US20070231761A1 - Integration of oxy-fuel and air-fuel combustion - Google Patents

Integration of oxy-fuel and air-fuel combustion Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US20070231761A1
US20070231761A1 US11/395,141 US39514106A US2007231761A1 US 20070231761 A1 US20070231761 A1 US 20070231761A1 US 39514106 A US39514106 A US 39514106A US 2007231761 A1 US2007231761 A1 US 2007231761A1
Authority
US
United States
Prior art keywords
fuel
oxidant
burner
conduit
furnace
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US11/395,141
Inventor
Lee Rosen
Michael F. Riley
Curtis L. Bermel
Hisashi Kobayashi
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Praxair Technology Inc
Original Assignee
Praxair Technology Inc
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Praxair Technology Inc filed Critical Praxair Technology Inc
Priority to US11/395,141 priority Critical patent/US20070231761A1/en
Assigned to PRAXAIR TECHNOLOGY, INC. reassignment PRAXAIR TECHNOLOGY, INC. ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: KOBAYASHI, HISASHI, ROSEN, LEE, RILEY, MICHAEL F.
Assigned to PRAXAIR TECHNOLOGY, INC. reassignment PRAXAIR TECHNOLOGY, INC. ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: BERMEL, CURTIS L.
Publication of US20070231761A1 publication Critical patent/US20070231761A1/en
Abandoned legal-status Critical Current

Links

Images

Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23LSUPPLYING AIR OR NON-COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS OR GASES TO COMBUSTION APPARATUS IN GENERAL ; VALVES OR DAMPERS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR CONTROLLING AIR SUPPLY OR DRAUGHT IN COMBUSTION APPARATUS; INDUCING DRAUGHT IN COMBUSTION APPARATUS; TOPS FOR CHIMNEYS OR VENTILATING SHAFTS; TERMINALS FOR FLUES
    • F23L7/00Supplying non-combustible liquids or gases, other than air, to the fire, e.g. oxygen, steam
    • F23L7/007Supplying oxygen or oxygen-enriched air
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C03GLASS; MINERAL OR SLAG WOOL
    • C03BMANUFACTURE, SHAPING, OR SUPPLEMENTARY PROCESSES
    • C03B5/00Melting in furnaces; Furnaces so far as specially adapted for glass manufacture
    • C03B5/16Special features of the melting process; Auxiliary means specially adapted for glass-melting furnaces
    • C03B5/235Heating the glass
    • C03B5/2353Heating the glass by combustion with pure oxygen or oxygen-enriched air, e.g. using oxy-fuel burners or oxygen lances
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23CMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR COMBUSTION USING FLUID FUEL OR SOLID FUEL SUSPENDED IN  A CARRIER GAS OR AIR 
    • F23C5/00Disposition of burners with respect to the combustion chamber or to one another; Mounting of burners in combustion apparatus
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23CMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR COMBUSTION USING FLUID FUEL OR SOLID FUEL SUSPENDED IN  A CARRIER GAS OR AIR 
    • F23C7/00Combustion apparatus characterised by arrangements for air supply
    • F23C7/02Disposition of air supply not passing through burner
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23DBURNERS
    • F23D14/00Burners for combustion of a gas, e.g. of a gas stored under pressure as a liquid
    • F23D14/20Non-premix gas burners, i.e. in which gaseous fuel is mixed with combustion air on arrival at the combustion zone
    • F23D14/22Non-premix gas burners, i.e. in which gaseous fuel is mixed with combustion air on arrival at the combustion zone with separate air and gas feed ducts, e.g. with ducts running parallel or crossing each other
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23DBURNERS
    • F23D14/00Burners for combustion of a gas, e.g. of a gas stored under pressure as a liquid
    • F23D14/32Burners for combustion of a gas, e.g. of a gas stored under pressure as a liquid using a mixture of gaseous fuel and pure oxygen or oxygen-enriched air
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C03GLASS; MINERAL OR SLAG WOOL
    • C03BMANUFACTURE, SHAPING, OR SUPPLEMENTARY PROCESSES
    • C03B2211/00Heating processes for glass melting in glass melting furnaces
    • C03B2211/40Heating processes for glass melting in glass melting furnaces using oxy-fuel burners
    • C03B2211/60Heating processes for glass melting in glass melting furnaces using oxy-fuel burners oxy-fuel burner construction
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23CMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR COMBUSTION USING FLUID FUEL OR SOLID FUEL SUSPENDED IN  A CARRIER GAS OR AIR 
    • F23C2900/00Special features of, or arrangements for combustion apparatus using fluid fuels or solid fuels suspended in air; Combustion processes therefor
    • F23C2900/07021Details of lances
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E20/00Combustion technologies with mitigation potential
    • Y02E20/34Indirect CO2mitigation, i.e. by acting on non CO2directly related matters of the process, e.g. pre-heating or heat recovery
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P40/00Technologies relating to the processing of minerals
    • Y02P40/50Glass production, e.g. reusing waste heat during processing or shaping

Abstract

A furnace is heated by a burner that can be selectively operated by either air-fuel or oxy-fuel combustion. The burner comprises a conduit for fuel, a conduit for air, a conduit for oxidant, and control means for regulating flow through the air and oxidant conduits. An air-fuel fired furnace can be modified by addition of the oxidant and fuel conduits and the control means for regulating flow through air and oxidant conduits.

Description

    FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • The present invention relates to combustion of fuel in a furnace, and especially in a furnace used to heat solid and liquid materials and/or to melt solid materials, as the materials are held in or passing through the furnace.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • Many industrial processes require heating material to elevated temperatures, on the order of 1000° F. or higher. Examples are numerous but include heating or reheating steel prior to its being worked in a mill, and melting glassmaking materials to form a glassmelt from which glass products are formed.
  • In many of these applications the heat is applied to the material in a furnace in which the material has been placed, or through which the material is passed. The heat is obtained by combustion within the furnace, at one or more burners where fuel is burned to produce heat of combustion.
  • In many furnaces the burner or burners combust fuel with air, which of course contains the oxygen needed for the combustion. Such combustion is termed “air-fuel combustion” and burners at which air-fuel combustion occurs are termed “air-fuel burners”. In many other applications the burner or burners combust fuel with a gaseous oxidant that contains oxygen in a concentration higher than that of air, ranging from 25 vol. % to 99 vol. % depending on the application and other considerations such as (but not limited to) economics, the higher temperature at which the combustion (termed “oxy-fuel combustion”) occurs, and the opportunity to generate a smaller amount of nitrogen oxides. Oxy-fuel combustion often requires the use of burners (termed “oxy-fuel burners”) that are adapted for oxy-fuel combustion, in particular in their ability to withstand the higher combustion temperatures obtained in oxy-fuel combustion.
  • Some applications attempt to use both air-fuel combustion and oxy-fuel combustion. One example occurs in steel reheating furnaces, in which a piece (slab, bloom or billet) of steel is passed through a furnace wherein the piece is heated first by the heat provided from one or more air-fuel burners and then (as it continues its passage through the furnace) by heat provided from one or more oxy-fuel burners. In addition, in some industrial heating processes the advantages of oxy-fuel combustion have led operators to remove air-fuel burners and replace them with oxy-fuel burners or add additional zones composed of oxy-fuel burners.
  • There remains a need, however, to be able to selectively and alternatingly obtain the benefits of air-fuel combustion and oxy-fuel combustion, without having to undergo the expense and lost time that would be encountered in repeatedly removing air-fuel burners, replacing them with oxy-fuel burners, and then replacing the oxy-fuel burners with air-fuel burners, and continuing to repeat the cycle.
  • BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • The present invention, in one aspect, is combustion apparatus comprising
  • (a) a furnace enclosing a combustion zone and having at least one burner through a wall of the furnace to which air is fed through an air conduit and fuel is fed through a burner fuel conduit from outside the furnace to be combusted at the burner within the combustion zone;
  • (b) an oxidant conduit through which oxidant can be fed into the furnace from outside the furnace; and
  • (c) control means that regulates the flow of oxidant through the oxidant conduit and the flow of air through the air conduit such that the ratio of air flow to oxidant flow can be controlled;
  • wherein the oxidant conduit and the burner fuel conduit are oriented with respect to each other so that the oxidant conduit feeds oxidant into an oxidant mixing zone in the combustion zone and the burner fuel conduit feeds fuel into a fuel reaction zone in the combustion zone which is segregated from the oxidant mixing zone.
  • Another aspect of the present invention is a burner apparatus comprising
  • (a) a burner to which air is fed through an air conduit and fuel is fed through a burner fuel conduit to be combusted at the burner;
  • (b) an oxidant conduit through which oxidant can be fed to the burner; and
  • (c) control means that regulates the flow of oxidant through the oxidant conduit and the flow of air through the air conduit such that the ratio of air flow to oxidant flow can be controlled;
  • wherein the oxidant conduit and the burner fuel conduit are oriented with respect to each other so that the oxidant conduit feeds oxidant into an oxidant mixing zone in the combustion zone and the burner fuel conduit feeds fuel into a fuel reaction zone in the combustion zone which is segregated from the oxidant mixing zone.
  • Another aspect of the present invention is a method for retrofitting an air-fired furnace, comprising
  • (a) providing a furnace enclosing a combustion zone and having at least one burner through a wall of the furnace to which air is fed through an air conduit and fuel is fed through a burner fuel conduit from outside the furnace to be combusted at the burner within the combustion zone;
  • (b) providing an oxidant conduit through which oxidant can be fed into the furnace from outside the furnace;
  • (c) providing control means that regulates the flow of oxidant through the oxidant conduit and the flow of air through the air conduit such that the ratio of air flow to oxidant flow can be controlled; and
  • (d) orienting the oxidant conduit with respect to the burner fuel conduit so that the oxidant conduit feeds oxidant into an oxidant mixing zone in the combustion zone and the burner fuel conduit feeds fuel into a fuel reaction zone in the combustion zone which is segregated from the oxidant mixing zone.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • FIG. 1 is a cross-sectional view of a burner with which the present invention can be practiced.
  • FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view of one embodiment of the present invention.
  • FIG. 3 is a plan view of a wall of a furnace showing the embodiment of the invention that is shown in FIG. 2.
  • FIG. 4 is a plan view of a wall of a furnace showing another embodiment of the present invention.
  • FIG. 5 is a plan view of a wall of a furnace showing yet another embodiment of the present invention.
  • FIG. 6 is a plan view of a wall of a furnace showing another embodiment of the present invention.
  • FIG. 7 is a schematic representation of combustion in one embodiment of the invention.
  • FIG. 8 is a schematic representation of combustion in another embodiment of the invention.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  • The invention can be practiced in any furnace of conventional design, which will typically comprise an enclosure within which combustion at high temperature takes place. The enclosure is typically lined with material such as refractory furnace brick or the equivalent that can withstand temperatures of several thousand degrees which are generated within the furnace enclosure. Preferably, the floor, all sides, and the roof of the furnace are all lined with such material. Examples of furnaces with which this invention can be practiced include steel reheating furnaces and other furnaces through which solid material is passed to be heated, as well as glass melting furnaces and other furnaces in which material fed to the furnace is to be melted or to be maintained in a molten state.
  • The desired high temperature is established within the furnace by combustion carried out at one or more burners. FIG. 1 depicts one typical burner currently employed to combust fuel and air to establish the high temperature within a furnace. Burner 1 is located so that it opens through wall 2 of the furnace toward combustion zone 3. Burner 1 includes fuel passage 4 and air passages 5. Fuel is fed through fuel passage 4 into combustion zone 3 inside the furnace and combusts with the oxygen contained in air that is fed through air passages 5, thereby establishing a flame and providing heat of combustion to combustion zone 3 and throughout the interior of the furnace.
  • Suitable fuels for this air-fuel combustion include gaseous hydrocarbons, such as natural gas and methane, byproduct gases produced in steel mills, such as coke oven gas and blast furnace gas, mixtures of these gaseous fuels, as well as liquid fuels such as atomized fuel oil, and solid fuels such as pulverized coal. The fuel and the air are supplied through their respective passages 4 and 5 by suitable means connected to sources thereof, all by conventional technology quite familiar to those of ordinary skill in this field.
  • Apparatus, indicated schematically as 13 in FIGS. 1 and 2, regulates the flow rate of fuel into and through fuel passage 4, and regulates whether fuel is permitted to flow into and through fuel passage 4. Other apparatus, indicated schematically as 16 in FIGS. 1 and 2, regulates the flow rate of combustion air into and through air passages 5.
  • The present invention can add to burners that combust fuel in an air-fuel mode of combustion the capability to selectively combust fuel in an oxy-fuel mode of combustion. This capability can be added by, among other things, providing a way to feed oxidant having a higher oxygen content than the oxygen content of air into combustion zone 3. Preferably, the oxygen has an oxygen concentration of at least 25 vol. %, and more preferably at least 90 vol. %. A preferred manner of carrying out this feeding is shown in FIG. 2, which depicts oxidant lance 14 that has been situated in an air passage 5. Oxidant lance 14 is fed by suitable apparatus, indicated schematically as 15 in FIG. 2, which supplies the oxidant and can controllably regulate the flow rate of oxidant into and through lance 14 and can also controllably regulate whether or not oxidant is even permitted to flow into and through oxidant lance 14.
  • The present invention can be operated so that in the oxy-fuel combustion mode the fuel that is combusted is the same as the fuel that is combusted in the air-fuel combustion mode. In such cases, the fuel can be supplied through fuel passage 4. Alternatively, such as when the fuel that is combusted in the oxy-fuel combustion mode is different from the fuel that is combusted in the air-fuel combustion mode, or when the fuel fed in the oxy-fuel combustion mode must be fed at a higher flow rate, the fuel for oxy-fuel combustion is fed through a second fuel conduit. One such second fuel conduit is shown in FIG. 2 as fuel lance 11, which is situated within fuel passage 4 so that the orifice of lance 11 is sufficiently close to the opening of fuel passage 4 that a flame formed upon combustion of fuel that is fed from the end of fuel lance 11 is well supported and extends into combustion zone 3. Fuel is fed into fuel lance 11 from a source, indicated schematically as 12 in FIG. 2, which also controls the flow rate of fuel into and through fuel lance 11 and controls whether or not fuel can flow into and through fuel lance 11 as well as the ratio of fuel flow through fuel lance 11 and through fuel passage 4.
  • As is described further below, in the oxy-fuel combustion mode the relative momentum of the fuel flow and the oxidant flow needs to be managed. In most cases where the oxidant conduit is within the burner, the second fuel conduit will be required that is capable of feeding the fuel into the combustion zone 3 at the requisite higher velocity. If NOx formation from combustion in the furnace is not an issue, then the existing fuel conduit can be employed with the oxidant conduit described herein. If NOx formation is an issue, then the second fuel conduit could be integrated into the air-fuel burner through its fuel conduit if it is suitably sized, or through a hole leading into the combustion air conduit, or outside the burner through a hole in the wall of the furnace as shown in FIG. 5.
  • FIG. 3 is a view of the front of the burner depicted in FIG. 2 seen from inside the furnace enclosure. There it can be seen that fuel lance 11 is located within fuel passage 4, and oxidant lance 14 is located within air passage 5.
  • Other embodiments that accomplish the same objectives of the invention can also be employed. Indeed, depending on the configuration of the air-fuel burner, and depending on the available space in the immediate area outside the burner, other configurations may be preferable for ease of construction and operation.
  • FIG. 4 depicts one such alternative embodiment, wherein the burner and the fuel lance 11 serving as the second fuel conduit are as described with respect to FIGS. 2 and 3, but the oxidant is supplied through lance 14 which discharges oxidant into combustion zone 3 within the furnace from a point adjacent to the burner but outside the burner (meaning not within the space bounded by the external surface of the burner where it opens toward combustion zone 3.
  • FIG. 5 depicts another alternative embodiment, wherein the oxidant is supplied to the combustion zone through lance 14 which is located in air conduit 5, and fuel lance 11 serving as the second fuel conduit discharges fuel into combustion zone 3 within the furnace from a point adjacent to the burner but outside the burner.
  • FIG. 6 depicts another alternative embodiment, wherein both the oxidant lance 14 and the lance 11 serving as the second fuel conduit are located in air conduit 5.
  • The lance or other apparatus by which fuel is to be fed into combustion zone 3 in the oxy-fuel mode of operation, and the lance or other device through which oxidant is fed in to combustion zone 3 or the oxy-fuel mode of operation, must be oriented with respect to each other so that the oxidant mixing zone, into which the oxidant is fed as described hereinbelow, and the fuel reaction zone, into which the fuel is to be fed, are segregated (i.e., physically distinct from each other) within combustion zone 3. The feeding of the oxygen and fuel, and the operation of the burner when it is in the oxy-fuel mode of operation, should be carried out in accordance with the description contained in U.S. Pat. No. 5,076,779, the entire content of which is hereby incorporated herein by reference. In particular, the oxidant is injected into combustion zone 3 with velocity sufficient to entrain or mix furnace gases that are in combustion zone 3 with the injected oxidant. The furnace gases comprise ambient gases which infiltrate into the combustion zone, and gases from the oxidant mixture and fuel reaction mixture. Generally the velocity of the oxidant will be at least 200 feet per second and preferably is within the range of 250 to sonic velocity (1,070 feet per second at 70° F.). The velocity of the oxidant is such that sufficient furnace gases mix with the injected oxidant to dilute the oxygen concentration of the injected oxidant so that an oxidant mixture is produced within the oxidant mixing zone having an oxygen concentration of not more than 10 vol. % and preferably not more than 5 vol. %. When pure oxygen or oxygen-enriched air is used as the oxidant, higher entrainment of the furnace gas is required to reduce the oxygen concentration to the desired lower levels. No combustion reaction takes place in this zone because the furnace atmosphere entrained into the oxidant jet is substantially free of fuel.
  • The furnace gases mix with or are entrained into the oxidant due to the turbulence or the aspiration effect caused by the high velocity of the oxidant stream being fed into the oxidant mixing zone. The resulting oxidant mixture, containing a significantly lower concentration of oxygen than was present in the injected oxidant, flows out from the oxidant mixing zone and serves to form part of the atmosphere within combustion zone 3. That is, the oxidant mixture provides additional furnace gases to combustion zone 3.
  • When fuel is injected into combustion zone 3 during the oxy-fuel mode of operation of the invention, furnace gases from the atmosphere within combustion zone 3 flow into and mix with the fuel stream due to the turbulence caused by the fuel stream injection, and the oxygen within the furnace gases combusts with the fuel in the fuel reaction zone. Depending on the amount of air delivered through air conduit 5 and the relative location of fuel lance 11, a small amount of fuel may react with the air supplied via air conduit 5 in a combustion zone of the furnace prior to the main combustion zone 3.
  • The temperature within the combustion zone 3 should exceed 1400° F. as temperatures below 1400° F. can result in flame instabilities. The fuel reacts with oxygen molecules in the furnace gases spontaneously, as the temperature of the furnace gas is above the auto-ignition temperature of the fuel and oxygen. However, since the oxygen concentration is relatively low, the flame temperature is kept relatively low due to the presence of large amounts of non-reacting molecules such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, and molecular nitrogen in the fuel reaction zone. The combustion under these conditions in the fuel reaction zone produces heat of combustion and combustion reaction products such as carbon dioxide and water vapor but produces very little nitrogen oxides. The actual amount of nitrogen oxides produced varies with each particular situation and will depend on factors such as the furnace gas temperature, nitrogen concentration in the combustion zone and the residence time.
  • The resulting fuel mixture including the combustion reaction products flows out of the fuel reaction mixture and serves to form part of the atmosphere within combustion zone 3 thus providing additional furnace gases to the combustion zone. Within the fuel reaction zone, the fuel undergoes substantially complete combustion so that there is no significant amount of uncombusted or incompletely combusted fuel in the combustion zone outside of the fuel reaction zone.
  • It is important in the practice of the oxy-fuel combustion mode of this invention that the oxidant mixing zone and the fuel reaction zone are maintained separate from each other (or “segregated”) within combustion zone 3. In this way, combustion is restricted primarily to the fuel reaction zone and under conditions which dampen formation of nitrogen oxides (“NOx”). Although various steps of this mode of combustion are described in sequence, those skilled in the art will appreciate that the steps of this method are conducted simultaneously and continuously.
  • The oxidant mixing zone and the fuel reaction zone can be maintained segregated as desired, by positioning the injection points (that is, the ends of lances 11 and 14, for example) and orienting the injection directions, of the fuel and oxidant so as to avoid integration and overlap thereof prior to the requisite dilution of the oxidant within the oxidant mixing zone and the requisite substantially complete combustion of the fuel within the fuel reaction zone.
  • The fuel and the oxidant are fed into the combustion zone 3 in a manner to achieve sufficient mixing within combustion zone 3 so that the combustion zone atmosphere outside of the oxidant mixing zone and of the fuel reaction zone is substantially homogeneous. In a particularly preferred embodiment, the fuel and the oxidant are injected into combustion zone 3 in a manner to promote a recirculating pattern of furnace gases within combustion zone 3. This recirculating pattern contributes to improved temperature distribution and gas homogeneity within the combustion zone 3 and improves the mixing within the oxidant mixing zone and within the fuel reaction zone, resulting in smoother combustion and retarding formation of NOx. With optimum furnace gas recirculation within combustion zone 3, the composition of the flue gas taken out of the combustion zone is substantially the same as the composition of the atmosphere at points within combustion zone 3 outside of the oxidant mixing zone and fuel reaction zone. This recirculation pattern also promotes the entrainment of the furnace gases downstream of the fuel reaction zone into the oxidant stream and the entrainment of the furnace gases downstream of the oxidant mixing zone into the fuel stream.
  • It is particularly preferred to feed the oxidant stream and the fuel stream, in the oxy-fuel combustion mode of operation of the invention, at high velocities and away from each other so that the oxidant mixing zone and the fuel reaction zone do not overlap. Preferably, the ratio of the fuel stream momentum flux to the oxidant stream momentum flux should be within 1:5 to 5:1 when injected from relatively close proximity, such as in the embodiments depicted in FIGS. 3-6.
  • FIGS. 7 and 8 illustrate two embodiments of the oxy-fuel mode of combustion that can be practiced. The letter “O” designates an oxidant mixing zone and the letter “F” designates the fuel mixing zone. The arrows pointed toward oxidant mixing zone “O” depict furnace gases being drawn toward and into the oxidant mixing zone, and the arrows pointed toward fuel reaction zone “F” depict furnace gases flowing toward and into the fuel reaction zone.
  • The adaptation of an air-fuel burner into a burner which is capable of selectively carrying out air-fuel combustion and oxy-fuel combustion is aided by providing suitable controls so that the operator can controllably switch between an air-fuel combustion mode and an oxy-fuel combustion mode at the same burner. Providing this capability requires controls which can controllably minimize or in the limit, shut off or turn on, the flow of air through the air passages, and which can controllably shut off or turn on the flow of oxidant through the oxidant lance or other unit by which oxidant is fed to combustion zone 3. Preferably, the controls also permit regulation of the flow rates of the combustion air, and the flow rate of oxidant, through their respective conduits. In its simplest mode, the control mechanism can comprise simply a regulating valve controlling the flow of oxidant to combustion zone 3, and a regulating valve controlling the flow of air to the air passages of the burner. In most embodiments, one will desire to shut off one such flow completely when the other such flow is to be turned on. Commercially available oxygen supply equipment typically has double block valves (for safety), flow measurement devices, pressure switches and other instrumentation with which this level of control can be facilitated.
  • In addition, in those embodiments in which the same fuel is used whether the combustion is air-fuel or oxy-fuel, no additional controls need to be provided so long as controls were already present to regulate the flow rate of fuel through the burner into combustion zone 3. However, in those embodiments wherein a different fuel, or a different fuel feed conduit, is provided depending on whether the combustion is air-fuel or oxy-fuel, then controls should be provided that permit the operator to shut off the flow of fuel associated with the air-fuel combustion when the oxy-fuel combustion mode is to be operated, and to shut off the flow of fuel associated with the oxy-fuel combustion when the air-fuel combustion mode is to be operated. However, even when the same fuel is combusted in the air-fuel and oxy-fuel modes, the oxy-fuel mode usually requires a higher velocity fuel flow rate. Accordingly, the fuel supplied from the fuel delivery and metering system that is in place for supplying fuel to the fuel conduit for feeding fuel to the air-fuel burner for air-fuel combustion (e.g. typically, low velocity fuel supply) is switched to the second fuel conduit that is used for feeding fuel for oxy-fuel combustion (i.e. to the burner, or to a conduit 11, or to a separate opening 11 as shown for instance in FIG. 5) This provides the benefit that the existing fuel supply and metering system is maintained and simply switched between conduits.
  • The controls preferably permit a base flow of air through the air conduit, even in the oxy-fuel combustion mode wherein oxidant is being fed and combusted. The controls give the operator the ability to gradually, controllably increase the ratio of the oxidant flow rate to the air flow rate until the desired combustion conditions are established.
  • When the air-fuel burner has been fitted as described herein, to provide the capability to controllably carry out oxy-fuel combustion and air-fuel combustion at the same burner, and to controllably alternate as desired between air-fuel combustion and oxy-fuel combustion at the same burner, the resultant apparatus and its capability provide several significant advantages to the operator. One such advantage is that energy efficiency can be improved. That is, fuel consumed for a given amount of furnace output is improved, and the fuel costs can be reduced even taking into account the cost of the oxygen in the oxidant that is consumed. Another advantage is that productivity, in the sense of the amount of furnace output (such as the amount of steel that is reheated) in a given unit of time), is improved. Depending on the characteristics of the furnace before retrofitting as described herein, this improvement can be attributed to the fact that combustion with oxidant having an elevated oxygen content relative to air can overcome the furnace's limitations in the amount of combustion air that it could be fed in the air-fuel combustion mode, and/or to the reduction in the volume of flue gas that must be discharged through the flue (since this flue gas will contain less nitrogen than flue gas generated in air-fuel combustion).

Claims (30)

1. Combustion apparatus comprising
(a) a furnace enclosing a combustion zone and having at least one burner through a wall of the furnace to which air is fed through an air conduit and fuel is fed through a burner fuel conduit from outside the furnace to be combusted at the burner within the combustion zone;
(b) an oxidant conduit through which oxidant can be fed into the furnace from outside the furnace; and
(c) control means that regulates the flow of oxidant through the oxidant conduit and the flow of air through the air conduit such that the ratio of air flow to oxidant flow can be controlled;
wherein the oxidant conduit and the burner fuel conduit are oriented with respect to each other so that the oxidant conduit feeds oxidant into an oxidant mixing zone in the combustion zone and the burner fuel conduit feeds fuel into a fuel reaction zone in the combustion zone which is segregated from the oxidant mixing zone.
2. Combustion apparatus according to claim 1 wherein the oxidant conduit feeds oxidant into the furnace from within the burner.
3. Combustion apparatus according to claim 1 wherein the oxidant conduit feeds oxidant into the furnace from an opening that is not within a burner.
4. Combustion apparatus according to claim 1 further comprising a second fuel conduit through which fuel is fed from outside the furnace to be combusted within the combustion zone.
5. Combustion apparatus according to claim 4 wherein the oxidant conduit feeds oxidant into the furnace from within the burner.
6. Combustion apparatus according to claim 5 wherein the second fuel conduit feeds fuel into the furnace from within the burner.
7. Combustion apparatus according to claim 5 wherein the second fuel conduit feeds fuel into the furnace from an opening that is not within a burner.
8. Combustion apparatus according to claim 4 wherein the oxidant conduit feeds oxidant into the furnace from an opening that is not within a burner.
9. Combustion apparatus according to claim 8 wherein the second fuel conduit feeds fuel into the furnace from within the burner.
10. Combustion apparatus according to claim 8 wherein the second fuel conduit feeds fuel into the furnace from an opening that is not within a burner.
11. Burner apparatus comprising
(a) a burner to which air is fed through an air conduit and fuel is fed through a burner fuel conduit to be combusted in a combustion zone at the burner;
(b) an oxidant conduit through which oxidant can be fed to the burner; and
(c) control means that regulates the flow of oxidant through the oxidant conduit and the flow of air through the air conduit such that the ratio of air flow to oxidant flow can be controlled;
wherein the oxidant conduit and the burner fuel conduit are oriented with respect to each other so that the oxidant conduit feeds oxidant into an oxidant mixing zone in the combustion zone and the burner fuel conduit feeds fuel into a fuel reaction zone in the combustion zone which is segregated from the oxidant mixing zone.
12. Burner apparatus according to claim 1 1 wherein the oxidant conduit feeds oxidant into the furnace from within the burner.
13. Burner apparatus according to claim 11 wherein the oxidant conduit feeds oxidant into the furnace from an opening that is not within a burner.
14. Burner apparatus according to claim 11 further comprising a second fuel conduit through which fuel is fed to be combusted at the burner.
15. Burner apparatus according to claim 14 wherein the oxidant conduit feeds oxidant into the furnace from within the burner.
16. Burner apparatus according to claim 15 wherein the second fuel conduit feeds fuel into the furnace from within the burner.
17. Burner apparatus according to claim 15 wherein the second fuel conduit feeds fuel into the furnace from an opening that is not within a burner.
18. Burner apparatus according to claim 14 wherein the oxidant conduit feeds oxidant into the furnace from an opening that is not within a burner.
19. Burner apparatus according to claim 18 wherein the second fuel conduit feeds fuel into the furnace from within the burner.
20. Burner apparatus according to claim 18 wherein the second fuel conduit feeds fuel into the furnace from an opening that is not within a burner.
21. A method for retrofitting an air-fired furnace, comprising
(a) providing a furnace enclosing a combustion zone and having at least one burner through a wall of the furnace to which air is fed through an air conduit and fuel is fed through a burner fuel conduit from outside the furnace to be combusted at the burner within the combustion zone;
(b) providing an oxidant conduit through which oxidant can be fed into the furnace from outside the furnace;
(c) providing control means that regulates the flow of oxidant through the oxidant conduit and the flow of air through the air conduit such that the ratio of air flow to oxidant flow can be controlled; and
(d) orienting the oxidant conduit with respect to the burner fuel conduit so that the oxidant conduit feeds oxidant into an oxidant mixing zone in the combustion zone and the burner fuel conduit feeds fuel into a fuel reaction zone in the combustion zone which is segregated from the oxidant mixing zone.
22. A method according to claim 21 wherein the oxidant conduit feeds oxidant into the furnace from within the burner.
23. A method according to claim 21 wherein the oxidant conduit feeds oxidant into the furnace from an opening that is not within a burner.
24. A method for retrofitting an air-fired furnace, comprising
(a) providing a furnace enclosing a combustion zone and having at least one burner through a wall of the furnace to which air is fed through an air conduit and fuel is fed through a burner fuel conduit from outside the furnace to be combusted at the burner within the combustion zone;
(b) providing an oxidant conduit through which oxidant can be fed into the furnace from outside the furnace;
(c) providing control means that regulates the flow of oxidant through the oxidant conduit and the flow of air through the air conduit such that the ratio of air flow to oxidant flow can be controlled;
(d) providing a second fuel conduit through which fuel is fed from outside the furnace to be combusted within the combustion zone, and
(e) orienting the oxidant conduit with respect to at least one of the burner fuel conduit and the second fuel conduit so that the oxidant conduit feeds oxidant into an oxidant mixing zone in the combustion zone and said fuel conduit feeds fuel into a fuel reaction zone in the combustion zone which is segregated from the oxidant mixing zone.
25. A method according to claim 24 wherein the oxidant conduit feeds oxidant into the furnace from within the burner.
26. A method according to claim 25 wherein the second fuel conduit feeds fuel into the furnace from within the burner.
27. A method according to claim 25 wherein the second fuel conduit feeds fuel into the furnace from an opening that is not within a burner.
28. A method according to claim 24 wherein the oxidant conduit feeds oxidant into the furnace from an opening that is not within a burner.
29. A method according to claim 28 wherein the second fuel conduit feeds fuel into the furnace from within the burner.
30. A method according to claim 28 wherein the second fuel conduit feeds fuel into the furnace from an opening that is not within a burner.
US11/395,141 2006-04-03 2006-04-03 Integration of oxy-fuel and air-fuel combustion Abandoned US20070231761A1 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US11/395,141 US20070231761A1 (en) 2006-04-03 2006-04-03 Integration of oxy-fuel and air-fuel combustion

Applications Claiming Priority (11)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US11/395,141 US20070231761A1 (en) 2006-04-03 2006-04-03 Integration of oxy-fuel and air-fuel combustion
EP07754335A EP2002180A2 (en) 2006-04-03 2007-03-28 Integration of oxy-fuel and air-fuel combustion
KR1020087026745A KR20090005352A (en) 2006-04-03 2007-03-28 Integration of oxy-fuel and air-fuel combustion
JP2009504209A JP2009532661A (en) 2006-04-03 2007-03-28 Integration of oxyfuel combustion and air fuel combustion
PCT/US2007/007801 WO2007126980A2 (en) 2006-04-03 2007-03-28 Integration of oxy-fuel and air-fuel combustion
MX2008012823A MX2008012823A (en) 2006-04-03 2007-03-28 Integration of oxy-fuel and air-fuel combustion.
CA002648081A CA2648081A1 (en) 2006-04-03 2007-03-28 Integration of oxy-fuel and air-fuel combustion
CNA2007800116487A CN101415993A (en) 2006-04-03 2007-03-28 Integration of oxy-fuel and air-fuel combustion
BRPI0709901-0A BRPI0709901A2 (en) 2006-04-03 2007-03-28 combustion apparatus and method for retrofitting an air oven
NO20084165A NO20084165L (en) 2006-04-03 2008-10-03 Integration of combustion with pure oxygen and air
US12/261,100 US20090061366A1 (en) 2006-04-03 2008-10-30 Integration of oxy-fuel and air-fuel combustion

Related Child Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US12/261,100 Continuation US20090061366A1 (en) 2006-04-03 2008-10-30 Integration of oxy-fuel and air-fuel combustion

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20070231761A1 true US20070231761A1 (en) 2007-10-04

Family

ID=38559527

Family Applications (2)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US11/395,141 Abandoned US20070231761A1 (en) 2006-04-03 2006-04-03 Integration of oxy-fuel and air-fuel combustion
US12/261,100 Abandoned US20090061366A1 (en) 2006-04-03 2008-10-30 Integration of oxy-fuel and air-fuel combustion

Family Applications After (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US12/261,100 Abandoned US20090061366A1 (en) 2006-04-03 2008-10-30 Integration of oxy-fuel and air-fuel combustion

Country Status (10)

Country Link
US (2) US20070231761A1 (en)
EP (1) EP2002180A2 (en)
JP (1) JP2009532661A (en)
KR (1) KR20090005352A (en)
CN (1) CN101415993A (en)
BR (1) BRPI0709901A2 (en)
CA (1) CA2648081A1 (en)
MX (1) MX2008012823A (en)
NO (1) NO20084165L (en)
WO (1) WO2007126980A2 (en)

Cited By (13)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20080286707A1 (en) * 2007-05-15 2008-11-20 Panesar Raghbir S Combustion apparatus
US20090263752A1 (en) * 2008-04-22 2009-10-22 Aga Ab Method and device for combustion of solid phase fuel
US20100050912A1 (en) * 2006-12-22 2010-03-04 Khd Humboldt Wedag Gmbh Method for controlling the operation of a rotary furnace burner
US20100304314A1 (en) * 2007-05-10 2010-12-02 Saint-Gobain Emballage Low nox mixed injector
US20110126780A1 (en) * 2008-03-06 2011-06-02 Ihi Corporation Pulverized coal burner for oxyfuel combustion boiler
US20110294077A1 (en) * 2010-05-28 2011-12-01 Foster Wheeler North America Corp. Method of Controlling a Boiler Plant During Switchover From Air-Combustion to Oxygen-Combustion
US20120129111A1 (en) * 2010-05-21 2012-05-24 Fives North America Combustion, Inc. Premix for non-gaseous fuel delivery
US20150010871A1 (en) * 2013-07-02 2015-01-08 Haldor Topsoe A/S Mixing of recycle gas with fuel gas to a burner
US20170284659A1 (en) * 2014-09-02 2017-10-05 Linde Aktiengesellschaft LOW-NOx-BURNER
US10113742B2 (en) 2014-03-20 2018-10-30 Webasto SE Evaporator burner
US10234136B2 (en) * 2014-03-20 2019-03-19 Webasto SE Evaporator burner for a mobile heating unit operated using liquid fuel
US10302298B2 (en) 2014-03-20 2019-05-28 Webasto SE Evaporator burner arrangement for a mobile heater operated with liquid fuel
US10544935B2 (en) 2014-03-20 2020-01-28 Webasto SE Evaporator burner for a mobile heating device operated with liquid fuel

Families Citing this family (12)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP1889816A1 (en) * 2006-08-15 2008-02-20 Rockwool International A/S Process and apparatus for making mineral fibres
FR2927327B1 (en) * 2008-02-08 2010-11-19 Saint Gobain FURNACE LOW NOX WITH HIGH HEAT TRANSFER
SE533967C2 (en) 2009-03-20 2011-03-15 Aga Ab Method for homogenizing the heat distribution as well as reduce the amount of NOx in combustion
PL2513345T3 (en) * 2009-11-26 2016-07-29 Linde Ag Method for heatng a blast furnace stove
CN101975394A (en) * 2010-11-10 2011-02-16 郑州锅炉股份有限公司 Engine-boiler integrated tube nest type combustion engine and device thereof for recovering three wastes
DE102010053068A1 (en) * 2010-12-01 2012-06-06 Linde Ag Method and apparatus for diluted combustion
US9151492B2 (en) * 2011-02-22 2015-10-06 Linde Aktiengesellschaft Heating apparatus
HUE038117T2 (en) * 2011-05-25 2018-09-28 Linde Ag Heating apparatus
US9863013B2 (en) * 2011-02-22 2018-01-09 Linde Aktiengesellschaft Apparatus and method for heating a blast furnace stove
WO2014168383A1 (en) * 2013-04-08 2014-10-16 국민대학교산학협력단 Flameless combustion industrial furnace using reverse air injection technique, reverse gas recirculation system, and fuel cell system applying catalyst-free fuel reformer using high-speed reverse air injection technique
WO2018021249A1 (en) * 2016-07-26 2018-02-01 Jfeスチール株式会社 Auxiliary burner for electric furnace
JP6592025B2 (en) * 2017-03-13 2019-10-16 大陽日酸株式会社 Method and apparatus for heating object to be heated

Citations (39)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3115851A (en) * 1960-05-11 1963-12-31 Foster Wheeler Corp Multi-fuel burner
USRE28679E (en) * 1970-05-13 1976-01-13 International Industries Ltd. Burners
US4257762A (en) * 1978-09-05 1981-03-24 John Zink Company Multi-fuel gas burner using preheated forced draft air
US4258544A (en) * 1978-09-15 1981-03-31 Caterpillar Tractor Co. Dual fluid fuel nozzle
US4347052A (en) * 1978-06-19 1982-08-31 John Zink Company Low NOX burner
US4357134A (en) * 1978-07-11 1982-11-02 Nippon Steel Corporation Fuel combustion method and burner for furnace use
US4566268A (en) * 1983-05-10 1986-01-28 Bbc Aktiengesellschaft Brown, Boveri & Cie Multifuel burner
US4622007A (en) * 1984-08-17 1986-11-11 American Combustion, Inc. Variable heat generating method and apparatus
US4629413A (en) * 1984-09-10 1986-12-16 Exxon Research & Engineering Co. Low NOx premix burner
US4969814A (en) * 1989-05-08 1990-11-13 Union Carbide Corporation Multiple oxidant jet combustion method and apparatus
US5022332A (en) * 1990-08-15 1991-06-11 Union Carbide Industrial Gases Technology Corporation Combustion method for improved endothermic dissociation
US5076779A (en) * 1991-04-12 1991-12-31 Union Carbide Industrial Gases Technology Corporation Segregated zoning combustion
US5267850A (en) * 1992-06-04 1993-12-07 Praxair Technology, Inc. Fuel jet burner
US5387100A (en) * 1994-02-17 1995-02-07 Praxair Technology, Inc. Super off-stoichiometric combustion method
US5413476A (en) * 1993-04-13 1995-05-09 Gas Research Institute Reduction of nitrogen oxides in oxygen-enriched combustion processes
US5417564A (en) * 1994-01-27 1995-05-23 Riley Stoker Corporation Method and apparatus for altering the firing pattern of an existing furnace
US5601425A (en) * 1994-06-13 1997-02-11 Praxair Technology, Inc. Staged combustion for reducing nitrogen oxides
US5694869A (en) * 1994-12-29 1997-12-09 Duquesne Light Company And Energy Systems Associates Reducing NOX emissions from a roof-fired furnace using separated parallel flow overfire air
US5724897A (en) * 1994-12-20 1998-03-10 Duquesne Light Company Split flame burner for reducing NOx formation
US5743723A (en) * 1995-09-15 1998-04-28 American Air Liquide, Inc. Oxy-fuel burner having coaxial fuel and oxidant outlets
US5772421A (en) * 1995-05-26 1998-06-30 Canadian Gas Research Institute Low nox burner
US5904475A (en) * 1997-05-08 1999-05-18 Praxair Technology, Inc. Dual oxidant combustion system
US6007326A (en) * 1997-08-04 1999-12-28 Praxair Technology, Inc. Low NOx combustion process
US6190158B1 (en) * 1998-12-30 2001-02-20 L'air Liquide, Societe Anonyme Pour L'etude Et L'exploitation Des Procedes Georges Claude Combustion process and its uses for the production of glass and metal
US6241510B1 (en) * 2000-02-02 2001-06-05 Praxair Technology, Inc. System for providing proximate turbulent and coherent gas jets
US6283747B1 (en) * 1998-09-22 2001-09-04 L'air Liquide, Societe Anonyme Pour L'etude Et L'exploitation Des Procedes Georges Claude Method for heating a furnace
US6402059B1 (en) * 1999-02-15 2002-06-11 Alstom (Switzerland) Ltd Fuel lance for spraying liquid and/or gaseous fuels into a combustion chamber, and method of operating such a fuel lance
US6540508B1 (en) * 2000-09-18 2003-04-01 The Boc Group, Inc. Process of installing roof mounted oxygen-fuel burners in a glass melting furnace
US6652681B2 (en) * 2000-09-08 2003-11-25 L'air Liquide Societe Anonyme A Directoire Et Conseil De Surveillance Pour L'etude Et L'exploitation Des Procedes Georges Claude Method of reheating metallurgical products
US6699031B2 (en) * 2001-01-11 2004-03-02 Praxair Technology, Inc. NOx reduction in combustion with concentrated coal streams and oxygen injection
US6699029B2 (en) * 2001-01-11 2004-03-02 Praxair Technology, Inc. Oxygen enhanced switching to combustion of lower rank fuels
US6702569B2 (en) * 2001-01-11 2004-03-09 Praxair Technology, Inc. Enhancing SNCR-aided combustion with oxygen addition
US6702571B2 (en) * 2001-09-05 2004-03-09 Gas Technology Institute Flex-flame burner and self-optimizing combustion system
US6705117B2 (en) * 1999-08-16 2004-03-16 The Boc Group, Inc. Method of heating a glass melting furnace using a roof mounted, staged combustion oxygen-fuel burner
US6752620B2 (en) * 2002-01-31 2004-06-22 Air Products And Chemicals, Inc. Large scale vortex devices for improved burner operation
US6813902B2 (en) * 2000-11-01 2004-11-09 American Air Liquide, Inc. Systems and methods for increasing production of spheroidal glass particles in vertical glass furnaces
US6910879B2 (en) * 2001-04-06 2005-06-28 L'Air Liquide, Société Anonyme à Directoire et Conseil de Surveillance pour l'Etude et l'Exploitation des Procédés Georges Claude Combustion method comprising separate injections of fuel and oxidant and burner assembly therefor
US7074034B2 (en) * 2004-06-07 2006-07-11 Air Products And Chemicals, Inc. Burner and process for combustion of a gas capable of reacting to form solid products
US7225746B2 (en) * 2002-05-15 2007-06-05 Praxair Technology, Inc. Low NOx combustion

Family Cites Families (24)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB1274637A (en) * 1969-03-27 1972-05-17 Zink Co John Process for disposal of oxides of nitrogen
US4408982A (en) * 1982-01-05 1983-10-11 Union Carbide Corporation Process for firing a furnace
USRE34298E (en) * 1984-08-17 1993-06-29 American Combustion, Inc. Method for waste disposal
US5000102A (en) * 1989-12-21 1991-03-19 Union Carbide Industrial Gases Technology Corporation Method for combusting wet waste
JPH05172312A (en) * 1991-12-24 1993-07-09 Tokyo Gas Co Ltd Nitrogen oxide low generating burner
US5201650A (en) * 1992-04-09 1993-04-13 Shell Oil Company Premixed/high-velocity fuel jet low no burner
US5242296A (en) * 1992-12-08 1993-09-07 Praxair Technology, Inc. Hybrid oxidant combustion method
US5516279A (en) * 1994-07-06 1996-05-14 The Boc Group, Inc. Oxy-fuel burner system designed for alternate fuel usage
US5725367A (en) * 1994-12-30 1998-03-10 Combustion Tec, Inc. Method and apparatus for dispersing fuel and oxidant from a burner
US5924858A (en) * 1995-06-13 1999-07-20 Praxair Technology, Inc. Staged combustion method
US5755818A (en) * 1995-06-13 1998-05-26 Praxair Technology, Inc. Staged combustion method
CN1195172C (en) * 1995-07-17 2005-03-30 液体空气乔治洛德方法利用和研究有限公司 Combustion process and apparatus therefor containing separate injection of fuel and oxidant streams
JPH1182941A (en) * 1997-08-29 1999-03-26 Tokyo Gas Co Ltd Oxygen burner
JP3738141B2 (en) * 1998-11-10 2006-01-25 岩谷産業株式会社 Variable oxygen enrichment burner
US6113389A (en) * 1999-06-01 2000-09-05 American Air Liquide, Inc. Method and system for increasing the efficiency and productivity of a high temperature furnace
US6519973B1 (en) * 2000-03-23 2003-02-18 Air Products And Chemicals, Inc. Glass melting process and furnace therefor with oxy-fuel combustion over melting zone and air-fuel combustion over fining zone
US6398546B1 (en) * 2000-06-21 2002-06-04 Praxair Technology, Inc. Combustion in a porous wall furnace
AU776725B2 (en) * 2000-08-04 2004-09-16 Mitsubishi Hitachi Power Systems, Ltd. Solid fuel burner and combustion method using solid fuel burner
JP2003329240A (en) * 2002-05-07 2003-11-19 Osaka Gas Co Ltd Heating furnace
CA2485570C (en) * 2002-05-15 2009-12-22 Praxair Technology, Inc. Combustion with reduced carbon in the ash
US6638061B1 (en) * 2002-08-13 2003-10-28 North American Manufacturing Company Low NOx combustion method and apparatus
WO2004065849A1 (en) * 2003-01-21 2004-08-05 L'air Liquide - Societe Anonyme A Directoire Et Conseil De Surveillance Pour L'etude Et L'exploitation Des Procedes Georges Claude Process and apparatus for oxigen enrichment in fuel conveying gases
US7153129B2 (en) * 2004-01-15 2006-12-26 John Zink Company, Llc Remote staged furnace burner configurations and methods
US7402038B2 (en) * 2005-04-22 2008-07-22 The North American Manufacturing Company, Ltd. Combustion method and apparatus

Patent Citations (40)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3115851A (en) * 1960-05-11 1963-12-31 Foster Wheeler Corp Multi-fuel burner
USRE28679E (en) * 1970-05-13 1976-01-13 International Industries Ltd. Burners
US4347052A (en) * 1978-06-19 1982-08-31 John Zink Company Low NOX burner
US4357134A (en) * 1978-07-11 1982-11-02 Nippon Steel Corporation Fuel combustion method and burner for furnace use
US4257762A (en) * 1978-09-05 1981-03-24 John Zink Company Multi-fuel gas burner using preheated forced draft air
US4258544A (en) * 1978-09-15 1981-03-31 Caterpillar Tractor Co. Dual fluid fuel nozzle
US4566268A (en) * 1983-05-10 1986-01-28 Bbc Aktiengesellschaft Brown, Boveri & Cie Multifuel burner
US4622007A (en) * 1984-08-17 1986-11-11 American Combustion, Inc. Variable heat generating method and apparatus
US4629413A (en) * 1984-09-10 1986-12-16 Exxon Research & Engineering Co. Low NOx premix burner
US4969814A (en) * 1989-05-08 1990-11-13 Union Carbide Corporation Multiple oxidant jet combustion method and apparatus
US5022332A (en) * 1990-08-15 1991-06-11 Union Carbide Industrial Gases Technology Corporation Combustion method for improved endothermic dissociation
US5076779A (en) * 1991-04-12 1991-12-31 Union Carbide Industrial Gases Technology Corporation Segregated zoning combustion
US5267850A (en) * 1992-06-04 1993-12-07 Praxair Technology, Inc. Fuel jet burner
US5411395A (en) * 1992-06-04 1995-05-02 Praxair Technology, Inc. Fuel jet burner
US5413476A (en) * 1993-04-13 1995-05-09 Gas Research Institute Reduction of nitrogen oxides in oxygen-enriched combustion processes
US5417564A (en) * 1994-01-27 1995-05-23 Riley Stoker Corporation Method and apparatus for altering the firing pattern of an existing furnace
US5387100A (en) * 1994-02-17 1995-02-07 Praxair Technology, Inc. Super off-stoichiometric combustion method
US5601425A (en) * 1994-06-13 1997-02-11 Praxair Technology, Inc. Staged combustion for reducing nitrogen oxides
US5724897A (en) * 1994-12-20 1998-03-10 Duquesne Light Company Split flame burner for reducing NOx formation
US5694869A (en) * 1994-12-29 1997-12-09 Duquesne Light Company And Energy Systems Associates Reducing NOX emissions from a roof-fired furnace using separated parallel flow overfire air
US5772421A (en) * 1995-05-26 1998-06-30 Canadian Gas Research Institute Low nox burner
US5743723A (en) * 1995-09-15 1998-04-28 American Air Liquide, Inc. Oxy-fuel burner having coaxial fuel and oxidant outlets
US5904475A (en) * 1997-05-08 1999-05-18 Praxair Technology, Inc. Dual oxidant combustion system
US6007326A (en) * 1997-08-04 1999-12-28 Praxair Technology, Inc. Low NOx combustion process
US6283747B1 (en) * 1998-09-22 2001-09-04 L'air Liquide, Societe Anonyme Pour L'etude Et L'exploitation Des Procedes Georges Claude Method for heating a furnace
US6190158B1 (en) * 1998-12-30 2001-02-20 L'air Liquide, Societe Anonyme Pour L'etude Et L'exploitation Des Procedes Georges Claude Combustion process and its uses for the production of glass and metal
US6402059B1 (en) * 1999-02-15 2002-06-11 Alstom (Switzerland) Ltd Fuel lance for spraying liquid and/or gaseous fuels into a combustion chamber, and method of operating such a fuel lance
US6705117B2 (en) * 1999-08-16 2004-03-16 The Boc Group, Inc. Method of heating a glass melting furnace using a roof mounted, staged combustion oxygen-fuel burner
US6241510B1 (en) * 2000-02-02 2001-06-05 Praxair Technology, Inc. System for providing proximate turbulent and coherent gas jets
US6652681B2 (en) * 2000-09-08 2003-11-25 L'air Liquide Societe Anonyme A Directoire Et Conseil De Surveillance Pour L'etude Et L'exploitation Des Procedes Georges Claude Method of reheating metallurgical products
US6540508B1 (en) * 2000-09-18 2003-04-01 The Boc Group, Inc. Process of installing roof mounted oxygen-fuel burners in a glass melting furnace
US6813902B2 (en) * 2000-11-01 2004-11-09 American Air Liquide, Inc. Systems and methods for increasing production of spheroidal glass particles in vertical glass furnaces
US6699031B2 (en) * 2001-01-11 2004-03-02 Praxair Technology, Inc. NOx reduction in combustion with concentrated coal streams and oxygen injection
US6702569B2 (en) * 2001-01-11 2004-03-09 Praxair Technology, Inc. Enhancing SNCR-aided combustion with oxygen addition
US6699029B2 (en) * 2001-01-11 2004-03-02 Praxair Technology, Inc. Oxygen enhanced switching to combustion of lower rank fuels
US6910879B2 (en) * 2001-04-06 2005-06-28 L'Air Liquide, Société Anonyme à Directoire et Conseil de Surveillance pour l'Etude et l'Exploitation des Procédés Georges Claude Combustion method comprising separate injections of fuel and oxidant and burner assembly therefor
US6702571B2 (en) * 2001-09-05 2004-03-09 Gas Technology Institute Flex-flame burner and self-optimizing combustion system
US6752620B2 (en) * 2002-01-31 2004-06-22 Air Products And Chemicals, Inc. Large scale vortex devices for improved burner operation
US7225746B2 (en) * 2002-05-15 2007-06-05 Praxair Technology, Inc. Low NOx combustion
US7074034B2 (en) * 2004-06-07 2006-07-11 Air Products And Chemicals, Inc. Burner and process for combustion of a gas capable of reacting to form solid products

Cited By (20)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20100050912A1 (en) * 2006-12-22 2010-03-04 Khd Humboldt Wedag Gmbh Method for controlling the operation of a rotary furnace burner
US9169148B2 (en) * 2007-05-10 2015-10-27 Saint-Gobain Emballage Low NOx mixed injector
US20100304314A1 (en) * 2007-05-10 2010-12-02 Saint-Gobain Emballage Low nox mixed injector
US9651253B2 (en) * 2007-05-15 2017-05-16 Doosan Power Systems Americas, Llc Combustion apparatus
US20080286707A1 (en) * 2007-05-15 2008-11-20 Panesar Raghbir S Combustion apparatus
US9810425B2 (en) * 2008-03-06 2017-11-07 Ihi Corporation Pulverized coal burner for oxyfuel combustion boiler
US20110126780A1 (en) * 2008-03-06 2011-06-02 Ihi Corporation Pulverized coal burner for oxyfuel combustion boiler
US8382468B2 (en) * 2008-04-22 2013-02-26 Aga Ab Method and device for combustion of solid phase fuel
EP2112434A3 (en) * 2008-04-22 2015-11-18 Aga Ab Method and device for combustion of solid phase fuel.
US20090263752A1 (en) * 2008-04-22 2009-10-22 Aga Ab Method and device for combustion of solid phase fuel
US20120129111A1 (en) * 2010-05-21 2012-05-24 Fives North America Combustion, Inc. Premix for non-gaseous fuel delivery
US8550810B2 (en) * 2010-05-28 2013-10-08 Foster Wheeler North America Corp. Method of controlling a boiler plant during switchover from air-combustion to oxygen-combustion
US20110294077A1 (en) * 2010-05-28 2011-12-01 Foster Wheeler North America Corp. Method of Controlling a Boiler Plant During Switchover From Air-Combustion to Oxygen-Combustion
US20150010871A1 (en) * 2013-07-02 2015-01-08 Haldor Topsoe A/S Mixing of recycle gas with fuel gas to a burner
US9404652B2 (en) * 2013-07-02 2016-08-02 Haldor Topsoe A/S Mixing of recycle gas with fuel gas to a burner
US10113742B2 (en) 2014-03-20 2018-10-30 Webasto SE Evaporator burner
US10234136B2 (en) * 2014-03-20 2019-03-19 Webasto SE Evaporator burner for a mobile heating unit operated using liquid fuel
US10302298B2 (en) 2014-03-20 2019-05-28 Webasto SE Evaporator burner arrangement for a mobile heater operated with liquid fuel
US10544935B2 (en) 2014-03-20 2020-01-28 Webasto SE Evaporator burner for a mobile heating device operated with liquid fuel
US20170284659A1 (en) * 2014-09-02 2017-10-05 Linde Aktiengesellschaft LOW-NOx-BURNER

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
WO2007126980A2 (en) 2007-11-08
CN101415993A (en) 2009-04-22
BRPI0709901A2 (en) 2011-07-26
NO20084165L (en) 2008-12-23
MX2008012823A (en) 2008-11-14
EP2002180A2 (en) 2008-12-17
US20090061366A1 (en) 2009-03-05
JP2009532661A (en) 2009-09-10
CA2648081A1 (en) 2007-11-08
KR20090005352A (en) 2009-01-13
WO2007126980A3 (en) 2008-02-21

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US4378205A (en) Oxygen aspirator burner and process for firing a furnace
DE60213042T2 (en) Method for controlling the atmosphere in the refining zone of a glass melting furnace
JP2704919B2 (en) Burning in isolated areas
CA2302214C (en) Oxygen-fuel boost reformer process and apparatus
DE69632666T2 (en) Combustion method and apparatus therefor with separate injection of fuel and oxidant
US6659762B2 (en) Oxygen-fuel burner with adjustable flame characteristics
CN100467947C (en) High-heat transfer low-NOx combustion system
US7509819B2 (en) Oxygen-fired front end for glass forming operation
CA2515485C (en) Burner and method for combusting fuels
EP0844433B1 (en) Combustion process and apparatus therefore containing separate injection of fuel and oxidant stream
FI121852B (en) Process for feeding fuel gas into the reaction shaft in a suspension melting furnace and burner
RU2288193C2 (en) Method of melting of the glass-forming material in the glass melting furnace and the oxyfuel burner
ES2222473T3 (en) Method of combining oxidizing and fuel in an oxy-fuel burner that has coaxial outlets for fuel and oxidizer.
AU749407B2 (en) Preferential oxygen firing system for counter-current mineral calcining
US2446511A (en) Open-hearth steelmaking
ES2312201T3 (en) Oxygen-fuel combustion to reduce nox emissions in high temperature ovens.
US5979191A (en) Method and apparatus for melting of glass batch materials
US4761132A (en) Oxygen enriched combustion
DE69819811T2 (en) Dual oxidant combustion process
Kim et al. NO reduction in 0.03–0.2 MW oxy-fuel combustor using flue gas recirculation technology
US9517960B2 (en) Process of operating a glass melting oven
US6688883B2 (en) Apparatus for oxygen enrichment of cement kiln system
US5984667A (en) Combustion process and apparatus therefore containing separate injection of fuel and oxidant streams
AU2004205796B2 (en) Process and apparatus for oxygen enrichment in fuel conveying gases
JP5996552B2 (en) Distributed combustion process and burner

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AS Assignment

Owner name: PRAXAIR TECHNOLOGY, INC., CONNECTICUT

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:ROSEN, LEE;RILEY, MICHAEL F.;KOBAYASHI, HISASHI;REEL/FRAME:018192/0485;SIGNING DATES FROM 20060727 TO 20060818

AS Assignment

Owner name: PRAXAIR TECHNOLOGY, INC., CONNECTICUT

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:BERMEL, CURTIS L.;REEL/FRAME:018192/0794

Effective date: 20060818

STCB Information on status: application discontinuation

Free format text: ABANDONED -- FAILURE TO RESPOND TO AN OFFICE ACTION