Connect public, paid and private patent data with Google Patents Public Datasets

Reactive-adsorptive protective materials and methods for use

Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US20070248529A1
US20070248529A1 US11774222 US77422207A US2007248529A1 US 20070248529 A1 US20070248529 A1 US 20070248529A1 US 11774222 US11774222 US 11774222 US 77422207 A US77422207 A US 77422207A US 2007248529 A1 US2007248529 A1 US 2007248529A1
Authority
US
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
carbon
activated
nanoparticles
metal
reactive
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US11774222
Inventor
Holly Axtell
Scott Hartley
Sallavanti Robert A.
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Gentex Corp
Original Assignee
Gentex Corp
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS, COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J20/00Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof
    • B01J20/28Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof characterised by their form or physical properties
    • B01J20/28054Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof characterised by their form or physical properties characterised by their surface properties or porosity
    • B01J20/28057Surface area, e.g. B.E.T specific surface area
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K33/00Medicinal preparations containing inorganic active ingredients
    • A61K33/02Ammonia; Compounds thereof
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A62LIFE-SAVING; FIRE-FIGHTING
    • A62DCHEMICAL MEANS FOR EXTINGUISHING FIRES OR FOR COMBATING OR PROTECTING AGAINST HARMFUL CHEMICAL AGENTS; CHEMICAL MATERIALS FOR USE IN BREATHING APPARATUS
    • A62D5/00Composition of materials for coverings or clothing affording protection against harmful chemical agents
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS, COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J20/00Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof
    • B01J20/02Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof comprising inorganic material
    • B01J20/04Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof comprising inorganic material comprising compounds of alkali metals, alkaline earth metals or magnesium
    • B01J20/041Oxides or hydroxides
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS, COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J20/00Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof
    • B01J20/02Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof comprising inorganic material
    • B01J20/06Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof comprising inorganic material comprising oxides or hydroxides of metals not provided for in group B01J20/04
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS, COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J20/00Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof
    • B01J20/02Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof comprising inorganic material
    • B01J20/20Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof comprising inorganic material comprising free carbon; comprising carbon obtained by carbonising processes
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS, COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J20/00Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof
    • B01J20/28Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof characterised by their form or physical properties
    • B01J20/28002Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof characterised by their form or physical properties characterised by their physical properties
    • B01J20/28004Sorbent size or size distribution, e.g. particle size
    • B01J20/28007Sorbent size or size distribution, e.g. particle size with size in the range 1-100 nanometers, e.g. nanosized particles, nanofibers, nanotubes, nanowires or the like
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS, COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J20/00Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof
    • B01J20/28Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof characterised by their form or physical properties
    • B01J20/28002Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof characterised by their form or physical properties characterised by their physical properties
    • B01J20/28009Magnetic properties
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS, COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J20/00Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof
    • B01J20/28Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof characterised by their form or physical properties
    • B01J20/28002Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof characterised by their form or physical properties characterised by their physical properties
    • B01J20/28011Other properties, e.g. density, crush strength
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS, COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J20/00Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof
    • B01J20/28Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof characterised by their form or physical properties
    • B01J20/28014Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof characterised by their form or physical properties characterised by their form
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS, COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J20/00Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof
    • B01J20/28Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof characterised by their form or physical properties
    • B01J20/28014Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof characterised by their form or physical properties characterised by their form
    • B01J20/28016Particle form
    • B01J20/28019Spherical, ellipsoidal or cylindrical
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS, COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J20/00Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof
    • B01J20/28Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof characterised by their form or physical properties
    • B01J20/28014Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof characterised by their form or physical properties characterised by their form
    • B01J20/28023Fibres or filaments
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS, COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J20/00Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof
    • B01J20/28Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof characterised by their form or physical properties
    • B01J20/28014Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof characterised by their form or physical properties characterised by their form
    • B01J20/28028Particles immobilised within fibres or filaments
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS, COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J20/00Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof
    • B01J20/28Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof characterised by their form or physical properties
    • B01J20/28014Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof characterised by their form or physical properties characterised by their form
    • B01J20/28033Membrane, sheet, cloth, pad, lamellar or mat
    • B01J20/28038Membranes or mats made from fibers or filaments
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS, COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J20/00Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof
    • B01J20/28Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof characterised by their form or physical properties
    • B01J20/28014Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof characterised by their form or physical properties characterised by their form
    • B01J20/28052Several layers of identical or different sorbents stacked in a housing, e.g. in a column
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS, COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J20/00Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof
    • B01J20/28Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof characterised by their form or physical properties
    • B01J20/28054Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof characterised by their form or physical properties characterised by their surface properties or porosity
    • B01J20/28078Pore diameter
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS, COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J20/00Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof
    • B01J20/28Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof characterised by their form or physical properties
    • B01J20/28054Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof characterised by their form or physical properties characterised by their surface properties or porosity
    • B01J20/28088Pore-size distribution
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS, COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J20/00Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof
    • B01J20/28Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof characterised by their form or physical properties
    • B01J20/28054Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof characterised by their form or physical properties characterised by their surface properties or porosity
    • B01J20/28088Pore-size distribution
    • B01J20/28092Bimodal, polymodal, different types of pores or different pore size distributions in different parts of the sorbent
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS, COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J20/00Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof
    • B01J20/28Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof characterised by their form or physical properties
    • B01J20/28054Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof characterised by their form or physical properties characterised by their surface properties or porosity
    • B01J20/28095Shape or type of pores, voids, channels, ducts
    • B01J20/28097Shape or type of pores, voids, channels, ducts being coated, filled or plugged with specific compounds
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS, COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J20/00Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof
    • B01J20/30Processes for preparing, regenerating, or reactivating
    • B01J20/32Impregnating or coating ; Solid sorbent compositions obtained from processes involving impregnating or coating
    • B01J20/3202Impregnating or coating ; Solid sorbent compositions obtained from processes involving impregnating or coating characterised by the carrier, support or substrate used for impregnation or coating
    • B01J20/3204Inorganic carriers, supports or substrates
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS, COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J20/00Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof
    • B01J20/30Processes for preparing, regenerating, or reactivating
    • B01J20/32Impregnating or coating ; Solid sorbent compositions obtained from processes involving impregnating or coating
    • B01J20/3231Impregnating or coating ; Solid sorbent compositions obtained from processes involving impregnating or coating characterised by the coating or impregnating layer
    • B01J20/3234Inorganic material layers
    • B01J20/3236Inorganic material layers containing metal, other than zeolites, e.g. oxides, hydroxides, sulphides or salts
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS, COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J20/00Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof
    • B01J20/30Processes for preparing, regenerating, or reactivating
    • B01J20/32Impregnating or coating ; Solid sorbent compositions obtained from processes involving impregnating or coating
    • B01J20/3291Characterised by the shape of the carrier, the coating or the obtained coated product
    • B01J20/3293Coatings on a core, the core being particle or fiber shaped, e.g. encapsulated particles, coated fibers
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS, COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J20/00Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof
    • B01J20/30Processes for preparing, regenerating, or reactivating
    • B01J20/32Impregnating or coating ; Solid sorbent compositions obtained from processes involving impregnating or coating
    • B01J20/3291Characterised by the shape of the carrier, the coating or the obtained coated product
    • B01J20/3295Coatings made of particles, nanoparticles, fibers, nanofibers
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B82NANOTECHNOLOGY
    • B82YSPECIFIC USES OR APPLICATIONS OF NANOSTRUCTURES; MEASUREMENT OR ANALYSIS OF NANOSTRUCTURES; MANUFACTURE OR TREATMENT OF NANOSTRUCTURES
    • B82Y30/00Nanotechnology for materials or surface science, e.g. nanocomposites
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S977/00Nanotechnology
    • Y10S977/70Nanostructure
    • Y10S977/773Nanoparticle, i.e. structure having three dimensions of 100 nm or less
    • Y10S977/775Nanosized powder or flake, e.g. nanosized catalyst
    • Y10S977/777Metallic powder or flake
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S977/00Nanotechnology
    • Y10S977/70Nanostructure
    • Y10S977/778Nanostructure within specified host or matrix material, e.g. nanocomposite films
    • Y10S977/779Possessing nanosized particles, powders, flakes, or clusters other than simple atomic impurity doping
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S977/00Nanotechnology
    • Y10S977/84Manufacture, treatment, or detection of nanostructure
    • Y10S977/88Manufacture, treatment, or detection of nanostructure with arrangement, process, or apparatus for testing
    • Y10S977/881Microscopy or spectroscopy, e.g. sem, tem
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T156/00Adhesive bonding and miscellaneous chemical manufacture
    • Y10T156/10Methods of surface bonding and/or assembly therefor
    • Y10T156/1089Methods of surface bonding and/or assembly therefor of discrete laminae to single face of additional lamina
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T442/00Fabric [woven, knitted, or nonwoven textile or cloth, etc.]
    • Y10T442/20Coated or impregnated woven, knit, or nonwoven fabric which is not [a] associated with another preformed layer or fiber layer or, [b] with respect to woven and knit, characterized, respectively, by a particular or differential weave or knit, wherein the coating or impregnation is neither a foamed material nor a free metal or alloy layer
    • Y10T442/2525Coating or impregnation functions biologically [e.g., insect repellent, antiseptic, insecticide, bactericide, etc.]

Abstract

A reactive-adsorptive protective material having an activated carbon adsorbent, including those manufactured from a gel-type ion exchange resin. The activated carbon adsorbent has adsorptive properties for adsorbing chemical impurities. The activated carbon is wettlerized to further impart reactive properties onto the activated carbon for providing protection against blood agents in the atmosphere. Advantageously, a superior reactive-adsorptive material is provided having the ability to neutralize chemical substances, in particular, blood agents, while at the same time not diminishing the effectiveness of the carbon's adsorption capabilities.

Description

    CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • [0001]
    This utility application is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/372,352 filed on Feb. 24, 2003 which claims the priority date benefit of U.S. Provisional Application 60/360,050 filed on Feb. 25, 2002.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • [0002]
    1. Technical Field
  • [0003]
    The present invention relates generally to protective materials, and in particular, to reactive and adsorptive materials for providing protection from chemical agents and blood agents and methods for providing and using such materials. Also, these materials may be further treated to provide protection from biological agents.
  • [0004]
    2. Description of Related Art
  • [0005]
    Agents of chemical warfare have existed for a long time and can generally be grouped into the following three classes: 1) blister/percutaneous agents 2) nerve agents, and 3) blood agents.
  • [0006]
    1) Blister/percutaneous agents attack the skin and/or mucous membrane tissues external or internal to the human body, including the inhalation route. The resulting blistering and ulceration is extremely debilitating and can be fatal. Typical of this class is Mustard (labeled as Agent HD) which can be present as a liquid or a gas or within an aerosolized carrier.
  • [0007]
    These agents were found early on to be readily adsorbed by activated carbon which, when contained within canister beds or immobilized/fixed within or upon various textile substrates, offered the ready capability to adsorb such agents and hold them away from vulnerable body areas of the person to be protected. Activated carbon has been made into and presented as powders, granules, dried slurries, fibers, spherical beads, etc. and is derived from a variety of processes which are performed on organic precursors such as coconut husks, wood, pitch and organic resins. Each process is unique but can be reduced in view to the following steps. (a) carbonizing the organic precursor material to carbon of modest internal surface area (of the order of tens to a few hundred of square meters or surface area per gram of carbon), and then (b) activating this carbon to produce a carbon with many hundreds to low thousands of n2/gm of surface area. Such activated carbon has strong adsorptive abilities. When a material adsorbs something, it means that it attaches to it by chemical attraction. The huge surface area of activated carbon gives it countless bonding sites. When certain chemicals pass next to the carbon surface they attach to the surface and are trapped.
  • [0008]
    The carbons materials must be fixed within or upon a carrier substrate in order to be rendered into a useful form. Such fixation, whether by way of adhesion or entrapment or some other mode of fixing the carbon on the carrier, must be done deftly enough such that as little as possible of the valuable surface area is obfuscated by the fixation process.
  • [0009]
    2) The nerve agents are a variety of compounds which can be presented as gases, liquids or secured either in aerosol or other carriers, much as is HD. They attack the human body and interfere with nervous system functioning via immobilization of key enzymes necessary therein, causing death or severe injury. They all operate principally via percutaneous and inhalation routes and are extremely toxic even in miniscule amounts. Typical of such species are Sarin and Soman, often referred to as the G agents (GB and GD). They are also efficiently adsorbed by carbon of high surface area with the same carbon source/process and fixation considerations as discussed above.
  • [0010]
    3) The blood agents are those species which, when inhaled, dissolve via the lungs in the blood and cause asphyxiation by displacing the oxygen (O2) normally carried by the hemoglobin moieties with more potently binding species known as strong Lewis Bases. Such agents include Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN), Carbon Monoxide (CO), Phosgene (COCl2) and others. The blood agents are minimally and essentially ignorably adsorbed by the activated carbon spoken of above. This is because the blood agents constitute molecules of too low a molecular weight such that their fugacity at normal temperatures exceeds any surface bonding power which the activated carbon can offer. Indeed, although activated carbon is useful for trapping carbon-based impurities (“organic” chemicals), as well as elements like chlorine, many other chemicals (sodium, nitrates, etc.) are not attracted to carbon at all, and therefore pass through unadsorbed. Thus, an activated carbon filter will remove only certain impurities while ignoring others.
  • [0011]
    It is to be noted that there are some chemical agents which can arguably be either percutaneous, inhalation or blood agents, or some combination of these simultaneously. However, for the purposes mentioned herein, such species would operationally fall into one or more of the modes of handling which are cited above.
  • [0012]
    Accordingly, there exists a need for materials which have improved adsorptive properties for greater adsorption of impurities and which also have reactive properties to concurrently and effectively neutralize chemical substances which, for example, cannot be adsorbed.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • [0013]
    The present invention is directed to reactive and adsorptive materials for providing protection from chemical and/or biological agents and methods for providing such materials. Advantageously, the present invention provides for efficient and effective adsorption and neutralization of harmful chemical agents as well as blood agents.
  • [0014]
    Specifically, activated carbon according to the present invention advantageously retains an effective level of adsorptive ability (i.e., the surface area of the bead is not measurably diminished) despite being wettlerized (and/or imbedded with nanoparticles). This is so because even after being imbedded with metal ions and/or nanoparticles, an effective amount of pores in the activated carbon remain unoccluded such that the adsorptive properties of the carbon remain unaffected. This combination of features advantageously results in a superior reactive-adsorptive material having the ability to neutralize chemical substances and/or kill biological agents while at the same time not diminishing the effectiveness of the carbon's adsorptive capabilities.
  • [0015]
    According to an aspect of the present invention, a reactive-adsorptive protective material is provided comprising an activated carbon bead manufactured from a gel-type ion exchange resin, said activated carbon bead having pores for providing adsorptive properties, and metal ions infused into said pores of said activated carbon bead for imparting reactive properties onto the activated carbon.
  • [0016]
    According to yet another aspect of the present invention, a reactive-adsorptive protective material is provided comprising a gel-type ion exchange resin carbonized and activated to fern activated carbon having adsorptive properties, pores within said carbon beads having a pore size distribution, and metal ions in contact with said pores, wherein the activated carbon retains an effective level of adsorptive ability.
  • [0017]
    According to yet another aspect of the present invention, a method of providing a reactive-adsorptive protective material is provided comprising the steps of producing activated carbon from a gel-type ion exchange resin, the activated carbon having adsorptive properties for adsorbing chemical impurities, and loading metal ions onto the activated carbon to further impart reactive properties onto the activated carbon for providing protection against blood agents which are in contact therewith.
  • [0018]
    According to another aspect of the present invention, the reactive-adsorptive materials according to the present invention may further be imparted with reactive biocidal nanoparticles, as per a process described in co-pending U.S. Patent Application entitled “Multi-Functional Protective Materials and Methods for Providing Same” filed concurrently herewith, bearing U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/372,527. The complete disclosure of this concurrently filed application is hereby incorporated by reference. For example, either an improved activated carbon bead according to the present invention by itself and/or an improved activated carbon bead that has been wettlerized can further be subjected to an electromagnetically induced impaction process in combination with simultaneous sieving so as to imbed nanoparticular agglomerated entities into the surface of the beads where they are held in place by the topographical imbedding in the carbon bead and the van der Waals forces between the particle ions and the carbon beads' surface/pore atoms proximate to the nanoparticle. Advantageously, these imbedded nanoparticles impart additional protection by destructively adsorbing chemicals and microorganisms. Specifically, the nanoparticles are able to protect against biological agents by destroying or inactivating microorganisms by attacking their cell membranes and oxidizing important functional proteins or DNA. The nanoparticle impaction process is further described in co-pending U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/372,527 mentioned above.
  • [0019]
    These and other aspects, features and advantages of the present invention will be described or become apparent from the following detailed description of the preferred embodiments, which is to be read in connection with the accompanying drawings.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • [0020]
    FIG. 1 depicts an exemplary SEM micrograph of an untreated carbon bead.
  • [0021]
    FIG. 2 depicts an exemplary SEM micrograph of a carbon bead loaded with 1% MgO particles according to an aspect of the present invention.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
  • [0022]
    An activated carbonaceous bead with extraordinarily high surface area (e.g., ˜1500 m2/gm) and extraordinary hardness (e.g., from about 2 to about 10 times harder than prior art Rohm & Haas and Kureha beads) comprises the activated carbon bead preferably used according to an aspect of the present invention. The materials and methods used for manufacturing the activated carbon bead used in the present invention are described in published U.S. Patent Application No. 2002-0028333 entitled “Spherical High Performance Adsorbents with Microstructure” by Giebelhausen et al. filed on Mar. 8, 2001, U.S. Pat. No. 6,376,404 entitled “Process for the Production of Shaped High-Performance Adsorbents” by Giebelhausen et al. filed on Mar. 15, 2000, and U.S. Pat. No. 6,316,378 entitled “Process for the Production of Shaped Activated Carbon” by Giebelhausen et al. filed on Mar. 15, 2000, the disclosures of which are all incorporated herein by reference thereto.
  • [0023]
    It is to be noted that the materials preferably used for manufacturing the activated carbon used according to the present invention preferably comprise spherical high-performance adsorbents which are manufactured from polymer resin by water vapor activation with an activation time of at least 6 hours. These adsorbents have a pronounced microstructure in the range of about 0 Å to about 40 Å pore diameter and an overall micropore volume of at least 0.6 cm3/g. A substantial increase in the adsorption capacity for gases and vapors is achieved which is also represented by the very favorable ratio of weight capacity to volume capacity of up to 2 to 1. The spherical high-performance adsorbents with microstructure can be used for many purposes, in particular, textile fabrics for the adsorption of chemical warfare agents and toxic gases and vapors, in adsorption refrigerating plants in combination with the refrigerating agent methanol, in motor vehicle filters and biofilters.
  • [0024]
    As used in the claims, the term “activated carbon adsorbent” refers to any suitable form of activated carbon useful in protective applications. By way of non-limiting examples, the “activated carbon adsorbents” may take the form of beads, pellets, powders, granules, grains, tablets, particulates, fibers or dried slurries. A specific example having known utility is a bead having a highly uniform spherical shape. The spherical high-performance adsorbents preferably used in the present invention are explained in further detail below by means of exemplified embodiments.
  • EXAMPLE 1
  • [0025]
    Initially, 3 kg of a carbonized spherical cation exchanger polymer resin, sold under the designation Lewatit 1431, from Bayer AG, Leverkusen, having the following quality specification is selected as the starting material:
    Water content: 1.1%
    Volatile constituents: 1.5%
    Ash content 2.4%
    Fixed carbon: 96.1%
    Sulphur content: 15.0%
    Granulation:
    >1.25 mm 0.2%
    1.25 mm-1.0 mm 5.1%
    1.0 mm-0.8 mm 36.4%
    0.8 mm-0.5 mm 56.1%
    <0.5 mm 2.2%
  • [0026]
    These gel-type resin beads are discontinuously activated for 7 hours in an inert gas flow in an indirectly heated tubular rotary kiln, with the product being circulated 8 times per kiln rotation, with the addition of 0.75 kg/hr water vapor at a low pressure on the flue gas side of 0.1 mm water column and with a product temperature of 920° C., with respect to the overall heated kiln length.
  • [0027]
    A total water vapor quality of 0.75 kg/hr is metered into the activation kiln as follows:
    0.11 kg/hr water vapour over 17% of the kiln length
    0.15 kg/hr water vapour over 43% of the kiln length
    0.23 kg/hr water vapour over 54% of the kiln length
    0.15 kg/hr water vapour over 65% of the kiln length
    0.11 kg/hr water vapour over 83% of the kiln length
  • [0028]
    The kiln length is measured from the bead input side. Then the produced high performance adsorbents are cooled and screened as grain fractions between 0.315 mm and 0.8 mm in size.
  • [0029]
    The spherical high-performance adsorbents used in the present invention have a microstructure which is characterized by the following pore distribution:
    pore
    pore diameter volume pore volume content of overall micropore
    (in Å Angstrom) (in cm2/g) micropore volumes (in %)
    40-20 0.031 5.0
    20-10 0.114 18.7
    10-8  0.09 14.8
    8-5 0.249 40.8
    5-0 0.126 20.7
  • [0030]
    The measurable dust content, i.e., grains smaller than 0.04 mm is less than 1%. The remaining grain-size distribution is as follows:
    0.7-0.63 mm 0.2%
    0.63-0.5 mm 12.3%
     0.5-0.4 mm 78.2%
    0.4-0.315 mm  9.3%
  • [0031]
    The spherical high-performance adsorbents used in the present invention are characterized by the following quality parameters specific to activated carbon:
    Settled weight: 585 g/l
    Ash  1.9%
    Iodine value 1388 mg/g
    Methylene blue 28 ml
    BET surface 1409 m2/g
    Breaking strength 100%
    Dynamic hardness 100%
    Abrasion strength 100%
    Regeneration loss (after 10  1.5%
    regeneration cycles)
  • [0032]
    Then, 500 g of the spherical high-performance adsorbents according to the invention are applied to a textile fabric, so that a high packing density is produced with a single-layer covering. The efficiency of the high-performance adsorbents used is measured in comparison with a test substance (reference substance for chemical warfare agents) characterized by the adsorption speed constant in accordance with the formula:
    ?=2.3 . . . 1 g c0/cta−1
  • [0033]
    a=weight of adsorbent sample
  • [0034]
    ct=concentration of the test substance after the adsorption time
  • [0035]
    c0=initial concentration of the test substance
  • [0036]
    lg=logarithm
  • [0037]
    The measurement results in comparison with reference products are given in Table 1:
    TABLE 1
    Product Adsorption speed constant ?
    PAX 5001) 3.2
    HK 442) 2.3
    Ambersorb 5723) 2.1

    1)PAK 500: sample of spherical high-performance adsorbents with microstructure

    2)HK 44: activated carbon on charcoal base

    3)Ambersorb 572: pyrolised ion exchanger resin from Robm & Haas, USA
  • EXAMPLE 2
  • [0038]
    The suitability of the spherical high-performance adsorbents for biofilter installations is tested in a laboratory bioreactor. For this the product as given in Example 1 is filled into the reactor chamber and immobilized with microorganisms up to a charging of 3.7×10 9 cells/g base material. Then 201/hr moist exhaust air with a toluene concentration of 500 mg/m3 are conveyed over the immobilized high-performance adsorbents. The achieved degradation capacity and the chamber charging with an efficiency of 90% are represented in Table 4.
    TABLE 4
    Degradation capacity chamber charging at 90%
    Product (in g/m3 · h) efficiency (in g/m3 · h)
    PAK 5001) 12.4 39.6
    WS IV2) 100.6 21.3
    C 40/33) 74.5 14.5

    1)See Example 1

    2)WS IV: formed activated carbon (4 mm) on a charcoal base from Chemviron, Belgium

    3)C 40/3: formed activated carbon (3 mm) on a bituminous coal base according to the invention, CarboTex, Germany
  • [0039]
    The infusion to Varying degrees of prior art carbon with metal ions of the Transition Series in the Periodic Table is known. The metal ions can be introduced in a variety of modes such that the ions of the metals reside within the carbon (likely with the metal cations' charges balanced by nearby spectator gegenions such as oxide (O−2)). It is likely that these metallic ions bind the blood agents via coordinate covalent ligand bonds. The metal ions are strong Lewis acids—electron acceptors; while the agents are strong Lewis bases—electron donors called ligands. When these two encounter each other they bind strongly.
  • [0040]
    In addition, some blood agents are bound temporarily and then decompose to species which become the bound ligands or which can be adsorbed by the carbon. The process by which carbon is perfused/infused with these metal ions is known somewhat generically as “wettlerizing” and originally used ionic species including ions of Chromium and Cadmium. With the recognition over time that some of those metals were carcinogenic to varying degrees, the metal mix presently used has preferably changed to include ions of zinc, copper, molybdenum and others, while excluding the more toxic metals. As used in the claims, the term “loaded” means a perfusion process or an infusion process or a wettlerization process to place metal ions on an activated carbon adsorbent without affecting the adsorbent's ability to combat an adsorbable chemical threat.
  • [0041]
    The activated carbon beads used in the present invention are preferably further subjected to a wettlerization process to infuse the proper transition metal ions into place within/onto the carbon beads. Advantageously, the activated carbonaceous bead preferably used according to an aspect of the present invention has, as described above, both an extraordinarily high surface area (e.g., about 1500 m2/gm) and extraordinary hardness (e.g., from about 2 to about 10 times harder than Rohm & Haas and Kureha beads). These carbon beads have the ability and capacity to take up these metallic ions well in excess of previously tried carbon beads of the prior art (e.g., Rohm & Haas and Kureha) while at the same time not measurably diminishing either the surface area of the bead or its hardness. Specifically, activated carbon according to the present invention advantageously retains an effective level of adsorptive ability (i.e., the surface area of the bead is not measurably diminished) despite being wettlerized (and/or imbedded with nanoparticles). This is so because even after being imbedded with metal ions and/or nanoparticles, an effective amount of pores in the activated carbon remain unoccluded such that the adsorptive properties of the carbon remain unaffected. This combination of features advantageously results in a superior reactive-adsorptive material having the ability to neutralize chemical substances and/or kill biological agents while at the same time not diminishing the effectiveness of the carbon's adsorptive capabilities.
  • [0042]
    Thus, a metal-ion-treated carbon bead according to the present invention comprises a highly adsorptive bead which can also react with and neutralize blood agents. Advantageously, the unique surface area and pore distribution at the surface and within the bead provide a hybrid product having unexpected, novel, useful and unique abilities and very desirable properties. In particular, the unique pore distribution of the carbon bead used according to the present invention results in an especially effective overall resultant product having an improved range of protective properties. Specifically, the resultant product comprises a material having both reactive properties for reacting with and/or neutralizing chemical substances (e.g., blood agents) as well adsorptive properties for adsorbing chemical impurities. This reactive-adsorptive material preferably comprises an activated carbon bead manufactured from a gel-type ion exchange resin, wherein the bead is preferably further subjected to a wettlerization process for introducing metal ions within and onto the carbon bead to impart the reactive properties to the bead.
  • [0043]
    Whether the threat is chemical or biological and whether it is presented as a liquid or a gas, the barrier which physically and chemically protects the user (e.g., clothing, mask, filter, etc.) is subjected to the following processes when in use:
    • (1) Molecules of gaseous chemical agent diffusing through the barrier at some characteristic rate.
    • (2) Liquid droplets of chemical agent diffusing unaided or aided by some external pressure through the barrier at some characteristic rate.
    • (3) Biological aerosolized microdroplets diffusing at some characteristic rate through the barrier.
    • (4) Carbon physically adsorbing organic entities at some characteristic rate of adsorption.
    • (5) Iodinated resins or Nanoparticular entities reacting with biological entities and their toxic residues in the latter case at characteristic rates of reaction.
    • (6) Entities within carbon reacting with the very fugitive blood agents at some characteristic chemical rate of reaction.
    • (7) Normal safe air (O2 and N2, for all practical purposes) and water vapor diffusing through the barrier at their characteristic diffusion rates.
  • [0051]
    An ideal response to a chemical/biological threat is to minimize (1), (2), and (3) while maximizing (4) through (7). However, since these processes are coupled to each other, any modestly successful approach walks a fine line to meet these criteria.
  • [0052]
    It is to be noted that the reactive-adsorptive materials according to the present invention may further be imparted with reactive biocidal nanoparticles, as per a process described in co-pending U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/372,537. For example, either an improved activated carbon bead according to the present invention by itself as well as an improved activated carbon bead that has been wettlerized can further be subjected to an electromagnetically induced impaction process in combination with simultaneous sieving so as to imbed nanoparticular agglomerated entities into the surface of the beads where they are held in place by the topographical imbedding in the carbon bead and the van der Waals forces between the particle ions and the carbon beads' surface/pore atoms proximate to the nanoparticle. Advantageously, these imbedded nanoparticles impart additional protection by destructively adsorbing chemicals and microorganisms. Specifically, the nanoparticles are able to protect against biological agents by destroying or inactivating microorganisms by attacking their cell membranes and oxidizing important functional proteins or DNA. The process by which the nanoparticles are loaded onto the carbon is an electromagnetically assisted impact collision (MAIC) process which is further described in co-pending U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/372,537 mentioned above.
  • [0053]
    The nanoparticles preferably comprise environmentally stable nanometer-sized clusters of atoms and molecules having high surface areas and unique morphologies which result in high chemical reactivity. The reactive/adsorptive particulates used according to the present invention are preferably inorganic, reactive nanoparticulates formed from about 1 nm to about 200 nm sized clusters.
  • [0054]
    Reactive nanoparticles used for protective applications are specifically engineered to destructively adsorb chemicals and microorganisms. Specifically, a nanoparticle adsorbs then detoxifies hazardous chemicals by breaking molecular bonds to yield harmless end products. Similarly, the reactive/adsorptive nanoparticles are able to kill or inactivate a microorganism by attacking its cell membrane and oxidizing important functional proteins or DNA.
  • [0055]
    Exemplary nanoparticles which may be used include metal oxide composites in powder nanopartculate form. These metal oxide composites comprise metal oxide nanoparticles having oxygen ion moieties on their surfaces with reactive atoms interacted or chemisorbed with those surface oxygen ions. For example, the metal oxide nanoparticles may be taken from the group consisting of oxides of Mg, Ti, Ca, Al, Sn, Fe, Co, V, Mn, Ni, Cr, Cu, Zn, Zr, or mixtures thereof. For example, the metal oxide nanoparticles may comprise MgO, TiO2, CaO, Al2O3, SnO2, Fe2O3, FeO, CoO, V2O5, MnO3, NiO, Cr2O3, CuO, ZnO, ZrO2 and mixtures thereof. Nanoparticles made of metal complexes of hydroxides, metal complexes of hydrates as well as polyoxometallates (POMs) are also suitable. Some of the nanoparticles listed in this paragraph may also be further processed, for example to include reactive halogen atoms, alkali metal atoms, a metal nitrate, SO2, NO2, ozone or a second different metal oxide. Alternate processing can provide a protective coating to the nanoparticles which are not soluble rendering them waterproof. These advanced processing steps are disclosed in the following U.S. Pat. Nos., 6,057,488 and 5,914,436 and 5,990,373 and 5,712,219 and 6,087,294 and 6,093,236 and 5,759,939 and 6,417,423 and in Published U.S. Patent Application Ser. No. 2002/0035032, the complete disclosures of which are incorporated herein by reference thereto. Any of these products may be incorporated into the multi-functional protective products according to the invention.
  • [0056]
    The reactive/adsorbent nanoparticulates are thus advantageously capable of;
  • [0057]
    a) Breaking down, decomposing or neutralizing chemicals (e.g. reactive/adsorptive nanoparticulates)
  • [0058]
    b) Acting as a biocide, killing microorganisms
  • [0059]
    c) Neutralizing chemicals and simultaneously acting as a biocide (e.g. reactive/adsorptive nanoparticulates such as MgO nanoparticles, etc.). These nanoparticles may be enhanced or modified for environmental purposes.
  • [0060]
    Thus, the nanoparticles preferably used according to the present invention include at least one of chemically adsorptive nanoparticles, chemically reactive nanoparticles, and biocidally reactive nanoparticles. Further, the nanoparticles used according to the present invention preferably have a Brunauer-Emnmett-Teller (BET) multi-point surface area of at least about 70 m2/g for older nanoparticles to at least about 1200 m2/g or more for more advanced nanoparticles and have an average pore radius of at least about 45 Angstroms to at least about 100 Angstroms.
  • [0061]
    In one example, Magnesium Oxide (MgO) nanoparticles in concentrations of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% by weight were loaded onto Ambersorb R-1500 carbon beads (produced by Rohm & Haas). For comparative purposes and for use as a control, Ambersorb carbon was processed in the MAIC system without the addition of nanoparticles. Visual observations of die treated samples indicated good attachment and distribution of the MgO on the Ambersorb carbon. FIG. 1 depicts an exemplary SEM micrograph of an untreated Ambersorb bead. FIG. 2 depicts an exemplary SEM micrograph of an Ambersorb bead loaded with 1% MgO nanoparticles according to an aspect of the present invention. This resultant treated particle illustrated in FIG. 2 has the appearance of a spherical “cookie” with “raisins” in its surface partially imbedded and partly exposed.
  • [0062]
    The nanoparticles used in accordance with the invention are those that possess a protective property, i.e. protective nanoparticles or protective nanoparticulate entities. For purposes of this application, the term “protective nanoparticles” encompasses one or more of the following three particular types of nanoparticles: chemically adsorptive nanoparticles; chemically reactive nanoparticles; and biocidally reactive nanoparticles.
  • [0063]
    Protective nanoparticles are metal-containing nanoparticles or metal-containing nanocrystals. The metals are present as metal oxides, metal hydroxides, metal hydrates, POMs. To enhance their protective properties, such metal-containing protectants may be combined with one of more of a metal oxide, Group I metals, Group IA metals, a reactive halogen, a metal nitrate, SO2, NO2, or ozone.
  • [0064]
    It should be noted that a bulk metal-containing particle that is ground down to a powder will not possess the protective properties of the nanoparticles used according to the invention because the ground powder will have conventional surface features. In order to distinguish powders from nanoparticles which may be seemingly in the same size range, the protectants according to the invention are referred to as finely divided nanoparticles or finely divided nanocrystals. Protective nanoparticles are formed from 1 nm to 200 nm sized nanoparticulate clusters. These clusters cling together due to van der Waals forces and therefore have many distinguishable constituent parts. A ground powder is just a single entity, with a uniform exterior surface. In contrast thereto, when the nanometer sized clusters cling together much of their original surface area is preserved providing Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) multi-point surface areas of at least 70 m2/g for early protective nanoparticles and surface areas of at least 1200 m2/g for later versions. These surfaces may contain pores having an average pore radius from 45 Angstroms to 100 Angstroms.
  • [0065]
    While the structure, surface area and pore size have imbued the nanoparticles with their protective properties, these structural features have also interfered with past attempts to incorporate the nanoparticles into tangible protective filter precursors. Failed attempts have resulted from an inability to control the van der Waals forces resulting in excessive clumping or from an inability to control the adhesive or retaining means resulting in occluding of useful surface areas or pores. The invention is concerned with products and methods that utilize nanoparticles in a flexible manner to readily incorporate one or more of their chemically adsorptive, chemically reactive or biocidally reactive properties.
  • [0066]
    Although illustrative embodiments of the present invention have been described herein, it is to be understood that the present invention is not limited to those precise embodiments, and that various other changes and modifications may be affected therein by one skilled in the art without departing from the scope or spirit of the present invention. For example, it is expressly intended that all combinations of those carbon beads, metal ions and/or method steps and/or substrate materials which perform substantially the same function in substantially the same way to achieve the same results are within the scope of the invention. Moreover, it should be recognized that any disclosed form or embodiment of the invention may be incorporated in any other disclosed or described or suggested form or as a general matter of compatibility of application method. It is the intention, therefore, to be limited only as indicated by the scope of the claims appended hereto.

Claims (20)

1. A method of providing a reactive-adsorptive protective material for combating chemical or biological threats comprising the steps of:
providing adsorptive carbon that has been activated to produce a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of at least 1500 m2/g and a pore size distribution having a majority of the pores below 40 Å; and
providing finely-divided inorganic metal oxide nanoparticulates that agglomerate into 1 nm to 200 nm sized clusters due to van der Waals forces, whereby the clusters have a BET surface area of at least about 1200 m2/g; and
imbedding the agglomerated clusters directly onto the activated carbon by (i) controlling the forces to minimize over occlusion and preserve adsorptive surface area and (ii) avoiding chemical reactions to retain the nanoparticulate's reactive properties to provide a reactive-adsorptive protective material;
wherein the reactive-adsorptive protective material is adapted to combat chemical or biological threats contained within an environment, without interfering with the activated carbon adsorbent's ability to combat an adsorbable threat.
2. The method of claim 1, wherein the activated carbon has a substantially spherical shape.
3. The method of claim 1, wherein the activated carbon has a microstructure with pores in a size range between 0 Å and 40 Å, wherein
5% to 10% of the overall micropore volume includes pores between 20-40 Å;
15% to 25% of the overall micropore volume includes pores between 10-20 Å;
0% to 20% of the overall micropore volume includes pores between 8-10 Å;
40% and 50% of the overall micropore volume includes pores between 5-8 Å; and 10%-25% of the overall micropore volume includes pores smaller than 5 Å.
4. The method of claim 3, wherein the pore density in the microstructure is at least 0.6 cm3/g.
5. The method of claim 1, wherein the activated carbon bead is produced from the gel-type ion exchange resin by:
delivering the gel-type ion exchange resin to a rotary tunnel dryer pre-heated to from 880° to 900° C. up to a filling volume of from 10 to 20%, wherein a product temperature of from 250° to 300° C. is set up in the dryer in the 50 to 80% kiln length range, said kiln length range being calculated from the product input;
drying the gel-type ion exchange resin continuously with 6-fold product turnover per kiln rotation and a residence time of from 30 to 60 minutes by means of a hot gas in countercurrent to a residual moisture content of at least 10%;
transferring the gel-type ion exchange resin to an indirectly heated rotary tunnel kiln up to a filling volume of from 5 to 10%, said indirectly heated rotary tunnel kiln having a carbonizing zone and an activating zone, wherein the gel-type on exchange resin is carbonized and activated continuously in an inert-gas flow with 8-fold product turnover per kiln rotation and with a product temperature profile in the carbonizing zone of from 850° to 900° C. and a residence time of from 120 to 180 minutes, and with a product temperature profile in the activating zone of from 910° to 920° C. and a residence time of from 480 to 720 minutes with the addition of from 3 to 5 kg/h·kg of steam in the activating zone.
6. The method of claim 5, wherein the flow-rate of the hot gas in the dryer, expressed in terms of free cross-section, is from 0.2 to 0.5 m/s, with a kiln length to kiln diameter ratio of from 5.5 to 10.
7. The method of claim 6, wherein the carbonizing zone covers 20% and the activating zone covers 80% of the heated kiln length, calculated from the product input; and wherein the carbonizing takes place with a product temperature profile, calculated in terms of the heated kiln length from the product input, of 850° C. at the product input, 880° C. after 10% of the kiln length and 900° C. after 20% of the kiln length.
8. The method of claim 1, further comprising the step of sieving the protective nanoparticles during said imbedding step.
9. The method of claim 1, wherein said embedding step comprises electromagnetically induced impacting.
10. The method of claim 9, further comprising the step of sieving the protective nanoparticles during impacting.
11. The method of claim 1, wherein said finely-divided inorganic metal oxide nanoparticulates are selected from the group consisting of chemically adsorptive nanoparticles, chemically reactive nanoparticles, biocidally reactive nanoparticles, and combinations thereof.
12. The method of claim 11, wherein said finely-divided inorganic metal oxide nanoparticulates are selected from the group consisting of metal oxides, metal hydroxides, metal hydrates, POMs, and combinations thereof.
13. The method of claim 11, wherein said finely-divided inorganic metal oxide nanoparticulates are combined with a material selected from the group consisting of a metal oxide, a reactive halogen, an alkali metal, a metal nitrate, SO2, NO2, ozone, and combinations thereof.
14. The method of claim 11, wherein said nanoparticulates have an average pore radius of at least about 45 Angstroms to at least about 100 Angstroms.
15. The method of claim 1, further comprising the steps of:
loading metal ions onto activated carbon adsorbents, prior to said imbedding step, whereby the metal ions are adapted to combat blood agent threats contained within the environment, without interfering with the activated carbon adsorbent's ability to combat an adsorbable chemical threat.
16. The method of claim 15, wherein the adsorbents derive from a gel-type resin.
17. The method of claim 15, wherein said step of loading includes one of infusing metal ions, perfusing metal ions and wettlerizing metal ions.
18. The method of claim 15, wherein the metal ions are selected from the group consisting of zinc, copper and molybdenum.
19. The method of claim 15, wherein the nanoparticulates are combined with a reactive halogen.
20. The method of claim 1, wherein the nanoparticulates are selected from the group consisting of finely-divided inorganic metal-containing nanoparticles combined with a reactive halogen, finely-divided inorganic metal-containing nanocrystals, finely-divided inorganic metal-containing nanocrystals combined with a reactive halogen, and combinations thereof.
US11774222 2002-02-25 2007-07-06 Reactive-adsorptive protective materials and methods for use Abandoned US20070248529A1 (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US36005002 true 2002-02-25 2002-02-25
US10372352 US7256156B2 (en) 2002-02-25 2003-02-24 Reactive-adsorptive protective materials and methods for use
US11774222 US20070248529A1 (en) 2002-02-25 2007-07-06 Reactive-adsorptive protective materials and methods for use

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US11774222 US20070248529A1 (en) 2002-02-25 2007-07-06 Reactive-adsorptive protective materials and methods for use

Related Parent Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US10372352 Continuation US7256156B2 (en) 2002-02-25 2003-02-24 Reactive-adsorptive protective materials and methods for use

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20070248529A1 true true US20070248529A1 (en) 2007-10-25

Family

ID=27766180

Family Applications (8)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US10371810 Abandoned US20040009726A1 (en) 2002-02-25 2003-02-21 Multi-functional protective textiles and methods for decontamination
US10372537 Expired - Fee Related US7211707B2 (en) 2002-02-25 2003-02-24 Multi-functional protective materials and methods for use
US10372352 Expired - Fee Related US7256156B2 (en) 2002-02-25 2003-02-24 Reactive-adsorptive protective materials and methods for use
US10847137 Abandoned US20050026778A1 (en) 2002-02-25 2004-05-17 Multi-functional protective fiber and methods for use
US10862992 Expired - Fee Related US7268269B2 (en) 2002-02-25 2004-06-08 Multi-functional protective textiles and methods for decontamination
US11796341 Abandoned US20080161631A1 (en) 2002-02-25 2007-04-27 Multi-functional protective materials and methods for use
US11774222 Abandoned US20070248529A1 (en) 2002-02-25 2007-07-06 Reactive-adsorptive protective materials and methods for use
US11843201 Abandoned US20070286877A1 (en) 2002-02-25 2007-08-22 Multi-functional protective textiles and methods for decontamination

Family Applications Before (6)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US10371810 Abandoned US20040009726A1 (en) 2002-02-25 2003-02-21 Multi-functional protective textiles and methods for decontamination
US10372537 Expired - Fee Related US7211707B2 (en) 2002-02-25 2003-02-24 Multi-functional protective materials and methods for use
US10372352 Expired - Fee Related US7256156B2 (en) 2002-02-25 2003-02-24 Reactive-adsorptive protective materials and methods for use
US10847137 Abandoned US20050026778A1 (en) 2002-02-25 2004-05-17 Multi-functional protective fiber and methods for use
US10862992 Expired - Fee Related US7268269B2 (en) 2002-02-25 2004-06-08 Multi-functional protective textiles and methods for decontamination
US11796341 Abandoned US20080161631A1 (en) 2002-02-25 2007-04-27 Multi-functional protective materials and methods for use

Family Applications After (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US11843201 Abandoned US20070286877A1 (en) 2002-02-25 2007-08-22 Multi-functional protective textiles and methods for decontamination

Country Status (6)

Country Link
US (8) US20040009726A1 (en)
JP (4) JP2006502322A (en)
KR (4) KR20040107470A (en)
CA (4) CA2477250A1 (en)
EP (4) EP1487288A2 (en)
WO (4) WO2003104534A3 (en)

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20080207442A1 (en) * 2006-11-08 2008-08-28 The Curators Of The University Of Missouri High surface area carbon and process for its production

Families Citing this family (78)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6713076B1 (en) * 1998-04-13 2004-03-30 Emory University Methods for removing a contaminant by a polyoxometalate-modified fabric or a polyoxometalate-modified cellulosic fiber and fabrics thereof
US6723349B1 (en) * 1999-10-12 2004-04-20 Emory University Polyoxometalate materials, metal-containing materials, and methods of use thereof
EP1487288A2 (en) * 2002-02-25 2004-12-22 Gentex Corporation Multu-functional protective textiles and methods for decontamination
WO2005021435A3 (en) * 2003-02-25 2006-07-06 Univ Emory Compositions materials incorporating the compositions, and methods of using the compositions and materials
US20040178135A1 (en) * 2003-03-13 2004-09-16 Beplate Douglas K. Filtering device incorporating nanoparticles
US7060121B2 (en) * 2003-06-25 2006-06-13 Hsing Kuang Lin Method of producing gold nanoparticle
US7704598B2 (en) 2004-05-26 2010-04-27 Gore Enterprise Holdings, Inc. Durable covering for chemical protection
US7435286B2 (en) 2004-08-30 2008-10-14 Energy & Environmental Research Center Foundation Sorbents for the oxidation and removal of mercury
JP4693030B2 (en) * 2004-11-08 2011-06-01 オルガノ株式会社 The method of manufacturing activated carbon
US7549431B1 (en) * 2004-11-10 2009-06-23 Gore Enterprise Holdings, Inc. Protective enclosure
KR100613189B1 (en) * 2004-11-15 2006-08-21 금호섬유공업 주식회사 Ag nano synthetic fiber and manufacturing method thereof
US8539957B2 (en) * 2005-01-14 2013-09-24 Philip Morris Usa Inc. Cigarettes and cigarette filters including activated carbon for removing nitric oxide
EP1685953B1 (en) * 2005-01-26 2008-03-19 Runlite S.A. Thermoplastic material, method for producing orthopaedic devices and orthopaedic devices produced therefrom
JP2006247527A (en) * 2005-03-10 2006-09-21 Kansai Coke & Chem Co Ltd Adsorbent
US8070705B2 (en) * 2005-06-21 2011-12-06 Hipsaver, Incorporated Protective device using a spacer fabric
DE102005040189B4 (en) * 2005-06-28 2011-08-18 Blücher GmbH, 40699 Support material with catalytically active polymer particles
JP4899396B2 (en) * 2005-09-28 2012-03-21 住友ベークライト株式会社 Carbon material, a negative electrode material and a non-aqueous electrolyte secondary battery for a secondary battery using the same
US20070151921A1 (en) * 2006-01-03 2007-07-05 Ceo Espinex Inc. Self-cleaning filtration nanofiber membrane
US8247072B2 (en) 2006-02-14 2012-08-21 Eastman Chemical Company Resol beads, methods of making them and methods of using them
GB0603138D0 (en) * 2006-02-16 2006-03-29 Queen Mary & Westfield College Virucidal materials
WO2007136343A1 (en) * 2006-05-19 2007-11-29 Wilhelmsen Callenberg Fläkt Ab Ventilation system and method
KR101255512B1 (en) 2006-06-30 2013-04-16 엘지디스플레이 주식회사 Method For Fabricating Thin Film Transistor Array Substrate
US20080063679A1 (en) * 2006-08-04 2008-03-13 Quartek Corporation Nanocomposites with residual biocidal and biostatic properties
JP2008055247A (en) * 2006-08-29 2008-03-13 Matsushita Electric Ind Co Ltd Filter for removing gas
WO2008027530A1 (en) * 2006-09-01 2008-03-06 Seldon Technologies, Llc Nanostructured materials comprising support fibers coated with metal containing compounds and methods of using the same
DE202006016898U1 (en) * 2006-10-12 2007-11-22 BLüCHER GMBH High performance adsorbents based on activated carbon with high microporosity
US9504946B2 (en) 2006-12-14 2016-11-29 Mycelx Technologies Corporation Process and system for separating finely aerosolized elemental mercury from gaseous streams
US7981298B2 (en) * 2006-12-14 2011-07-19 Hal Alper Process for removal of contaminants from industrial streams
US8951632B2 (en) 2007-01-03 2015-02-10 Applied Nanostructured Solutions, Llc CNT-infused carbon fiber materials and process therefor
US20120189846A1 (en) * 2007-01-03 2012-07-26 Lockheed Martin Corporation Cnt-infused ceramic fiber materials and process therefor
US8951631B2 (en) 2007-01-03 2015-02-10 Applied Nanostructured Solutions, Llc CNT-infused metal fiber materials and process therefor
US9005755B2 (en) 2007-01-03 2015-04-14 Applied Nanostructured Solutions, Llc CNS-infused carbon nanomaterials and process therefor
DE102007050971B4 (en) * 2007-03-14 2014-12-31 BLüCHER GMBH A process for the production of high performance adsorbents based on activated carbon with a high meso and macroporosity, high performance adsorbents and their use
US8413721B2 (en) 2007-05-22 2013-04-09 Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. Viscosified fluids for remediating subterranean damage
WO2009055128A3 (en) * 2007-08-17 2009-09-03 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Compositions for chemical and biological defense
US8252969B2 (en) * 2007-09-04 2012-08-28 Science Applications International Corporation Hypernucleophilic catalysts for detoxification of chemical threat agents
US8183426B2 (en) * 2007-10-11 2012-05-22 Nanoscale Corporation Decontaminating sheet material containing reactive nanocrystalline particles and products constructed therefrom
DE102008005218A1 (en) * 2007-11-04 2009-05-07 BLüCHER GMBH Sorption filter and its use
US8555896B2 (en) 2007-12-19 2013-10-15 Philip Morris Usa Inc. Activated carbon from microcrystalline cellulose
US8037550B2 (en) * 2008-02-01 2011-10-18 Gore Enterprise Holdings, Inc. Stretchable chemical protective material
US20090218266A1 (en) * 2008-03-03 2009-09-03 Reyad Sawafta Water treatment and methods of use
WO2010027868A3 (en) * 2008-08-26 2010-05-27 Nanoscale Corporation Method and apparatus for control and elimination of undesirable substances
CN102333906B (en) * 2009-02-27 2015-03-11 应用纳米结构方案公司 Low temperature CNT growth using gas-preheat method
US20100224129A1 (en) * 2009-03-03 2010-09-09 Lockheed Martin Corporation System and method for surface treatment and barrier coating of fibers for in situ cnt growth
KR20120002980A (en) * 2009-04-10 2012-01-09 어플라이드 나노스트럭처드 솔루션스, 엘엘씨. Method and apparatus for using a vertical furnace to infuse carbon nanotubes to fiber
US20100272891A1 (en) * 2009-04-10 2010-10-28 Lockheed Martin Corporation Apparatus and method for the production of carbon nanotubes on a continuously moving substrate
WO2010117515A1 (en) * 2009-04-10 2010-10-14 Lockheed Martin Corporation Apparatus and method for the production of carbon nanotubes on a continuously moving substrate
US20100260998A1 (en) * 2009-04-10 2010-10-14 Lockheed Martin Corporation Fiber sizing comprising nanoparticles
US20100279010A1 (en) * 2009-04-30 2010-11-04 Lockheed Martin Corporation Method and system for close proximity catalysis for carbon nanotube synthesis
WO2011017200A1 (en) * 2009-08-03 2011-02-10 Lockheed Martin Corporation Incorporation of nanoparticles in composite fibers
US20110045218A1 (en) * 2009-08-21 2011-02-24 Harper Nancy L Dynamic inks and coatings
WO2011046581A1 (en) 2009-08-28 2011-04-21 Hal Alper Method and system for analyzing concentrations of diverse mercury species present in a fluid medium
EP2496739A4 (en) * 2009-11-02 2014-07-02 Applied Nanostructured Sols Cnt-infused aramid fiber materials and process therefor
JP5398483B2 (en) * 2009-11-11 2014-01-29 ユニチカ株式会社 Hygiene mask
FR2952651B1 (en) * 2009-11-17 2012-02-24 Commissariat Energie Atomique Use of a fabric comprising a material specific for detecting the presence of a chemical substance
CN103097039A (en) 2010-09-14 2013-05-08 应用奈米结构公司 Glass substrates having carbon nanotubes grown thereon and methods for production thereof
EP2619133A1 (en) 2010-09-22 2013-07-31 Applied NanoStructured Solutions, LLC Carbon fiber substrates having carbon nanotubes grown thereon and processes for production thereof
KR101315112B1 (en) * 2011-04-28 2013-10-08 고등기술연구원연구조합 Methode for preparing nano pore on carbon matrix
US9849512B2 (en) 2011-07-01 2017-12-26 Attostat, Inc. Method and apparatus for production of uniformly sized nanoparticles
CN102897760A (en) * 2011-07-29 2013-01-30 中国科学院过程工程研究所 Method for preparing activated carbon by using eupatorium adenophorum
DE202011106028U1 (en) 2011-08-14 2012-08-17 BLüCHER GMBH New concepts for gas treatment and gas cleaning
JP6147255B2 (en) 2011-08-17 2017-06-14 ブリュッヒャー ゲーエムベーハー Adsorbent deposited on the carrier, the use of the method and the adsorbent to produce the adsorbent
US9707331B2 (en) 2011-11-07 2017-07-18 Delcath Systems, Inc. Apparatus for removing chemotherapy compounds from blood
US20150336081A1 (en) * 2012-03-07 2015-11-26 Clear Carbon Innovations LLC Magnetic adsorbents, methods for manufacturing a magnetic adsorbent, and methods of removal of contaminants from fluid streams
WO2013158028A1 (en) 2012-04-17 2013-10-24 Ngee Ann Polytechnic Filtration medium with electrospun metal oxide nanofiber layer
US9011805B2 (en) 2012-04-23 2015-04-21 Energy & Environmental Research Center Foundation Carbon nanocomposite sorbent and methods of using the same for separation of one or more materials from a gas stream
WO2013173547A1 (en) 2012-05-18 2013-11-21 U.S.A As Represented By The Administrator Of The National Aeronautics And Space Administration Removing halogenated compounds from contaminated systems
KR101222694B1 (en) * 2012-08-02 2013-01-16 (주)성한코퍼레이션 The fabric for cbr defense and the cbr defense clothes using the same
WO2014039509A3 (en) 2012-09-04 2014-05-30 Ocv Intellectual Capital, Llc Dispersion of carbon enhanced reinforcement fibers in aqueous or non-aqueous media
JP2014128773A (en) * 2012-12-28 2014-07-10 Nbc Meshtec Inc Virus adsorbent and virus adsorbing component with use of the same
WO2014137907A3 (en) 2013-03-06 2014-12-04 Energy & Environmental Research Center Foundation Activated carbon sorbent including nitrogen and methods of using the same
US9034289B1 (en) * 2014-04-04 2015-05-19 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army Method and apparatus for prolonging the service life of a collective protection filter using a guard bed
US9885001B2 (en) 2014-09-23 2018-02-06 Attostat, Inc. Fuel additive composition and related methods
US20160083901A1 (en) * 2014-09-23 2016-03-24 Attostat, Inc. Nanoparticle treated fabrics, fibers, filaments, and yarns and related methods
US9883670B2 (en) 2014-09-23 2018-02-06 Attostat, Inc. Compositions and methods for treating plant diseases
US9434006B2 (en) 2014-09-23 2016-09-06 Attostat, Inc. Composition containing spherical and coral-shaped nanoparticles and method of making same
DE102015000813A1 (en) * 2015-01-21 2016-07-21 Smart Material Printing B.V. Procedures for the destruction of drugs and toxins and their metabolites using polyoxometalate micro- and / or nanoparticles
WO2016161348A1 (en) 2015-04-01 2016-10-06 Attostat, Inc. Nanoparticle compositions and methods for treating or preventing tissue infections and diseases

Citations (60)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6169202A (en) *
US3746655A (en) * 1969-02-07 1973-07-17 Calgon Corp Colored activated carbon
US3817860A (en) * 1969-12-03 1974-06-18 Univ Kansas State Method of disinfecting water and demand bactericide for use therein
US3923655A (en) * 1974-12-09 1975-12-02 Vesmat Investments Level detection system
US4238477A (en) * 1979-04-20 1980-12-09 Kansas State University Research Foundation Process of preparing homogeneous resin-polyiodide disinfectants
US4242226A (en) * 1978-02-21 1980-12-30 Siren Matti J Filter material and a method of manufacturing and using the same
US4397907A (en) * 1981-06-22 1983-08-09 Hughes Aircraft Company Multi-purpose air permeable composites
US4565727A (en) * 1983-09-12 1986-01-21 American Cyanamid Co. Non-woven activated carbon fabric
US4569895A (en) * 1984-10-30 1986-02-11 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Charge transfer media and process for making thereof
US4610905A (en) * 1982-11-24 1986-09-09 Bluecher Hubert Yarn having specific properties
US4656153A (en) * 1983-02-28 1987-04-07 Standard Oil Company (Indiana) Active carbon containing a dispersion of a metal component and method for making same
US4748065A (en) * 1986-08-13 1988-05-31 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Spunlaced nonwoven protective fabric
US4797318A (en) * 1986-07-31 1989-01-10 Kimberly-Clark Corporation Active particle-containing nonwoven material, method of formation thereof, and uses thereof
US4831011A (en) * 1986-02-17 1989-05-16 Nippondenso Co., Ltd. Carbon-based adsorbent and process for production thereof
US5014355A (en) * 1989-09-29 1991-05-14 Technical Innovations, Inc. Disposable environmental control suit
US5032209A (en) * 1987-03-16 1991-07-16 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Heat sealing of semicrystalline quasi-amorphous polymers
US5092008A (en) * 1988-04-07 1992-03-03 Esu-Oh Giken Co., Ltd. Absorbent sheet like mat
US5482773A (en) * 1991-07-01 1996-01-09 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Activated carbon-containing fibrids
US5486410A (en) * 1992-11-18 1996-01-23 Hoechst Celanese Corporation Fibrous structures containing immobilized particulate matter
US5582913A (en) * 1995-08-23 1996-12-10 Hoechst Celanese Corporation Polyester/polyamide composite fiber
US5620643A (en) * 1995-10-26 1997-04-15 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Process for producing fused particle agglomerates
US5639307A (en) * 1995-01-17 1997-06-17 Electrostatic Technology, Inc. Fiber bundle coating apparatus
US5639452A (en) * 1992-09-16 1997-06-17 Messier; Pierre Jean Iodine/resin disinfectant and a procedure for the preparation thereof
US5690705A (en) * 1993-06-30 1997-11-25 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Method of making a coated abrasive article comprising precisely shaped abrasive composites
US5712219A (en) * 1994-04-08 1998-01-27 Kansas State University Research Foundation Iron oxide magnesium oxide composites and method for destruction of cholrinated hydrocarbon using such composites
US5736473A (en) * 1994-09-14 1998-04-07 Kimberly-Clark Corp. Fibrous composite structure including particulates
US5759939A (en) * 1994-04-08 1998-06-02 Kansas State University Research Foundation Composite metal oxide adsorbents
US5952125A (en) * 1997-07-21 1999-09-14 Nanogram Corporation Batteries with electroactive nanoparticles
US5962082A (en) * 1997-08-19 1999-10-05 Aveka, Inc. Process for applying liquid coatings to solid particulate substrates
US5965479A (en) * 1995-02-03 1999-10-12 Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation Activated carbon and process for producing the same
US5972808A (en) * 1997-01-30 1999-10-26 Aqf Technologies Llc Fibrous structures with fine particles
US5989514A (en) * 1997-07-21 1999-11-23 Nanogram Corporation Processing of vanadium oxide particles with heat
US5990373A (en) * 1996-08-20 1999-11-23 Kansas State University Research Foundation Nanometer sized metal oxide particles for ambient temperature adsorption of toxic chemicals
US5990348A (en) * 1998-01-05 1999-11-23 Sunoco, Inc. Conversion of alkanes to unsaturated carboxylic acids over heteroploy acids supported on polyoxometallate salts
US6037019A (en) * 1995-08-24 2000-03-14 3M Innovative Properties Company Process for making particle-coated solid substrates
US6043184A (en) * 1998-01-05 2000-03-28 Sunoco, Inc. (R&M) Heteropoly acids supported on polyoxometallate salts and their preparation
US6045650A (en) * 1997-09-16 2000-04-04 Sunsmart, Inc. Hydrophilic materials and their method of preparation
US6057488A (en) * 1998-09-15 2000-05-02 Nantek, Inc. Nanoparticles for the destructive sorption of biological and chemical contaminants
US6060419A (en) * 1998-01-05 2000-05-09 Sunoco, Inc. (R&M) Wells-Dawson type heteropolyacids, their preparation and use as oxidation catalysts
US6074437A (en) * 1998-12-23 2000-06-13 Unilever Home & Personal Care Usa, Division Of Conopco, Inc. Bleaching with polyoxometalates and air or molecular oxygen
US6087294A (en) * 1998-08-12 2000-07-11 Kansas State University Research Foundation Dispersion and stabilization of reactive atoms on the surface of metal oxides
US6093236A (en) * 1998-05-30 2000-07-25 Kansas State University Research Foundation Porous pellet adsorbents fabricated from nanocrystals
US6113807A (en) * 1997-12-03 2000-09-05 Futaba Denshi Kogyo K.K. Phosphor and method for producing same
US6184177B1 (en) * 1992-02-28 2001-02-06 Mhb Filtration Gmbh And Co. Kg Method of producing activated carbon particles from spent granular organic ion-exchange resin
US6224655B1 (en) * 1998-11-03 2001-05-01 Pierre Messier Biostatic air filter
US6235673B1 (en) * 2000-04-05 2001-05-22 Eastman Chemical Company Carbonylation catalyst supported on a carbonized polysulfonated divinylbenzene-styrene copolymer
US6316378B1 (en) * 1999-03-17 2001-11-13 Carbotex, Gmbh Process for the production of shaped activated carbon
US20020028333A1 (en) * 2000-03-08 2002-03-07 Jann-Michael Giebelhausen Spherical high-performance adsorbents with microstructure
US20020035032A1 (en) * 1998-09-15 2002-03-21 Olga Koper Reactive nanoparticles as destructive adsorbents for biological and chemical contamination
US6376404B1 (en) * 1999-03-17 2002-04-23 Carbotex, Gmbh Process for the production of shaped high-performance adsorbents
US6387531B1 (en) * 1998-07-27 2002-05-14 Nanogram Corporation Metal (silicon) oxide/carbon composite particles
US6417423B1 (en) * 1998-09-15 2002-07-09 Nanoscale Materials, Inc. Reactive nanoparticles as destructive adsorbents for biological and chemical contamination
US20020187258A1 (en) * 2000-05-24 2002-12-12 Nordson Corporation Electrostatic fluidized bed coating method and apparatus
US20030013369A1 (en) * 1999-07-19 2003-01-16 Soane David S. Nanoparticle-based permanent treatments for textiles
US6630106B1 (en) * 2001-03-13 2003-10-07 Selecto, Inc. Compositions and methods for controlling microorganism growth in water processing systems
US20030215355A1 (en) * 2002-05-14 2003-11-20 Nanoscale Materials, Inc. Method and apparatus for control of chemical or biological warfare agents
US20030216256A1 (en) * 2002-02-25 2003-11-20 Axtell Holly C. Multi-functional protective materials and methods for use
US6761761B1 (en) * 2000-04-24 2004-07-13 The United States Of America As Represented By The United States Department Of Energy Lower saccharide nanometric materials and methods
US6843919B2 (en) * 2002-10-04 2005-01-18 Kansas State University Research Foundation Carbon-coated metal oxide nanoparticles
US6860924B2 (en) * 2002-06-07 2005-03-01 Nanoscale Materials, Inc. Air-stable metal oxide nanoparticles

Family Cites Families (21)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3886093A (en) * 1973-12-14 1975-05-27 Westvaco Corp Activated carbon with active metal sites and process for producing same
JP3044841B2 (en) 1991-06-15 2000-05-22 クラレケミカル株式会社 Preparation of activated carbon adhesive sheet
US5482915A (en) * 1993-09-20 1996-01-09 Air Products And Chemicals, Inc. Transition metal salt impregnated carbon
US5518624A (en) * 1994-05-06 1996-05-21 Illinois Water Treatment, Inc. Ultra pure water filtration
US6054488A (en) 1996-06-11 2000-04-25 3M Innovative Properties Company Medicinal aerosol formulations of formoterol
US6509285B1 (en) * 1997-09-15 2003-01-21 Patrick Yeh Fabric for moisture management
US6713076B1 (en) * 1998-04-13 2004-03-30 Emory University Methods for removing a contaminant by a polyoxometalate-modified fabric or a polyoxometalate-modified cellulosic fiber and fabrics thereof
JP2000053532A (en) * 1998-08-04 2000-02-22 Shiseido Co Ltd Beatifying
US6723349B1 (en) * 1999-10-12 2004-04-20 Emory University Polyoxometalate materials, metal-containing materials, and methods of use thereof
US6296821B1 (en) * 1999-10-20 2001-10-02 Allied Signal Inc. Complex shaped fiber for particle and molecular filtration
EP1276547B1 (en) * 2000-04-20 2010-02-17 Philip Morris Products S.A. High efficiency cigarette filters having shaped micro cavity fibers impregnated with adsorbent or absorbent materials
US6815383B1 (en) * 2000-05-24 2004-11-09 Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc. Filtration medium with enhanced particle holding characteristics
US20020074292A1 (en) * 2000-09-26 2002-06-20 Andreas Schlegel Adsorption vessels
US6740406B2 (en) * 2000-12-15 2004-05-25 Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc. Coated activated carbon
CA2433059C (en) * 2001-01-30 2009-05-12 The Procter & Gamble Company Coating compositions for modifying surfaces
US6673738B2 (en) * 2001-11-28 2004-01-06 K.K. Ueda Shikimono Kojyo Photocatalytic active carbon, colored photocatalytic active carbon, coloring active carbon, and deodorant and adsorption product using them
US6706092B2 (en) * 2002-04-17 2004-03-16 Alliedsignal Inc. Chemical/Biological decontamination filter
CN101069752A (en) * 2002-05-20 2007-11-14 西奥多·A·M·阿尔茨 Air decontamination devices
US6827766B2 (en) * 2002-10-08 2004-12-07 United States Air Force Decontaminating systems containing reactive nanoparticles and biocides
WO2004052497A3 (en) * 2002-12-05 2004-12-02 United States Filter Corp Activated carbon for odor control and method for making same
US7018946B2 (en) * 2003-02-14 2006-03-28 Invista North America S.A.R.L. Fabric including polymer filaments having profiled cross-section

Patent Citations (71)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6184177B2 (en) *
US6169202A (en) *
US3746655A (en) * 1969-02-07 1973-07-17 Calgon Corp Colored activated carbon
US3817860A (en) * 1969-12-03 1974-06-18 Univ Kansas State Method of disinfecting water and demand bactericide for use therein
US3923655A (en) * 1974-12-09 1975-12-02 Vesmat Investments Level detection system
US4242226A (en) * 1978-02-21 1980-12-30 Siren Matti J Filter material and a method of manufacturing and using the same
US4238477A (en) * 1979-04-20 1980-12-09 Kansas State University Research Foundation Process of preparing homogeneous resin-polyiodide disinfectants
US4397907A (en) * 1981-06-22 1983-08-09 Hughes Aircraft Company Multi-purpose air permeable composites
US4610905A (en) * 1982-11-24 1986-09-09 Bluecher Hubert Yarn having specific properties
US4656153A (en) * 1983-02-28 1987-04-07 Standard Oil Company (Indiana) Active carbon containing a dispersion of a metal component and method for making same
US4565727A (en) * 1983-09-12 1986-01-21 American Cyanamid Co. Non-woven activated carbon fabric
US4565727B1 (en) * 1983-09-12 1989-01-24
US4569895A (en) * 1984-10-30 1986-02-11 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Charge transfer media and process for making thereof
US4831011A (en) * 1986-02-17 1989-05-16 Nippondenso Co., Ltd. Carbon-based adsorbent and process for production thereof
US4797318A (en) * 1986-07-31 1989-01-10 Kimberly-Clark Corporation Active particle-containing nonwoven material, method of formation thereof, and uses thereof
US4748065A (en) * 1986-08-13 1988-05-31 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Spunlaced nonwoven protective fabric
US5032209A (en) * 1987-03-16 1991-07-16 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Heat sealing of semicrystalline quasi-amorphous polymers
US5092008A (en) * 1988-04-07 1992-03-03 Esu-Oh Giken Co., Ltd. Absorbent sheet like mat
US5014355A (en) * 1989-09-29 1991-05-14 Technical Innovations, Inc. Disposable environmental control suit
US5482773A (en) * 1991-07-01 1996-01-09 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Activated carbon-containing fibrids
US6184177B1 (en) * 1992-02-28 2001-02-06 Mhb Filtration Gmbh And Co. Kg Method of producing activated carbon particles from spent granular organic ion-exchange resin
US5639452A (en) * 1992-09-16 1997-06-17 Messier; Pierre Jean Iodine/resin disinfectant and a procedure for the preparation thereof
US5486410A (en) * 1992-11-18 1996-01-23 Hoechst Celanese Corporation Fibrous structures containing immobilized particulate matter
US6024813A (en) * 1992-11-18 2000-02-15 Aqf Technologies Llc Process for fibrous structure containing immobilized particulate matter
US5690705A (en) * 1993-06-30 1997-11-25 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Method of making a coated abrasive article comprising precisely shaped abrasive composites
US5759939A (en) * 1994-04-08 1998-06-02 Kansas State University Research Foundation Composite metal oxide adsorbents
US5914436A (en) * 1994-04-08 1999-06-22 Kansas State University Research Foundation Method for the destruction of unwanted compounds using metal oxides composites
US5712219A (en) * 1994-04-08 1998-01-27 Kansas State University Research Foundation Iron oxide magnesium oxide composites and method for destruction of cholrinated hydrocarbon using such composites
US6294222B1 (en) * 1994-09-14 2001-09-25 Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc. Method of attaching a substantially uniform distribution of particulates to individual exposed surfaces of a substrate
US5736473A (en) * 1994-09-14 1998-04-07 Kimberly-Clark Corp. Fibrous composite structure including particulates
US5639307A (en) * 1995-01-17 1997-06-17 Electrostatic Technology, Inc. Fiber bundle coating apparatus
US5965479A (en) * 1995-02-03 1999-10-12 Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation Activated carbon and process for producing the same
US5582913A (en) * 1995-08-23 1996-12-10 Hoechst Celanese Corporation Polyester/polyamide composite fiber
US6037019A (en) * 1995-08-24 2000-03-14 3M Innovative Properties Company Process for making particle-coated solid substrates
US5620643A (en) * 1995-10-26 1997-04-15 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Process for producing fused particle agglomerates
US5990373A (en) * 1996-08-20 1999-11-23 Kansas State University Research Foundation Nanometer sized metal oxide particles for ambient temperature adsorption of toxic chemicals
US5972808A (en) * 1997-01-30 1999-10-26 Aqf Technologies Llc Fibrous structures with fine particles
US5989514A (en) * 1997-07-21 1999-11-23 Nanogram Corporation Processing of vanadium oxide particles with heat
US5952125A (en) * 1997-07-21 1999-09-14 Nanogram Corporation Batteries with electroactive nanoparticles
US5962082A (en) * 1997-08-19 1999-10-05 Aveka, Inc. Process for applying liquid coatings to solid particulate substrates
US6045650A (en) * 1997-09-16 2000-04-04 Sunsmart, Inc. Hydrophilic materials and their method of preparation
US6113807A (en) * 1997-12-03 2000-09-05 Futaba Denshi Kogyo K.K. Phosphor and method for producing same
US6169202B1 (en) * 1998-01-05 2001-01-02 Sunoco, Inc. (R&M) Wells-Dawson type heteropolyacids, their preparation and use as oxidation catalysts
US6043184A (en) * 1998-01-05 2000-03-28 Sunoco, Inc. (R&M) Heteropoly acids supported on polyoxometallate salts and their preparation
US5990348A (en) * 1998-01-05 1999-11-23 Sunoco, Inc. Conversion of alkanes to unsaturated carboxylic acids over heteroploy acids supported on polyoxometallate salts
US6060419A (en) * 1998-01-05 2000-05-09 Sunoco, Inc. (R&M) Wells-Dawson type heteropolyacids, their preparation and use as oxidation catalysts
US6093236A (en) * 1998-05-30 2000-07-25 Kansas State University Research Foundation Porous pellet adsorbents fabricated from nanocrystals
US6387531B1 (en) * 1998-07-27 2002-05-14 Nanogram Corporation Metal (silicon) oxide/carbon composite particles
US6087294A (en) * 1998-08-12 2000-07-11 Kansas State University Research Foundation Dispersion and stabilization of reactive atoms on the surface of metal oxides
US6653519B2 (en) * 1998-09-15 2003-11-25 Nanoscale Materials, Inc. Reactive nanoparticles as destructive adsorbents for biological and chemical contamination
US6057488A (en) * 1998-09-15 2000-05-02 Nantek, Inc. Nanoparticles for the destructive sorption of biological and chemical contaminants
US20020035032A1 (en) * 1998-09-15 2002-03-21 Olga Koper Reactive nanoparticles as destructive adsorbents for biological and chemical contamination
US6417423B1 (en) * 1998-09-15 2002-07-09 Nanoscale Materials, Inc. Reactive nanoparticles as destructive adsorbents for biological and chemical contamination
US6224655B1 (en) * 1998-11-03 2001-05-01 Pierre Messier Biostatic air filter
US6074437A (en) * 1998-12-23 2000-06-13 Unilever Home & Personal Care Usa, Division Of Conopco, Inc. Bleaching with polyoxometalates and air or molecular oxygen
US6316378B1 (en) * 1999-03-17 2001-11-13 Carbotex, Gmbh Process for the production of shaped activated carbon
US6376404B1 (en) * 1999-03-17 2002-04-23 Carbotex, Gmbh Process for the production of shaped high-performance adsorbents
US20030013369A1 (en) * 1999-07-19 2003-01-16 Soane David S. Nanoparticle-based permanent treatments for textiles
US6607994B2 (en) * 1999-07-19 2003-08-19 Nano-Tex, Llc Nanoparticle-based permanent treatments for textiles
US20020028333A1 (en) * 2000-03-08 2002-03-07 Jann-Michael Giebelhausen Spherical high-performance adsorbents with microstructure
US6235673B1 (en) * 2000-04-05 2001-05-22 Eastman Chemical Company Carbonylation catalyst supported on a carbonized polysulfonated divinylbenzene-styrene copolymer
US6761761B1 (en) * 2000-04-24 2004-07-13 The United States Of America As Represented By The United States Department Of Energy Lower saccharide nanometric materials and methods
US20020187258A1 (en) * 2000-05-24 2002-12-12 Nordson Corporation Electrostatic fluidized bed coating method and apparatus
US6630106B1 (en) * 2001-03-13 2003-10-07 Selecto, Inc. Compositions and methods for controlling microorganism growth in water processing systems
US20050026778A1 (en) * 2002-02-25 2005-02-03 Axtell Holly C. Multi-functional protective fiber and methods for use
US20030216256A1 (en) * 2002-02-25 2003-11-20 Axtell Holly C. Multi-functional protective materials and methods for use
US20040009726A1 (en) * 2002-02-25 2004-01-15 Axtell Holly C. Multi-functional protective textiles and methods for decontamination
US20030215355A1 (en) * 2002-05-14 2003-11-20 Nanoscale Materials, Inc. Method and apparatus for control of chemical or biological warfare agents
US6887302B2 (en) * 2002-06-07 2005-05-03 Nanoscale Materials, Inc. Air-stable metal oxide nanoparticles
US6860924B2 (en) * 2002-06-07 2005-03-01 Nanoscale Materials, Inc. Air-stable metal oxide nanoparticles
US6843919B2 (en) * 2002-10-04 2005-01-18 Kansas State University Research Foundation Carbon-coated metal oxide nanoparticles

Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20080207442A1 (en) * 2006-11-08 2008-08-28 The Curators Of The University Of Missouri High surface area carbon and process for its production
US20120094828A1 (en) * 2006-11-08 2012-04-19 The Curators Of The University Of Missouri High surface area carbon and process for its production
US8691177B2 (en) * 2006-11-08 2014-04-08 The Curators Of The University Of Missouri High surface area carbon and process for its production
US8926932B2 (en) 2006-11-08 2015-01-06 The Curators Of The University Of Missouri High surface area carbon and process for its production
US9517445B2 (en) 2006-11-08 2016-12-13 The Curators Of The University Of Missouri High surface area carbon and process for its production

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
JP2005518279A (en) 2005-06-23 application
KR20040091072A (en) 2004-10-27 application
US20040009726A1 (en) 2004-01-15 application
WO2004039187A2 (en) 2004-05-13 application
US7211707B2 (en) 2007-05-01 grant
US20030216256A1 (en) 2003-11-20 application
WO2004039187A3 (en) 2004-07-29 application
US20070286877A1 (en) 2007-12-13 application
EP1485199A2 (en) 2004-12-15 application
US20030220195A1 (en) 2003-11-27 application
WO2003072498A1 (en) 2003-09-04 application
US7256156B2 (en) 2007-08-14 grant
US20050026778A1 (en) 2005-02-03 application
US20070187029A1 (en) 2007-08-16 application
US7268269B2 (en) 2007-09-11 grant
CA2477248A1 (en) 2003-12-18 application
KR20040107470A (en) 2004-12-20 application
CA2476924A1 (en) 2003-09-04 application
US20080161631A1 (en) 2008-07-03 application
WO2003072242A2 (en) 2003-09-04 application
KR20040088532A (en) 2004-10-16 application
EP1487288A2 (en) 2004-12-22 application
CA2476881A1 (en) 2003-09-04 application
WO2003104534A3 (en) 2004-05-27 application
EP1485525A2 (en) 2004-12-15 application
WO2003072242A3 (en) 2003-10-16 application
KR20040086437A (en) 2004-10-08 application
JP2005520070A (en) 2005-07-07 application
JP2006502322A (en) 2006-01-19 application
JP2005518465A (en) 2005-06-23 application
CA2477250A1 (en) 2004-05-13 application
EP1487742A1 (en) 2004-12-22 application
WO2003104534A2 (en) 2003-12-18 application

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
Krishnani et al. Biosorption mechanism of nine different heavy metals onto biomatrix from rice husk
Iqbal et al. Petiolar felt-sheath of palm: a new biosorbent for the removal of heavy metals from contaminated water
Al-Asheh et al. Sorption of cadmium and other heavy metals by pine bark
Chatterjee et al. Adsorption of a model anionic dye, eosin Y, from aqueous solution by chitosan hydrobeads
Gong et al. Removal of cationic dyes from aqueous solution using magnetic multi-wall carbon nanotube nanocomposite as adsorbent
Lin et al. Fate and transport of engineered nanomaterials in the environment
Gupta et al. Sorption of pollutants by porous carbon, carbon nanotubes and fullerene-An overview
Xu et al. Adsorption and removal of arsenic (V) from drinking water by aluminum-loaded Shirasu-zeolite
Badruddoza et al. Carboxymethyl-β-cyclodextrin conjugated magnetic nanoparticles as nano-adsorbents for removal of copper ions: synthesis and adsorption studies
US5759939A (en) Composite metal oxide adsorbents
US20080026041A1 (en) Non-woven media incorporating ultrafine or nanosize powders
Gupta et al. Adsorption of heavy metals on kaolinite and montmorillonite: a review
Nguyen-Thanh et al. Activated carbons with metal containing bentonite binders as adsorbents of hydrogen sulfide
Sharma et al. Nano‐adsorbents for the removal of metallic pollutants from water and wastewater
Maliyekkal et al. A novel cellulose–manganese oxide hybrid material by in situ soft chemical synthesis and its application for the removal of Pb (II) from water
Weng et al. Adsorption characteristics of methylene blue from aqueous solution by sludge ash
Zhao et al. Polymer-supported nanocomposites for environmental application: a review
Merrifield et al. Uptake of mercury by thiol-grafted chitosan gel beads
US6843919B2 (en) Carbon-coated metal oxide nanoparticles
Krishnan et al. Removal of mercury (II) from aqueous solutions and chlor-alkali industry effluent by steam activated and sulphurised activated carbons prepared from bagasse pith: kinetics and equilibrium studies
Hasar Adsorption of nickel (II) from aqueous solution onto activated carbon prepared from almond husk
US6858192B2 (en) Activated carbon for odor control and method for making same
US20030226443A1 (en) Air-stable metal oxide nanoparticles
Abate et al. Influence of pH and ionic strength on removal processes of a sedimentary humic acid in a suspension of vermiculite
Lalley et al. Phosphate adsorption using modified iron oxide-based sorbents in lake water: kinetics, equilibrium, and column tests

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AS Assignment

Owner name: GENTEX CORPORATION, PENNSYLVANIA

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:AXTELL, HOLLY C.;HARTLEY, SCOTT M.;SALLAVANTI, ROBERT A.;REEL/FRAME:019583/0118;SIGNING DATES FROM 20030417 TO 20030421