US20080016802A1 - Building modular and panel system and method of construction thereof - Google Patents

Building modular and panel system and method of construction thereof Download PDF

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Publication number
US20080016802A1
US20080016802A1 US11/459,462 US45946206A US2008016802A1 US 20080016802 A1 US20080016802 A1 US 20080016802A1 US 45946206 A US45946206 A US 45946206A US 2008016802 A1 US2008016802 A1 US 2008016802A1
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metal
frame assembly
studs
structural
lath
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US11/459,462
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Paul R. Rheaume
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Rheaume Paul R
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04CSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; BUILDING MATERIALS
    • E04C2/00Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels
    • E04C2/02Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels characterised by specified materials
    • E04C2/26Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels characterised by specified materials composed of materials covered by two or more of groups E04C2/04, E04C2/08, E04C2/10 or of materials covered by one of these groups with a material not specified in one of the groups
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04CSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; BUILDING MATERIALS
    • E04C2/00Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels
    • E04C2/30Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels characterised by the shape or structure
    • E04C2/38Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels characterised by the shape or structure with attached ribs, flanges, or the like, e.g. framed panels
    • E04C2/384Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels characterised by the shape or structure with attached ribs, flanges, or the like, e.g. framed panels with a metal frame

Abstract

A building modular and panel system for construction using prefabricated modular panels. The system includes top and bottom plates connected to metal studs. A high rib metal lath with moisture barrier backing can be secured to and covers the metal studs. A light weight gas injected concrete/plaster seizer mix is sprayed over the metal lath to create the structural panel. The structured panel is preferably bolted to the slab. To provide further support, especially in a commercial setting, one or more lateral wall channel bracing can be attached to the metal studs.

Description

    BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • 1. Field of the Invention
  • The present invention relates generally to building construction and building materials and more particularly to a novel modular and panel system for a building and novel method of construction of the building.
  • 2. Description of the Prior Art
  • The three basic components for residential construction shells generally are the foundation, the frame or skeleton and the skin. The foundation includes contiguous structural elements typically set on contiguous concrete footing poured into excavations in the ground beneath. The frame includes the floor, the exterior walls, and the roofing joists. The skin has both exterior and interior applications and includes whatever materials or layers that are applied or connected to the frame. The skin also includes insulation, drywall, roofing systems, etc. The house or other building (collectively referred to as “building”) is put together piece by piece outdoors where all of the raw materials for the building and the building processes are subject to all of the elements of nature.
  • Successful construction, in any climate, is always dependent upon the availability of weather suitable to the type of construction. Thus, a relevant factor is the suitability of the construction materials and methods to the available weather. Conventional construction is limited to those types of materials which pass the stringent fire safety codes. Most often, this is usually some form of masonry. While the materials of which blocks and bricks are comprised are not specifically susceptible to the exigencies of cold and heat extremes, or even to the particular presence or absence of moisture, the methods for bringing the blocks and bricks together are.
  • Conventional construction typically has at least five distinct parts or phases to it, each of which is separate and must be concluded before the next can be started. They are: (1) site prep, which includes the clearing of the land and the excavation of the slab and/or footers; (2) foundation, which is the pouring of the concrete for footers and the pouring of any basement or slab flooring; (3) framing, usually of wood studs and joists (often referred to as “stick built”) covered with plywood chip board, or some similar material; (4) sheathing, which, is the block or masonry outer “skin” (which may or may not include a “moisture barrier” and the roofing; and (5) finishing, which is all of the interior trades. Four of these five phases are conducted exclusively outdoors, where temperatures and conditions limit the circumstances under which they can be affected. While these items are worked out, all other trades are at a standstill until the building (house) is declared to be “in the dry”. In view of these delays, there are often long periods of weeks and months each year when traditional builders are idle and construction is halted or intermittent at best in the northern climate.
  • Home ownership slips further and further from the grasp of a growing proportion in the United States and elsewhere. The conventional building materials and methods of construction described above do not lend themselves to a workable solution for the needs of affordable housing. It is to the effective resolution of these and other problems associated with conventional building materials and methods of construction that the present invention is directed.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • The present invention generally provides a building modular and panel system for construction using prefabricated modular panels and method for construction the building primarily offsite, such as, but not limited to, indoors at a factory. The system includes a frame having top and bottom plates and a plurality of metal studs, preferably constructed from galvanized steel. The top and bottom plates are connected to the metal studs. The studs can be provided with one or more holes or apertures for running electrical wiring, cable, computer wiring, plumbing, etc., as well as for bridging purposes.
  • A high rib metal lath with or without a moisture barrier backing can be secured to and covers the metal studs. A light weight gas injected concrete/plaster seizer mix can be sprayed over the metal lath to create the structural panel. The structured panel is preferably bolted to the slab, such as, but not limited to, by the use of anchor bolts. To provide further support, especially in a commercial setting, one or more lateral wall channel bracing can be attached to the metal studs.
  • In one non-limiting embodiment, the concrete mixture sprayed on to the metal lath can consist of an amount of Portland Type 1 cement, an amount of sand (40-60 screen size), and a plaster seizer, with or without a cement accelerator. In one embodiment, three coats are spray applied to the lath preferably by using a three-coat machine. The exterior finish can be approximately in thickness, though such is not considered limiting.
  • Any required electrical and rough plumbing items can then be installed, as well as any other items such as, but not limited to, cables, computer wiring, etc. At this point the insulation material can also be installed within the interior area. Grommets can also be installed in the stud apertures to isolate or prevent the installed electrical wiring or plumbing from directly contacting the metal studs. The internal area of the final panel can be preferably filled with insulation material. Though not limiting, in the preferred embodiment, R-19 or R-20 rated insulation can be used for the insulation. The insulation can be provided with a Kraft paper backing to provide a moisture barrier. Additionally or alternatively, a paper backing can also be provided on high rib lath.
  • The interior side of the panel can be completed by the attachment of drywall or gypsum board to the metal studs. Alternatively, a lath assembly can also be provided on this (interior) side of the panel if so desired.
  • Using the materials and methods described herein, the present invention provides a more cost effective way of producing pre-site built modular and panel systems, which at the same time produces a faster built, stronger and environmentally safer commercial and/or residential building.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • FIG. 1 is a perspective partial cutaway view of a first embodiment for a manufactured panel in accordance with the present invention;
  • FIG. 2 is a perspective partial cutaway view of a second embodiment for a manufactured panel in accordance with the present invention;
  • FIG. 3 is a perspective view of a frame assembly for the manufactured panel of FIG. 1;
  • FIG. 4 is a perspective view of the metal lath assembly for the manufactured panel of FIG. 1 shown partially covering the frame assembly on the exterior (outside) side of the frame assembly of FIG. 3;
  • FIG. 5 is a perspective view of an exterior finish partially applied to the metal lath disposed on the exterior (outside) side of the intended structure, with the metal lath now shown fully covering the metal studs of the frame assembly of FIG. 3;
  • FIG. 6 is a perspective view illustrating certain electrical and plumbing components installed within the manufactured panel; and
  • FIG. 7 is a perspective view illustrating drywall being secured to the frame assembly on interior (inside) side of the frame assembly of FIG. 3.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT
  • As seen in FIG. 1 a first embodiment for a manufactured panel is disclosed and generally designated as panel 20. Panel 20 generally comprises a frame assembly 30, a metal lath 70, an exterior finish 90 and an interior finish 96. Panel 20 can be preferably attached to a concrete slab 25, which has been previously been formed through conventional practices. FIG. 2 illustrates a second embodiment for the manufactured panel which is highly similar to the first embodiment, with the addition of lateral wall channel bracing provided, which can be preferably equally spaced up the wall and attached to the metal studs of the frame assembly 30. In one non-limiting embodiment, lateral bracing can be spaced out in ⅓rd lengths of the wall height, though such is not considered limiting. Though also not considered limiting, the lateral bracing can be preferably provided for commercial buildings and a panel 20 without bracing can be used for residential buildings. The below description for the invention is considered applicable to both the first embodiment (FIG. 1) and second embodiments (FIG. 2) of the invention.
  • As best seen in FIG. 3, frame assembly 30 comprises a top track 34, a bottom track 46 and a plurality of wall studs 60. In one embodiment, top track 34 and bottom track 46 can both be a “U” shaped channel runners, having a web 36 and 48, respectively of approximately 6″ and leg (38 and 50, respectively) heights of approximately 1¼″. Tracks 34 and 36 can be approximately 10′ in length. These disclosed dimensions for top track 34 and bottom track 46, as well as all other dimensions discussed herein, are given by way of example and are not considered limiting. Accordingly, other dimensions for the various components of panel 20 can be used and are considered with the scope of the invention. Tracks 34 and 46 can be preferably constructed from 18 gauge metal though other gauges can be used and are considered within the scope of the invention.
  • Wall studs 60 can also be preferably constructed from 18 gauge metal though again other gauges can be used and are considered within the scope of the invention. Studs 60 can be “C” shaped members which with top track 34 and bottom track 46 form frame assembly 30 for the axial load bearing walls. Studs 60 can be provided with one or more holes or apertures 62 for electrical wiring, cable, computer wiring, plumbing, etc., as well as for bridging purposes. In one non-limiting embodiment apertures 62 can be approximately 24″ on center and have a knockout size of approximately 1½×approximately 4″. However, other dimensions can be used and are considered within the scope of the invention. The knockout can be punched at approximately 12″ from the leading edge with additional knockout at approximately 24″ on center. Again these dimensions are given by way of example and are not considered limiting. As the knockouts (apertures 62) are used for plumbing and electrical items it is preferred that they are substantially aligned from studs 60.
  • Studs 60 are attached to top track 34 and bottom track 46 through conventional such as by fasteners 64. In a preferred, though non-limiting embodiment, a powder actuated fastener technique can be used to attached studs 60 to tracks 34 and 46. In a preferred embodiment, two fasteners 64 on each side (interior and exterior) of stud 60 for a total of four fasteners 64 attach stud 60 to top track 34. Similarly, two fasteners 64 on each side of stud 60 for a total of four fasteners 64 attached stud 60 to bottom track 46. Thus, in the preferred embodiment, a total of eight fasteners 64 can be used for attaching each stud 60 to top track 34 and bottom track 46. However, it should be recognized that the present invention is not limited to any particular number of fasteners or that the same number of fasteners have to be provided for attaching stud 60 to the top track 34 as for attaching stud 60 to bottom track 46. Accordingly, other number of fasteners can be used and are also considered within the scope of the invention. In one non-limiting, embodiment, fasteners 64 can be #10 self tapping Philip head low profile or framing screws. However, other screws, bolts, rivets, nails, etc. can be used for fasteners 64 can be used and are also considered within the scope of the invention. Though not preferred, other mechanisms for securing studs 60 to tracks 34 and 46 can also be used and are considered within the scope of the invention, such as, but not limited to, welding, gluing, etc. Though also not considered limiting, two screws at the top and two screws at the bottom for each side of each stud 60 can be used for attaching studs 60 to tracks 34 and 46.
  • Studs 60, top track 34 and bottom track 46 together comprise frame or wall assembly 30. Frame assembly 30 can be preferably fastened to concrete slab 25 preferably by using a power fastener. In one non-limiting embodiment fasteners 48 can be anchor bolts, preferably having a hex head formed with an integral washer. The anchors can be preferably designed to be used with a matched tolerance anchor bolt drill bit having the same tolerance and dimensions as the anchor bolt for optimum fastening results.
  • FIG. 4 illustrates metal lath assembly 70 which can preferably comprise a ⅜″ high rib lath 72 having herringbone mesh pattern with ⅜″ V-shaped ribs running the length of the sheet at 4½″ intervals and inverted 3/16″ intermediate ribs. The preferred dimensions are not considered limiting and other dimensions can be used for metal lath 72 and are considered with the scope of the invention. As seen in FIG. 4 high rib lath 72 is placed against framing assembly 30 and attached to framing assembly 30 through fasteners 74, such as but not limited to #10×1″ self tapping Philip head screws at maximum 8″ on center. In one non-limiting embodiment fasteners 74 can be provided at one or more points of each stud 60. Lath 72 can be provided with a kraft paper backing to serve as a moisture barrier. Lath 72 with its small opening patters receives the relatively lightweight concrete which causes the concrete and the lath 72 to join and become one with the studs 60 to create a structural panel.
  • FIG. 5 illustrates the final step for the exterior side of panel 20 in which a one or more coat concrete finish is applied to high rib lath 72. In one embodiment, three coats are spray applied to lath 72 using a three-coat machine. Exterior finish 90 can be approximately 2″ in thickness, though such is not considered limiting and other thicknesses can be used and are considered within the scope of the invention. In the preferred three coat finish 90, the first coat can serve as a scratch coat, the second coat can service as a brown coat and the third coat can serve as a finish coat. The concrete mixture can consist of a cement, aggregate and admixture. In one non-limiting embodiment, the cement can be a Portland type cement, the aggregate can be a sand and the admixture can be a plaster seizer mix with or without an accelerator or cement accelerator. The Portland cement can be of a Type I kind and the maximum size for the sand can be about 40—about 60 screen size. One non-limiting ratio for the ingredients or components of the concrete mixture given in properties per cubic foot can be (i) 8 bags of Portland Type I cement, (ii) 20 cubic foot of sand; (iii) 32 ounces of plaster seizer mix and (iv) 32 ounces of accelerator. The plaster seizer mix can be a composite of lightweight concrete, made lighter than normal concrete by introducing gas bubbles into the plastic cement mix to create a novel material with a cellular structure. The gas or air bubbles can be produced by a chemical reaction which takes place within the fresh mortar/cement mass. The structural concrete produced by the present invention can be effective in controlling both sound absorption and transmission. The structural concrete of the present invention used in the modular and panel systems of the present invention is lighter in weight, different in composition, more controllable in production, more versatile in applications, spreads easier, has more yield, better thermal, acoustical and frost resistant properties, and costs less than standard concrete.
  • FIG. 6 illustrates the step for installing the required electrical and rough plumbing items, as well as any other items such as, but not limited to, cables, computer wiring, etc. FIG. 6 also illustrates the installing of the insulation material within the interior area that is defined inside panel 20. Grommets 66 can be installed in apertures 62 of studs 60 to isolate or prevent the installed electrical wiring or plumbing from contacting the metal studs 60. The grommet 66 size can be 1½″ or otherwise correspond to the size of apertures 62. Grommets 66 can snap into or otherwise be attached within apertures 62 in studs 60 and openings 38 and 50. Where needed, one or more openings 38 can be provided in top truck for feeding or running wiring, plumbing, etc. through. One or more openings 50 can be provided in bottom track 46 for similar purposes. Grommets 66 can also be provided for openings 38 of top track 34 and openings 50 of bottom track 46. Any remaining void in apertures 62 after installing the above-described electrical, plumbing, etc. can be filled with a foam or other non-conductive material.
  • As also seen in FIG. 6, the internal area of panel 20 can be filed with insulation material. Though not limiting, in the preferred embodiment, R-19 or R-20 rated insulation 68 can be used for the insulation. However other rated insulation can also be used and are considered within the scope of the invention. The insulation can come in various forms, including, but not limited to, batts, rolls, loose-fill, and rigid foam boards and all are considered within the scope of the invention. Insulation 68 can be provided with a kraft paper backing to provide a moisture barrier. As mentioned above, the paper backing can also be provided on high rib lath 72 in addition or as an alternative to insulation 68.
  • As seen in FIG. 7, the final step for he interior side of the panel 20 is the attachment of drywall or gypsum board 96 (collectively referred to as “gypsum board”) to studs 60. Alternatively, a lath assembly can also be provided on this (interior) side of panel 20. In a non-limiting preferred embodiment the gypsum board can be ⅝″ in thickness, though other dimensions can be used and are considered within the scope of the invention. Standard fasteners 98, such as but not limited to, drywall screws or self-tapping drywall screws can be used for attaching gypsum board 96 to studs 60. In one non-limiting embodiment, #6×1¼″ long with countersunk Philip head screws preferably at a maximum of 8″ on center and minimum of 6″ on center. However, other dimensions for the screws and other distances for their location can be used and are considered within the scope of the invention.
  • The joints of the present invention building system can be “moment” connection, capable of resisting rotation. Steel and galvanized light weight cement skin preferably forms “composite” construction working together which can be performed in a factory setting. All adjoining walls can be bolted and sealed together using the concrete mixture of the present invention.
  • Preferably the entire concrete floor or slab is poured and complete so that the modular or panel system of the present invention can be attached thereto as discussed above. However, the present invention can also be used to create a floor system as well. In this embodiment, the lightweight concrete discussed above can be installed in a thickness, such as, but not limited to, about 2″ over a floor joist or floor truss with the same high rib metal mesh lath. The resulting floor can be significantly stronger than floor systems created using industry standards.
  • Each member of the present invention frame resists force placed on any other members and spreads the resistance over all members. As all members add together they can be relatively lighter. Thus, the present invention acts as a structural system. With the present invention building system, rafters and trusses can be become part of the wall system. Slab anchors (anchor imbedded in slab) can also be imbedded in the wall. Each wall panel can have a reinforced relatively light weight cement skin to resist sheer. As there are preferably no overturning, truss or rafters can be on 2-foot centers. Additionally, lintels may not be required. The present invention can provide for a screwed roof structure covered with roof shingle to resist or reduce deformation. The preferred cement skin of the wall can form a “stress-skin-panel”, which can provide an efficient structural form. From an appearance standpoint, an attractive cement surface can be provided on the outside wall. The cement can be light weight and waterproof and thus little or no maintenance is needed.
  • As to the foundations and/or slabs, the present invention provides for concrete strip footing or slabs. The steel panels can be set right on footing or slab and can be at 33,000 psi. The modular panel systems of the present invention can be bolted in the floor slab. The walls can be anchored by steel bolts, such as, but not limited to, 6″ steel bolts at 2′ o/c. The present invention can provide for a reinforced 3,000 psi “earth tempered” floor slab which can conduct earth crust temperature into living areas (i.e. crust typically varies from about 60° F. to about 65° F. As the concrete slab—3,000 psi, any flooring may be applied.
  • The exterior walls produced through the present invention in a preferred embodiment provide for a 30,000 psi minimum galvanized screwed steel frame. The walls can include metal studs, preferably steel, such as, but not limited to, 6″ steel studs at 16″ o/c. The walls can also include a galvanized structural metal lath sheathing as reinforcing to light weight cement vertical mini-slab monolithic shell (4,000 psi). The exterior walls can be fireproof and resistant to mold, mildew, fungus, bacteria, termites, ants, vermin, etc. The exterior walls can also be insulated to R19 or R20 and the preferred galvanized steel will not rust or burn. The system can be designed to retain energy by using an insulated heat reflecting barrier and high insulation values in walls and roofs.
  • The exterior facing for the wall can provide a light weight, textured, seamless cement-based weathercoat which “breathes” to allow water vapor transmission to avoid damp wall cavities. The cement coat can be impervious to ultra-violet sunlight exposure. The cement coat is preferably unremovable manually, fireproof, seamless, no air leaks, burglar resistant and 4,000 psi. As referenced above, the structure can be preferably galvanized screwed steel frame encased in reinforced light weight cement and structural wall. The facing will not rust or deteriorate and does not provide for a breeding ground for mold, mildew, fungus, bacteria, termites, ants, vermin, etc. The exterior surfaces can be tinted and weatherproofed with a finish coat cement mixture to create the color and texture required. As the surface can be impervious to moisture penetration, any shape or ornamentation can be relatively inexpensively formed.
  • The joists, rafters and studs can be preferably pre-punched for service runs. This permits easier installation at the factory of electrical, plumbing, HVAC, etc. Grommets, such as but not limited to, rubber or plastic grommets, can be inserted into punch-outs to avoid contact items inserted through the punch-outs (e.g. pipes, wires, etc.) with the frame (metal studs, galvanized steel studs, etc.). The roof frame can preferably include 33,000 psi galvanized steel rafters screwed together to form a single structural unit with the walls. These mini-slab roofs can create a single unified structural skin, which preferably prevents or reduces pull-outs or blow offs. Use of the present invention provides for a roof having increased stability and rigidity in view of the frame metal tiles being compatible with the steel frame. Enameled galvanized metal screws preferably with rubber washers can be used to join compatible materials.
  • The present invention provides for a monolithic seamless structural shell made of compatible materials which allows for the cement-steel bond to become a single structural piece. The average material strength can be 25,000 psi and higher, which is significantly stronger than conventional materials. The structural is also durable in view of little or minimal deterioration of the cement over an extended period of time (i.e. approximately 100 years, etc.) and the preferred use of galvanized steel to increase lifespan of the steel and resulting unified structure. The structure preferably is fireproof and non-combustible. The exterior appearance can be of a stucco type and can include a wide variety of tints and textures.
  • Significant environmental advantages are also achieved through the present invention building system as the steel industry used approximately 1/100th of land area as compared for that needed for timbering; the system used approximately 1/10th of an amount of cement as conventional masonry or concrete, the construction steel industry typically recycles 100 percent, as the building is pre-fabricated there is minimal if any trash at the site.
  • The walls and roofs of the present invention building system can be approximately two inches thick yet they provide significant insulation and effect energy savings. Insulation batts can be installed, sprayed and/or treated. In one non-limiting embodiment, the insulation can be approximately 6″ fiberglass insulation installed into the walls and/or attics.
  • Any cabinetry, shelves and/or accessories to be secured to the wall can be provided with a blocking having a steel track for securing to associated studs, such as, but not limited to, studs associated with the bathrooms and/or kitchens.
  • The steel and lightweight cement components of the present invention form a strong combination. The preferred steel framework integrated with a continuous reinforced cement exterior surface, provides the strength to resist storms, floods, earthquakes and other natural disasters. The reinforced cement can form a right shell encasing the steel frame. The cement coat can bond to the frame creating a unified steel and lightweight structure. This composite stress skin structure is very strong for its weight, providing durability and disaster resistance using a fraction of the material traditionally required.
  • Once built, the pre-engineered construction system can be easily transported to the building site. The modular or panel systems can be delivered to the site finished and installed on the foundation or slab. All plumbing, electrical, air condition and heating, cabinet and counter work can be done at the factor except for utility connections. The system can include, but is not limited to, panelized exterior walls, roofs, ceilings, intermediate floors, partitions, and stairs. The panels are relatively lightweight and can be easily placed with a minimum of on-site equipment. As no cutting or framing is required, the present invention provides a relatively fast and affordable construction building system.
  • When constructing a building using the present invention building system, site prep becomes less critical as compared to conventional building techniques since the combined weight of the completed building is about 1/10th that of a conventional building. With the present invention the footers can be poured at about the same time as the site is being prepped, and thus, reducing time frames significantly. The pouring of the concrete slab, whether for a slab foundation or as part of the basement floor, can be left until after a substantial part (if not all) of the framing has been finished. Time requirements for framing are thus substantially reduce, except possibly for erecting the frames and attaching them from one to another. Furthermore, the framing can be performed indoors under controlled climate conditions. Additionally, with the present invention, framing and sheathing can take place virtually simultaneously and the roofing can begin as soon as the upper portion of the building has been erected into place. This process is relatively rapid as compared to conventional building techniques, such that the weather envelope does not have to lengthy in order to get the building “in the dry”. With the framed “skeleton” of the building up, the entire structure can be plumbed and electrical wiring can be installed. When finished with all doors and windows in place, the structure can be inspected under ideal conditions at the factory. Cold conditions do not become a major issue as approximately 85% of the structure can be built indoors at the factory.
  • The present invention can provide at least some, if not all of the below objects and/or advantages:
  • (1) overcomes obstacles that have created and continue to sustain affordable housing and building shortages;
  • (2) provides a finished, pre-engineered product;
  • (3) results in finished products which can meet and surpass the highest building code standards;
  • (4) a completed building using the present invention, whether residential or commercial, can be provided with superior fire resistance;
  • (5) completed structure and structural components can be non combustible and non friable;
  • (6) completed structure and structural components can have zero smoke contribution and zero out gassing preferably without any other coating or treatment;
  • (7) provide superior lightning resistance where the entire frame of the building can be grounded with nothing flammable for the lightning to ignite;
  • (8) the finished product can have a combined strength rating of approximately 30,000 P.S.I.;
  • (9) the strength of the present invention building system can allow for unusually long spans without trusses or load-bearing walls, which can afford more open and innovative living designs while mitigating costs;
  • (10) the completed pre-engineered structures can use substantially less materials than are consumed in conventional construction (i.e. approximately ⅛th of cement and approximately ½th of steel, etc.);
  • (11) the completed structures can be relatively light weight (i.e. approximately ten to approximately 20 percent of the weight of a conventionally constructed building), and preferably employs no relatively large/heavy components, which in the event of a earthquake or other natural disaster could crash down on an occupant of the building;
  • (12) the exterior shell can be designed so as not to collapse under extreme force or blow out;
  • (13) the frame can be designed to give way on impact without pulling down the exterior shell;
  • (14) the present invention building system can consume little or no lumber in its construction, thus sparing approximately 150 trees typically used to build an average-sized house;
  • (15) the structure can be constructed without hydrocarbons or resins and can use materials with a proven history of longevity;
  • (16) the system can use materials that are readily, abundantly and economically available to eliminate or reduce possible market shortages;
  • (17) materials used in the building system can be compatible with one another to reduce or eliminate any chance for reactions which could cause deterioration;
  • (18) can reduce or eliminate rusting of metal;
  • (19) materials used can have relatively low and virtually equal coefficients of thermal expansion and contraction such that shrinkage is minimized, even under extreme temperature variances, and the integrity of the material is not compromised;
  • (20) the building system becomes a unitized structure, preferably able to meet and resist building, wind, precipitation and movement leads as a unified whole rather than as separate components fastened and attached together;
  • (21) a pre-engineered structure at one with its foundational system, such as by being attached, strapped, bolted or fastened as opposed to merely stuck to;
  • (22) a building system incorporating a roof deck and roof system attached to the foundation and exterior walls such that no known natural wind force up to approximately 180 mph can separate the roof from the rest of the structure;
  • (23) completed structure preferably strong enough and adaptable enough that choices for roofing are based on budget and aesthetics;
  • (24) the strength of the finished building built to withstand sustained wind loads in excess of 180 mph;
  • (25) a building system designed so that repairs can be effected quickly and affordably;
  • (26) vertical and horizontal planes of the completed structure are plumb and square;
  • (27) clearances and tolerances for the installation of windows and doors can be kept relatively very low and not dependent upon the use of caulks, fillers and weather stripping to achieve proper fit;
  • (28) windows can be constructed using highly efficient high impact glass or storm shuttered windows;
  • (29) window frames and doors can be of durable, waterproof, non-combustible and/or non-decomposing material;
  • (30) the exterior weatherproof skin can be impervious to water in droplet form, repelling and resisting it, and preferably incapable of wicking or absorbing water into the interior of the system;
  • (31) the surface skin can preferably be crack resistant, color fast, resistant, shrink resistant and structurally resilient;
  • (32) the skin can be preferably applied either by hand or by spray;
  • (33) the materials used for the skin can be preferably tailored for various climates, regardless of temperatures and humidities;
  • (34) the system can be designed such that its strength can preclude or reduce the necessity of floodgates in areas susceptible to flash flooding;
  • (35) the system can be water and rust resistant such that in the event of flooding there is preferably no permanent damage to the structural components of the building;
  • (36) the system can be closed to climate intrusion, including, but not limited to, wind infiltration, without the use of moisture barriers and without trapping fumes, solvents, hydrocarbons, vapors and/or gases environmentally hazardous to the occupants;
  • (37) the wall system does not support the growth of mold, mildew, bacteria, or fungus and preferably can “breathe” to allow moisture vapor to be expelled while withstanding water penetration;
  • (38) the system does not attract, feed or sustain termites and burrowing insects, and the chosen materials for the system can be thick and strong enough that none burrow in;
  • (39) the system does not attract, feed or sustain vermin or roaches and the chosen materials for the system can be thick and strong enough that none burrow in;
  • (40) the entire building system is relatively safe and offer increase protection and safety from natural disasters;
  • (41) the finished product can be energy efficient, well insulated both below and above grade and preferably designed to take advantage of geothermal constants;
  • (42) the system can have installed a heat reflective thermal break throughout the exterior surface of the structure;
  • (43) the finished structure can be relatively economical to build and own, preferably coming in will within affordable housing and building initiative guidelines;
  • (44) the pre-engineered system and its resultant structures can be easily and adaptable to virtually any architectural style;
  • (45) the system can easily lend itself to custom and upscale designs as well as production runs of affordable housing and construction;
  • (46) the finished structure has an attractive appearance making it difficult to single out as “affordable housing”;
  • (47) the design of the house can appear open, airy and spacious and can boast high ceilings where practical and make good use of available sunlight;
  • (48) the building system can be able to economically adapt to difficult site situations incorporating basements where possible or utilizing crawl spaces or slabs where necessary;
  • (49) the building system can be able to accommodate flexible designs for single or multistory units and can be buildable as single or multi-family construction;
  • (50) the building system is capable of providing rapid construction, such as, but not limited to, being able to be erected and ready for occupancy in approximately three weeks regardless of weather conditions;
  • (51) the construction of the building leaves relatively little or no waste at the construction site;
  • (52) the construction of the building can be non-polluting at the job site;
  • (53) job site construction can be relatively low noise;
  • (54) building construction can be achieved with simple tools, preferably without the use of cranes or other heavy machinery;
  • (55) wall systems can be designed to receive plumbing and electrical installations without drilling or punching, thus eliminating approximately sixty percent of the time such trades typically spend on site;
  • (56) the building system does not require new, difficult or specially skilled labor which would make the building more expensive to construct and/or leave the building project vulnerable to worker shortages and/or labor slowdowns;
  • (57) the factory production nor the on-site construction does not represent any unusual hazards or unsafe work conditions which reasonable safety awareness and care should avoid; and
  • (58) raw materials can be non-toxic minerals, free from urea-formaldehyde and allergens.
  • It should be noted that all figures, dimensions, temperatures, amounts are considered to be in approximates and not necessarily limited to the exact number provided. The present invention provides a panelized cement modular pre-engineered structural system and more particularly a steel and lightweight cement pre-engineered structure. Any force applied to the structure is resisted by the entire structural skin, reducing unit stress throughout the frame.
  • The amount of cement in a building constructed by the present invention building system can be approximately 1/10th to approximately ⅕th of that used by traditional building methods and about ½ of the steel traditionally needed. The building can be built with no wood, no hydrocarbons, and no resins, and can be built with all-mineral content materials that are non-toxic. The walls, roofs and floors of the present invention building do not support fungus, bacteria, mold or mildew and will not deteriorate, rot, rust, attract termites or vermin, blow down in storms, float away in rising waters, or become a maintenance problem for the occupants. Additionally, the building site for the present invention building has little or no waste left for pickup as nothing needs to be actually fabricated at the building site. Furthermore, by preferably producing the modular panel systems, interior and exterior walls, retaining and foundational walls, columns, girders, trusses, stair cases, roofs and intermediate floors at the factory and not at the building site, frugal or controlled use of materials can be exercised to help further reduce waste and lessen strain on environmental resources. The pre-fabricated panels are of light enough weight to be erected on site without the use of large, energy consuming, and polluting equipment.
  • Where a typical wall “R” values are 12, the present invention can provide for “R” values of 20. In conjunction with the floor or basement floor concrete slab, the present invention building can pick up and hold the constant temperature of the ground below the frost line, creating a thermal stabilizer which can lower the amount of heating or cooling necessary to achieve comfort in the house.
  • The present invention building can withstand extreme weather conditions which routinely destroy conventional buildings. The present invention light-gauge galvanized steel framework can be comprised of modular and panel structures created from preferably about 30,000 psi rust resistant galvanized steel imbedded in concrete floor slabs at each level and then preferably coated with a super-reinforced light weight cement structural skin (about 4,000 psi). Though lighter in weight then conventional construction types, this unified and cohesive pre-engineered structure can be many times stronger than its conventional counterparts, making it relatively highly resistant to fires, floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, mold, mildew, bacteria, fungus, termites, vermin infestation, etc.
  • While the invention has been described and disclosed in certain terms and has disclosed certain embodiments or modifications, person skilled in the art who have acquainted themselves with the invention, will appreciate that it is not necessarily limited by such terms, nor to the specific embodiments and modifications disclosed herein. Thus, a wide variety of alternatives, suggested by the teachings herein, can be practiced without departing from the spirit of the invention, and rights to such alternatives are particularly reserved and considered within the scope of the invention.

Claims (41)

1. A structural panel for a building comprising:
a frame assembly comprising a bottom plate, a top plate and a plurality of studs, each of said plurality of studs having a bottom end and a top end, wherein the bottom end of the each stud is secured to the bottom plate and the top end of each stud is secured to the top plate, the frame assembly having an exterior side and an interior side;
a high rib mesh lath secured to the exterior side of the frame assembly;
a concrete mixture applied to the mesh lath to form an a structural exterior wall; and
an interior wall member secured to the interior side of the frame assembly.
2. The structural panel of claim 1 wherein the interior wall member is selected from a group consisting of sheetrock, drywall and gypsum board.
3. The structural panel of claim 1 wherein each of said plurality of studs is constructed from galvanized metal steel.
4. The structural panel of claim 1 wherein said high rib mesh lath having a plurality of small openings for receiving the applied concrete mixture.
5. The structural panel of claim 1 wherein said concrete mixture comprises: an amount of Portland cement, sand and a plaster seizer.
6. The structural panel of claim 5 wherein said concrete mixture further comprises a cement accelerator.
7. The structural panel of claim 1 wherein said frame assembly having an interior areas defined between said interior wall member, said high rib mesh lath and adjacent studs which is substantially filled with insulation having a rating of at least R19.
8. The structural panel of claim 7 wherein each of said insulation is provided in batt form.
9. The structural panel of claim 1 wherein said bottom plate is secured to a concrete slab of the building by anchor bolts.
10. The structural panel of claim 1 wherein said lath constructed from metal.
11. The structural pane of claim 1 wherein at least one of said plurality of studs having an aperture.
11. A structural wall for a building, comprising:
a frame assembly having a top track, a bottom track and a plurality of metal wall studs secured at a top end to the top track and at a bottom end to the bottom track, each of said metal wall studs having a plurality of spaced apart apertures, said frame assembly having an exterior side and an interior side;
a high rib metal lath secured to said metal wall studs on an exterior side of said frame assembly;
a concrete mixture applied over and covering the metal high rib lath; and
an interior member secured to the metal studs on the interior side of said frame assembly and selected from the following group: sheet rock, gypsum board or drywall.
12. The structural wall of claim 1 wherein said bottom track of said frame assembly is secured to concrete slab of a building by a plurality of anchor bolts.
13. The structural wall of claim 11 wherein said metal high rib lath having a herringbone meshed pattern and substantially V-shaped ribs running approximately the length of said rib lath.
14. The structural wall of claim 11 wherein said frame assembly defining an internal area between each adjacent pair of metal studs, said top track and said bottom track; wherein the structural wall further comprising a piece of R-19 or higher rated insulation inserted within each internal area of said frame assembly.
15. The structural wall of claim 14 wherein each piece of insulation having a moisture barrier backing paper.
16. The structural wall of claim 11 further comprising a moisture barrier backing paper secured to the metal high rib lath.
17. The structural wall of claim 14 further comprising wiring and plumbing disposed within one or more internal areas of said frame assembly and inserted through one or more apertures of said metal studs.
18. The structural wall of claim 17 further comprising grommets disposed within the apertures of said metal studs to avoid any inserted wiring or plumbing from directly contacting the metal studs.
19. The structural wall of claim 11 wherein said concrete mixture having a thickness applied over said lath of about two inches.
20. The structural wall of claim 11 wherein each metal stud is secured to the top track by two screws on the interior side of the frame assembly and two screws on the exterior side of the frame assembly and each metal stud is secured to the bottom track by two screws on the interior side of the frame assembly and two screws on the exterior side of the frame assembly.
21. The structural wall of claim 11 wherein said metal lath is a metal lath ⅜″ high rib lath having a herringbone mesh pattern with ⅜″ V-shaped ribs running the length of said lath at 4½″ intervals and 3/16″ intermediate ribs.
22. The structural wall of claim 11 wherein said interior member is a ⅝″ type gypsum board.
23. The structural wall of claim 11 wherein said metal studs are constructed from galvanized steel.
24. A structural wall for a building, comprising:
a frame assembly having a substantially U-shaped top track, a substantially U-shaped bottom track and a plurality of galvanized steel wall studs secured at a top end to the top track and at a bottom end to the bottom track, each of said wall studs having a plurality of spaced apart apertures, said frame assembly having an exterior side and an interior side, said frame assembly defining an internal area between each adjacent pair of wall studs, said top track and said bottom track;
a metal high rib lath secured to said metal wall studs on an exterior side of said frame assembly;
a concrete mixture applied over and covering the metal high rib lath;
a piece of ⅝″ type gypsum board secured to the metal studs by a plurality of screws on the interior side of said frame assembly;
a piece of R-19 or higher rated insulation inserted within each internal area of said frame assembly; and
wiring and plumbing disposed within one or more internal areas of said frame assembly and inserted through one or more apertures of said wall studs.
25. The structural wall of claim 24 wherein said bottom track of said frame assembly is secured to concrete slab of a building by a plurality of anchor bolts.
26. The structural wall of claim 24 wherein each piece of insulation having a moisture barrier backing paper.
27. The structural wall of claim 24 further comprising a moisture barrier backing paper secured to the metal high rib lath.
28. The structural wall of claim 24 further comprising grommets disposed within the apertures of said metal studs to avoid any inserted wiring or plumbing from directly contacting the metal studs.
29. The structural wall of claim 24 wherein said concrete mixture having a thickness applied over said lath of about two inches.
30. The structural wall of claim 24 wherein each wall stud is secured to the top track by two screws on the interior side of the frame assembly and two screws on the exterior side of the frame assembly and each metal stud is secured to the bottom track by two screws on the interior side of the frame assembly and two screws on the exterior side of the frame assembly.
31. The structural wall of claim 24 wherein said metal lath is a metal lath ⅜″ high rib lath having a herringbone mesh pattern with ⅜″ V-shaped ribs running the length of said lath at 4½″ intervals and 3/16″ intermediate ribs.
32. A method for constructing a structural wall for a building comprising the steps of:
(a) securing a plurality of metal wall studs to a bottom track and a top track to provide a frame assembly having an interior side, an exterior side and a plurality of internal areas defined between adjacent wall studs, the bottom track and the top track;
(b) securing a high rib metal lath to the plurality of metal wall studs at the exterior side of said frame assembly;
(c) applying a concrete mixture over said high rib metal lath;
(d) installing insulation within each internal area of said frame assembly;
(e) installing any required wiring or plumbing within one or more internal area of said frame assembly; and
(f) and securing an interior panel selected from a group consisting of sheet rock, drywall or gypsum board to said metal wall studs at the interior side of said frame assembly.
33. The method of claim 32 further comprising the step of attaching moisture barrier backing paper to the insulation.
34. The method of claim 32 further comprising the step of attaching moisture barrier backing paper to the high rib metal lath.
35. The method of claim 32 wherein said concrete mixture is applied over the high rib metal lath in three coats to a thickness of about 2 inches.
36. The method of claim 32 further comprising the step of securing the bottom track to a concrete slab of the building.
37. A method for constructing a structural wall for a new building remote from the building site and not exposed to outside elements during its construction, said method comprising the steps of:
(a) while inside an existing structure and not exposed to outside weather conditions securing a plurality of metal wall studs to a bottom track and a top track to provide a frame assembly having an interior side, an exterior side and a plurality of internal areas defined between adjacent wall studs, the bottom track and the top track;
(b) securing a high rib metal lath to the plurality of metal wall studs at the exterior side of said frame assembly;
(c) applying a concrete mixture over said high rib metal lath;
(d) installing insulation within each internal area of said frame assembly;
(e) installing any required wiring or plumbing within one or more internal area of said frame assembly;
(f) and securing an interior panel selected from a group consisting of sheet rock, drywall or gypsum board to said metal wall studs at the interior side of said frame assembly;
(g) transporting the frame assembly with secured metal lath having applied concrete mixture, secured interior panel and installed insulation, wiring and plumbing from the existing structure to a building site for a new building; and
(h) securing the bottom track to a concrete slab present at the building site.
38. The method of claim 37 further comprising the step of attaching moisture barrier backing paper to the insulation prior to installing the insulation in the internal areas of the frame assembly.
39. The method of claim 37 further comprising the step of attaching moisture barrier backing paper to the high rib metal lath prior to securing the metal lath to the metal studs of the frame assembly.
40. The method of claim 37 wherein said concrete mixture is applied over the high rib metal lath in three coats to a thickness of about 2 inches.
US11/459,462 2006-07-24 2006-07-24 Building modular and panel system and method of construction thereof Abandoned US20080016802A1 (en)

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US20110107689A1 (en) * 2009-11-09 2011-05-12 Paul Michael Holguin Factory built energy efficient sustainable building
US20120318323A1 (en) * 2011-02-14 2012-12-20 Paul Anthony Tomaso Ground mount ballast solar racking system
US8793948B2 (en) * 2009-04-09 2014-08-05 Beattie Passive Build System Ltd. Building and method of constructing a building
US8997424B1 (en) * 2012-10-27 2015-04-07 Convergent Market Research, Inc. Structural wall panel for use in light-frame construction and method of construction employing structural wall panels
USD767170S1 (en) 2013-11-01 2016-09-20 Groupe Isolofoam Inc. Panel
US9476197B2 (en) 2013-02-11 2016-10-25 Beattie Passive Build System Limited Method of insulating a building
US9562359B1 (en) * 2015-08-03 2017-02-07 Covestro Llc Stucco wall structure
USD810324S1 (en) 2015-10-07 2018-02-13 Groupe Isolofoam Inc. Insulation panel
US10422131B2 (en) 2013-11-01 2019-09-24 Groupe Isolofoam Inc. Rigid insulating panel and rigid insulation panel assembly
US10584475B1 (en) 2019-06-19 2020-03-10 Soleman Abdi Idd Method and system for construction and building

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