New! View global litigation for patent families

US20070161214A1 - High k gate stack on III-V compound semiconductors - Google Patents

High k gate stack on III-V compound semiconductors Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US20070161214A1
US20070161214A1 US11327675 US32767506A US2007161214A1 US 20070161214 A1 US20070161214 A1 US 20070161214A1 US 11327675 US11327675 US 11327675 US 32767506 A US32767506 A US 32767506A US 2007161214 A1 US2007161214 A1 US 2007161214A1
Authority
US
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
material
layer
semiconductor
compound
surface
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US11327675
Inventor
Jean Fompeyrine
Edward Kiewra
Steven Koester
Devendra Sadana
David Webb
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
GlobalFoundries Inc
Original Assignee
International Business Machines Corp
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L21/00Processes or apparatus adapted for the manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or solid state devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/02Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/04Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof the devices having at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction, depletion layer, carrier concentration layer
    • H01L21/18Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof the devices having at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction, depletion layer, carrier concentration layer the devices having semiconductor bodies comprising elements of Group IV of the Periodic System or AIIIBV compounds with or without impurities, e.g. doping materials
    • H01L21/30Treatment of semiconductor bodies using processes or apparatus not provided for in groups H01L21/20 - H01L21/26
    • H01L21/31Treatment of semiconductor bodies using processes or apparatus not provided for in groups H01L21/20 - H01L21/26 to form insulating layers thereon, e.g. for masking or by using photolithographic techniques; After treatment of these layers
    • H01L21/3205Deposition of non-insulating-, e.g. conductive- or resistive-, layers on insulating layers; After-treatment of these layers
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L21/00Processes or apparatus adapted for the manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or solid state devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/02Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/04Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof the devices having at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction, depletion layer, carrier concentration layer
    • H01L21/18Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof the devices having at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction, depletion layer, carrier concentration layer the devices having semiconductor bodies comprising elements of Group IV of the Periodic System or AIIIBV compounds with or without impurities, e.g. doping materials
    • H01L21/28Manufacture of electrodes on semiconductor bodies using processes or apparatus not provided for in H01L21/20 - H01L21/268
    • H01L21/28008Making conductor-insulator-semiconductor electrodes
    • H01L21/28017Making conductor-insulator-semiconductor electrodes the insulator being formed after the semiconductor body, the semiconductor being silicon
    • H01L21/28158Making the insulator
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L21/00Processes or apparatus adapted for the manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or solid state devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/02Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/04Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof the devices having at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction, depletion layer, carrier concentration layer
    • H01L21/18Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof the devices having at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction, depletion layer, carrier concentration layer the devices having semiconductor bodies comprising elements of Group IV of the Periodic System or AIIIBV compounds with or without impurities, e.g. doping materials
    • H01L21/30Treatment of semiconductor bodies using processes or apparatus not provided for in groups H01L21/20 - H01L21/26
    • H01L21/31Treatment of semiconductor bodies using processes or apparatus not provided for in groups H01L21/20 - H01L21/26 to form insulating layers thereon, e.g. for masking or by using photolithographic techniques; After treatment of these layers
    • H01L21/314Inorganic layers
    • H01L21/3143Inorganic layers composed of alternated layers or of mixtures of nitrides and oxides or of oxinitrides, e.g. formation of oxinitride by oxidation of nitride layers
    • H01L21/3145Inorganic layers composed of alternated layers or of mixtures of nitrides and oxides or of oxinitrides, e.g. formation of oxinitride by oxidation of nitride layers formed by deposition from a gas or vapour
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L21/00Processes or apparatus adapted for the manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or solid state devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/02Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/04Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof the devices having at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction, depletion layer, carrier concentration layer
    • H01L21/18Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof the devices having at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction, depletion layer, carrier concentration layer the devices having semiconductor bodies comprising elements of Group IV of the Periodic System or AIIIBV compounds with or without impurities, e.g. doping materials
    • H01L21/30Treatment of semiconductor bodies using processes or apparatus not provided for in groups H01L21/20 - H01L21/26
    • H01L21/31Treatment of semiconductor bodies using processes or apparatus not provided for in groups H01L21/20 - H01L21/26 to form insulating layers thereon, e.g. for masking or by using photolithographic techniques; After treatment of these layers
    • H01L21/314Inorganic layers
    • H01L21/316Inorganic layers composed of oxides or glassy oxides or oxide based glass
    • H01L21/31604Deposition from a gas or vapour
    • H01L21/31645Deposition of Hafnium oxides, e.g. HfO2
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L21/00Processes or apparatus adapted for the manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or solid state devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/02Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/04Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof the devices having at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction, depletion layer, carrier concentration layer
    • H01L21/18Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof the devices having at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction, depletion layer, carrier concentration layer the devices having semiconductor bodies comprising elements of Group IV of the Periodic System or AIIIBV compounds with or without impurities, e.g. doping materials
    • H01L21/30Treatment of semiconductor bodies using processes or apparatus not provided for in groups H01L21/20 - H01L21/26
    • H01L21/31Treatment of semiconductor bodies using processes or apparatus not provided for in groups H01L21/20 - H01L21/26 to form insulating layers thereon, e.g. for masking or by using photolithographic techniques; After treatment of these layers
    • H01L21/3205Deposition of non-insulating-, e.g. conductive- or resistive-, layers on insulating layers; After-treatment of these layers
    • H01L21/32051Deposition of metallic or metal-silicide layers
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L29/00Semiconductor devices adapted for rectifying, amplifying, oscillating or switching, or capacitors or resistors with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction depletion layer or carrier concentration layer; Details of semiconductor bodies or of electrodes thereof; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor
    • H01L29/40Electrodes ; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor
    • H01L29/43Electrodes ; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor characterised by the materials of which they are formed
    • H01L29/49Metal-insulator-semiconductor electrodes, e.g. gates of MOSFET
    • H01L29/51Insulating materials associated therewith
    • H01L29/511Insulating materials associated therewith with a compositional variation, e.g. multilayer structures
    • H01L29/513Insulating materials associated therewith with a compositional variation, e.g. multilayer structures the variation being perpendicular to the channel plane
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L29/00Semiconductor devices adapted for rectifying, amplifying, oscillating or switching, or capacitors or resistors with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction depletion layer or carrier concentration layer; Details of semiconductor bodies or of electrodes thereof; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor
    • H01L29/40Electrodes ; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor
    • H01L29/43Electrodes ; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor characterised by the materials of which they are formed
    • H01L29/49Metal-insulator-semiconductor electrodes, e.g. gates of MOSFET
    • H01L29/51Insulating materials associated therewith
    • H01L29/518Insulating materials associated therewith the insulating material containing nitrogen, e.g. nitride, oxynitride, nitrogen-doped material
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L29/00Semiconductor devices adapted for rectifying, amplifying, oscillating or switching, or capacitors or resistors with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction depletion layer or carrier concentration layer; Details of semiconductor bodies or of electrodes thereof; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor
    • H01L29/66Types of semiconductor device ; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor
    • H01L29/68Types of semiconductor device ; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor controllable by only the electric current supplied, or only the electric potential applied, to an electrode which does not carry the current to be rectified, amplified or switched
    • H01L29/76Unipolar devices, e.g. field effect transistors
    • H01L29/772Field effect transistors
    • H01L29/78Field effect transistors with field effect produced by an insulated gate
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L2924/00Indexing scheme for arrangements or methods for connecting or disconnecting semiconductor or solid-state bodies as covered by H01L24/00
    • H01L2924/0001Technical content checked by a classifier
    • H01L2924/0002Not covered by any one of groups H01L24/00, H01L24/00 and H01L2224/00

Abstract

A method of forming a high k gate stack (dielectric constant of greater than that of silicon dioxide) on a surface of a III-V compound semiconductor, such GaAs, is provided. The method includes subjecting a III-V compound semiconductor material to a precleaning process which removes native oxides from a surface of the III-V compound semiconductor material; forming a semiconductor, e.g., amorphous Si, layer in-situ on the cleaned surface of the III-V compound semiconductor material; and forming a dielectric material having a dielectric constant that is greater than silicon dioxide on the semiconducting layer. In some embodiments, the semiconducting layer is partially or completely converted into a layer including at least a surface layer that is comprised of AOxNy prior to forming the dielectric material. In accordance with the present invention, A is a semiconducting material, preferably Si, x is 0 to 1, y is 0 to 1 and x and y are both not zero.

Description

    FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • [0001]
    The present invention relates to a semiconductor structure, and more particularly to a semiconductor structure including a dielectric material having a dielectric constant of greater than that of silicon dioxide located on a passivated surface of a III-V compound semiconductor in which the passivated surface has electrical properties that are sufficient for high-performance field effect transistor (FET) applications. The present invention also provides a method of fabricating such a semiconductor structure.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • [0002]
    In semiconductor technology, an elemental semiconductor material such as, for example, Si or Ge, is typically used as a substrate in which one or more semiconductor devices including, but not limited to, FETs and capacitors, are formed. Of the various elemental semiconductor materials, Si is the elemental semiconductor of choice due to process and performance benefits that are achieved using such an elemental semiconductor material.
  • [0003]
    Alternative semiconductor materials such as, for example, compound semiconductors, are also known which are used for specific market applications. A major class of compound semiconductors are comprised of at least one element from Group IIIA and Group VA of the Periodic Table of Elements. Such compound semiconductors including an element from Group IIIA and VA are often referred to as III-V or III/V compound semiconductors. Illustrative examples of III-V compound semiconductors include, but are not limited to: GaAs, InP, InAs, GaP, InSb, GaSb and GaN.
  • [0004]
    The need for alternative semiconductor materials is driven by the growth of markets that require integrated circuit (IC) performance beyond that which Si semiconductors can provide. One key IC performance factor that needs to be achieved is high operating speeds. Wireless and high-speed digital communications, space applications, and consumer markets are developing special niche semiconductor markets that are centered on high speed that can support higher signal frequencies.
  • [0005]
    GaAs, which is the most common III-V compound semiconductor material, has greater electron mobility than Si so the majority carriers move faster than in Si. There are also some attributes of a GaAs semiconductor material that reduce parasitic capacitance and signal loses. These result in ICs that are generally faster than those made with silicon. The improved signal speed of GaAs devices permits them to react to high-frequency microwave signals and accurately converts them into electrical signals. As such, products for wireless and high-speed digital communications and high-speed optoelectronic devices are made from GaAs and other III-V compound semiconductors.
  • [0006]
    One major disadvantage of a GaAs semiconductor material (as well as the other III-V compound semiconductors) is the lack of a natural oxide. This feature hinders the development of standard metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) devices that require the ability to form a surface dielectric. Moreover, when a dielectric material having a dielectric constant that is greater than silicon dioxide (k greater than 4.0) is deposited on a GaAs semiconductor material that has an unpassivated surface, the interface between the high k dielectric and the GaAs semiconductor material is typically poor, resulting in a high interface state density (on the order of about 1013 cm−2 eV−1 or greater). Because of such a high interface state density, the electrical properties of the dielectric are insufficient for use with high-performance FETs.
  • [0007]
    Several known solutions have been proposed, but each have problems/drawbacks associated therewith. One such solution is disclosed, for example by Passlack et al. “Low Dit, Thermodynamically Stable Ga2O3—GaAs Interfaces: Fabrication, Characterization, and Modeling”, IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, Vol 44, No. 2, p. 214, February 1997 and by M. Hong et al., “Low Interface State Density Oxide-GaAs Structures Fabricated by in situ Molecular Beam Epitaxy”, J. Vac. Sci., Technol. B 14(3), p. 2297, May/June 1996. The prior art technique described in the two aforementioned disclosures involves deposition of a Ga2O3/Gd2O5 oxide on a clean/reconstructed GaAs surface in an ultra-high vacuum using an ultra-low oxygen ambient. This prior art technique has been shown to be successful in unpinning the GaAs/oxide interface, and produces a very low density of interface states. However, it requires a complex dual chamber molecular beam epitaxial (MBE) system which is not suitable for manufacturing. Moreover, Ga2O3 has the problem that it has a relatively low bandgap, and therefore can produce higher leakage than is desirable for scaled MOSFET applications.
  • [0008]
    Another solution to the general problem mentioned above is disclosed, for example, in Tiwari et al. “Unpinned GaAs MOS Capacitors and Transistors”, IEEE Electron Device Letters, Vol. 9, No. 9, p. 488, September 1988; D. S. L. Mui et al, “Si3N4/Si/In0.53Ga0.47As Depletion-mode Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors With Improved Stability”, Appl. Phys. Lett., 62 (25), p. 3291, Jun. 21, 1993; Z. Wang et al., “Si3N4/Si/n-GaAs Capacitor with Minimum Interface Density in the 1010 eV−1 cm−2 Range”, Appl. Phys. Lett., 62 (23), p. 2977, Jun. 7, 1993; Z. Wang et al., “Gate Quality Si3N4/Si/n-In0.53Ga0.47As Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Capacitors”, Appl. Phys. Lett., 61 (15) p. 1826, Oct. 12, 1992; D. S. L. Mui et al. “Investigations of the Si3N4/Si/n-GaAs Insulator-Semiconductor Interface With Low Interface Trap Density”, Appl. Phys. Lett., 60 (20), p. 2511, May 18, 1992; and D. S. L. Mui et al. “Electrical Characteristics of Si3N4/Si/GaAs Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Capacitor”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59 (22), p. 2847, Nov. 25, 1991. Specifically, each of the aforesaid articles disclose the deposition of a thin Si layer on top of a GaAs substrate in a MBE chamber after GaAs growth. In some of these disclosures, the Si is deposited in the same chamber as the GaAs using a heated elemental Si source. In other disclosures, a second dual chamber system is employed, and the interfacial Si is deposited using an ECR source, which allows higher deposition rates. Both of these techniques mentioned in the above articles have the problem that an III-V MBE chamber is needed to first produce a high-quality GaAs interface before Si deposition.
  • [0009]
    Callegari et al., “Properties of SiO2/Si/GaAs Structures Formed By Solid Phase Epitaxy of amorphous Si on GaAs”, App. Phys. Lett. 58, (22), p. 2540, Jun. 3, 1991 provide a method wherein the GaAs compound semiconductor is subjected to a H-precleaning process prior to deposition, e.g., plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) of a Si layer. After deposition of the Si layer, SiO2 is formed on the precleaned GaAs surface.
  • [0010]
    In addition to the above-mentioned techniques, several techniques have been purposed to passivate a GaAs surface, yet these techniques have not been utilized in conjunction with a high k dielectric. These prior art GaAs passivation techniques include, for example, nitrogen passivation and sulfur passivation. Both of the aforementioned passivation techniques have been shown to unpin the GaAs surface under certain conditions, but it is not clear whether or not such passivation techniques would work in conjunction with a high k dielectric.
  • [0011]
    In view of the above, there is a need for providing a method in which a high k dielectric stack can be formed on a surface of a III-V compound semiconductor material with electrical properties sufficient for high-performance FET applications. That is, a method is needed in which the interface between the high k dielectric stack and the III-V compound semiconductor material is of good quality, resulting in low interface state density (on the order of about 1012 cm−2 eV−1 or less). More specifically, a structure including an unpinned III-V compound semiconductor surface is needed.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • [0012]
    The present invention provides a method in which a high k dielectric material having a dielectric constant of greater than that of silicon dioxide can be formed on a surface of a III-V compound semiconductor material with electrical properties sufficient for high-performance FET applications wherein the interface between the high k dielectric material and the III-V compound semiconductor material is of good quality, resulting in a low interface state density (on the order of about 1012 cm−2 eV−1 or less); the unit for the interface state density can also be written as cm−2/eV. That is, the present invention provides a method in which a high k dielectric material is formed on an unpinned, i.e. passivated, surface of a III-V compound semiconductor material. In accordance with the method of the present invention, the surface of the III-V compound semiconductor includes substantially no oxide or other contaminants that would otherwise cause a large interface state density in the structure.
  • [0013]
    In accordance with the present invention, the method begins by first subjecting a III-V compound semiconductor material to a cleaning step that is capable of removing any native oxides such as, Ga2O3 or As2O5, from the surface of the III-V compound semiconductor material. This step provides a treated surface that typically remains unpinned. The preclean may be performed by a desorption process or, preferably, by a H plasma process. A semiconducting layer (either amorphous or crystalline) is formed in-situ on the treated surface of the III-V compound semiconductor material. This step, together with the previous precleaning step, provides a structure in which the surface of the III-V compound is passivated. Preferably, the semiconducting layer comprises Si, with amorphous Si being even more highly preferred. At this point of the present invention, the semiconducting layer can optionally be subjected to a nitridation, oxidation or oxynitridation process. That is, the semiconducting layer is optionally converted, completely or partially, into a layer or surface region that is comprised of AOxNy wherein A is a semiconducting material, preferably Si, x is from 0 to 1 and y is from 0 to 1; note x and y can not both be zero at the same time. In accordance with the present invention, an in-situ or ex-situ oxidation, nitridation or oxynitridation process can be used. Next, a dielectric material (or multilayers thereof) that has a dielectric constant that is greater than silicon dioxide is formed on either the semiconducting layer, or the AOxNy layer.
  • [0014]
    In general terms, the method of present invention comprises:
    • removing native oxides from a III-V compound semiconductor material to provide a treated surface;
    • forming a semiconducting layer in-situ on said treated surface of said III-V compound semiconductor material; and
    • forming a dielectric material having a dielectric constant that is greater than silicon dioxide on said semiconducting layer.
  • [0018]
    In one embodiment of the present invention, the method of present invention comprises:
    • removing native oxides from a III-V compound semiconductor material to provide a treated surface;
    • forming a semiconducting layer in-situ on said treated surface of said III-V compound semiconductor material;
    • converting at least an upper surface region of said semiconducting layer to a region comprised of AOxNy wherein A is a semiconducting material, x is from 0 to 1, y is from 0 to 1 and x and y are not both 0; and
    • forming a dielectric material having a dielectric constant that is greater than silicon dioxide on the upper surface region of said semiconducting layer.
  • [0023]
    In accordance with the present invention, the converting step may include a complete or partial oxidation, nitridation or oxynitridation process. When complete conversion is achieved, the semiconductor layer is modified to comprise a AOxNy layer, wherein A, x and y are as defined above. In a preferred embodiment, the semiconducting layer is Si which is modified to a SiOxNy layer. In this particular embodiment, the high k dielectric material is formed on a completely modified semiconducting, e.g., SiOxNy, layer. When partial conversion is achieved, an upper surface region of the originally formed semiconducting layer is modified to include a AOxNy surface layer that is located above the remaining semiconducting layer. In this particular embodiment, the dielectric material is formed on the converted upper surface region of the semiconducting layer.
  • [0024]
    In a highly preferred embodiment of the present invention, the method includes the steps of:
    • subjecting a GaAs compound semiconductor material to a H preclean, said H preclean removes native oxides from a surface of said GaAs compound semiconductor material;
    • forming an amorphous Si layer in-situ on said surface of said GaAs compound semiconductor material;
    • subjecting said Si layer to a nitridation process to form a silicon nitride layer; and
    • forming a Hf-based dielectric on said silicon nitride layer.
  • [0029]
    The methods of the present invention described above have has several advantages. First the semiconducting, e.g., Si, layer is excellent at passivating a surface of a III-V compound semiconductor material, particularly a GaAs surface. Secondly, by depositing the semiconducting layer using a high-quality technique such as MBE, the surface can be cleaned (either by desorbing the oxygen at high temperatures, or using a H-plasma preclean), to create a virtually oxygen-free interface. The semiconducting layer thickness can be controlled to high precision as well, and thus be made very thin. If the semiconducting layer is nitridated, in situ, a nitrogen plasma could be used to then convert the semiconducting layer to a semiconducting nitride. Nitride, instead of oxide, formation has the advantage that over nitridation will not cause problems, as generally, nitridation of the GaAs surface does not degrade the electrical characteristics. Over oxidation, on the other hand, can severely degrade the electrical characteristics. Once the nitride is formed, the surface is stable against oxidation, and could be removed and exposed to air, for subsequent high k deposition. A semiconducting nitride also has the advantage of allowing the subsequent HfO2 that is deposited to nucleate amorphous as opposed to polycrystalline, which can improve the electrical properties. The HfO2 could be deposited in situ as well, which would have the advantage that the entire gate stack could be deposited in a single vacuum step. The inventive process has the additional advantage that it does not require a high-temperature step, as the H-preclean, semiconducting layer deposition, optional nitridation, oxidation or oxynitridation and high k deposition all could be performed at a temperature of less than 300° C., which would avoid any contamination or surface degradation problems associated with sublimation of one of the elements of the III-V compound semiconductor material.
  • [0030]
    In addition to the general method and other embodiments thereof described above, the present invention also relates to a semiconductor structure which includes a dielectric material located on a passivated surface of a III-V compound semiconductor material. In accordance with this aspect of the present invention, the inventive structure generally includes:
    • a III-V compound semiconductor material having a surface that is essentially free of oxides;
    • a semiconducting layer located on said surface, wherein an interface is present between the III-V compound semiconductor material and the semiconducting layer that has an interface state density of about 1012 cm−2 eV−1 or less; and
    • a dielectric material having a dielectric constant greater than that of silicon dioxide located on said semiconducting layer.
  • [0034]
    In some embodiments, the semiconducting layer includes at least a surface region of AOxNy, where A, x and y are as defined above. In such an embodiment, the dielectric material is located on said surface region of AOxNy.
  • [0035]
    In yet another embodiment of the present invention, the semiconducting layer of the inventive semiconductor structure is replaced by a AOxNy layer and the dielectric material is located on that replacement layer.
  • [0036]
    In a highly preferred embodiment, the semiconductor structure comprises:
    • a GaAs compound semiconductor material having a surface that is essentially free of oxides;
    • a silicon nitride layer located on said surface, wherein an interface is present between GaAs and the silicon nitride layer that has an interface state density of about 1012 cm−2 eV−1 or less; and
    • a Hf-based dielectric material located on said silicon nitride layer.
  • [0040]
    In addition to the above, the applicants have determined that the presence of the semiconducting layer acts as a robust cap during the activation of implanted source/drain regions. There is no measurable surface erosion observed in the inventive capped structure even after annealing at temperatures of greater than 800° C. This cap is far superior to conventional caps of SiNx or SiOX where measurable surface erosion occurs after annealing at 800° C. or greater. Accordingly, the present invention provides a method of enhancing the activation of implanted dopants within a III/V compound semiconductor material that includes:
    • providing a semiconducting cap layer atop a III/V compound semiconductor that has a surface that is essentially free of oxides, said III/V compound semiconductor including n-type dopants and/or p-type dopants; and
    • annealing (typically at 800° C. or greater) the dopants to provide at least one activated dopant region in said III/V compound semiconductor.
  • [0043]
    In this particular embodiment of the present invention, the n-type dopants for III/V materials include Si, Ge, an element from Group VIA of the Periodic Table of Elements or any combination thereof, while the p-type dopants include C, an element from Group IIA of the Periodic Table of Elements or any combination thereof. A conventional ion implantation process, gas phase doping or plasma immersion process can be used to introduce the dopants into the III/V compound semiconductor material and the annealing step is performed utilizing conventional conditions that are well-known in the art.
  • [0044]
    It should be noted that the term “III-V compound semiconductor material” is used throughout this application to include a semiconductor material that includes at least one element or a mixture of elements from Group IIIA of the Periodic Table of Elements and at least one element or a mixture of elements from Group VA of the Periodic Table of Elements. The III-V compound semiconductor material may be a single layered material or a multilayered material including different III-V compound semiconductors stacked upon each other can be used. In the multilayered embodiment, an upper layer of a III-V compound semiconductor is located on a lower layer of a different III-V compound material, wherein the upper layer has a wider-band gap than that of the lower layer, is used. A III-V layer may also be grown on a IVA elemental semiconductor, e.g., GaP on Si or GaA on Ge or vice a versa.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • [0045]
    FIGS. 1A-1D are pictorial representations (through cross sectional views) depicting one embodiment of the present invention.
  • [0046]
    FIGS. 2A-E are pictorial representations (through cross sectional views) depicting another embodiment of the present invention.
  • [0047]
    FIG. 3 is a pictorial representation (through a cross sectional view) depicting a FET that includes the inventive semiconductor structure.
  • [0048]
    FIG. 4A is a graph showing the C-V characteristics of a MOS capacitor comprising GaAs/amorphous Si/SiOx/HfO2, after annealing at 700° C. for 1 minute in a nitrogen ambient.
  • [0049]
    FIG. 4B is graph showing the interface state density as a function of gate voltage of the MOS capacitor mentioned in FIG. 4A.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  • [0050]
    The present invention, which provides a high k gate stack on a III-V compound semiconductor material as well as a method of fabricating the same, will now be described in greater detail by referring to the following discussion and drawings that accompany the present application. It is noted that the drawings of the present application are provided for illustrative proposes and, as such, they are not drawn to scale.
  • [0051]
    Reference is first made to FIGS. 1A-1D, which are pictorial representations (through cross sectional views) depicting one embodiment of the present invention. In this particular embodiment, a semiconducting layer 14 is first formed on a treated surface 11 of a III-V compound semiconductor material 10 and thereafter a dielectric material 16 having a dielectric constant of greater than that of silicon dioxide is formed on the semiconducting layer 14.
  • [0052]
    Reference is first made to FIG. 1A which illustrates an initial III-V compound semiconductor material 10 that can be used in the present invention. As shown, the initial III-V compound semiconductor material 10 has region 12 that includes native oxides, atomic Ga or As species and other contaminants such as, for example, C-containing compounds therein. In accordance with the present invention, the initial III-V compound semiconductor material 10 used is a semiconductor material that includes at least one element or a mixture of elements from Group IIIA of the Periodic Table of Elements and at least one element or a mixture of elements from Group VA of the Periodic Table of Elements. Illustrative examples of III-V compound semiconductors that can be used as material 10 include, but are not limited to: GaAs, InP, InAs, GaP, InSb, GaSb, GaN, InGaAs, and InAsSb. Preferably the III-V compound semiconductor is one of GaAs optionally including In, or one of InSb optionally including As.
  • [0053]
    The III-V compound semiconductor material 10 may be a single layered material (as shown) or a multilayered material (see FIG. 2A, for example) including different III-V compound semiconductors stacked upon each other. In the multilayered embodiment, an upper layer of a III-V compound semiconductor is located on a lower layer of a different III-V compound material, wherein the upper layer has a wider-band gap than the lower layer. Some examples of such materials include, but are not limited to: an AlGaAs layer atop a InGaAs layer, a InGaP layer located atop a InGaAs layer, InAlAs layer atop a InGaAs layer, or a AlSb layer atop an InAsSb layer. A III-V layer may also be grown on a IVA elemental semiconductor, e.g., GaP on Si or GaA on Ge or vice a versa.
  • [0054]
    The region 12 of native oxides and other contaminates typically includes at least an oxide of one of the elements of the initial III-V compound semiconductor material. For example, if the initial III-V compound semiconductor material 10 is GaAs, region 12 would include an oxide of Ga and/or an oxide of As. The initial III-V compound semiconductor material 10 includes an untreated surface at this point of the present invention which, if used without cleaning and passivated, would result in a structure that is pinned and has a high interface state density (on the order of about 1013 cm−2 eV−1 or greater).
  • [0055]
    FIG. 1B shows the III-V compound semiconductor material 10 of FIG. 1A after the region 12 of native oxides and other contaminates is removed from the material forming a treated surface 11. The treated surface 11 which contains essentially no oxides and other contaminates is formed by utilizing a desorption process or by utilizing a H plasma precleaning process. By “essentially free of oxide” it is meant that the oxide content is about 10−2 of a monolayer or less.
  • [0056]
    When a desorption process is used to remove region 12 forming the treated surface 11, the desorption is carried out in vacuum or an inert ambient such as, for example, N2, He, Ar or a mixture thereof, at a temperature of about 600° C. or greater. The desorption is typically performed in the presence of a partial pressure of As wherein a partial pressure equivalent to an incident flux of about 1014 As molecules cm−2 or higher is established.
  • [0057]
    Although desorption can be used, it is preferred in the present invention that the region 12 is removed from the III-V compound semiconductor material 10 utilizing a H plasma process. The H plasma process includes providing a plasma of hydrogen, H, using a hydrogen source such as, for example, molecular or, more preferably, atomic hydrogen. The hydrogen plasma is a neutral, highly ionized hydrogen gas that consisting of neutral atoms or molecules, positive ions and free electrons. Ionization of the hydrogen source is typically carried out in a reactor chamber in which the ionization process is achieved by subjecting the source to strong DC or AC electromagnetic fields. Alternatively, the ionization of the hydrogen source is performed by bombarding the gate atoms with an appropriate electron source.
  • [0058]
    In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the hydrogen plasma process used to provide the treated surface 11 is performed at a temperature of about 300° C. or less.
  • [0059]
    As stated above, this step of the present invention removes the region 12 including at least the native oxides of the III-V compound semiconductor material from the initial material providing a treated surface 11 such as shown, for example, in FIG. 1B. The interface formed at the treated surface located between the III-V compound semiconductor 10 and the semiconductor layer (to be subsequently formed) has a low interface state density of on the order of about 1012 cm−2 eV−1 or less.
  • [0060]
    The thickness of the treated surface 11 may vary depending on the technique used in forming the same and the exact conditions employed. Typically, the treated surface 11 has a thickness that is about a few monolayers or greater.
  • [0061]
    After forming the treated surface 11, a semiconducting layer 14 is formed thereon providing the structure shown, for example, in FIG. 1C. The semiconducting layer 14 may be crystalline or, more preferably, amorphous. The term “semiconducting layer” denotes a layer including Si, Ge alloys, SiGe, SiC, SiGeC and the like. Preferably, the semiconducting layer 14 is comprised of Si. In accordance with the present invention, the semiconducting layer 14 is formed in-situ in the same reactor chamber as used in providing the treated surface 11. This step provides a semiconducting layer that passivates the previously cleaned III-V compound semiconductor material. The semiconducting layer 14 is formed by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), chemical vapor deposition (CD), and other like deposition processes. Preferably, MBE is used in forming the semiconducting layer 14.
  • [0062]
    The thickness of the semiconducting layer 14 may vary depending on the technique used in forming the same. Typically, the semiconducting layer 14 has a thickness from about 0.5 to about 5 nm, with a thickness from about 0.5 to about 2 nm being even more typical.
  • [0063]
    In the specific embodiment illustrated, a dielectric material 16 having a dielectric constant of greater than that of silicon dioxide is formed on the surface of the semiconducting layer 14. The dielectric material 16 employed in the present invention comprises any metal oxide or mixed metal oxide that is typically used as a gate dielectric or a capacitor dielectric in semiconductor device manufacturing. Examples of such dielectric materials (which can be referred to as a high k dielectric since they have a dielectric constant of that which is greater than silicon dioxide) include, but are not limited to: Al2O3, AlON, Ta2O5, TiO2, La2O3, SrTiO3, LaAlO3, ZrO2, Y2O3, Gd2O3, MgO, MgNO, Hf-based diele described in greater detail herein below), and combinations including multilayers thereof.
  • [0064]
    The term ‘Hf-based dielectric’ is intended herein to include any high k dielectric containing hafiium, Hf. Examples of such Hf-based dielectrics comprise hafnium oxide (HfO2), hafiiium silicate (HfSiOx), Hf silicon oxynitride (HfSiON), HfLaOx, HfLaSiOx, HfLaSiONx, or multilayers thereof. Typically, the Hf-based dielectric is hafnium oxide or hafnium silicate. Hf-based dielectrics typically have a dielectric constant that is greater than about 10.0.
  • [0065]
    The physical thickness of the dielectric material 16 may vary, but typically, the dielectric material 16 has a thickness from about 0.2 to about 20 nm, with a thickness from about 0.5 to about 10 nm being more typical. The dielectric material 16 may be formed in-situ or ex-situ utilizing any conventional deposition process including, for example, chemical vapor deposition, PECVD, atomic layer deposition, chemical solution deposition, MOCVD, evaporation and other like deposition processes.
  • [0066]
    In one embodiment of the present invention, the dielectric material 16 is hafnium oxide that is formed by MOCVD were hafnium-tetrabutoxide (a Hf-precursor) and O2 are used. In such an embodiment, the O2 may be molecular oxygen, or preferably, atomic oxygen is used. The deposition of Hf oxide occurs using a chamber pressure of about 1 Torr or less and a substrate temperature of about 200° C. or greater. In another embodiment of the present invention, the dielectric material 16 is hafnium silicate which is formed by MOCVD using the precursor Hf-tetrabutoxide, O2, and SiH4; (ii) a chamber pressure of about 1 Torr or less; and (iii) a substrate temperature of about 200° C. or greater may also be used.
  • [0067]
    Reference is now made to FIGS. 2A-2E which illustrates another embodiment of the present invention. In this embodiment of the present invention, a semiconducting layer 14 is first formed on a treated surface 11 of a III-V compound semiconductor material 10 (including top and bottom layers as described above) and thereafter the semiconducting layer 14 is completely or partially converted into a layer 15 including at least a surface region comprised of AOxNy, wherein A is a semiconducting material, x is 0 to 1, y is 0 to 1 and x and y are both not zero. In the embodiment where complete conversion is achieved, layer 15 is completely comprised of AOxNy. In embodiments where partially conversion is achieved, the upper surface portion of layer 15 is comprised of AOxNy and the remaining portion of layer 15 is comprised of the semiconducting material. FIG. 3 shows such an embodiment, wherein 15A is the remaining semiconducting material of layer 14 and 15B is the AOxNy material. Note that in FIG. 3, the remaining semiconducting layer is optional. In either embodiment, the treated surface is passivated with either a AOxNy layer or a material stack comprising, from bottom to top, a semiconducting material and a AOxNy layer.
  • [0068]
    This embodiment shown in FIGS. 2A-2E begins by first providing the structure shown in FIG. 2A which includes a III-V compound semiconductor material 10 having a region 12 of native oxides and other contaminants therein. The semiconductor material 10 and the region 12 are the same as described above for FIG. 1A. It is noted that in these drawings, the semiconductor material 10 is shown as including a top III-V compound semiconductor layer 10B that has a wider band gap than that of the lower III-V compound semiconductor layer 10A. FIG. 2B illustrates the structure that is formed after removing the region 12 from the structure and forming the treated surface 11 therein. This step of the illustrated embodiment is the same as that described above for FIG. 1B. Next, and as is shown in FIG. 2C, a semiconducting layer 14 (as described above) is formed on the treated surface 11.
  • [0069]
    After forming the semiconducting layer 14, layer 14 is converted completely or partially converted into a layer 15 that is comprised of at least a surface region including AOxNy wherein A is a semiconducting material, x is 0 to 1, y is 0 to 1 and x and y are both not zero. The resultant structure including layer 15 is shown, for example, in FIG. 2D. In accordance with this embodiment of the present invention, the semiconducting layer 14 is subjected to a nitridation, oxidation or oxynitridation process which may be performed in-situ or ex-situ utilizing conventional conditions that are well known in the art. Plasma and thermal techniques are both contemplated herein. In the case of semiconducting layer 14 being Si, a SiNy layer can be formed by exposing the semiconducting layer 14 to atomic nitrogen, with a partial pressure typically in the range of 10−6 to 10−4 Torr, at a temperature in the range of about 200° C. or greater, and a SiOx layer to atomic O, with a partial pressure typically in the range of 10−6 to 10−4 Torr at a temperature in the range of about 200° C. or greater, and a SiOxNy layer can be formed by utilizing a sequential or concurrent combination of these conditions. It is noted that other conditions can be used besides those mentioned herein for this step of the present invention. In accordance with the present invention, it is preferred that this step of the present invention by performed in-situ. The conditions and duration of the converting will determine whether the semiconducting layer 14 is completely (typically characterized by longer processing times) or partially modified (typically characterized by shorter processing times).
  • [0070]
    When complete conversion is achieved, the semiconducting layer 14 is modified to a AOxNy layer, wherein A, x and y are as defined above. When partial conversion is achieved, an upper surface region of the originally formed semiconducting layer 14 is modified to include a AOxNy surface layer that is located above the remaining semiconducting material. In this particular embodiment, the dielectric material is formed on the converted upper surface region. In such an embodiment, the upper surface region including the AOxNy surface layer has a thickness from about 0.5 to about 8 nm, with a thickness of about 0.5 to about 2 nm being even more typical.
  • [0071]
    FIG. 2E illustrates the structure after a dielectric material 16 (as described above) is formed on layer 15. Notwithstanding partial or complete conversion of layer 15, the dielectric material 16 is formed on a surface that is comprised of AOxNy.
  • [0072]
    The material stacks shown in FIG. 1D or 2E can be used in fabricating a metal oxide semiconductor capacitor (MOSCAP) and/or a MOSFET utilizing conventional processes that are well known in the art. One example of a MOSFET is shown in FIG. 3; in this drawing reference numeral 10 denotes the III-V compound semiconductor, reference numeral 11 denotes the treated surface, reference numeral 15B denotes the AOxNy layer, reference numeral 15A denotes the remaining semiconducting material of the semiconducting layer; reference numeral 16 denotes the high k dielectric material, reference numeral 18 denotes the gate electrode, and reference numeral 20 denotes the source/drain diffusion regions. In each case, an electrode or an electrode stack is formed on the material stacks shown in FIG. 1D or 2E and thereafter these materials layers are patterned by lithography and etching.
  • [0073]
    The electrode or electrode stack, which comprises at least one conductive material, is formed utilizing a known deposition process such as, for example, physical vapor deposition, CVD or evaporation. The conductive material used as the electrode includes, but is not limited to: Si-containing materials such as Si or a SiGe alloy layer in either single crystal, polycrystalline or amorphous form. The conductive material may also be a conductive metal or a conductive metal alloy. Combinations of the aforementioned conductive materials are also contemplated herein. Si-containing materials are preferred, with polySi being most preferred. In addition to aforementioned conductive materials, the present invention also contemplates instances wherein the conductor is fully silicided or a stack including a combination of a silicide and Si or SiGe. The silicide is made using a conventional silicidation process well known to those skilled in the art. Fully silicided layers can be formed using a conventional replacement gate process; the details of which are not critical to the practice of the present invention. The blanket layer of conductive material may be doped or undoped. If doped, an in-situ doping deposition process may be employed in forming the same. Alternatively, a doped conductive material can be formed by deposition, ion implantation and annealing. The ion implantation and annealing can occur prior to or after a subsequent etching step that patterns the material stack. The doping of the conductive material will shift the workfunction of the electrode formed. The thickness, i.e., height, of the electrode deposited at this point of the present invention may vary depending on the deposition process employed. Typically, the electrode has a vertical thickness from about 20 to about 180 nm, with a thickness from about 40 to about 150 nm being more typical.
  • [0074]
    The MOSCAP formation typically includes forming a thermal, chemical or deposited sacrificial oxide (not shown) on the surface of the III-V compound semiconductor material. Using lithography, the active areas of the capacitor structure are opened in the field oxide by etching. Following the removal of the oxide, the material stack as shown in FIG. 1D or 2E is formed as described above. Specifically, the material stack is provided, patterned by lithography and etching, and then a gate electrode including dopants is formed on the dielectric stack. In the case of a poly-silicon gate electrode, the dopants are typically P or As, and can be incorporated by implantation with a typical dose in the range of 1×1015 ions/cm2 to 5×1015 ions/cm2, or in situ doping during poly-silicon deposition using dopant precursor species such as AsH3 or PH3. The dopants are activated using an activation anneal that is performed at 900° C. to 1000° C. for about 5 seconds. The MOS cap could also incorporate a metal or metal-alloy stack alone or in combination with a polysilicon gate electrode. In some cases, an anneal step can be performed before or after the deposition of the gate electrode. Said anneal step is typically performed between 500° to 800° C., and is typically performed in a nitrogen ambient.
  • [0075]
    The MOSFET formation includes first forming isolation regions, such as trench isolation regions, within the III-V compound semiconductor material described above. A sacrificial oxide layer can be formed atop the III-V compound semiconductor material to form the isolation regions. Similar to the MOSCAP and after removing the sacrificial oxide, a material stack as described above is formed. Next, a gate electrode is formed and the material stack is then patterned. Following patterning of the material stack, at least one spacer is typically, but not always, formed on exposed sidewalls of each patterned material stack. The at least one spacer is comprised of an insulator such as an oxide, nitride, oxynitride and/or any combination thereof. The at least one spacer is formed by deposition and etching.
  • [0076]
    The width of the at least one spacer must be sufficiently wide such that the source and drain silicide contacts (to be subsequently formed) do not encroach underneath the edges of the patterned material stack. Typically, the source/drain silicide does not encroach underneath the edges of the patterned material stack when the at least one spacer has a width, as measured at the bottom, from about 20 to about 80 nm.
  • [0077]
    The patterned material stack can also be passivated at this point of the present invention by subjecting the same to a thermal oxidation, nitridation or oxynitridation process. The passivation step forms a thin layer of passivating material about the material stack. This step may be used instead or in conjunction with the previous step of spacer formation. When used with the spacer formation step, spacer formation occurs after the material stack passivation process.
  • [0078]
    Source/drain diffusion regions are then formed into the substrate. The source/drain diffusion regions are formed utilizing ion implantation and an annealing step. Typically, a raised source/drain process is used. The annealing step serves to activate the dopants that were implanted by the previous implant step. The conditions for the ion implantation and annealing are well known to those skilled in the art. The source/drain diffusion regions may also include extension implant regions which are formed prior to source/drain implantation using a conventional extension implant. The extension implant may be followed by an activation anneal, or alternatively the dopants implanted during the extension implant and the source/drain implant can be activated using the same activation anneal cycle. Halo implants are also contemplated herein.
  • [0079]
    In some cases, an annealing step as described above can be performed. Further CMOS processing such as formation of silicided contacts (source/drain and gate) as well as formation of BEOL (back-end-of-the-line) interconnect levels with metal interconnects can be formed utilizing processing steps that are well known to those skilled in the art.
  • [0080]
    The following example is provided for illustrative purposes and thus it should not be construed to limit the scope of the present application in any way.
  • EXAMPLE
  • [0081]
    In this example, a MOSCAP was prepared utilizing a semiconductor structure in accordance with the present invention. The inventive structure included, from bottom to top, an atomic-H passivated GaAs substrate, an amorphous Si layer, SiOx and HfO2. The structure was formed utilizing the inventive processing details described above. After formation, a gate electrode was formed thereon and the structure was annealed at 700° C., 1 min., in nitrogen.
  • [0082]
    FIG. 4A shows the CV curves of such a MOSCAP at 1 kHz, 10 kHz, 100 kHz and 1 MHz. Specifically, the CV curves have very low frequency dispersion, which is indicative of low interface state density. FIG. 4B shows the Dit extracted as a function of gate voltage of the same MOSCAP as in FIG. 4A using the frequency-dependent method well known in the art. The results show a minimum Dit value of 6×1011 cm−2/eV, which is over an order of magnitude lower than typically obtained on MOSCAPs with HfO2 directly on an unpassivated GaAs.
  • [0083]
    While the present invention has been particularly shown and described with respect to preferred embodiments thereof, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that the foregoing and other changes in forms and details may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention. It is therefore intended that the present invention not be limited to the exact forms and details described and illustrated, but fall within the scope of the appended claims.

Claims (23)

  1. 1. A method of forming a material stack on a III-V compound semiconductor comprising:
    removing native oxides from a III-V compound semiconductor material to provide a treated surface;
    forming a semiconducting layer in-situ on said treated surface of said III-V compound semiconductor material; and
    forming a dielectric material having a dielectric constant that is greater than silicon dioxide on said semiconducting layer.
  2. 2. The method of claim 1 wherein said removing said native oxides comprises desorption at a temperature of about 600° C. or greater.
  3. 3. The method of claim 1 wherein said removing said native oxides comprises a plasma H process.
  4. 4. The method of claim 1 wherein said semiconducting layer is formed by epitaxy.
  5. 5. The method of claim 1 further comprising completely or partially converting the semiconducting layer into a AOxNy layer, wherein A is a semiconducting material, x is 0 to 1, y is 0 to 1 and x and y are both not zero, prior to forming the dielectric material.
  6. 6. The method of claim 1 wherein each of said steps is performed in-situ.
  7. 7. The method of claim 1 wherein each of said steps is performed at a temperature of less than 300° C.
  8. 8. A method of forming a material stack on a III-V compound semiconductor comprising:
    removing native oxides from a III-V compound semiconductor material to provide a treated surface;
    forming a semiconducting layer in-situ on said treated surface of said III-V compound semiconductor material;
    converting at least an upper surface region of said semiconducting layer to a region comprised of AOxNy wherein A is a semiconducting material, x is from 0 to 1, y is from 0 to 1 and x and y are both not zero; and
    forming a dielectric material having a dielectric constant that is greater than silicon dioxide on the upper surface region of said semiconducting layer.
  9. 9. The method of claim 8 wherein said removing said native oxides comprises desorption at a temperature of about 600° C. or greater.
  10. 10. The method of claim 8 wherein said removing said native oxides comprises a plasma H process.
  11. 11. The method of claim 8 wherein said semiconducting layer formed by epitaxy.
  12. 12. The method of claim 8 wherein each of said steps is performed in-situ.
  13. 13. The method of claim 8 wherein each of said steps is performed at a temperature of less than 300° C.
  14. 14. A semiconductor structure comprising:
    a III-V compound semiconductor material having a surface that is essentially free of oxides;
    a semiconducting layer located on said surface, wherein an interface is present between the III-V compound semiconductor material and the semiconducting layer that has an interface state density of about 1012 cm−2 eV−1 or less; and
    a dielectric material having dielectric constant greater than that of silicon dioxide located on said semiconducting layer.
  15. 15. The semiconductor structure of claim 14 wherein said III-V compound semiconductor material includes an upper layer and a lower layer, wherein said upper layer has a wider-band gap than said lower layer.
  16. 16. The semiconductor structure of claim 14 wherein said semiconducting layer is amorphous.
  17. 17. The semiconductor structure of claim 14 wherein said semiconducting layer is Si.
  18. 18. The semiconductor structure of claim 14 wherein said semiconducting layer includes at least a surface region of AOxNy wherein A is a semiconducting material, x is from 0 to 1, y is from 0 to 1, both x and y are not zero and said dielectric material is located on said surface region of AOxNy.
  19. 19. The semiconductor structure of claim 14 wherein said semiconducting layer is replaced completely by an AOxNy layer wherein A is a semiconducting material, x is from 0 to 1 and y is from 0 to 1 and said dielectric material is located on said AOxNy layer.
  20. 20. The semiconductor structure of claim 14 wherein said dielectric material is a Hf-based dielectric.
  21. 21. The semiconductor structure of claim 14 further comprising an electrode or electrode stack on said dielectric material.
  22. 22. The semiconductor structure of claim 14 wherein said dielectric material is a gate dielectric of at least one field effect transistor device.
  23. 23. A method of enhancing the activation of implanted dopants within a III/V compound semiconductor material comprising:
    providing a semiconducting cap layer atop a III/V compound semiconductor that has a surface that is essentially free of oxides, said III/V compound semiconductor including n-type dopants, p-type dopants or both; and
    annealing the dopants to provide at least one activated dopant region in said III/V compound semiconductor.
US11327675 2006-01-06 2006-01-06 High k gate stack on III-V compound semiconductors Abandoned US20070161214A1 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US11327675 US20070161214A1 (en) 2006-01-06 2006-01-06 High k gate stack on III-V compound semiconductors

Applications Claiming Priority (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US11327675 US20070161214A1 (en) 2006-01-06 2006-01-06 High k gate stack on III-V compound semiconductors
US13607741 US9805949B2 (en) 2006-01-06 2012-09-09 High κ gate stack on III-V compound semiconductors

Related Child Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US13607741 Division US9805949B2 (en) 2006-01-06 2012-09-09 High κ gate stack on III-V compound semiconductors

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20070161214A1 true true US20070161214A1 (en) 2007-07-12

Family

ID=38233253

Family Applications (2)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US11327675 Abandoned US20070161214A1 (en) 2006-01-06 2006-01-06 High k gate stack on III-V compound semiconductors
US13607741 Active 2027-04-12 US9805949B2 (en) 2006-01-06 2012-09-09 High κ gate stack on III-V compound semiconductors

Family Applications After (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US13607741 Active 2027-04-12 US9805949B2 (en) 2006-01-06 2012-09-09 High κ gate stack on III-V compound semiconductors

Country Status (1)

Country Link
US (2) US20070161214A1 (en)

Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20080242012A1 (en) * 2007-03-28 2008-10-02 Sangwoo Pae High quality silicon oxynitride transition layer for high-k/metal gate transistors
US20100075507A1 (en) * 2008-09-22 2010-03-25 Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company, Ltd. Method of Fabricating a Gate Dielectric for High-K Metal Gate Devices
US20100123205A1 (en) * 2008-11-17 2010-05-20 International Business Machines Corporation Method to prevent surface decomposition of iii-v compound semiconductors
US20120132913A1 (en) * 2010-11-29 2012-05-31 International Business Machines Corporation III-V Compound Semiconductor Material Passivation With Crystalline Interlayer
US20150011080A1 (en) * 2013-07-03 2015-01-08 Commissariat A L'energie Atomique Et Aux Energies Alternatives METHOD FOR ELECTRICAL ACTIVATION OF DOPANT SPECIES IN A GaN FILM
US20150214047A1 (en) * 2014-01-29 2015-07-30 Renesas Electronics Corporation Method for Manufacturing Semiconductor Device
US20170062522A1 (en) * 2015-08-27 2017-03-02 Intermolecular, Inc. Combining Materials in Different Components of Selector Elements of Integrated Circuits
US20180053656A1 (en) * 2016-08-18 2018-02-22 International Business Machines Corporation Gate-Stack Structure with a Diffusion Barrier Material

Families Citing this family (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US9515186B2 (en) 2014-01-23 2016-12-06 Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. Semiconductor device and method of fabricating the same
US9776744B2 (en) 2015-06-19 2017-10-03 Telebrands Corp. Container sealing device
US20160368628A1 (en) 2015-06-19 2016-12-22 Telebrands Corp. System, device, and method for filling at least one balloon
USD793484S1 (en) 2015-11-20 2017-08-01 Telebrands Corp. Device for filling multiple water balloons
USD793485S1 (en) 2015-11-20 2017-08-01 Telebrands Corp. Device for filling multiple water balloons
USD793483S1 (en) 2015-11-20 2017-08-01 Telebrands Corp. Device for filling multiple water balloons

Citations (64)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6185569B2 (en) *
US4490284A (en) * 1982-09-29 1984-12-25 Dragoco Gerberding & Co. Gmbh 1,1-Di(C1 -C6 -alkyl)-2-phenyl-ethane derivatives as perfuming ingredients
US4905163A (en) * 1988-10-03 1990-02-27 Minnesota Mining & Manufacturing Company Intelligent optical navigator dynamic information presentation and navigation system
US5089952A (en) * 1988-10-07 1992-02-18 International Business Machines Corporation Method for allowing weak searchers to access pointer-connected data structures without locking
US5121493A (en) * 1990-01-19 1992-06-09 Amalgamated Software Of North America, Inc. Data sorting method
US5442784A (en) * 1990-03-16 1995-08-15 Dimensional Insight, Inc. Data management system for building a database with multi-dimensional search tree nodes
US5604772A (en) * 1993-09-13 1997-02-18 U.S. Philips Corporation Transmission system and modem utilizing coded modulation
US5613110A (en) * 1995-01-05 1997-03-18 International Business Machines Corporation Indexing method and apparatus facilitating a binary search of digital data
US5696962A (en) * 1993-06-24 1997-12-09 Xerox Corporation Method for computerized information retrieval using shallow linguistic analysis
US5701467A (en) * 1993-07-07 1997-12-23 European Computer-Industry Research Centre Gmbh Computer data storage management system and methods of indexing a dataspace and searching a computer memory
US5778367A (en) * 1995-12-14 1998-07-07 Network Engineering Software, Inc. Automated on-line information service and directory, particularly for the world wide web
US5781773A (en) * 1995-05-10 1998-07-14 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Method for transforming and storing data for search and display and a searching system utilized therewith
US5873080A (en) * 1996-09-20 1999-02-16 International Business Machines Corporation Using multiple search engines to search multimedia data
US5987446A (en) * 1996-11-12 1999-11-16 U.S. West, Inc. Searching large collections of text using multiple search engines concurrently
US6009422A (en) * 1997-11-26 1999-12-28 International Business Machines Corporation System and method for query translation/semantic translation using generalized query language
US6067552A (en) * 1995-08-21 2000-05-23 Cnet, Inc. User interface system and method for browsing a hypertext database
US6072490A (en) * 1997-08-15 2000-06-06 International Business Machines Corporation Multi-node user interface component and method thereof for use in accessing a plurality of linked records
US6078914A (en) * 1996-12-09 2000-06-20 Open Text Corporation Natural language meta-search system and method
US6078866A (en) * 1998-09-14 2000-06-20 Searchup, Inc. Internet site searching and listing service based on monetary ranking of site listings
US6094652A (en) * 1998-06-10 2000-07-25 Oracle Corporation Hierarchical query feedback in an information retrieval system
US6097294A (en) * 1999-08-18 2000-08-01 Hilton; David D. Infant protective safety support with indicating means
US6098066A (en) * 1997-06-13 2000-08-01 Sun Microsystems, Inc. Method and apparatus for searching for documents stored within a document directory hierarchy
US6133938A (en) * 1998-03-14 2000-10-17 Sony Corporation Of Japan Descriptor mechanism for assuring indivisible execution of AV/C operations
US6185569B1 (en) * 1998-06-29 2001-02-06 Microsoft Corporation Linked data structure integrity verification system which verifies actual node information with expected node information stored in a table
US6185550B1 (en) * 1997-06-13 2001-02-06 Sun Microsystems, Inc. Method and apparatus for classifying documents within a class hierarchy creating term vector, term file and relevance ranking
US6212518B1 (en) * 1998-02-02 2001-04-03 Fujitsu Limited System and method for retrieval of data from related databases based upon database association model
US6226641B1 (en) * 1997-10-07 2001-05-01 International Business Machines Corporation Access control for groups of related data items
US6253188B1 (en) * 1996-09-20 2001-06-26 Thomson Newspapers, Inc. Automated interactive classified ad system for the internet
US6255004B1 (en) * 1996-11-27 2001-07-03 The Furukawa Electric Co., Ltd. III-V nitride semiconductor devices and process for the production thereof
US6292894B1 (en) * 1997-09-08 2001-09-18 Science Applications International Corporation System, method, and medium for retrieving, organizing, and utilizing networked data
US6292796B1 (en) * 1999-02-23 2001-09-18 Clinical Focus, Inc. Method and apparatus for improving access to literature
US20010025304A1 (en) * 2000-03-09 2001-09-27 The Web Acess, Inc. Method and apparatus for applying a parametric search methodology to a directory tree database format
US20010044837A1 (en) * 2000-03-30 2001-11-22 Iqbal Talib Methods and systems for searching an information directory
US6327588B1 (en) * 1994-10-14 2001-12-04 Saqqara Systems, Inc. Method and system for executing a guided parametric search
US20010056460A1 (en) * 2000-04-24 2001-12-27 Ranjit Sahota Method and system for transforming content for execution on multiple platforms
US6421675B1 (en) * 1998-03-16 2002-07-16 S. L. I. Systems, Inc. Search engine
US6421661B1 (en) * 1998-06-15 2002-07-16 International Business Machines Corporation Hierarchical query syntax for inquiring and selecting among database objects
US6424966B1 (en) * 1998-06-30 2002-07-23 Microsoft Corporation Synchronizing crawler with notification source
US6444592B1 (en) * 2000-06-20 2002-09-03 International Business Machines Corporation Interfacial oxidation process for high-k gate dielectric process integration
US6484165B1 (en) * 1998-04-10 2002-11-19 Requisite Technology, Inc. Method and system for database manipulation
US6499033B1 (en) * 1998-05-09 2002-12-24 Isc, Inc. Database method and apparatus using hierarchical bit vector index structure
US6513032B1 (en) * 1998-10-29 2003-01-28 Alta Vista Company Search and navigation system and method using category intersection pre-computation
US6516337B1 (en) * 1999-10-14 2003-02-04 Arcessa, Inc. Sending to a central indexing site meta data or signatures from objects on a computer network
US20030027392A1 (en) * 2001-08-01 2003-02-06 International Business Machines Corporation Method for forming heavy nitrogen-doped ultra thin oxynitride gate dielectrics
US6523021B1 (en) * 2000-07-31 2003-02-18 Microsoft Corporation Business directory search engine
US6523961B2 (en) * 2000-08-30 2003-02-25 Reflectivity, Inc. Projection system and mirror elements for improved contrast ratio in spatial light modulators
US6532094B2 (en) * 2000-05-31 2003-03-11 Ricoh Company, Ltd. Optical scanning lens, optical scanning device and image forming apparatus
US6542593B1 (en) * 1999-06-02 2003-04-01 Accenture Llp Rules database server in a hybrid communication system architecture
US20030091083A1 (en) * 2001-11-13 2003-05-15 Applied Optoelectronics, Ins. VCSEL with ion-implanted current-confinement structure
US6567800B1 (en) * 1998-10-01 2003-05-20 At&T Corp. System and method for searching information stored on a network
US6573197B2 (en) * 2001-04-12 2003-06-03 International Business Machines Corporation Thermally stable poly-Si/high dielectric constant material interfaces
US6631367B2 (en) * 2000-12-28 2003-10-07 Intel Corporation Method and apparatus to search for information
US6664186B1 (en) * 2000-09-29 2003-12-16 International Business Machines Corporation Method of film deposition, and fabrication of structures
US6704729B1 (en) * 2000-05-19 2004-03-09 Microsoft Corporation Retrieval of relevant information categories
US6727134B1 (en) * 2002-11-05 2004-04-27 Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company Method of forming a nitride gate dielectric layer for advanced CMOS devices
US20040099886A1 (en) * 2002-11-26 2004-05-27 Howard Rhodes CMOS imager pixel designs
US6826597B1 (en) * 1999-03-17 2004-11-30 Oracle International Corporation Providing clients with services that retrieve data from data sources that do not necessarily support the format required by the clients
US20050224800A1 (en) * 2004-03-31 2005-10-13 Nick Lindert Bulk non-planar transistor having strained enhanced mobility and methods of fabrication
US20060001071A1 (en) * 2004-06-30 2006-01-05 Brask Justin K Forming high-k dielectric layers on smooth substrates
US20060022283A1 (en) * 2004-07-30 2006-02-02 Thomas Shawn G Interfacial layer for use with high k dielectric materials
US20060151787A1 (en) * 2005-01-12 2006-07-13 International Business Machines Corporation LOW CONCENTRATION SiGe BUFFER DURING STRAINED Si GROWTH OF SSGOI MATERIAL FOR DOPANT DIFFUSION CONTROL AND DEFECT REDUCTION
US20060189110A1 (en) * 2005-02-24 2006-08-24 International Business Machines Corporation Body capacitor for SOI memory description
US20070148838A1 (en) * 2005-12-28 2007-06-28 International Business Machines Corporation Metal gate CMOS with at least a single gate metal and dual gate dielectrics
US20070152276A1 (en) * 2005-12-30 2007-07-05 International Business Machines Corporation High performance CMOS circuits, and methods for fabricating the same

Family Cites Families (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
KR100486609B1 (en) * 2002-12-30 2005-05-03 주식회사 하이닉스반도체 Method for fabricating pMOSFET having Ultra Shallow Super-Steep-Retrograde epi-channel formed by Multiple channel doping

Patent Citations (74)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6185569B2 (en) *
US6185550B2 (en) *
US4490284A (en) * 1982-09-29 1984-12-25 Dragoco Gerberding & Co. Gmbh 1,1-Di(C1 -C6 -alkyl)-2-phenyl-ethane derivatives as perfuming ingredients
US4905163A (en) * 1988-10-03 1990-02-27 Minnesota Mining & Manufacturing Company Intelligent optical navigator dynamic information presentation and navigation system
US5089952A (en) * 1988-10-07 1992-02-18 International Business Machines Corporation Method for allowing weak searchers to access pointer-connected data structures without locking
US5121493A (en) * 1990-01-19 1992-06-09 Amalgamated Software Of North America, Inc. Data sorting method
US5442784A (en) * 1990-03-16 1995-08-15 Dimensional Insight, Inc. Data management system for building a database with multi-dimensional search tree nodes
US5696962A (en) * 1993-06-24 1997-12-09 Xerox Corporation Method for computerized information retrieval using shallow linguistic analysis
US5701467A (en) * 1993-07-07 1997-12-23 European Computer-Industry Research Centre Gmbh Computer data storage management system and methods of indexing a dataspace and searching a computer memory
US5604772A (en) * 1993-09-13 1997-02-18 U.S. Philips Corporation Transmission system and modem utilizing coded modulation
US6327588B1 (en) * 1994-10-14 2001-12-04 Saqqara Systems, Inc. Method and system for executing a guided parametric search
US5613110A (en) * 1995-01-05 1997-03-18 International Business Machines Corporation Indexing method and apparatus facilitating a binary search of digital data
US5781773A (en) * 1995-05-10 1998-07-14 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Method for transforming and storing data for search and display and a searching system utilized therewith
US6067552A (en) * 1995-08-21 2000-05-23 Cnet, Inc. User interface system and method for browsing a hypertext database
US5778367A (en) * 1995-12-14 1998-07-07 Network Engineering Software, Inc. Automated on-line information service and directory, particularly for the world wide web
US5873080A (en) * 1996-09-20 1999-02-16 International Business Machines Corporation Using multiple search engines to search multimedia data
US6253188B1 (en) * 1996-09-20 2001-06-26 Thomson Newspapers, Inc. Automated interactive classified ad system for the internet
US5987446A (en) * 1996-11-12 1999-11-16 U.S. West, Inc. Searching large collections of text using multiple search engines concurrently
US6255004B1 (en) * 1996-11-27 2001-07-03 The Furukawa Electric Co., Ltd. III-V nitride semiconductor devices and process for the production thereof
US6078914A (en) * 1996-12-09 2000-06-20 Open Text Corporation Natural language meta-search system and method
US6185550B1 (en) * 1997-06-13 2001-02-06 Sun Microsystems, Inc. Method and apparatus for classifying documents within a class hierarchy creating term vector, term file and relevance ranking
US6098066A (en) * 1997-06-13 2000-08-01 Sun Microsystems, Inc. Method and apparatus for searching for documents stored within a document directory hierarchy
US6072490A (en) * 1997-08-15 2000-06-06 International Business Machines Corporation Multi-node user interface component and method thereof for use in accessing a plurality of linked records
US6292894B1 (en) * 1997-09-08 2001-09-18 Science Applications International Corporation System, method, and medium for retrieving, organizing, and utilizing networked data
US6226641B1 (en) * 1997-10-07 2001-05-01 International Business Machines Corporation Access control for groups of related data items
US6009422A (en) * 1997-11-26 1999-12-28 International Business Machines Corporation System and method for query translation/semantic translation using generalized query language
US6212518B1 (en) * 1998-02-02 2001-04-03 Fujitsu Limited System and method for retrieval of data from related databases based upon database association model
US6133938A (en) * 1998-03-14 2000-10-17 Sony Corporation Of Japan Descriptor mechanism for assuring indivisible execution of AV/C operations
US6421675B1 (en) * 1998-03-16 2002-07-16 S. L. I. Systems, Inc. Search engine
US6484165B1 (en) * 1998-04-10 2002-11-19 Requisite Technology, Inc. Method and system for database manipulation
US6499033B1 (en) * 1998-05-09 2002-12-24 Isc, Inc. Database method and apparatus using hierarchical bit vector index structure
US6094652A (en) * 1998-06-10 2000-07-25 Oracle Corporation Hierarchical query feedback in an information retrieval system
US6421661B1 (en) * 1998-06-15 2002-07-16 International Business Machines Corporation Hierarchical query syntax for inquiring and selecting among database objects
US6185569B1 (en) * 1998-06-29 2001-02-06 Microsoft Corporation Linked data structure integrity verification system which verifies actual node information with expected node information stored in a table
US6424966B1 (en) * 1998-06-30 2002-07-23 Microsoft Corporation Synchronizing crawler with notification source
US6078866A (en) * 1998-09-14 2000-06-20 Searchup, Inc. Internet site searching and listing service based on monetary ranking of site listings
US6567800B1 (en) * 1998-10-01 2003-05-20 At&T Corp. System and method for searching information stored on a network
US6513032B1 (en) * 1998-10-29 2003-01-28 Alta Vista Company Search and navigation system and method using category intersection pre-computation
US6292796B1 (en) * 1999-02-23 2001-09-18 Clinical Focus, Inc. Method and apparatus for improving access to literature
US6826597B1 (en) * 1999-03-17 2004-11-30 Oracle International Corporation Providing clients with services that retrieve data from data sources that do not necessarily support the format required by the clients
US6542593B1 (en) * 1999-06-02 2003-04-01 Accenture Llp Rules database server in a hybrid communication system architecture
US6097294A (en) * 1999-08-18 2000-08-01 Hilton; David D. Infant protective safety support with indicating means
US6516337B1 (en) * 1999-10-14 2003-02-04 Arcessa, Inc. Sending to a central indexing site meta data or signatures from objects on a computer network
US20010025304A1 (en) * 2000-03-09 2001-09-27 The Web Acess, Inc. Method and apparatus for applying a parametric search methodology to a directory tree database format
US20020091686A1 (en) * 2000-03-09 2002-07-11 The Web Access, Inc. Method and apparatus for performing a research task by interchangeably utilizing a multitude of search methodologies
US20020016794A1 (en) * 2000-03-09 2002-02-07 The Web Access, Inc. Method and apparatus for accessing data within an electronic system by an external system
US7085766B2 (en) * 2000-03-09 2006-08-01 The Web Access, Inc. Method and apparatus for organizing data by overlaying a searchable database with a directory tree structure
US20020004793A1 (en) * 2000-03-09 2002-01-10 The Web Access, Inc. Method and apparatus for organizing data by overlaying a searchable database with a directory tree structure
US7054875B2 (en) * 2000-03-09 2006-05-30 The Web Access, Inc. Method and apparatus for notifying a user of new data entered into an electronic system
US20020032672A1 (en) * 2000-03-09 2002-03-14 The Web Access, Inc Method and apparatus for formatting information within a directory tree structure into an encylopedia-like entry
US20020023085A1 (en) * 2000-03-09 2002-02-21 The Web Access, Inc. Method and apparatus for performing a research task by interchangeably utilizing a multitude of search methodologies
US20020065812A1 (en) * 2000-03-09 2002-05-30 The Web Access, Inc. Method and apparatus for accessing information within an electronic system
US20020016793A1 (en) * 2000-03-09 2002-02-07 The Web Access, Inc. Method and apparatus for notifying a user of new data entered into an electronic system
US20010044837A1 (en) * 2000-03-30 2001-11-22 Iqbal Talib Methods and systems for searching an information directory
US20010056460A1 (en) * 2000-04-24 2001-12-27 Ranjit Sahota Method and system for transforming content for execution on multiple platforms
US6704729B1 (en) * 2000-05-19 2004-03-09 Microsoft Corporation Retrieval of relevant information categories
US6532094B2 (en) * 2000-05-31 2003-03-11 Ricoh Company, Ltd. Optical scanning lens, optical scanning device and image forming apparatus
US6444592B1 (en) * 2000-06-20 2002-09-03 International Business Machines Corporation Interfacial oxidation process for high-k gate dielectric process integration
US6523021B1 (en) * 2000-07-31 2003-02-18 Microsoft Corporation Business directory search engine
US6523961B2 (en) * 2000-08-30 2003-02-25 Reflectivity, Inc. Projection system and mirror elements for improved contrast ratio in spatial light modulators
US6664186B1 (en) * 2000-09-29 2003-12-16 International Business Machines Corporation Method of film deposition, and fabrication of structures
US6631367B2 (en) * 2000-12-28 2003-10-07 Intel Corporation Method and apparatus to search for information
US6573197B2 (en) * 2001-04-12 2003-06-03 International Business Machines Corporation Thermally stable poly-Si/high dielectric constant material interfaces
US20030027392A1 (en) * 2001-08-01 2003-02-06 International Business Machines Corporation Method for forming heavy nitrogen-doped ultra thin oxynitride gate dielectrics
US20030091083A1 (en) * 2001-11-13 2003-05-15 Applied Optoelectronics, Ins. VCSEL with ion-implanted current-confinement structure
US6727134B1 (en) * 2002-11-05 2004-04-27 Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company Method of forming a nitride gate dielectric layer for advanced CMOS devices
US20040099886A1 (en) * 2002-11-26 2004-05-27 Howard Rhodes CMOS imager pixel designs
US20050224800A1 (en) * 2004-03-31 2005-10-13 Nick Lindert Bulk non-planar transistor having strained enhanced mobility and methods of fabrication
US20060001071A1 (en) * 2004-06-30 2006-01-05 Brask Justin K Forming high-k dielectric layers on smooth substrates
US20060022283A1 (en) * 2004-07-30 2006-02-02 Thomas Shawn G Interfacial layer for use with high k dielectric materials
US20060151787A1 (en) * 2005-01-12 2006-07-13 International Business Machines Corporation LOW CONCENTRATION SiGe BUFFER DURING STRAINED Si GROWTH OF SSGOI MATERIAL FOR DOPANT DIFFUSION CONTROL AND DEFECT REDUCTION
US20060189110A1 (en) * 2005-02-24 2006-08-24 International Business Machines Corporation Body capacitor for SOI memory description
US20070148838A1 (en) * 2005-12-28 2007-06-28 International Business Machines Corporation Metal gate CMOS with at least a single gate metal and dual gate dielectrics
US20070152276A1 (en) * 2005-12-30 2007-07-05 International Business Machines Corporation High performance CMOS circuits, and methods for fabricating the same

Cited By (16)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20080242012A1 (en) * 2007-03-28 2008-10-02 Sangwoo Pae High quality silicon oxynitride transition layer for high-k/metal gate transistors
US9711373B2 (en) * 2008-09-22 2017-07-18 Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company, Ltd. Method of fabricating a gate dielectric for high-k metal gate devices
US20100075507A1 (en) * 2008-09-22 2010-03-25 Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company, Ltd. Method of Fabricating a Gate Dielectric for High-K Metal Gate Devices
US8273649B2 (en) * 2008-11-17 2012-09-25 International Business Machines Corporation Method to prevent surface decomposition of III-V compound semiconductors
US8415772B2 (en) 2008-11-17 2013-04-09 International Business Machines Corporation Method to prevent surface decomposition of III-V compound semiconductors
US8431476B2 (en) 2008-11-17 2013-04-30 International Business Machines Corporation Method to prevent surface decomposition of III-V compound semiconductors
US20100123205A1 (en) * 2008-11-17 2010-05-20 International Business Machines Corporation Method to prevent surface decomposition of iii-v compound semiconductors
US20120132913A1 (en) * 2010-11-29 2012-05-31 International Business Machines Corporation III-V Compound Semiconductor Material Passivation With Crystalline Interlayer
US8524614B2 (en) * 2010-11-29 2013-09-03 International Business Machines Corporation III-V compound semiconductor material passivation with crystalline interlayer
US8809860B2 (en) 2010-11-29 2014-08-19 International Business Machines Corporation III-V compound semiconductor material passivation with crystalline interlayer
US9337039B2 (en) * 2013-07-03 2016-05-10 Commissariat A L'energie Atomique Et Aux Energies Alternatives Method for electrical activation of dopant species in a GaN film
US20150011080A1 (en) * 2013-07-03 2015-01-08 Commissariat A L'energie Atomique Et Aux Energies Alternatives METHOD FOR ELECTRICAL ACTIVATION OF DOPANT SPECIES IN A GaN FILM
US20150214047A1 (en) * 2014-01-29 2015-07-30 Renesas Electronics Corporation Method for Manufacturing Semiconductor Device
US9646824B2 (en) * 2014-01-29 2017-05-09 Renesas Electronics Corporation Method for manufacturing semiconductor device
US20170062522A1 (en) * 2015-08-27 2017-03-02 Intermolecular, Inc. Combining Materials in Different Components of Selector Elements of Integrated Circuits
US20180053656A1 (en) * 2016-08-18 2018-02-22 International Business Machines Corporation Gate-Stack Structure with a Diffusion Barrier Material

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
US9805949B2 (en) 2017-10-31 grant
US20120326212A1 (en) 2012-12-27 application

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US6448127B1 (en) Process for formation of ultra-thin base oxide in high k/oxide stack gate dielectrics of mosfets
Wu et al. A TaN-HfO/sub 2/-Ge pMOSFET with NovelSiH/sub 4/surface passivation
US6632747B2 (en) Method of ammonia annealing of ultra-thin silicon dioxide layers for uniform nitrogen profile
US6548366B2 (en) Method of two-step annealing of ultra-thin silicon dioxide layers for uniform nitrogen profile
US7361538B2 (en) Transistors and methods of manufacture thereof
US20030111678A1 (en) CVD deposition of M-SION gate dielectrics
US20060131672A1 (en) Nitrogen treatment to improve high-k gate dielectrics
US6136654A (en) Method of forming thin silicon nitride or silicon oxynitride gate dielectrics
US20120138953A1 (en) STRUCTURE AND METHOD FOR Vt TUNING AND SHORT CHANNEL CONTROL WITH HIGH K/METAL GATE MOSFETs
US20030001219A1 (en) Novel transistor structure and method of fabrication
US6838695B2 (en) CMOS device structure with improved PFET gate electrode
US20110089469A1 (en) Method for Manufacturing a Low Defect Interface Between a Dielectric and a III-V Compound
US20070018244A1 (en) Gate Electrode structures and methods of manufacture
US7704844B2 (en) High performance MOSFET
US20060237796A1 (en) Using metal/metal nitride bilayers as gate electrodes in self-aligned aggressively scaled CMOS devices
US20060054937A1 (en) Semiconductor devices having an interfacial dielectric layer and related methods
US20080001237A1 (en) Semiconductor device having nitrided high-k gate dielectric and metal gate electrode and methods of forming same
US20050269635A1 (en) Selective implementation of barrier layers to achieve threshold voltage control in CMOS device fabrication with high-k dielectrics
US20070148838A1 (en) Metal gate CMOS with at least a single gate metal and dual gate dielectrics
US20060289948A1 (en) Method to control flatband/threshold voltage in high-k metal gated stacks and structures thereof
US6784101B1 (en) Formation of high-k gate dielectric layers for MOS devices fabricated on strained lattice semiconductor substrates with minimized stress relaxation
US20080050882A1 (en) System and Method for Mitigating Oxide Growth in a Gate Dielectric
US20060275975A1 (en) Nitridated gate dielectric layer
US20060035450A1 (en) Semiconductor-dielectric-semiconductor device structure fabricated by wafer bonding
US20060131675A1 (en) Semiconductor device and method for high-K gate dielectrics

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AS Assignment

Owner name: INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION, NEW Y

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:FOMPEYRINE, JEAN;KIEWRA, EDWARD W.;KOESTER, STEVEN J.;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:018251/0711;SIGNING DATES FROM 20060406 TO 20060518

AS Assignment

Owner name: GLOBALFOUNDRIES U.S. 2 LLC, NEW YORK

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION;REEL/FRAME:036550/0001

Effective date: 20150629

AS Assignment

Owner name: GLOBALFOUNDRIES INC., CAYMAN ISLANDS

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:GLOBALFOUNDRIES U.S. 2 LLC;GLOBALFOUNDRIES U.S. INC.;REEL/FRAME:036779/0001

Effective date: 20150910