle avoidance
US8477063B2 (en) 2008-10-03 2013-07-02 Honeywell International Inc. System and method for obstacle detection and warning
US20120146783A1 (en) * 2009-05-20 2012-06-14 Stephan Harms Method for controlling an obstruction light
US9604732B2 (en) * 2009-05-20 2017-03-28 Aloys Wobben Method for controlling an obstruction light
US20100315281A1 (en) * 2009-06-10 2010-12-16 The University Of North Dakota Airspace risk mitigation system
US8368584B2 (en) 2009-06-10 2013-02-05 The University Of North Dakota Airspace risk mitigation system
US9726779B2 (en) * 2009-07-14 2017-08-08 Robert Bosch Gmbh UWB measuring device
US20120182175A1 (en) * 2009-07-14 2012-07-19 Robert Bosch Gmbh UWB Measuring Device
US20120166073A1 (en) * 2009-09-17 2012-06-28 Serge Poirier Method and system for avoiding an intercepting vehicle by an airborne moving body
US8718921B2 (en) * 2009-09-17 2014-05-06 Mbda France Method and system for avoiding an intercepting vehicle by an airborne moving body
US9100087B2 (en) * 2010-08-09 2015-08-04 Aviation Communication & Surveillance Systems Llc Systems and methods for providing surface multipath mitigation
US20120039422A1 (en) * 2010-08-09 2012-02-16 Stayton Gregory T Systems and methods for providing surface multipath mitigation
US8624773B2 (en) * 2010-11-09 2014-01-07 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army Multidirectional target detecting system and method
US20120112957A1 (en) * 2010-11-09 2012-05-10 U.S. Government As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army Multidirectional target detecting system and method
US9014880B2 (en) * 2010-12-21 2015-04-21 General Electric Company Trajectory based sense and avoid
US20120158219A1 (en) * 2010-12-21 2012-06-21 Michael Richard Durling Trajectory based sense and avoid
US9322917B2 (en) * 2011-01-21 2016-04-26 Farrokh Mohamadi Multi-stage detection of buried IEDs
US20120203450A1 (en) * 2011-02-08 2012-08-09 Eads Deutschland Gmbh Unmanned Aircraft with Built-in Collision Warning System
US9037391B2 (en) * 2011-02-08 2015-05-19 Eads Deutschland Gmbh Unmanned aircraft with built-in collision warning system
CN102364553A (en) * 2011-10-21 2012-02-29 广州航新航空科技股份有限公司 Regional airspace management monitoring system based on traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS)
US20140062754A1 (en) * 2011-10-26 2014-03-06 Farrokh Mohamadi Remote detection, confirmation and detonation of buried improvised explosive devices
US9329001B2 (en) * 2011-10-26 2016-05-03 Farrokh Mohamadi Remote detection, confirmation and detonation of buried improvised explosive devices
US9110168B2 (en) * 2011-11-18 2015-08-18 Farrokh Mohamadi Software-defined multi-mode ultra-wideband radar for autonomous vertical take-off and landing of small unmanned aerial systems
US20140222246A1 (en) * 2011-11-18 2014-08-07 Farrokh Mohamadi Software-defined multi-mode ultra-wideband radar for autonomous vertical take-off and landing of small unmanned aerial systems
US9788326B2 (en) 2012-12-05 2017-10-10 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Backhaul link for distributed antenna system
US9699785B2 (en) 2012-12-05 2017-07-04 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Backhaul link for distributed antenna system
US20170033447A1 (en) * 2012-12-12 2017-02-02 Electronics And Telecommunications Research Institute Antenna apparatus and method for handover using the same
US9540102B2 (en) 2012-12-19 2017-01-10 Elwha Llc Base station multi-vehicle coordination
US9669926B2 (en) 2012-12-19 2017-06-06 Elwha Llc Unoccupied flying vehicle (UFV) location confirmance
US9527587B2 (en) 2012-12-19 2016-12-27 Elwha Llc Unoccupied flying vehicle (UFV) coordination
US9747809B2 (en) * 2012-12-19 2017-08-29 Elwha Llc Automated hazard handling routine activation
US9405296B2 (en) 2012-12-19 2016-08-02 Elwah LLC Collision targeting for hazard handling
US9235218B2 (en) 2012-12-19 2016-01-12 Elwha Llc Collision targeting for an unoccupied flying vehicle (UFV)
US9567074B2 (en) 2012-12-19 2017-02-14 Elwha Llc Base station control for an unoccupied flying vehicle (UFV)
US9776716B2 (en) 2012-12-19 2017-10-03 Elwah LLC Unoccupied flying vehicle (UFV) inter-vehicle communication for hazard handling
US20140303884A1 (en) * 2012-12-19 2014-10-09 Elwha LLC, a limited liability corporation of the State of Delaware Automated hazard handling routine activation
US9810789B2 (en) 2012-12-19 2017-11-07 Elwha Llc Unoccupied flying vehicle (UFV) location assurance
US9527586B2 (en) 2012-12-19 2016-12-27 Elwha Llc Inter-vehicle flight attribute communication for an unoccupied flying vehicle (UFV)
US9930668B2 (en) 2013-05-31 2018-03-27 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Remote distributed antenna system
US9674711B2 (en) 2013-11-06 2017-06-06 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Surface-wave communications and methods thereof
US9661505B2 (en) 2013-11-06 2017-05-23 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Surface-wave communications and methods thereof
US9794003B2 (en) 2013-12-10 2017-10-17 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Quasi-optical coupler
CN104155654A (en) * 2014-08-13 2014-11-19 芜湖航飞科技股份有限公司 Airborne radar
US9692101B2 (en) 2014-08-26 2017-06-27 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Guided wave couplers for coupling electromagnetic waves between a waveguide surface and a surface of a wire
US9768833B2 (en) 2014-09-15 2017-09-19 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Method and apparatus for sensing a condition in a transmission medium of electromagnetic waves
US9906269B2 (en) 2014-09-17 2018-02-27 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Monitoring and mitigating conditions in a communication network
US9628854B2 (en) 2014-09-29 2017-04-18 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Method and apparatus for distributing content in a communication network
US9615269B2 (en) 2014-10-02 2017-04-04 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Method and apparatus that provides fault tolerance in a communication network
US9866276B2 (en) 2014-10-10 2018-01-09 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Method and apparatus for arranging communication sessions in a communication system
US9762289B2 (en) 2014-10-14 2017-09-12 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Method and apparatus for transmitting or receiving signals in a transportation system
US9847850B2 (en) 2014-10-14 2017-12-19 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Method and apparatus for adjusting a mode of communication in a communication network
US9871558B2 (en) 2014-10-21 2018-01-16 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Guided-wave transmission device and methods for use therewith
US9876587B2 (en) 2014-10-21 2018-01-23 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Transmission device with impairment compensation and methods for use therewith
US9653770B2 (en) 2014-10-21 2017-05-16 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Guided wave coupler, coupling module and methods for use therewith
US9577306B2 (en) 2014-10-21 2017-02-21 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Guided-wave transmission device and methods for use therewith
US9912033B2 (en) 2014-10-21 2018-03-06 At&T Intellectual Property I, Lp Guided wave coupler, coupling module and methods for use therewith
US9780834B2 (en) 2014-10-21 2017-10-03 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Method and apparatus for transmitting electromagnetic waves
US9627768B2 (en) 2014-10-21 2017-04-18 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Guided-wave transmission device with non-fundamental mode propagation and methods for use therewith
US9769020B2 (en) 2014-10-21 2017-09-19 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Method and apparatus for responding to events affecting communications in a communication network
US9525210B2 (en) 2014-10-21 2016-12-20 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Guided-wave transmission device with non-fundamental mode propagation and methods for use therewith
US9577307B2 (en) 2014-10-21 2017-02-21 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Guided-wave transmission device and methods for use therewith
US9596001B2 (en) 2014-10-21 2017-03-14 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Apparatus for providing communication services and methods thereof
US9749083B2 (en) 2014-11-20 2017-08-29 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Transmission device with mode division multiplexing and methods for use therewith
US9712350B2 (en) 2014-11-20 2017-07-18 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Transmission device with channel equalization and control and methods for use therewith
US9800327B2 (en) 2014-11-20 2017-10-24 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Apparatus for controlling operations of a communication device and methods thereof
US9544006B2 (en) 2014-11-20 2017-01-10 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Transmission device with mode division multiplexing and methods for use therewith
US9742521B2 (en) 2014-11-20 2017-08-22 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Transmission device with mode division multiplexing and methods for use therewith
US9654173B2 (en) 2014-11-20 2017-05-16 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Apparatus for powering a communication device and methods thereof
US9742462B2 (en) 2014-12-04 2017-08-22 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Transmission medium and communication interfaces and methods for use therewith
US9876570B2 (en) 2015-02-20 2018-01-23 At&T Intellectual Property I, Lp Guided-wave transmission device with non-fundamental mode propagation and methods for use therewith
US9876571B2 (en) 2015-02-20 2018-01-23 At&T Intellectual Property I, Lp Guided-wave transmission device with non-fundamental mode propagation and methods for use therewith
US9749013B2 (en) 2015-03-17 2017-08-29 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Method and apparatus for reducing attenuation of electromagnetic waves guided by a transmission medium
US9793955B2 (en) 2015-04-24 2017-10-17 At&T Intellectual Property I, Lp Passive electrical coupling device and methods for use therewith
US9831912B2 (en) 2015-04-24 2017-11-28 At&T Intellectual Property I, Lp Directional coupling device and methods for use therewith
US9705561B2 (en) 2015-04-24 2017-07-11 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Directional coupling device and methods for use therewith
US9793954B2 (en) 2015-04-28 2017-10-17 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Magnetic coupling device and methods for use therewith
US9871282B2 (en) 2015-05-14 2018-01-16 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. At least one transmission medium having a dielectric surface that is covered at least in part by a second dielectric
US9887447B2 (en) 2015-05-14 2018-02-06 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Transmission medium having multiple cores and methods for use therewith
US9748626B2 (en) 2015-05-14 2017-08-29 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Plurality of cables having different cross-sectional shapes which are bundled together to form a transmission medium
US9917341B2 (en) 2015-05-27 2018-03-13 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Apparatus and method for launching electromagnetic waves and for modifying radial dimensions of the propagating electromagnetic waves
US9866309B2 (en) 2015-06-03 2018-01-09 At&T Intellectual Property I, Lp Host node device and methods for use therewith
US9912382B2 (en) 2015-06-03 2018-03-06 At&T Intellectual Property I, Lp Network termination and methods for use therewith
US9912381B2 (en) 2015-06-03 2018-03-06 At&T Intellectual Property I, Lp Network termination and methods for use therewith
US9913139B2 (en) 2015-06-09 2018-03-06 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Signal fingerprinting for authentication of communicating devices
US9608692B2 (en) 2015-06-11 2017-03-28 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Repeater and methods for use therewith
US9820146B2 (en) 2015-06-12 2017-11-14 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Method and apparatus for authentication and identity management of communicating devices
US9667317B2 (en) 2015-06-15 2017-05-30 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Method and apparatus for providing security using network traffic adjustments
US9882657B2 (en) 2015-06-25 2018-01-30 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Methods and apparatus for inducing a fundamental wave mode on a transmission medium
US9865911B2 (en) 2015-06-25 2018-01-09 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Waveguide system for slot radiating first electromagnetic waves that are combined into a non-fundamental wave mode second electromagnetic wave on a transmission medium
US9640850B2 (en) 2015-06-25 2017-05-02 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Methods and apparatus for inducing a non-fundamental wave mode on a transmission medium
US9787412B2 (en) 2015-06-25 2017-10-10 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Methods and apparatus for inducing a fundamental wave mode on a transmission medium
US9847566B2 (en) 2015-07-14 2017-12-19 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Method and apparatus for adjusting a field of a signal to mitigate interference
US9628116B2 (en) 2015-07-14 2017-04-18 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Apparatus and methods for transmitting wireless signals
US9722318B2 (en) 2015-07-14 2017-08-01 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Method and apparatus for coupling an antenna to a device
US9836957B2 (en) 2015-07-14 2017-12-05 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Method and apparatus for communicating with premises equipment
US9853342B2 (en) 2015-07-14 2017-12-26 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Dielectric transmission medium connector and methods for use therewith
US9929755B2 (en) 2015-07-14 2018-03-27 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Method and apparatus for coupling an antenna to a device
US9882257B2 (en) 2015-07-14 2018-01-30 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Method and apparatus for launching a wave mode that mitigates interference
US9608740B2 (en) 2015-07-15 2017-03-28 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Method and apparatus for launching a wave mode that mitigates interference
US9793951B2 (en) 2015-07-15 2017-10-17 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Method and apparatus for launching a wave mode that mitigates interference
US9749053B2 (en) 2015-07-23 2017-08-29 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Node device, repeater and methods for use therewith
US9871283B2 (en) 2015-07-23 2018-01-16 At&T Intellectual Property I, Lp Transmission medium having a dielectric core comprised of plural members connected by a ball and socket configuration
US9806818B2 (en) 2015-07-23 2017-10-31 At&T Intellectual Property I, Lp Node device, repeater and methods for use therewith
US9912027B2 (en) 2015-07-23 2018-03-06 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Method and apparatus for exchanging communication signals
WO2017023412A1 (en) * 2015-07-31 2017-02-09 At&T Intellectual Property I, Lp Radial antenna and methods for use therewith
US9838078B2 (en) 2015-07-31 2017-12-05 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Method and apparatus for exchanging communication signals
US9735833B2 (en) 2015-07-31 2017-08-15 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Method and apparatus for communications management in a neighborhood network
US20170033464A1 (en) * 2015-07-31 2017-02-02 At&T Intellectual Property I, Lp Radial antenna and methods for use therewith
US9904535B2 (en) 2015-09-14 2018-02-27 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Method and apparatus for distributing software
US9769128B2 (en) 2015-09-28 2017-09-19 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Method and apparatus for encryption of communications over a network
US9729197B2 (en) 2015-10-01 2017-08-08 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Method and apparatus for communicating network management traffic over a network
US9882277B2 (en) 2015-10-02 2018-01-30 At&T Intellectual Property I, Lp Communication device and antenna assembly with actuated gimbal mount
US9876264B2 (en) 2015-10-02 2018-01-23 At&T Intellectual Property I, Lp Communication system, guided wave switch and methods for use therewith
US9685092B2 (en) 2015-10-08 2017-06-20 Honeywell International Inc. Stationary obstacle identification system
US20170178520A1 (en) * 2015-12-17 2017-06-22 Honeywell International Inc. On-ground vehicle collision avoidance utilizing shared vehicle hazard sensor data
US9892647B2 (en) * 2015-12-17 2018-02-13 Honeywell International Inc. On-ground vehicle collision avoidance utilizing shared vehicle hazard sensor data
US9935703B2 (en) 2016-03-15 2018-04-03 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Host node device and methods for use therewith
US9860075B1 (en) 2016-08-26 2018-01-02 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Method and communication node for broadband distribution
US9876605B1 (en) 2016-10-21 2018-01-23 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Launcher and coupling system to support desired guided wave mode
US9927517B1 (en) 2016-12-06 2018-03-27 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Apparatus and methods for sensing rainfall
US9893795B1 (en) 2016-12-07 2018-02-13 At&T Intellectual Property I, Lp Method and repeater for broadband distribution
US9911020B1 (en) 2016-12-08 2018-03-06 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Method and apparatus for tracking via a radio frequency identification device
US9838896B1 (en) 2016-12-09 2017-12-05 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Method and apparatus for assessing network coverage

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
JP2008518844A (en) 2008-06-05 application
US7443334B2 (en) 2008-10-28 grant
US20070252748A1 (en) 2007-11-01 application
WO2006124063A3 (en) 2007-09-07 application
WO2006124063A2 (en) 2006-11-23 application
EP1809327A2 (en) 2007-07-25 application
US7307579B2 (en) 2007-12-11 grant
KR20070092959A (en) 2007-09-14 application
US20080169962A1 (en) 2008-07-17 application

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US3404396A (en) Airborne clear air turbulence radar
US5570095A (en) Automatic dependent surveillance air navigation system
US3792472A (en) Warning indicator to alert aircraft pilot to presence and bearing of other aircraft
US5198823A (en) Passive secondary surveillance radar using signals of remote SSR and multiple antennas switched in synchronism with rotation of SSR beam
US6121925A (en) Data-link and antenna selection assembly
US8380367B2 (en) Adaptive surveillance and guidance system for vehicle collision avoidance and interception
Skolnik Introduction to radar
US7783427B1 (en) Combined runway obstacle detection system and method
US5202692A (en) Millimeter wave imaging sensors, sources and systems
US5506590A (en) Pilot warning system
US6278396B1 (en) Midair collision and avoidance system (MCAS)
US6054947A (en) Helicopter rotorblade radar system
US5334982A (en) Airport surface vehicle identification
US20090045290A1 (en) Method and system for inflight refueling of unmanned aerial vehicles
US6278409B1 (en) Wire detection system and method
US6222480B1 (en) Multifunction aircraft transponder
US4317119A (en) Stand alone collision avoidance system
US7379014B1 (en) Taxi obstacle detecting radar
US20030156056A1 (en) Near-vertical incidence hf radar
Horn The dlr airborne sar project e-sar
US6275180B1 (en) Collision warning system
US7154434B1 (en) Anti-personnel airborne radar application
US6670920B1 (en) System and method for single platform, synthetic aperture geo-location of emitters
US6545632B1 (en) Radar systems and methods
US6792058B1 (en) Digital receiving system for dense environment of aircraft

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AS Assignment

Owner name: FLIGHT SAFETY TECHNOLOGIES, INC., CONNECTICUT

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:REES, FRANK L.;COTTON, WILLIAM B.;REEL/FRAME:020076/0882;SIGNING DATES FROM 20071022 TO 20071023