US20070187757A1 - Semiconductor devices and methods of fabricating the same - Google Patents

Semiconductor devices and methods of fabricating the same Download PDF

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US20070187757A1
US20070187757A1 US11/786,168 US78616807A US2007187757A1 US 20070187757 A1 US20070187757 A1 US 20070187757A1 US 78616807 A US78616807 A US 78616807A US 2007187757 A1 US2007187757 A1 US 2007187757A1
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substrate
ions
halo
channel
drain
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US11/786,168
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Hak-Dong Kim
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Hak-Dong Kim
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Priority to KR1020030064912A priority Critical patent/KR100588786B1/en
Priority to KR10-2003-0064912 priority
Priority to US10/944,316 priority patent/US7217627B2/en
Application filed by Hak-Dong Kim filed Critical Hak-Dong Kim
Priority to US11/786,168 priority patent/US20070187757A1/en
Publication of US20070187757A1 publication Critical patent/US20070187757A1/en
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L29/00Semiconductor devices adapted for rectifying, amplifying, oscillating or switching, or capacitors or resistors with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction depletion layer or carrier concentration layer; Details of semiconductor bodies or of electrodes thereof; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor
    • H01L29/02Semiconductor bodies ; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor
    • H01L29/06Semiconductor bodies ; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor characterised by their shape; characterised by the shapes, relative sizes, or dispositions of the semiconductor regions ; characterised by the concentration or distribution of impurities within semiconductor regions
    • H01L29/08Semiconductor bodies ; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor characterised by their shape; characterised by the shapes, relative sizes, or dispositions of the semiconductor regions ; characterised by the concentration or distribution of impurities within semiconductor regions with semiconductor regions connected to an electrode carrying current to be rectified, amplified or switched and such electrode being part of a semiconductor device which comprises three or more electrodes
    • H01L29/0843Source or drain regions of field-effect devices
    • H01L29/0847Source or drain regions of field-effect devices of field-effect transistors with insulated gate
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L21/00Processes or apparatus adapted for the manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or solid state devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/02Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/04Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof the devices having at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction, depletion layer or carrier concentration layer
    • H01L21/18Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof the devices having at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction, depletion layer or carrier concentration layer the devices having semiconductor bodies comprising elements of Group IV of the Periodic System or AIIIBV compounds with or without impurities, e.g. doping materials
    • H01L21/26Bombardment with radiation
    • H01L21/263Bombardment with radiation with high-energy radiation
    • H01L21/265Bombardment with radiation with high-energy radiation producing ion implantation
    • H01L21/26506Bombardment with radiation with high-energy radiation producing ion implantation in group IV semiconductors
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L21/00Processes or apparatus adapted for the manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or solid state devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/02Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/04Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof the devices having at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction, depletion layer or carrier concentration layer
    • H01L21/18Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof the devices having at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction, depletion layer or carrier concentration layer the devices having semiconductor bodies comprising elements of Group IV of the Periodic System or AIIIBV compounds with or without impurities, e.g. doping materials
    • H01L21/26Bombardment with radiation
    • H01L21/263Bombardment with radiation with high-energy radiation
    • H01L21/265Bombardment with radiation with high-energy radiation producing ion implantation
    • H01L21/26586Bombardment with radiation with high-energy radiation producing ion implantation characterised by the angle between the ion beam and the crystal planes or the main crystal surface
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L29/00Semiconductor devices adapted for rectifying, amplifying, oscillating or switching, or capacitors or resistors with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction depletion layer or carrier concentration layer; Details of semiconductor bodies or of electrodes thereof; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor
    • H01L29/02Semiconductor bodies ; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor
    • H01L29/06Semiconductor bodies ; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor characterised by their shape; characterised by the shapes, relative sizes, or dispositions of the semiconductor regions ; characterised by the concentration or distribution of impurities within semiconductor regions
    • H01L29/10Semiconductor bodies ; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor characterised by their shape; characterised by the shapes, relative sizes, or dispositions of the semiconductor regions ; characterised by the concentration or distribution of impurities within semiconductor regions with semiconductor regions connected to an electrode not carrying current to be rectified, amplified or switched and such electrode being part of a semiconductor device which comprises three or more electrodes
    • H01L29/1025Channel region of field-effect devices
    • H01L29/1029Channel region of field-effect devices of field-effect transistors
    • H01L29/1033Channel region of field-effect devices of field-effect transistors with insulated gate, e.g. characterised by the length, the width, the geometric contour or the doping structure
    • H01L29/1041Channel region of field-effect devices of field-effect transistors with insulated gate, e.g. characterised by the length, the width, the geometric contour or the doping structure with a non-uniform doping structure in the channel region surface
    • H01L29/1045Channel region of field-effect devices of field-effect transistors with insulated gate, e.g. characterised by the length, the width, the geometric contour or the doping structure with a non-uniform doping structure in the channel region surface the doping structure being parallel to the channel length, e.g. DMOS like
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L29/00Semiconductor devices adapted for rectifying, amplifying, oscillating or switching, or capacitors or resistors with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction depletion layer or carrier concentration layer; Details of semiconductor bodies or of electrodes thereof; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor
    • H01L29/66Types of semiconductor device ; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor
    • H01L29/66007Multistep manufacturing processes
    • H01L29/66075Multistep manufacturing processes of devices having semiconductor bodies comprising group 14 or group 13/15 materials
    • H01L29/66227Multistep manufacturing processes of devices having semiconductor bodies comprising group 14 or group 13/15 materials the devices being controllable only by the electric current supplied or the electric potential applied, to an electrode which does not carry the current to be rectified, amplified or switched, e.g. three-terminal devices
    • H01L29/66409Unipolar field-effect transistors
    • H01L29/66477Unipolar field-effect transistors with an insulated gate, i.e. MISFET
    • H01L29/66568Lateral single gate silicon transistors
    • H01L29/66575Lateral single gate silicon transistors where the source and drain or source and drain extensions are self-aligned to the sides of the gate
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L29/00Semiconductor devices adapted for rectifying, amplifying, oscillating or switching, or capacitors or resistors with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction depletion layer or carrier concentration layer; Details of semiconductor bodies or of electrodes thereof; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor
    • H01L29/66Types of semiconductor device ; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor
    • H01L29/68Types of semiconductor device ; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor controllable by only the electric current supplied, or only the electric potential applied, to an electrode which does not carry the current to be rectified, amplified or switched
    • H01L29/76Unipolar devices, e.g. field effect transistors
    • H01L29/772Field effect transistors
    • H01L29/78Field effect transistors with field effect produced by an insulated gate

Abstract

The present disclosure provides an example of a semiconductor device. In addition, a method for fabricating a semiconductor device is outlined. The semiconductor device may be fabricated by providing a semiconductor substrate, forming a gate over the substrate, forming diffusion barrier ion regions, forming halo regions, forming a source, and forming a drain.

Description

  • The present application is a divisional of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/944,316, filed Sep. 17, 2004, pending.
  • TECHNICAL FIELD
  • The present disclosure relates to semiconductor devices and, in particular, to semiconductor devices and methods for fabricating the same.
  • BACKGROUND
  • As the minimum feature size in semiconductor integrated circuits shrinks, the distance between the source and drain regions becomes smaller. The reduced spacing between the source and drain regions for the field-effect transistors results in short channel effects.
  • To relieve the short channel effects, the semiconductor industry is constantly optimizing the fabrication processes for metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) devices. Current trends in very large scale integration (VLSI) fabrication of complimentary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) devices seem to focus on reducing the junction depth of the source/drain regions because shallow junctions reduce the encroachment of the source/drain depletion regions into the channel.
  • As CMOS technology becomes smaller, e.g., less than 50 nanometers (nm) in gate length, it becomes more and more difficult to improve the short channel device performance and at the same time maintain acceptable values for off-state leakage current.
  • One technique for trying to achieve this is a halo implant having extra dopant implant regions positioned next to the source and drain extension regions. The halo implant, also called a “pocket implant,” can limit the lateral diffusion of the source and drain impurities. The halo implant implants impurities having a conductivity type opposite to that of the source and drain. Usually, the halo implant comes after defining the gate and before the source/drain diffusion. However, the halo impurities also diffuse into the source/drain or the channel region during an annealing for the source/drain diffusion. This diffusion of the halo impurities may cause a threshold voltage of the transistor to fall outside of a pre-determined range, and the leakage currents may also be increased.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • FIGS. 1A to 1E show cross sectional views illustrating various stages of fabrication of a semiconductor device according to the present disclosure.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • With reference to FIG. 1E, a gate 104 is formed over a semiconductor substrate 101. A gate insulating layer 103 is formed below the gate 104. The gate 104 defines a channel 200 thereunder in the substrate 101 having a source side and a drain side.
  • Two halo regions 106 are formed in the source side and the drain side of the channel 200, contacting the channel 200. Halo regions 106 contain halo impurity ions 160 of a first conductivity, which are injected by performing a tilted ion implantation.
  • In the halo regions 106, diffusion barrier ions 150 are also injected. The diffusion barrier ion 150 is smaller than an atom of the substrate 101 and has corresponding size to the halo impurity ion 160. Therefore, the diffusion barrier ion 150 occupies an interstitial site in a crystal lattice of the substrate 101 and acts as a diffusion barrier of the halo impurity ion 160.
  • The diffusion barrier ions 150 can be injected by performing a tilted ion implantation.
  • For example, the diffusion barrier ion 150 can be a carbon ion and the halo impurity ion 160 can be a boron ion.
  • A source 107 is formed in the substrate 101 adjacent to the source side of the channel 200. In the same way, a drain 108 is formed in the substrate 101 adjacent to the drain side of the channel 200.
  • One of the halo regions 106 is located between the source 107 and the channel 200, and the other halo region 106 is located between the drain 108 and the channel 200.
  • The source 107 and drain 108 contain impurity ions of a second conductivity different from the conductivity of the halo ions. For example, the first conductivity can be p-type and the second conductivity can be n-type.
  • The method for fabricating the semiconductor device as described above is explained in detail as follows.
  • First, an isolation process, for example, shallow trench isolation (STI), is performed to define an active area in a semiconductor substrate 101. As shown in FIG. 1A, a trench 102 is formed in a field area of the substrate 101 as a result of the STI process.
  • A single crystalline silicon wafer of a first conductivity, for example, p-type, can be used as the substrate 101.
  • A gate insulating layer 103 is formed on the active area of the substrate 101. The gate insulating layer 103 may be a silicon oxide formed by thermal oxidation.
  • After forming the gate insulating layer 103, BF2 ions can be implanted into the surface of the substrate 101 for controlling a threshold voltage.
  • A conducting layer for a gate 104 is formed on the gate insulating layer 103. For example, a highly doped-polycrystalline silicon layer or a silicide layer thereon may be used as the conducting layer.
  • A photoresist pattern having a gate pattern is formed on the conducting layer. The photoresist pattern is used to etch the conducting layer and the gate insulating layer 103 to form gate 104 and the gate insulating layer 103 on portions of the active area.
  • Gate 104 may define an upper border of channel 200 in the substrate 101 during the operation of the device.
  • Before halo ion implantation, diffusion barrier ions 150 are injected into the substrate 101 to form diffusion barrier ion regions 105, which correspond to halo regions 106 and are in contact with the channel 200, as shown in FIG. 1C.
  • For example, carbon ions can be tilt implanted with a tilt angle of 5° to 30° from an axis orthogonal to the surface of the substrate 101. The carbon ions can be implanted with an energy of 10 to 50 kilo electron-volts (keV) and a concentration of 1013 to 1015 ions/cm2.
  • Next, halo impurity ions 160 of a first conductivity are injected into the portions of the substrate 101 corresponding to the diffusion barrier ion regions 105 to form halo regions 106, as shown in FIG. 1D.
  • For example, boron ions or hydrogen ions can be tilt implanted with a tilt angle of 5° to 30° from an axis orthogonal to the surface of the substrate 101. The boron ions can be implanted with an energy of 10 to 50 keV and a concentration of 5×1013 to 5×1014 ions/cm2.
  • The diffusion barrier ion 150 is smaller than an atom of the substrate 101 and has corresponding size to the halo impurity ion 160. Therefore, the implanted diffusion barrier ion 150 occupies an interstitial site in a crystal lattice of the substrate 101 and acts as a diffusion barrier of the halo impurity ions 160.
  • The interstitial site in a silicon crystal lattice has a smaller space than the size of the silicon atom. When a smaller atom than the silicon atom is injected in the silicon matrix, the small atom diffuses along the interstitial site.
  • Therefore, a diffusion barrier ion having a size similar to that of the halo impurity ion and occupying the interstitial site, blocks the diffusion of the halo impurity ion into the source/drain or the channel.
  • Next, as shown in FIG. 1E, a source 107, and a drain 108 are formed by injecting impurity ions of a second conductivity. The source 107 is formed in the substrate 101 adjacent to the source side of the channel 200, and the drain 108 is formed in the substrate 101 adjacent to the drain side of the channel 200.
  • Arsenic ions or phosphorus ions can be used as the impurity ions of a second conductivity. For example, arsenic ions can be implanted with an energy of 10 to 30 keV and a concentration of 1×1014 to 1'1015 ions/cm2 and phosphorus ions can be implanted with an energy of 5 to 25 keV and a concentration of 1×1014 to 1×1015 ions/cm2.
  • Finally, the substrate 101 is annealed at about 900° C. to 1050° C. for a time period of about 10 to about 20 seconds to activate the implanted ions. That is, during the annealing, the diffusion barrier ions and halo impurity ions are activated, and the formation of the source and drain is completed by activating the impurity ions of the second conductivity.
  • As described above, the diffusion of the halo impurity ions into the source, drain, and/or the channel is prevented due to the diffusion barrier ions which occupy the interstitial site in the crystal lattice of the substrate.
  • Therefore, the profile of the halo regions can be controlled in detail.
  • The subject matter disclosed in this application was disclosed in a corresponding Korean patent application. Accordingly, this application claims priority to and the benefit of Korean Patent Application No. 10-2003-0064912, filed on Sep. 18, 2003 in the Korean Intellectual Property Office. The entire contents of Korean Patent Application No. 10-2003-0064912 are incorporated herein by reference.
  • As disclosed herein in detail, a semiconductor device and a fabrication method thereof prevent the diffusion of the halo impurities.
  • In one example, a semiconductor device may include a semiconductor substrate and a gate formed over the substrate. The gate may define a channel in the substrate having a source side and a drain side. Halo regions may be formed in the source side and the drain side of the channel. The halo regions may contact the channel and contain halo impurity ions of a first conductivity. A source formed in the substrate may contain impurity ions of a second conductivity. A drain formed in the substrate may contain impurity ions of a second conductivity. Diffusion barrier ions may be injected in the halo regions in some configurations.
  • According to one example, the diffusion barrier ion may occupy an interstitial site in a crystal lattice of the substrate. The diffusion barrier ion may be smaller than an atom of the substrate and have corresponding size to the halo impurity ion. In one example, the diffusion barrier ion may be a carbon ion and the halo impurity ion may be a boron ion.
  • The first conductivity may be p-type and the second conductivity may be n-type.
  • Also disclosed herein is a method of fabricating a semiconductor device by providing a semiconductor substrate and forming a gate over the substrate. The gate defines a channel in the substrate having a source side and a drain side. Diffusion barrier ion regions may be formed by injecting diffusion barrier ions into the source side and the drain side of the channel. The diffusion barrier ion regions may be in contact with the channel. Halo regions may be formed by injecting halo impurity ions of a first conductivity into the portions corresponding to the diffusion barrier ion regions. A source may be formed by injecting impurity ions of a second conductivity into the substrate adjacent to the source side of the channel. A drain may be formed by injecting impurity ions of a second conductivity into the substrate adjacent to the drain side of the channel.
  • The diffusion barrier ion regions may be formed by performing a tilted ion implantation with a tilt angle of 5° to 30° from an axis orthogonal to the surface of the substrate.
  • The halo impurity ion regions may be formed by performing a tilted ion implantation with a tilt angle of 5° to 30° from an axis orthogonal to the surface of the substrate.
  • The diffusion barrier ions may be injected with an energy of 10 to 50 keV and a concentration of 1013 to 1015 ions/cm2.
  • The halo impurity ions may be injected with an energy of 10 to 50 keV and a concentration of 5×1013 to 5×1014 ions/cm2.
  • As the impurity ions of the second conductivity, arsenic ions may be injected with an energy of 10 to 30 keV and a concentration of 1×1014 to 1×1015 ions/cm2 to form the source and drain.
  • As the impurity ions of the second conductivity, phosphorus ions may be injected with an energy of 5 to 25 keV and a concentration of 1×1014 to 1×1015 ions/cm2 to form the source and drain.
  • Additionally, the method further includes annealing the substrate at a temperature of about 900° C. to 1050° C. for a time period of about 10 to about 20 seconds.
  • Although certain apparatus constructed in accordance with the teachings of the invention have been described herein, the scope of coverage of this patent is not limited thereto. On the contrary, this patent covers every apparatus, method and article of manufacture fairly falling within the scope of the appended claims either literally or under the doctrine of equivalents.

Claims (7)

1. A semiconductor device comprising;
a semiconductor substrate;
a gate formed over the substrate, the gate defining a channel in the substrate having a source side and a drain side;
halo regions formed in the source side and the drain side of the channel wherein the halo regions contact the channel;
halo impurity ions of a first conductivity positioned in at least one of the halo regions;
a source formed in the substrate adjacent to the source side of the channel, wherein the source contains impurity ions of a second conductivity;
a drain formed in the substrate adjacent to the drain side of the channel, wherein the drain contains impurity ions of the second conductivity; and
diffusion barrier ions positioned in at least one of the halo regions.
2. A semiconductor device as defined by claim 1, wherein at least one of the diffusion barrier ions occupies an interstitial site in a crystal lattice of the substrate.
3. A semiconductor device as defined by claim 1, wherein at least one of the diffusion barrier ions is smaller than an atom of the substrate and has corresponding size to the halo impurity ions.
4. A semiconductor device as defined by claim 1, wherein at least one of the diffusion barrier ions is a carbon ion.
5. The semiconductor device as defined by claim 1, wherein at least one of the halo impurity ions is a boron ion.
6. A semiconductor device as defined by claim 1, wherein the halo regions are formed by performing a tilted ion implantation.
7. A semiconductor device as defined by claim 1, wherein the first conductivity is p-type and the second conductivity is n-type.
US11/786,168 2003-09-18 2007-04-10 Semiconductor devices and methods of fabricating the same Abandoned US20070187757A1 (en)

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KR1020030064912A KR100588786B1 (en) 2003-09-18 2003-09-18 Fabricating method of semiconductor device
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US10/944,316 US7217627B2 (en) 2003-09-18 2004-09-17 Semiconductor devices having diffusion barrier regions and halo implant regions and methods of fabricating the same
US11/786,168 US20070187757A1 (en) 2003-09-18 2007-04-10 Semiconductor devices and methods of fabricating the same

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