US20070111149A1 - Lamp With Means For Controlling Air And Fuel Near The Flame - Google Patents

Lamp With Means For Controlling Air And Fuel Near The Flame Download PDF

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Publication number
US20070111149A1
US20070111149A1 US11/621,678 US62167807A US2007111149A1 US 20070111149 A1 US20070111149 A1 US 20070111149A1 US 62167807 A US62167807 A US 62167807A US 2007111149 A1 US2007111149 A1 US 2007111149A1
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United States
Prior art keywords
air
lamp
fuel
flame
air channel
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Abandoned
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US11/621,678
Inventor
Susumu Matsuyama
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ALMOND LAMP Co
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Susumu Matsuyama
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Publication date
Priority to US10/890,342 priority Critical patent/US7189072B2/en
Priority to US83683606P priority
Application filed by Susumu Matsuyama filed Critical Susumu Matsuyama
Priority to US11/621,678 priority patent/US20070111149A1/en
Publication of US20070111149A1 publication Critical patent/US20070111149A1/en
Priority claimed from US11/859,151 external-priority patent/US20080044783A1/en
Assigned to ALMOND LAMP COMPANY reassignment ALMOND LAMP COMPANY ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: MATSUYAMA, SUSUMU
Abandoned legal-status Critical Current

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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F21LIGHTING
    • F21VFUNCTIONAL FEATURES OR DETAILS OF LIGHTING DEVICES OR SYSTEMS THEREOF; STRUCTURAL COMBINATIONS OF LIGHTING DEVICES WITH OTHER ARTICLES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F21V37/00Details of lighting devices employing combustion as light source, not otherwise provided for; Night lamps; Votive lamps
    • F21V37/0004Details of lighting devices employing combustion as light source, not otherwise provided for; Night lamps; Votive lamps using liquid fuel
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23DBURNERS
    • F23D3/00Burners using capillary action
    • F23D3/02Wick burners
    • F23D3/08Wick burners characterised by shape, construction, or material, of wick

Abstract

A lamp includes a fuel reservoir, a hollow wick, and an air channel. The fuel reservoir is configured to hold a volume of fuel. The hollow wick is configured to wick the fuel from the fuel reservoir to the atmosphere such that a flame is produced when the wick is ignited. The air channel is configured to supply air from outside of the fuel reservoir to a base of the flame. The air channel extends through the hollow wick and is at least partially graduated so that the flow of air through the air channel is substantially laminar.

Description

    CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • This application claims priority to co-pending U.S. provisional application entitled “Cylindrical Wick Lamp,” which has Ser. No. 60/836,836 and was filed Aug. 10, 2006, and which is entirely incorporated herein by reference.
  • This application is a continuation-in-part of co-pending U.S. utility application entitled “Apparatus for Controlling a Flame,” which has Ser. No. 10/890,342 and was filed Jul. 13, 2004, and which is entirely incorporated herein by reference.
  • BACKGROUND
  • A lamp is an apparatus that produces light. One type of lamp includes a wick and a fuel source. The wick communicates fuel from the fuel source to an end of the wick that is exposed to the atmosphere. Igniting the exposed end of the wick initiates the chemical process of combustion, producing a flame. In turn, the flame produces light through the process of incandescence.
  • During combustion, the fuel reacts with oxygen in the air to produce the flame. In cases in which the combustion of the fuel is incomplete, disadvantages may result. For example, unburned fuel produces smoke particles that irritates the eyes or fuel vapors that smell foul. Some smoke particles contain toxins such as acetone and benzene, which are by-products of the incomplete combustion process. Incomplete combustion may also create a flame that is not uniform in color and luminosity. For example, the flame may have a bright area at a top of the flame and a dark area at a base of the flame.
  • Although complete combustion is virtually impossible, imperfection in the combustion process can be reduced by controlling the air and fuel in the vicinity of the flame. For example, some existing lamps provide a shield around the flame to protect the flame from air drafts, which cause fuel particles to escape from the vicinity of the flame before being burned. However, such shields also reduce the volume of fresh air that reaches the flame, and as a result the fresh air supply may be inadequate to combust the fuel that is present in the flame vicinity. From the above description, a need exists in the industry for a lamp that solves these and other problems.
  • SUMMARY
  • In one embodiment, a lamp includes a fuel reservoir, a hollow wick, and an air channel. The fuel reservoir is configured to hold a volume of fuel. The hollow wick is configured to wick the fuel from the fuel reservoir to the atmosphere such that a flame is produced when the wick is ignited. The air channel is configured to supply air from outside of the fuel reservoir to a base of the flame. The air channel extends through the hollow wick and is at least partially graduated so that the flow of air through the air channel is substantially laminar.
  • In one embodiment, a lamp includes a fuel reservoir and a hollow wick. The fuel reservoir is configured to hold a volume of fuel. The hollow wick is configured to wick the fuel from the fuel reservoir to the atmosphere, such that a flame is produced when the wick is ignited. The lamp also includes means for controlling the flow of fuel and air in the vicinity of the flame, such that an adequate supply of fuel and air is available for combustion and the wind does not diminish or extinguish the flame.
  • Other systems, devices, methods, features, and advantages of the disclosed lamp will be apparent or will become apparent to one with skill in the art upon examination of the following figures and detailed description. All such additional systems, devices, methods, features, and advantages are intended to be included within the description and are intended to be protected by the accompanying claims.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES
  • The present disclosure may be better understood with reference to the following figures. Matching reference numerals designate corresponding parts throughout the figures, and components in the figures are not necessarily to scale.
  • FIG. 1 is a perspective view of an embodiment of a lamp that includes means for controlling the flow of fuel and air in the vicinity of the flame.
  • FIG. 2 is a sectional view of the lamp of FIG. 1, taken along line 2-2.
  • FIG. 3 is a perspective view of an embodiment of an elevating mechanism that can be coupled to the lamp shown in FIG. 1.
  • FIG. 4 is a sectional view of the elevating mechanism of FIG. 3, taken along lines 4-4.
  • FIG. 5 is a perspective view of an embodiment of a smoke-encapsulating apparatus that can be coupled to the lamp shown in FIG. 1.
  • FIG. 6 is a sectional view of the smoke-encapsulating apparatus of FIG. 5, taken along line 6-6.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • FIG. 1 is a perspective view of an embodiment of a lamp 100, and FIG. 2 is a sectional view of the lamp taken along line 2-2. The lamp 100 includes a fuel reservoir 102, a hollow wick 104, and an air channel 106. The fuel reservoir 102 is configured to hold a volume of fuel 103. The hollow wick 104 is configured to wick the fuel 103 from a lower end 110 to an upper end 112 of the wick, the lower end being positioned in the fuel reservoir 102 and the upper end being exposed to the atmosphere. The air channel 106 is configured to supply air 105 from the atmosphere on the outside of the fuel reservoir 102 through an interior of the wick 104 to an upper end 112 of the wick. The air channel 106 extends through the interior of the hollow wick 104 and the fuel reservoir 102 substantially surrounds a portion of an exterior of the wick, such that the wick is concentrically aligned with the air channel and the fuel reservoir. When the upper end 112 of the wick 104 is ignited, the fuel 103 burns to produce a flame 199. The wick 104 and the air channel 106 feed the flame 199 with fuel 103 and air 105, respectively, so that the flame is sustained. The air channel 106 is one of several means for controlling the flow of air 105 and fuel 103 in the vicinity of the flame 199, as described below.
  • As shown in FIG. 2, the fuel reservoir 102 includes a fuel-retaining member 116 and a reservoir-enclosing member 118. The fuel-retaining member 116 defines a cavity 120 for retaining the fuel 103. The reservoir-enclosing member 118 defines a cover for enclosing the cavity 120. The reservoir-enclosing member 118 removably engages the fuel-retaining member 116 so that the fuel-retaining member can be selectively opened and closed. When the reservoir-enclosing member 118 engages the fuel-retaining member, the cavity is substantially enclosed to prevent the fuel from escaping. When the reservoir-enclosing member 118 disengages the fuel-retaining member 116, the cavity 120 is accessible so that fuel 103 can be introduced into the cavity.
  • The fuel reservoir 102 is formed from a plurality of walls 122. In the illustrated embodiment, the walls 122 includes a lower wall 122 a, an outer side wall 122 b, an inner side wall 122 c, and an upper wall 122 d. The lower and side walls 122 a-c form the cavity 120 of the fuel-retaining member 116, with the inner side wall 122 c also forming the boundary of the air channel 106. The upper wall 122 d forms the reservoir-enclosing member 118. In the illustrated embodiment, the upper wall 122 d forms an inner flange 138 that defines a neck 140 of the reservoir-enclosing member 118, although in some embodiments the inner flange is omitted such that the reservoir-enclosing member does not form the neck.
  • In the illustrated embodiment, the fuel reservoir 102 is substantially cylindrical. The lower wall 122 a is substantially a planar, annular disk. The outer side wall 122 b is a cylindrical ring coupled to an outer perimeter of the lower wall 122 a at a right angle. The inner side wall 122 c is coupled to an inner perimeter of the lower wall 122 a and has an inward taper 130, as described below. The upper wall 122 d is substantially a planar, annular disk. An outer flange 136 is coupled to an outer perimeter of the upper wall 122 d and the inner flange 138 is coupled to the inner perimeter of the upper wall. In other embodiments, the fuel reservoir 102 may not be substantially cylindrical, in which case the walls 122 of the fuel reservoir may have other shapes and/or greater or fewer walls can be provided.
  • A coupling mechanism 124 enables removable engagement between the fuel-retaining member 116 and the reservoir-enclosing member 118. In the illustrated embodiment, the coupling mechanism 124 is a series of threads on the fuel-retaining member 116 and the reservoir-enclosing member 118. More specifically, the threads are formed on an interior surface of the outer side wall 122 b and on an exterior surface of the outer flange 136 of the upper wall 122 d, such that the two pieces can be screwed together or apart. In other embodiments, the coupling mechanism 124 can have other configurations, such as a snap fitting or a friction fitting, in which case the threads and/or the outer flange 136 may be omitted. In still other embodiments, the reservoir-enclosing member 118 may not be removable, in which case the coupling mechanism 124 may be omitted and a port may be provided on the lamp 100 for refilling the cavity 120.
  • As mentioned above, the reservoir-enclosing member 118 defines the neck 140 that projects away from the cavity 120. The neck 140 is configured to support an adjustable collar 178, which is described in detail below. An adjustment mechanism 142 enables adjusting the adjustable collar 178 with respect to the neck 140 between a lowered position in which the adjustable collar is relatively closer to the cavity 120 and a raised position in which the adjustable collar is relatively closer to the flame 199. In other embodiments, the adjustable collar 178 may not be movable or may be omitted, in which cases the adjustment mechanism 142 or the entire neck 140 may be omitted.
  • In the illustrated embodiment, a lip 144 is formed adjacent the inner flange 138 that is configured to substantially close a space between the inner flange and the wick 104, impeding the fuel 103 from escaping from the fuel reservoir 102. In the illustrated embodiment, the inner flange 138 is substantially a cylinder that is coupled to the upper wall 122 d at a right angle, and the lip 144 is substantially an annular ring coupled to an interior perimeter of the inner flange extending toward the wick 104. In other embodiments, the neck 140 may have other configurations or may be omitted, in which cases the inner flange 138 and the lip 144 may be shaped differently or may be omitted.
  • In the illustrated embodiment, the adjustment mechanism 142 is a series of threads on an exterior surface of the inner flange 138 and on an interior surface of the adjustable collar 178. In such case, the adjustable collar 178 can be rotated to move the collar with respect to the inner flange 138. In other embodiments, the adjustment mechanism 142 may have other configurations. For example, the adjustment mechanism 142 may employ ratchets, pins and sockets, or friction.
  • The hollow wick 104 is positioned adjacent an exterior surface of the inner side wall 122 c of the fuel reservoir 102, such that the wick surrounds and is concentrically positioned with respect to the inner side wall. The upper end 112 of the wick 104 projects from a top of the fuel reservoir 102 adjacent the lip 144, while the lower end 110 of the wick is positioned in the fuel reservoir. For example, the lower end 110 of the wick 104 may extend to substantially a bottom of the fuel reservoir 102 adjacent the lower wall 122 a so that the wick exhausts the fuel 103 located at the bottom of the fuel reservoir 102. The dimensions of the wick 104 are selected so that when the flame 199 is burning at the upper end 112, the hollow interior of the wick is not so wide that the formation of a single flame is inhibited. The shape of the wick 104 is selected such that the wick conforms to the shape of the inner side wall 122 c, which in turn is determined by the shape of the air channel 106, described below. The wick 104 may be made of any suitable material, such as glass fiber or metal mesh, as long as the wick draws the fuel 103 from the fuel reservoir 102.
  • The fuel reservoir 102 may be formed from a variety of materials. For example, a metal or glass may be used. In some cases, the fuel reservoir 102 may be formed from a non-conductive material such as glass to inhibit heat transfer from the flame 199 to the fuel reservoir. Otherwise, the fuel reservoir 102 and/or the wick 104 may become hot. If the fuel reservoir 102 becomes hot, it may be dangerous to touch, or if the wick 104 becomes hot, the capillary action of the wick may supply an excessive volume of fuel 103 to the upper end 112 of the wick. In other cases, different walls 122 of the fuel reservoir 102 may be formed from different materials.
  • A variety of fuels 103 are suitable, including liquid fuels such as alcohol, liquid paraffin, mineral oil, and citronella oil. The fuel 103 can be selected to produce a flame 199 having certain characteristics. One characteristic that varies with the type of fuel 103 is the color of the flame 199. For example, liquid paraffin produces a yellow flame, citronella oil produces a pink flame, oil blended with copper salts produces a green or blue flame, and oil blended with lithium salts produces a red flame. In some cases, a relatively heavy liquid fuel 103 can be used, such as vegetable oil or plant oil, because such fuels may be less likely to form fuel vapor, which may have an unpleasant odor.
  • The lamp 100 includes several means for controlling fuel 103 and air 105 in the vicinity of the flame 199. As mentioned above, combustion requires a combination of fuel 103 and oxygen, the oxygen being at an adequately warmed temperature. The fuel 103 is provided to the flame 199 by the wick 104 and the oxygen is provided to the flame by the air 105 in the vicinity of the flame 199. As the flame 199 burns, the fuel 103 is combusted and a replacement supply of fuel is provided by the wick 104. If the flow of fuel 103 to the vicinity of the flame 199 is insufficient, the flame may diminish or extinguish entirely. If the flow of fuel 103 is excessive, the fuel may escape the vicinity of the flame 199 without being combusted. For example, the fuel 103 may escape in the form of smoke, fuel vapor or fuel droplets. The smoke may irritate the eyes, the fuel vapors may smell, and the fuel droplets may create a hazardous condition, all of which are undesirable. Also as the flame 199 burns, the oxygen is exhausted from the air 105 in the vicinity of the flame, creating a pressure on the flame from all sides and creating a low-pressure locus at substantially the center of a base 196 of the flame. A flow of air 105 toward the flame 199 can sustain the supply of oxygen available for the combustion process, and the air should be adequately warmed. If the flow of air 105 is insufficient, the supply of oxygen may be insufficient for complete combustion, and fuel 103 may escape the vicinity of the flame 199 without being combusted. If the flow of air 105 is excessive or turbulent, the flame 199 may be diminished or extinguished entirely, or the fuel 103 may be pushed away from the vicinity of the flame without being combusted. All of these are undesirable.
  • The various means for controlling fuel 103 and air 105 in the vicinity of the flame 199 increase the flow of air toward the flame such that the flame has an adequate supply of oxygen, and the oxygen is adequately warmed. For example, the means supply air 105 to the flame 199 from below, increasing combustion at an interior of the flame so that the flame develops a strong, wind-resistant backbone. The means also control the flow of air 105 in the vicinity of the flame 199, such as by hindering wind and other air disturbances around the flame, such that the flame is not diminished or extinguished and fuel 103 is not dispersed from the vicinity of the flame without being combusted. The means also warm the air 105 so that the oxygen is adequately warmed. The means also control the flow of the fuel 103 such that the fuel is retained in the vicinity of the flame and is combusted, instead of escaping in the form of smoke or fuel vapor. Therefore, the means, alone or in combination, enable the production of a relatively larger, stronger, and more stable flame 199 that exhibits relatively improved combustion from a base to the top of the flame and from the interior to the perimeter of the flame. Although all of the means are described below with reference to the illustrated embodiment, a person of skill would appreciate that the means may be used independently or in any combination.
  • One such means for controlling fuel 103 and air 105 in the vicinity of the flame 199 is the air channel 106. As mentioned above, the air channel 106 is configured to supply a flow of air 105 from outside of the fuel reservoir 102 to a base 196 of the flame 199. The air channel 106 is at least partially graduated so that the flow of air 105 through the air channel is substantially laminar. An elevating mechanism 156 elevates the fuel reservoir 102 off a surface and creates a path from the outside of the fuel reservoir along an underside of the lower wall 122 a and into the air channel 106. As a result, a controlled volume of air 105 is directed from outside of the fuel reservoir 102 toward the flame 199. In the illustrated embodiment, the elevating mechanism 156 is a plurality of feet coupled to the lower wall 122 a of the fuel reservoir 102, although the elevating mechanism can have any other configuration, including configurations that suspend the fuel reservoir from above. For example, the elevating mechanism 156 may be the projections described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,848,901 entitled “Apparatus for Controlling Characteristics of a Flame”, which issued on Feb. 1, 2005 to the Applicant of the present disclosure and is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety. Further, the elevating mechanism 156 may be the outer side wall 122 b of the fuel reservoir 102. In such an embodiment, the lower wall 122 a is elevated above a lower edge of the outer side wall 122 b such that a gap or space is formed under the fuel reservoir. Air openings are formed in the portion of the outer side wall 122 b between the lower wall 122 a and the lower edge, so that air 105 can flow through the air openings and along the underside of the lower wall into the air channel.
  • The air channel 106 does not have a substantial cross-sectional area differentiation between a bottom 158 of the air channel adjacent the lower wall 122 a and a top 160 of the air channel adjacent the upper end 112 of the wick 104. In other words, the cross-sectional area 162 of the air channel 106 does not abruptly change between the bottom 158 and the top 160 of the air channel 106. Instead, the cross-sectional area 162 of the air channel 106 either gradually changes or does not change. Specifically, the inner side wall 122 c that forms the boundary of the air channel 106 has the inward taper 130 along at least a portion of a length of air channel, such that the cross-sectional area 162 of the air channel 106 gradually decreases or is substantially uniform over the length of the air channel. As a result, the interior surface of the inner side wall 122 c is substantially free from sharp angles or rough edges. For example, the cross-sectional area 162 at the top 160 of the air channel 106 is smaller than the cross-sectional area 162 at the bottom 158 of the air channel.
  • In the illustrated embodiment, the air channel 106 continuously curves inward between the bottom 158 of the air channel, where the inner side wall 122 c is substantially horizontal, and the top 160 of the air channel, where the inner side wall is substantially vertical. In other embodiments, the inward taper 130 of the air channel 106 can have other configurations. For example, the inward taper 130 may be linear from the bottom 158 to the top 160 of the air channel 106, such that the cross-sectional area 162 of the air channel uniformly decreases between the bottom and the top of the air channel. As another example, only the lower portion of the air channel 106 may be tapered. In such a case, the air channel 106 may have the inward taper 130 between the bottom 158 of the air channel and an intermediate point between the bottom and the top 160 of the air channel. At the intermediate point, the inward taper 130 may disappear and the cross-sectional area 162 of the air channel 106 may remain constant between the intermediate point and the top 160 of the air channel. In this and in other cases, the air channel 106 may have a turn 161 at which the cross-sectional area 162 of the air channel 106 changes. For example, in the illustrated embodiment, the air channel 106 has a turn 161 at the bottom 158 of the air channel, where the lower wall 122 a and the inner side wall 122 c meet. However, in cases in which the air channel 106 has a turn 161, the turn is graduated such that the cross-sectional area 162 of the air channel 106 gradually changes around the turn, reducing the tendency for air 105 traveling around the turn to become turbulent. For example, the turn 161 at the bottom 158 of the air channel 106 is rounded in FIG. 2 so that the cross-sectional area 162 of the air channel gradually changes around the turn. In still other embodiments, the air channel 106 may not have the inward taper 130, in which case the cross-sectional area 162 of the air channel may be substantially uniform, except at the bottom 158 of the air channel where the turn 161 into the air channel is graduated, such as rounded or tapered.
  • Because the interior surface of the air channel 106 is free from sharp corners, edges, the air channel is configured such that turbulence within the air 105 flowing through the air channel is reduced. Reducing turbulence is desirable because turbulence decreases the volume and velocity of air 105 reaching the flame 199. For example, turbulent flow may pinch the air flow and may create a negative pressure within the air channel 106, diverting air 105 out through the bottom 158 of the air channel and decreasing the volume of air reaching the flame 199. Further, turbulent flow may decrease the velocity of the air 105 traveling toward the flame 199. As mentioned above, providing a sustained flow of air 105 to the base 196 of the flame 199 increases combustion along a central backbone of the flame, improving the strength of the flame. Because a sustained flow of air 105 is provided at an increased velocity, the air channel 106 can have a relatively smaller cross-sectional area 162 adjacent the base 196 of the flame 199, decreasing the width of the flame and increasing its strength.
  • Another means for controlling fuel 103 and air 105 in the vicinity of the flame 199 is a heat conductive element 163 positioned within the air channel 106. The heat conductive element 163 is configured to increase the temperature of the air 105 located in the air channel 106, reducing the pressure of the air and increasing the flow of air into the air channel. More specifically, the heat conductive element 163 receives heat from the flame 199 and transfers heat to the air 105 in the air channel 106. The transferred heat increases the temperature of the air 105 and reduces the pressure of the air. As described below, the reduced pressure causes an increase in the flow of air 105 into the air channel 106 toward the flame 199, and lowers the low-pressure locus of the flame. Additionally, the increased temperature of the air 105 also improves the combustion in the flame 199, and reduces the pressure of the air in the flame.
  • The heat conductive element 163 may be a heat conductive rod 164, a heat conductive tube 166, or both. The heat conductive rod 164 extends from the top 160 of the air channel 106 in a downward direction D. The heat conductive rod 164 may be any suitable material, such as metal. Although a heat conductive rod 164 having a substantially circular cross-section and positioned substantially in the center of the air channel 106 may be less likely to cause turbulence within the air channel and may enable more even warming, the heat conductive rod 164 may be any suitable shape and may be positioned anywhere in the air channel 106, so that an appropriate flow of air 105 through the air channel is produced.
  • The heat conductive tube 166 lines at least a portion of the interior surface of the air channel 106 and extends from the top 160 of the air channel in the downward direction D. The heat conductive tube 166 can be any suitable heat conductive material, such as metal. In some cases, the heat conductive tube 166 is a single layer or multiple layers of heat conductive material. In other cases, a mesh material is used such that air 105 can flow through the heat conductive tube 166 for further warming. In still other cases, heat radiation fins extend from the heat conductive tube towards the center of the heat conductive tube, such that air 105 flowing through the heat conductive tube 166 is further warmed.
  • The heat conductive elements 163 may vary depending on the material and shape of the air channel 106. For example, in cases in which the air channel 106 has a relatively large cross-sectional area 162, both the heat conductive rod 164 and the heat conductive tube 166 may be used. In cases in which the air channel 106 has a relatively small cross-sectional area 162, one of these heat conductive elements 163 may be omitted. Further, a plurality of heat conductive rods 164 may be employed in some cases, such as in cases in which the air channel 106 has a relatively large cross-sectional area 162 or in cases in which the heat conductive tube 166 is omitted. For example, the heat conductive tube 166 may be omitted in cases in which the inner side wall 122c is a heat conductive material.
  • In any case, the heat conductive elements 163 are heated by the flame 199 from the top 160 of the air channel 106 in the downward direction D. As a result, the air pressure increases in the downward direction D such that the air pressure at the top 160 of the air channel 106 is relatively lower than the air pressure at the bottom 158 of the air channel. The pressure differential between the top 160 and the bottom 158 of the air channel 106 encourages the movement of air 105 along the air channel in an upward direction U, increasing the volume and the velocity of the air 105 flowing toward the flame 199. In the illustrated embodiment, both the heat conductive rod 164 and the heat conductive tube 166 extend from the top 160 of the air channel 106 to substantially the bottom 158 of the air channel, but in other embodiments one or both of the heat conductive elements 163 may not extend to the bottom of the air channel. Positioning the heat conductive element 163 at only the top 160 of the air channel 106 may be desirable, so that the transferred heat increases the temperature of the air 105 at the top of the air channel to create the pressure differential instead of increasing the temperature of the air along the entire air channel.
  • The flow of air 105 supplies the flame 199 with the oxygen needed for combustion. Because the flow of air 105 to the flame 199 is controlled and continuous, the flame is relatively less likely to diminish in size or extinguish. Further, because the flow of air 105 is supplied through the air channel 106, the flame 199 receives oxygen from the base 196 where oxygen is normally absent, enabling more complete combustion within the interior of the flame. As a result, the flame 199 is stronger and is less susceptible to air disturbances such as wind. The lower air-pressure at the top 160 of the air channel 106 also moves the low-pressure locus of the flame 199 in the downward direction D, which also makes the flame 199 stronger and less susceptible to air disturbances. Because the air 105 is warmed before reaching the flame 199, the oxygen in the air is better suited for combustion, and the combustion process is relatively more complete.
  • A layer of insulation 168 may line the inner side wall 122 c. The layer of insulation 168 maintains the heat that has been transferred to the air channel 106. In cases in which the inner side wall 122 c is made from a heat conductive material, the layer of insulation 168 may be provided between the inner side wall and the heat conductive tube 166 so that heat from the heat conductive tube 166 is not transferred through the inner side wall to the wick 104. Increasing the temperature of the inner side wall 122c and the wick 104 decreases the amount of energy available to warm the air 105 in the air channel 106, such that the desired low pressure effect may not be created to the extent possible. Further, increasing the temperature the wick 104 may increase the capillary action of the wick, such that a relatively larger volume of fuel 103 is directed to the upper end 112 of the wick. In cases in which the larger volume of fuel 103 cannot be efficiently combusted, excess fuel may spill from the lamp 100 or may be converted into smoke or fuel vapor. The layer of insulation 168 is configured to address these issues.
  • Another heat conductive element 163 is a permeable cover 170 adjacent the base 196 of the flame 199. The permeable cover 170 is formed from any suitable heat conductive material, such as metal, and is permeable so that air 105 can flow through the cover to the flame 199. The permeable cover 170 absorbs heat from the flame 199 and transfers the heat to the air 105 adjacent the base 196 of the flame. Because the air 105 is warmer when it reaches the flame 199, combustion is more efficient at the base 196 and interior of the flame 199. Further, the warmer air 105 reduces the air pressure adjacent the base 196 of the flame 199. The reduced air pressure increases the flow of air 105 toward the base 196 of the flame 199 to improve combustion, and lowers the low-pressure locus of the flame to strengthen the flame. Further, the permeable cover 170 captures unburned particles of fuel 103 that have descended in the downward direction D and rapidly heats the unburned particles of fuel so that combustion occurs. Therefore, the permeable cover 170 reduces the unburned particles of fuel 103, and therefore the smoke and fuel vapors, that escape the vicinity of the flame 199 without being burned.
  • The permeable cover 170 is positioned at the top 160 of the air channel 106. In the illustrated embodiment, the permeable cover 170 is sized to span the cross-sectional area 162 of the air channel 106 at the top 160 of the air channel and to overlap the wick 104 adjacent the air channel. The permeable cover 170 rests on the wick 104 without being coupled to the wick. In other embodiments, the permeable cover 170 can have other configurations. For example, the permeable cover 170 may be relatively larger or smaller, or may be affixed to the lamp 100. The permeable cover 170 serves the additional function of supporting the heat conductive rod 164. More specifically, the heat conductive rod 164 hangs suspended from the top 160 of the air channel 106 about the permeable cover 170.
  • Another means for controlling fuel 103 and air 105 in the vicinity of the flame 199 is a permeable collar 172. The permeable collar 172 is configured to substantially surround at least the base 196 of the flame 199. In addition to being permeable by air 105 and fuel 103, the permeable collar 172 is made from a heat conductive material, such as a metal mesh. The heat of the flame 199 increases the temperature of the permeable collar 172 so that the permeable collar can warm the air 105 and fuel 103 adjacent the flame 199. As explained above, increasing the temperature of the air 105 encourages the movement of a controlled volume of air around the flame 199, while increasing the temperature of the fuel 103 in the vicinity of the flame facilitates complete combustion. More specifically, the permeable collar 172 may capture particles of fuel 103 that have escaped the vicinity of the flame 199. For example, the wind may push the fuel 103 away from the vicinity of the flame before the fuel is combusted. As another example, large particles of fuel 103 may be inadequately combusted, and may be moved away from the flame 199 before the combustion process is complete. In such cases, the permeable collar 172 captures the escaping fuel 103 and rapidly heats the fuel, breaking the fuel into smaller particles and retaining the fuel in the vicinity of the flame 199, so that the fuel catches fire for complete combustion.
  • Another means for controlling fuel 103 and air 105 in the vicinity of the flame 199 is a continuous collar 174. The continuous collar 174 is also configured to substantially surround at least the base 196 of the flame 199, forming a shield to block the wind or other air disturbances and to limit the escape of particles of fuel 103. In some embodiments, the continuous collar 174 may be formed from a heat conductive material to further promote the flow of warm air 105 to the flame 199 and to further promote complete combustion at the base 196 of the flame, as described above. The continuous collar 174 may also be formed from a translucent material, so that the light generated by the flame 199 is visible through the continuous collar. The continuous collar 174 is also configured to control the direction of outside air toward the flame, as described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,848,901, entitled “Apparatus for Controlling Characteristics of a Flame,” which issued on Feb. 1, 2005 to the Applicant of the present disclosure and is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety. The continuous collar 174 can be moved between a raised and lowered position to adjust the volume of air 105 reaching the flame 199, and therefore the height of the flame. The continuous collar 174 may have holes 175 formed through it, such that air 105 can pass through the holes. The air passing through the holes 175 is warmed by the continuous collar 174, and is further warmed by the permeable collar 172, facilitating complete combustion and forming an air shield that protects the flame 199. In some embodiments, the holes 175 are located at the bottom of the continuous collar 174, so that the air adjacent the bottom of the flame 199 is warmed, reducing heavy combustion gases that may otherwise stay at the bottom.
  • The continuous collar 174 and the permeable collar 172 are concentrically disposed with respect to the air channel 106 and the wick 104. In the illustrated embodiment, the permeable collar 172 is a cylindrical ring formed from a metal mesh, and the continuous collar 174 is also a cylindrical ring. The air channel 106 is substantially surrounded at the top 160 by the wick 104, which is substantially surrounded by the permeable collar 172, which is substantially surrounded by the continuous collar 174. Such a configuration enables the continuous collar 174 and the permeable collar 172 to be adjacent the base 196 of the flame 199 so that the collars can perform their intended functions while being spaced apart from the wick 104. Separating the collars 172, 174 from the wick 104 limits heat transfer between the collars and the wick so that capillary action of the wick is not increased. The separation also enables positioning the lip 144, and a series of drain and vent holes 176 formed through the lip, adjacent the flame 199. The drain and vent holes 176 provide an avenue for large particles of un-combusted fuel 103 to return to the cavity 120 within the fuel reservoir 102. The drain and vent holes 176 also allow air to flow into the cavity 120 to replace the fuel 103 removed by the wick 104, equalizing the pressure within the cavity so that a vacuum is not created. Because the drain and vent holes 176 are positioned adjacent the flame 199, fuel vapors that escape from the drain and vent holes are brought into the vicinity of the flame and are combusted instead of escaping into the atmosphere, potentially creating a foul odor. Therefore, the drain and vent holes 176 are another means for controlling the flow of fuel 103 and air 105 in the vicinity of the flame 199.
  • The continuous collar 174 and the permeable collar 172 can be moved between a lowered position, in which the collars are lowered in the downward direction D, and a raised position in which the collars are raised in the upward direction U. Moving the collars 172, 174 between the lowered position and the raised position provides the lamp 100 with greater flexibility of use. For example, the collars 172, 174 adjust the direction of air supply to the flame 199, thereby affecting the height of the flame, and may be raised in windy conditions and lowered in more stable air conditions, to selectively shield the flame 199 from wind and other air disturbances, and/or to limit the escape of particles of fuel 103.
  • In the illustrated embodiment, both of the collars 172, 174 are supported by the adjustable collar 178 and extend from the adjustable collar 178 in the upward direction U. The continuous collar 174 is coupled to the adjustable collar 178 and the permeable collar 172 rests against the continuous collar on the interior of the continuous collar. The continuous collar 174 and the permeable collar 172 can be moved between the raised and lowered positions by adjusting the adjustable collar 178 with respect to the neck 140 using the adjustment mechanism 142, as described above. In other embodiments, the continuous collar 174 and the permeable collar 172 can be adjusted in other manners, or the collars may not be adjustable.
  • In addition to supporting the continuous collar 174 and the permeable collar 172 and enabling their adjustment, the adjustable collar 178 is also a means for controlling fuel 103 and air 105 in the vicinity of the flame 199. The adjustable collar 178 is configured to shield the flame 199 from the wind, and to enable a cushion of warm air to form around the flame 199 that limits the impact of the wind on the flame.
  • In the illustrated embodiment, the adjustable collar 178 is substantially a circular plate having a flange 180 extending from an outer perimeter of the circular plate in the upward direction U. The adjustable collar 178 is coupled to the neck 140 of the fuel reservoir 102 such that the circular plate is substantially parallel to the upper wall 122d and the flange 180 extends away from the upper wall in the upward direction U. The flange 180 is configured to block the wind that may diminish or extinguish the flame 199.
  • Additionally, the adjustable collar 178 has openings 182 that are configured to assist with the formation of the air cushion around the flame 199. Because the air 105 located above the adjustable collar 178 in the upward direction U is relatively warmer than the air located below the adjustable collar in the downward direction D, a pressure differential is created across the adjustable collar that drives the air through the openings 182 in the upward direction. This air 105 forms a cushion around the flame 199 that lessens the impact of the wind. As shown in the illustrated embodiment, the openings 182 may be graduated or tapered such that the flow of air 105 through the openings is substantially laminar. For example, the openings 182 may be substantially conical in shape.
  • FIG. 3 is a perspective view of an embodiment of an elevating mechanism 300 that is configured to elevate a lamp such as the lamp 100, and FIG. 4 is a sectional view of the elevating mechanism 300 taken along lines 4-4. The elevating mechanism 300 includes a casing 302. Although the casing 302 can have any shape, in the illustrated embodiment the casing is substantially a cylinder. An interior of the casing 302 is shaped to mate with the lamp 100. More specifically, an inner diameter of the casing 302 at a top 306 of the casing is greater than an outer diameter of the lamp 100, such that the lamp can be inserted into the top of the casing.
  • The casing 302 includes a support mechanism 308 configured to support the lamp 100. As shown, the support mechanism 308 is a ledge spaced apart from the top 306 of the casing 302 in the downward direction D. When the lamp 100 is inserted into the casing 302, the lamp rests on the ledge. Alternatively, the support mechanism 308 can be something other than the ledge.
  • The casing 302 also includes air entrances 312 positioned at a bottom 307 of the casing that are in fluid communication with the air channel 106 of the lamp 100. Air 105 that flows through the air entrances 312 is directed into the air channel 106 of the lamp 100 to feed the flame 199.
  • The elevating mechanism 300 also includes a stake 314 that elevates the casing 302. The stake 314 is an elongated rod that is configured to support the casing 302 and the lamp 100 when a lower end 313 of the stake is inserted into the ground. The stake 314 may be coupled to the casing 302 in any manner. For example, the casing 302 may have a coupling 316 that is configured to engage the stake 314. In the illustrated embodiment, the coupling 316 is a cylindrical ring having threads on an interior surface that are configured to engage threads on an upper end 315 of the stake 314. In other embodiments, the stake 314 and the coupling 316 may have other configurations. Alternatively, the coupling 316 may be omitted, and the stake 314 may be permanently coupled to the casing 302.
  • In some embodiments, the elevating mechanism 300 includes an air entry channel 318 that is in substantially seamlessly fluid communication with the air channel 106 of the lamp 100. In such embodiments, the elevating mechanism 300 is another means for controlling fuel 103 and air 105 in the vicinity of the flame 199. However, the air entry channel 318 is not necessary and can be omitted.
  • The air entry channel 318 is substantially a truncated cone defined by an exterior wall 320 and an interior wall 322. The air entrances 312 are formed in the interior wall 322 and are in fluid communication with the air entry channel 318, which in turn is in fluid communication with the air channel 106 of the lamp 100. As a result, air 105 that flows through the air entrances 312 is directed through the air entry channel 318 and into the air channel 106 of the lamp 100. The air entrances 312 are not directly exposed to the wind, so that during windy conditions, turbulent air is not directed into the air entry channel 318.
  • The air entry channel 318 may be at least partially graduated so that the flow of air 105 through the air entry channel is substantially laminar. The exterior wall 320 and the interior wall 322 may be substantially free from rough corners and sharp edges. For example, the exterior wall 320 and the interior wall 322 may gradually taper inward. In the illustrated embodiment, both the exterior wall 320 and the interior wall 322 are curved such that the air entry channel 318 is a curved conical shape, with a width 324 of the air entry channel 318 gradually decreasing from the bottom 307 of the casing 302 in the upward direction U. In other embodiments, other configurations are possible.
  • The shape of the air entry channel 318 encourages the laminar flow of air 105 through the air entry channel and into the air channel 106 of the lamp 100. Turbulence is also reduced by placing the air entrances 312 on the bottom 307 of the casing 302 along the interior wall 322. In cases in which the width 324 of the air entry channel 318 gradually decreases from the bottom 307 of the casing 302 in the upward direction U, the velocity of air 105 traveling through the air entry channel may be increased. For example, in the illustrated embodiment the width 324 a of the air channel 106 at the top 306 of the casing 302 is less than the width 324 b of the air channel at the bottom 307 of the casing.
  • In the illustrated embodiment, the interior of the casing 302 is shaped to form the exterior wall 320 of the air entry channel 318 and the ledge. The interior of the casing 302 curves inward from the bottom 307 of the casing 302 in the upward direction U, and at a point between the top 306 and the bottom 307, the inward curve abruptly ends. At this point, the ledge is formed. The interior wall 322 is coupled to the casing 302 at the bottom 307 of the casing and diverges inward so that the interior wall is spaced apart from the exterior wall 320. The interior wall 322 is substantially a cone having an apex 326 that extends into the air channel 106 of the lamp 100. The coupling 316 is coupled to the interior wall 322 adjacent the apex 326 on an exterior of the casing 302, so that the coupling is centrally positioned. However, in other embodiments other configurations are possible.
  • FIG. 5 is a perspective view of an embodiment of a smoke-encapsulating apparatus 500 that can be coupled to a lamp such as the lamp 100, and FIG. 6 is a sectional view of the smoke-encapsulating apparatus of FIG. 5, taken along line 66. The smoke-encapsulating apparatus 500 includes a housing 502 that is configured to substantially enclose a volume of smoke 504. For this reason, the housing 502 is substantially enclosed except for an entry port 506 and an exit port 508. In the illustrated embodiment, the housing 502 is substantially box-shaped, although other configurations are possible.
  • The entry port 506 is an opening formed in the housing 502 that is configured to receive a smoke-producing device 510, such as a cigarette or a cigar. The smoke-producing device 510 can be placed through the entry port 506 such that a burning end 512 of the smoke-producing device is positioned within an interior of the housing 502 while a non-burning end 518 of the smoke-producing device is positioned on an exterior of the housing. In the illustrated embodiment, the entry port 506 is substantially a circular opening formed in a side 520 of the housing 502, although other configurations are possible. For example, the entry port 506 may be circular or rectangular. The entry port 506 may also be substantially uniform in diameter to hold the smoke-producing device 510 horizontally, except at a rim 522 where the entry port 506 is rounded or tapered. An interior surface of the rim 522 may be inwardly tapered to direct the smoke 504 into the housing 502. In embodiments not shown, the housing 502 may have a plurality of entry ports 506 such that the smoke-encapsulating apparatus 500 can be used with a plurality of smoke-producing devices 510 simultaneously.
  • The exit port 508 is configured to communicate smoke 504 from the housing 502 to the lamp 100. The lamp 100 can be placed on the smoke-encapsulating apparatus 500 such that the exit port 508 is in fluid communication with the air channel 106 of the lamp 100. The smoke 504 is then directed into the air channel 106 and is burned as fuel 103 by the flame 199. In the illustrated embodiment, the exit port 508 is substantially a circular opening formed in a top 526 of the housing 502, although other configurations are possible. In some embodiments, the exit port 508 may have a shape that matches the cross-sectional area 162 of the air channel 106 at the bottom 158 of the air channel. Some embodiments may also be configured such that the lamp 100 can be coupled to the smoke-encapsulating apparatus 500 instead of resting on the smoke-encapsulating apparatus.
  • In some embodiments, the smoke-encapsulating apparatus 500 is configured to direct smoke 504 from the entry port 506 to the exit port 508. For example, the illustrated embodiment includes an exit tube 528 that extends from the exit port 508 in the downward direction D. The exit tube 528 is configured to direct smoke 504 to the exit port 508 so that the smoke is communicated into the air channel 106 of the lamp 100. In some embodiments, the exit tube 528 has a cross-sectional area 530 that is relatively larger at a bottom than at a top of the exit tube. The cross-sectional area 530 may gradually decrease in the upward direction U so that the smoke 504 is drawn along the exit tube 508 in the upward direction U. The larger and heavier particles of smoke 504 that may be inclined to stay at the bottom of the housing may be directed up the exit tube 528 to the exit port 508. However, the exit tube 528 is not necessary and can be omitted. The housing 502 may also be contoured on the interior of the housing to direct the smoke 504 toward the exit port 508.
  • The smoke-encapsulating apparatus 500 is useful for capturing second-hand smoke 504 and providing the second-hand smoke to the lamp 100, which combusts the smoke. Generally, the smoke-producing device 510 produces relatively larger particles of smoke 504 during puffing and produces relatively smaller particles of smoke when idle. The larger particles of smoke 504 can be filtered from the air using an air filter, while the smaller particles of smoke pass through the air filter without being captured. Therefore, the smoke-encapsulating apparatus 500 is configured to capture the smoke 504 created when the smoke-producing device 510 is idle. The smoke 504 can be combusted by the lamp 100 to produce the flame 199, including smaller particles of smoke that otherwise would not be filtered out of the air.
  • In some embodiments, the lamp 100 may include more than one hollow wick 104. For example, the lamp 100 may include two hollow wicks 104 that are concentrically disposed, as described in the U.S. Pat. No. 6,896,510 entitled “Apparatus and Methods for Controlling a Flame”, which issued on May 24, 2005 to the Applicant of the present disclosure, and which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety. In such an embodiment, each of the wicks 104 produces a distinct and separate flame. It may be desirable to use a lamp 100 that includes more than one hollow wick 104 in combination with the smoke-encapsulating apparatus 500, because such a lamp creates a relatively larger flame and therefore is configured to eliminate a relatively larger volume of smoke 504. However, using such a lamp 100 is not necessary, in which case a lamp having a single hollow wick 104 can be employed.
  • While particular embodiments of the lamp have been disclosed in detail in the foregoing description and figures for purposes of example, those skilled in the art will understand that variations and modifications may be made without departing from the scope of the disclosure. All such variations and modifications are intended to be included within the scope of the present disclosure, as protected by the following claims.

Claims (20)

1. A lamp comprising:
a fuel reservoir configured to hold a volume of fuel;
a hollow wick configured to wick the fuel from the fuel reservoir to the atmosphere such that a flame is produced when the wick is ignited; and
an air channel configured to supply air from outside of the fuel reservoir to a base of the flame, the air channel extending through the hollow wick and being at least partially graduated so that the flow of air through the air channel is substantially laminar.
2. The lamp of claim 1, wherein the air channel has an inward taper between a bottom of the air channel and a top of the air channel.
3. The lamp of claim 1, wherein the air channel continuously curves between a bottom of the air channel, where a wall of the air channel is substantially horizontal, and a top of the air channel, where the wall of the air channel is substantially vertical.
4. The lamp of claim 1, further comprising a heat conductive rod extending downward from a top of the air channel, wherein the heat conductive rod is configured to increase the temperature of and lower the air pressure of the air at the top of the air channel.
5. The lamp of claim 1, further comprising a heat conductive tube lining at least a portion of the air channel at a top of the air channel, wherein the heat conductive tube is configured to increase the temperature of and lower the air pressure of the air at the top of the air channel.
6. The lamp of claim 5, further comprising a layer of insulation between the air channel and the heat conductive tube.
7. The lamp of claim 1, further comprising a permeable collar that substantially surrounds at least a base of the flame, and a continuous collar that substantially surrounds the permeable collar, wherein the permeable collar is configured to warm air and capture and warm particles of fuel and the continuous collar is configured to block the wind.
8. The lamp of claim 1, further comprising an adjustable collar having a flange extending upward from the adjustable collar and openings formed through the adjustable collar, wherein the flange is configured to block the wind and the openings are configured to enable a controlled flow of air around the flame.
9. The lamp of claim 1, further comprising a permeable cover adjacent a base of the flame, wherein the permeable cover is configured to increase the temperature of air and unburned particles of fuel flowing through the cover.
10. The lamp of claim 1, further comprising a series of drain and vent holes adjacent the wick, wherein the drain and vent holes are configured to provide an avenue for air and fuel to enter the fuel reservoir.
11. The lamp of claim 1, further comprising an elevating mechanism coupled to the lamp, the elevating mechanism including a stake that is configured to support and to elevate the lamp off the ground, and an air entry channel configured to encourage the laminar flow of air into the lamp.
12. The lamp of claim 1, further comprising a smoke-encapsulating apparatus coupled to the lamp, wherein the smoke-encapsulating apparatus is configured to capture smoke produced by a smoke-producing device and to direct the smoke into the air channel of the lamp so that the smoke can be combusted by the flame.
13. A lamp comprising:
a fuel reservoir configured to hold a volume of fuel;
a hollow wick configured to wick the fuel from the fuel reservoir to the atmosphere, such that a flame is produced when the wick is ignited; and
means for controlling fuel and air in the vicinity of the flame, such that an adequate supply of fuel and air is available for combustion and the wind does not diminish or extinguish the flame.
14. The lamp of claim 13, wherein the means for controlling air and fuel in the vicinity of the flame comprises an air channel that extends through the hollow wick, the air channel having an inward taper and being substantially free from sharp angles and rough edges.
15. The lamp of claim 14, wherein the means for controlling air and fuel further comprises a heat conductive element that is at least one of a heat conductive rod, a heat conductive tube, or a permeable cover.
16. The lamp of claim 13, wherein the means for controlling air and fuel comprises at least one of an adjustable collar, a continuous collar, or a permeable collar.
17. The lamp of claim 13, wherein the means for controlling air and fuel comprises an elevating mechanism coupled to the lamp, the elevating mechanism including a stake that is configured to support and to elevate the lamp off the ground, and an air entry channel configured to encourage the laminar flow of air into the lamp.
18. The lamp of claim 13, further comprising a smoke-encapsulating apparatus coupled to the lamp, wherein the smoke-encapsulating apparatus is configured to capture smoke produced by a smoke-producing device and to direct the smoke into the air channel of the lamp so that the smoke can be combusted by the flame.
19. The lamp of claim 18, wherein the smoke-encapsulating apparatus includes an entry port configured to receive the smoke-producing device and an exit port that is in fluid communication with the air channel of the lamp.
20. The lamp of claim 19, further comprising an exit tube that is configured to direct smoke from the smoke-producing device to the exit port.
US11/621,678 2003-01-03 2007-01-10 Lamp With Means For Controlling Air And Fuel Near The Flame Abandoned US20070111149A1 (en)

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US10/890,342 US7189072B2 (en) 2003-01-03 2004-07-13 Apparatus for controlling a flame
US83683606P true 2006-08-10 2006-08-10
US11/621,678 US20070111149A1 (en) 2004-07-13 2007-01-10 Lamp With Means For Controlling Air And Fuel Near The Flame

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US11/621,678 US20070111149A1 (en) 2004-07-13 2007-01-10 Lamp With Means For Controlling Air And Fuel Near The Flame
PCT/US2007/075434 WO2008073533A2 (en) 2006-08-10 2007-08-08 Lamp with means for controlling air and fuel near the flame
US11/859,151 US20080044783A1 (en) 2004-07-13 2007-09-21 Candle With Improved Combustion

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US20100062382A1 (en) * 2008-09-08 2010-03-11 Barbara Carey Stachowski Flame light system and device
US20100112503A1 (en) * 2008-10-13 2010-05-06 Daniel Masterson Large flame torch with textured flame bowl
US20120178035A1 (en) * 2011-01-11 2012-07-12 Wei-Long Chen Device for Producing Stable and Augmented Flame
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