US20070261295A1 - Water resistance, density, and durability of biomass fuels - Google Patents

Water resistance, density, and durability of biomass fuels Download PDF

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Publication number
US20070261295A1
US20070261295A1 US11/432,114 US43211406A US2007261295A1 US 20070261295 A1 US20070261295 A1 US 20070261295A1 US 43211406 A US43211406 A US 43211406A US 2007261295 A1 US2007261295 A1 US 2007261295A1
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biomass
fuels
available
fuel
coal
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Abandoned
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US11/432,114
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Richard Tolmie
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Tolmie Richard W
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10LFUELS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NATURAL GAS; SYNTHETIC NATURAL GAS OBTAINED BY PROCESSES NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C10G, C10K; LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS; ADDING MATERIALS TO FUELS OR FIRES TO REDUCE SMOKE OR UNDESIRABLE DEPOSITS OR TO FACILITATE SOOT REMOVAL; FIRELIGHTERS
    • C10L5/00Solid fuels
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E50/00Technologies for the production of fuel of non-fossil origin
    • Y02E50/30Fuel from waste, e.g. synthetic alcohol or diesel

Abstract

Given the current world situation of fuel shortages and conflict over the finite amount of fuels available, it is very prudent to utilize every avenue available to increase the amount and quality of fuels available to use in power generation as well as other applications of steam. There are hundreds of thousands of tons of natural fuels, available for use here as well as other parts of the world. The BTU value of these waste materials is immeasurable. While most of these alternative fuels do not contain the highest BTU value, the amount of them available is beyond belief. The biggest drawback to alternative fuels has been the ease of utilization and quality of the product introduced into the combustors. Many years of testing and research by this individual have resulted in a variety of fuels that in addition to adding to the fuel supply of the world's consumers, will help to clean up the emission problems that are coming to the forefront of environmental concerns.

Description

    BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • Biomass fuel proponents have struggled to find ways to maximize density, uniformity, and moisture-resistance of biomass fuel.
  • Most biomass fuels lack the density or uniformity that traditional combustors are fit to utilize, making them commercially unworkable.
  • Another major problems facing biomass fuel users is that the biomass fuel cubes or pellets are not resistant to water or moisture. Cubes or pellets begin to lose their integrity almost instantly when exposed to moisture, rain, dew, or in some cases high humidity. This breakdown necessitates covered storage and transport facilities and special handling, thereby increasing the cost of biomass fuel cube utilization.
  • BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • By blending biomass fuels with coal fines prior to their introduction into a densification machine, the resulting product will be resistant to water damage.
  • In addition, using a blend of biomass and coal fines in biomass fuel production results in a product that has an increased density and durability when compared to biomass fuels which do not contain coal fines. This increased density and durability is very important for the economics of transportation, handling, and the introduction of the biomass fuel into a combustion system.
  • The foregoing and other objectives, features, and advantages of the invention will be more readily understood upon consideration of the following detailed description of the invention taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE SEVERAL VIEWS OF THE DRAWINGS
  • FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram illustrating the process of one embodiment of the process.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENT
  • By carefully blending biomass fuels with coal fines prior to their introduction into a densification machine, the resulting biomass fuel product is resistant to water damage. In some cases, depending on the percentage of coal fines utilized, it is possible to obtain a resulting biomass fuel which is almost totally waterproof.
  • By using a blend of biomass and coal fines in biomass fuel production, the density and durability of the biomass fuel product is increased as compared to biomass fuel products which do not contain coal fines. It is believed that this increased density and durability is very important for the economics of transportation, handling, and the introduction of the fuel cube into a combustion system.
  • Mechanical processes for making biomass fuels are well known. The biomass material may be grass, grain, paper, animal wastes, wood waste, sewer sludge or other naturally occurring biological waste. A manufacturer may pass this biomass material through one of a variety of known densification machines such as a cuber, pellet mill, briquettor, or extruder, to result in a biomass fuel product which is a cube, pellet, briquette, tablets, or similarly small structured small particles. Known densification machines may result in a product which is sized for a particular combustion system.
  • The object of this invention is to produce a fuel which is a biomass and coal combination and which is an improvement over non-coal containing biomass fuels as it will have greater weight, improved water resistance, increased density, and greater durability.
  • The fuel combination may be manufactured by the following steps:
  • 1. sizing of the biomass: solids in the biomass are sized to small particles.
  • 2. adjusting the moisture content of the biomass: by drying or adding desiccants, to reach a moisture content most appropriate for the densifier.
  • 3. adding coal fines: the ratio of coal to biomass by mass may vary according to the needs of the user. Higher coal content may result in diminished durability of the biomass fuel.
  • 4. Re-adjusting the moisture content of the biomass and coal combination if necessary for the densifier.
  • 5. passing the biomass and coal combination through the densifier.
  • Some embodiments of the process described herein utilize biomass material of various sources, of various moisture contents, and of various sizes, which is mixed with coal fines in a variety of ratios, and then densified at various pressures. These embodiments are summarized in the table below. The ranges given accommodate the fact that every seam of coal has its own characteristics with respect to its actual hardness or grind, and volatile organic compound levels. Biomass Moisture content Biomass Coal Fine Percentage Coal fuel by weight Size Size of coal fines Moisture Pressure Straw-type 5-25% 1 inch ¼ inch 5-75% 5-25% 200-15,000 psi minus minus Sewer sludge, 5-25% No pre- ¼ inch 5-75% 5-25% 200-15,000 psi paper, animal sizing minus waste necessary Wood waste 5-25% ½ inch ¼ inch 5-75% 5-25% 200-15,000 psi minus minus
  • Biomass material may be delivered to a manufacturer with a variety of moisture content, ranging in biomass material which is dry to that which is in liquid suspension or sludge. A manufacturer may have to adjust the moisture content of a biomass material either by adding moisture or drying it, usually to a moisture range of 5-25% depending on the type of densifier and size of die to be used).
  • In addition, biomass material needs to be sized to pass through the various dies and agglomerate correctly. All of the bio-solids must be thoroughly mixed with the coal fines to ease the densification process by avoiding slugs of pure coal fines that can plug the machine, and to achieve a better quality final product. In the case of paper, 1½ inch minus, wood waste ½ inch minus or shavings, biological sludges do not have to be mechanically sized prior to blending. Straw and grasses should be sized to 1 inch minus.
  • The die temperature will increase if the manufacturer lowers the amount of moisture added just prior to entering the densifier. As the die temperature increases so does the quality, durability, and water resistance of the finished product.
  • The coal fine will be in the 1/4 inch minus range.
  • The amount of coal fines utilized (expressed by percentage of the total weight) can range from 5% to 75% of the total weight. Above 75% of coal fines by weight, there is difficulty in maintaining cube or pellet integrity resulting in a high percentage of “fines” in the finished product.
  • In another embodiment of the process, the moisture resistance of the biomass fuel product is increased by increasing the percentage of coal fines used in the process.
  • In another embodiment of the process, the durability and density of the biomass fuel product is increased by increasing the friction, that is increasing the amount of pressure used to pass the material through the die. Additionally, durability and density can be increased by increasing the die temperatures from ambient temperatures to 300 degrees Fahrenheit. In another embodiment of the process, the ease of handling biomass fuel material in the densification process is increased by the presence/absence of coal fines. When the material is passed through the densifiers mentioned above, the bulk density of the material is greatly increased, allowing for easier handling and transportation with significantly lower amounts of fines generated by handling. In certain types of combustors, these fines cause a serious problem by not burning in the heat zone and by becoming a fly ash material that plugs economizers and mulitclones, and overworks the electrostatic precipitators.
  • Another embodiment is the creation of a biomass fuel product which is characterized by a zone which is resistant to or impervious to moisture. This zone is formed by passing a combination of biomass fuel material and coal fines through a densification machine, such that oils in the coal fines migrate to the exterior surface of the biomass fuel product. This zone can sometimes be seen when the biomass fuel product is broken, where it will appear as a fine line around the perimeter of the surface of the break.
  • Another embodiment of the process is the creation of a biomass fuel product which is lower in mercury, lead, cadmium, sulfur, and other harmful metals than other non-biomass fuels, by blending biomass fuel material with coal fines. This biomass fuel product, when combusted, will lower the emission of harmful metals as compared to combustion of other coal fuel.
  • The terms and expressions which have been employed in the forgoing specification are used therein as terms of description and not of limitation, and there is no intention in the use of such terms and expressions of excluding equivalence of the features shown and described or portions thereof, it being recognized that the scope of the invention is defined and limited only by the claims which follow.

Claims (6)

1. A process for forming a combustible fuel from biomass material comprising the steps of:
(a) adjusting a moisture content of a biomass material;
(b) adding coal fines to the biomass material to form a mixture; and
(c) compressing the mixture to form a biomass fuel.
2. The process of claim 1 additionally comprising the step of sizing the biomass material.
3. The process of claim 1 additionally comprising the step of adjusting the moisture content of the mixture.
4. The process of claim 1 wherein the moisture content of the biomass material is adjusted to the range of 5 to 25%.
5. The process of claim 1 wherein the coal fines are a percentage 5 to 75% of the total weight of the mixture.
6. The process of claim 1 where the compression of the mixture is at 200psi to 15,000psi and temperatures ranging from ambient to 300 degrees Fahrenheit (pressure/temperature)
US11/432,114 2006-05-11 2006-05-11 Water resistance, density, and durability of biomass fuels Abandoned US20070261295A1 (en)

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Cited By (17)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20100018113A1 (en) * 2008-06-26 2010-01-28 Casella Waste Systems, Inc. Engineered fuel feed stock
WO2010020393A1 (en) * 2008-08-18 2010-02-25 Loehr Tobias Fuel system and method for producing the same
US20100139156A1 (en) * 2009-01-26 2010-06-10 Mennell James A Corn stover fuel objects with high heat output and reduced emissions designed for large-scale power generation
US20100139155A1 (en) * 2009-01-26 2010-06-10 Mennell James A Switch grass fuel objects with high heat output and reduced air emissions designed for large-scale power generation
US20100154296A1 (en) * 2008-12-22 2010-06-24 Clean Coal Briquette, Inc. Coal particles briquette where the binder is lignin and methods and systems of preparing the same
US20100218419A1 (en) * 2008-06-26 2010-09-02 Dingrong Bai Engineered fuel feed stock
US20110088751A1 (en) * 2008-06-30 2011-04-21 James Rosa Non-imaging radiant energy concentrator
CN102604703A (en) * 2011-01-19 2012-07-25 王景龙 Biomass energy fuel combination and preparation method thereof
US8349034B2 (en) 2008-06-26 2013-01-08 Re Community Energy, Llc Engineered fuel feed stock useful for displacement of coal in coal firing plants
US8382862B2 (en) 2009-12-22 2013-02-26 Re Community Energy, Llc Sorbent containing engineered fuel feed stock
US8585787B2 (en) 2012-01-26 2013-11-19 Mph Energy Llc Mitigation of harmful combustion emissions using sorbent containing engineered fuel feed stocks
CN105154161A (en) * 2015-08-24 2015-12-16 陆乃昌 Special biomass composite fuel for mechanical grate boiler
US9683738B2 (en) 2014-06-16 2017-06-20 Biomass Energy Enhancements, Llc System for co-firing coal and beneficiated organic-carbon-containing feedstock in a coal combustion apparatus
US9702548B2 (en) 2014-06-16 2017-07-11 Biomass Energy Enhancements, Llc System for co-firing cleaned coal and beneficiated organic-carbon-containing feedstock in a coal combustion apparatus
US10018355B2 (en) 2014-06-16 2018-07-10 CTP Biotechnology, LLC System and process for combusting coal and beneficiated organic-carbon-containing feedstock
US10024533B2 (en) 2014-06-16 2018-07-17 Ctp Biotechnology Llc System and process for combusting cleaned coal and beneficiated organic-carbon-containing feedstock
US10167437B2 (en) 2011-04-15 2019-01-01 Carbon Technology Holdings, LLC Systems and apparatus for production of high-carbon biogenic reagents

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US1003296A (en) * 1909-01-15 1911-09-12 Anthony C Douglas Process of making briquets.
US1668660A (en) * 1926-11-01 1928-05-08 Shimamoto Saichi Method of treating pulverized vegetable fuels
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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US233884A (en) * 1880-11-02 William haeeold smith
US744584A (en) * 1903-04-08 1903-11-17 Jacob Mellinger Chemical compound.
US1003296A (en) * 1909-01-15 1911-09-12 Anthony C Douglas Process of making briquets.
US1668660A (en) * 1926-11-01 1928-05-08 Shimamoto Saichi Method of treating pulverized vegetable fuels
US2270288A (en) * 1939-03-11 1942-01-20 Worth C Goss Straw briquette and its method of manufacture
US4496365A (en) * 1980-03-17 1985-01-29 Lindemann Rolf W Method of producing briquettes from organic waste products
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Cited By (42)

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US8444721B2 (en) 2008-06-26 2013-05-21 Re Community Energy, Llc Engineered fuel feed stock
US10611974B2 (en) 2008-06-26 2020-04-07 Accordant Energy, Llc Engineered fuel feed stock
US9062268B2 (en) 2008-06-26 2015-06-23 Accordant Energy, Llc Engineered fuel feed stock
US8906119B2 (en) 2008-06-26 2014-12-09 Accordant Energy, Llc Engineered fuel feed stock
US8852302B2 (en) 2008-06-26 2014-10-07 Accordant Energy, Llc Engineered fuel feed stock
US20100018113A1 (en) * 2008-06-26 2010-01-28 Casella Waste Systems, Inc. Engineered fuel feed stock
US20100218419A1 (en) * 2008-06-26 2010-09-02 Dingrong Bai Engineered fuel feed stock
US8157874B2 (en) 2008-06-26 2012-04-17 Re Community Holdings Ii, Inc. Engineered fuel feed stock
US20110209394A1 (en) * 2008-06-26 2011-09-01 Bohlig James W Engineered fuel feed stock
US8157875B2 (en) 2008-06-26 2012-04-17 Re Community Holdings Ii, Inc. Engineered fuel feed stock
US10329501B2 (en) 2008-06-26 2019-06-25 Accordant Energy, Llc Engineered fuel feed stock
US8192513B2 (en) 2008-06-26 2012-06-05 Re Community Energy, Llc Engineered fuel feed stock
US8192512B2 (en) 2008-06-26 2012-06-05 Re Community Energy, Llc Engineered fuel feed stock
US8523962B2 (en) 2008-06-26 2013-09-03 Mph Energy Llc Engineered fuel feed stock
US8349034B2 (en) 2008-06-26 2013-01-08 Re Community Energy, Llc Engineered fuel feed stock useful for displacement of coal in coal firing plants
US8382863B2 (en) 2008-06-26 2013-02-26 Re Community Energy, Llc Engineered fuel feed stock
US8828105B2 (en) 2008-06-26 2014-09-09 Accordant Energy, Llc Engineered fuel feed stock useful for displacement of coal in coal firing plants
US9688931B2 (en) 2008-06-26 2017-06-27 Accordant Energy, Llc Engineered fuel feed stock
US9523051B2 (en) 2008-06-26 2016-12-20 Accordant Energy, Llc Engineered fuel feed stock
US20110088751A1 (en) * 2008-06-30 2011-04-21 James Rosa Non-imaging radiant energy concentrator
EP2177593A1 (en) * 2008-08-18 2010-04-21 Tobias Löhr Fuel system and method for manufacturing the same
WO2010020393A1 (en) * 2008-08-18 2010-02-25 Loehr Tobias Fuel system and method for producing the same
US20100154296A1 (en) * 2008-12-22 2010-06-24 Clean Coal Briquette, Inc. Coal particles briquette where the binder is lignin and methods and systems of preparing the same
US20100139156A1 (en) * 2009-01-26 2010-06-10 Mennell James A Corn stover fuel objects with high heat output and reduced emissions designed for large-scale power generation
US20100139155A1 (en) * 2009-01-26 2010-06-10 Mennell James A Switch grass fuel objects with high heat output and reduced air emissions designed for large-scale power generation
US10563144B2 (en) 2009-12-22 2020-02-18 Accordant Energy, Llc Sorbent containing engineered fuel feed stock
US9181508B2 (en) 2009-12-22 2015-11-10 Accordant Energy, Llc Sorbent containing engineered fuel feed stock
US8617264B2 (en) 2009-12-22 2013-12-31 Mph Energy Llc Sorbent containing engineered fuel feed stock
US9752086B2 (en) 2009-12-22 2017-09-05 Accordant Energy, Llc Sorbent containing engineered fuel feed stock
US8382862B2 (en) 2009-12-22 2013-02-26 Re Community Energy, Llc Sorbent containing engineered fuel feed stock
CN102604703A (en) * 2011-01-19 2012-07-25 王景龙 Biomass energy fuel combination and preparation method thereof
US10611977B2 (en) 2011-04-15 2020-04-07 Carbon Technology Holdings, LLC Methods and apparatus for enhancing the energy content of carbonaceous materials from pyrolysis
US10167437B2 (en) 2011-04-15 2019-01-01 Carbon Technology Holdings, LLC Systems and apparatus for production of high-carbon biogenic reagents
US10174267B2 (en) 2011-04-15 2019-01-08 Carbon Technology Holdings, LLC Process for producing high-carbon biogenic reagents
US10174268B2 (en) 2012-01-26 2019-01-08 Accordant Energy, Llc Mitigation of harmful combustion emissions using sorbent containing engineered fuel feed stocks
US9487722B2 (en) 2012-01-26 2016-11-08 Accordant Energy, Llc Mitigation of harmful combustion emissions using sorbent containing engineered fuel feed stocks
US8585787B2 (en) 2012-01-26 2013-11-19 Mph Energy Llc Mitigation of harmful combustion emissions using sorbent containing engineered fuel feed stocks
US9683738B2 (en) 2014-06-16 2017-06-20 Biomass Energy Enhancements, Llc System for co-firing coal and beneficiated organic-carbon-containing feedstock in a coal combustion apparatus
US9702548B2 (en) 2014-06-16 2017-07-11 Biomass Energy Enhancements, Llc System for co-firing cleaned coal and beneficiated organic-carbon-containing feedstock in a coal combustion apparatus
US10018355B2 (en) 2014-06-16 2018-07-10 CTP Biotechnology, LLC System and process for combusting coal and beneficiated organic-carbon-containing feedstock
US10024533B2 (en) 2014-06-16 2018-07-17 Ctp Biotechnology Llc System and process for combusting cleaned coal and beneficiated organic-carbon-containing feedstock
CN105154161A (en) * 2015-08-24 2015-12-16 陆乃昌 Special biomass composite fuel for mechanical grate boiler

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