REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION AND PRIORITY CLAIM
- STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST
This application claims priority under 35 U.S.C. §119 to provisional application Ser. No. 60/660,421 filed on Mar. 10, 2005 and entitled Porous Microstructure Multi Layer Spectroscopy and Biosensing.
- FIELD OF THE INVENTION
The invention was made with Government assistance from the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health Contract No. N01-C0-37117 and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research Grant No. F49620-02-1-0288. The Government has certain rights in the invention.
A field of the invention is biosensing. Particular example applications for porous microstructures of the invention include label-free biomolecule sensing.
Porous microstructures have been demonstrated to produce characteristic spectral interference patterns. Porous silicon has been used to produce characteristic spectral interference patterns, and other semiconductors and insulators can be etched to produce characteristic spectral interference patterns. Introduction of analyte into such a porous microstructure produces a shift in the spectral interference pattern. The interference based sensing is largely impervious to less complex optical sensing and detection methods.
As an example, chemical or biomolecule detection can be based on changes in the spectral interference pattern that results from the reflection of white light at the interfaces above (air or solution) and below a porous silicon layer formed in a silicon wafer. Spectral positions of the Fabry-Pérot fringes shift as a function of the refractive index of the material filling the pores. Biomolecule penetration into the pores of porous Si layers, driven either by nonspecific adsorption or by specific binding (to an antibody, for instance) is observed as a shift of the Fabry-Pérot fringes to longer wavelengths. This corresponds to an increase in refractive index of the film as protein displaces aqueous solution in the pores.
The tuning of pore sizes, patterns and distributions in layers, such as porous silicon has been demonstrated. Pores can be tuned to trap a particular analyte, for example based upon pore size or by preparing the pores with a material to bind analyte. Pore size is controlled by an appropriate choice of electrochemical etching conditions. A biosensor can be formed, for example, by tuning pore size to accommodate a biomolecule of interest while keeping the pores small enough to avoid light scattering effects. Etching conditions affect pore size. Conditions that can affect pore size include, for example, the type of material being etched, doping levels (if any), resistivity, etching current density, etc. A wide range of pore sizes and morphologies can be obtained.
Single layer porous microstructures that are based on changes in the spectral interference pattern have been used. Others have used multi-layer porous silicon to achieve biosensors based on optical transduction methods other than wavelength shifts of the interference pattern. For example, Martin-Palma et al. detected binding of polyclonal mouse antibodies to an amine-modified porous Si multilayer by observing a reduction of the intensity of reflected light. Martin-Palma, et al. Microelectronics Journal, 2004, Vol. 35, pp. 45-48. Additionally, Chan et al. formed porous Si multilayer structures such as Bragg mirrors and microcavity resonators and used modulation of the photoluminescence spectra from these structures to distinguish between Gram(−) and Gram(+)bacteria. Chan et al., Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2001, Vol. 123, pp. 11797-11798. The non-interference based sensing methods have difficulty in noisy environments, require more sensitive equipment to achieve comparable sensitivity, and fail to account for common measurement conditions, e.g., signal drift due to thermal fluctuation, changes in sample composition, or degradation of the sample matrix.
- SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
Porous silicon films with a distribution of pore diameters in the x-y plane (parallel to the surface of the wafer) have been demonstrated as size-exclusion matrices to perform an on-chip determination of macromolecule dimensions. Karlsson, et al, H. J. Colloid Interface Sci., 2003, 266, 40-47. These films were generated by electrochemically etching Si in aqueous ethanolic HF using an asymmetric electrode configuration. Biomolecules penetrate the film and are detected only in regions where the pores are large enough. A disadvantage of this approach is that determination of protein size requires optical sampling over a relatively large area of the porous Si film.
- BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
A preferred embodiment biosensor is a multi-layer micro-porous thin film structure. Pores in a top layer of the micro-porous thin film structure are sized to accept a first molecule of interest. Pores in a second layer of the micro-porous thin film structure are smaller than the pores in the top layer and are sized to accept a second molecule of interest that is smaller than the first molecule of interest. The pores in the second layer are too small to accept the first molecule of interest. The pores in the top layer and the pores in the second layer are sized and arranged such that light reflected from the multi-layer micro-porous thin film structure produces multiple superimposed interference patterns that can be resolved. In preferred embodiments, the multi-layer micro-porous thin film structure is a porous silicon thin film multi-layer structure formed on a silicon substrate, such as a silicon wafer. Specific and nonspecific binding can be detected with biosensors of the invention. A shift in the position of peaks in the Fourier transform of the reflection spectrum and/or a shift in the intensity of the peak amplitudes can be used to determine the presence and quantity of targeted biological molecules of interest.
FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of a preferred embodiment multi-layer biosensor of the invention;
FIG. 2 shows reflectivity spectra of thermally oxidized porous Si single- and double-layers, the double layer structure representing an example experimental embodiment consistent with FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 shows Fourier transforms of the optical interference spectra of FIG. 2;
FIG. 4 shows the shift of the two FFT peaks corresponding to layer 2 (the layer with small pores) and layer 3 (the combination of layer 1 and layer 2, see FIG. 1) versus time during a flow cell experiment;
FIG. 5 shows the effect of a changing sample matrix on the differential change in refractive index (EOT) measurement in response to bovine serum alum (BSA) and sucrose;
FIG. 6 shows the amplitude of the FFT peaks corresponding to layer 1 and layer 2 of the double-layer (A1 and A2), and the ratio of A1 to A2 for the data of FIG. 5; and
- DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
FIG. 7 shows the response of another example experimental embodiment biosensor consistent with FIG. 1 responsive to Protein A and rabbit IgG.
A preferred embodiment of the invention is a biosensor. A sensor of the invention include a multi-layer micro-porous thin film structure, where the layers have pores of different sizes. The pores are sized and arranged in the multi-layer structure to produce optical interference patterns. In a preferred biosensor, pores in a top layer of the micro-porous thin film structure are sized to accept a first molecule of interest. Pores in a second layer of the micro-porous thin film structure are smaller than the pores in the top layer and are sized to accept a second molecule of interest that is smaller than the first molecule of interest. Pores in the second layer are too small to accept the first molecule of interest. Pores in the top layer and said pores in said second layer are sized and arranged such that light reflected from the multi-layer micro-porous thin film structure produces multiple superimposed interference patterns that can be resolved.
An example embodiment biosensor demonstrates an optical interferometer that incorporates a reference channel into the optical response of the structure. In an example embodiment, the pore sizes in different layers also provide for separation and detection of the analyte of interest. In additional embodiments, the pores in separate layers are also biologically prepared, e.g. with at least one layer among layers having differently sized pores contains an antibody.
Referring now to the drawings, a preferred biosensor 10 is shown in FIG. 1. The biosensor 10 is a thin film microstructure that includes layers 12 and 14, each of which has a porosity that produces an interference pattern in the Fourier transform of the optical reflectivity response. The combination of the layers 12 and 14 can be considered a third layer, as it produces an additional optical response. Pores in the layers 12 and 14 discriminate biomolecules based upon size. In a preferred embodiment, the porous layers 12 and 14 are porous silicon layers formed, e.g., in a silicon wafer 18. Other materials can be used, as well, such as other semiconductors or insulators.
Size discrimination occurs in the z direction (perpendicular to the plane of the wafer surface, at an air or solution interface). The layer 12 includes pores sized to accept a first molecule of interest. Pores in the second layer 14 of the micro-porous thin film structure are smaller than pores in the top layer 12 and are sized to accept a second molecule of interest that is smaller than the first molecule of interest. Light λ reflected from the layers 12, 14, 16 contains three superimposed interference patterns a, b, and c, which can be resolved by fast Fourier transform (FFT) of the reflectivity spectrum. Interference of beams a and b occurs from reflections at the interfaces bordering layer 1, interference of beams b and c originates from layer 2, and interference of beams a and c originates from layer 3. Analyte-containing solution is introduced at the top of the structure. The three peaks in the FFT provide an indication of the relative partitioning of the large and small molecules in the two layers of this size-selective membrane. Additional layers would produce additional superimposed interference patterns.
- BSA AND SUCROSE SENSING EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
The ability of the pores in the layers 12 and 14 to discriminate among biomolecules of interest has been verified experimentally. Experiments were conducted with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and sucrose as the large and small probe molecules, respectively. Penetration of BSA exclusively into the top (large pore) layer and of sucrose into both layers is detected by optically allowing the detection of the larger BSA in the presence of a 100-fold (by mass) excess of sucrose. Artisans will recognize that the general applicability to other biomolecules, as well, and will appreciate additional details of preferred embodiments as well as broader aspects of the invention from the following experimental results. The work here demonstrates a simple and powerful means to discriminate and detect molecules based on size and to correct for drift in composition and other matrix effects with a designed nanostructure.
1. Fabrication and Stabilization of p-Type Porous Si Double-Layers
Porous silicon (Si) double-layers with a layer of larger pores on top of a layer with smaller pores can be prepared using an electrochemical etch consisting of a short period of high applied current followed by a longer period at low current. In the experiments, the current density profile consisted of 11 s at 500 mA/cm2 followed by 55 s at 167 mA/cm2. This waveform was applied to a highly doped (10−3Ω-cm) p-type (100)-oriented single crystal Si wafer in ethanolic HF solution. For comparison, individual single-layer structures were also prepared. “Single-layer 1” was prepared using the first part of the double-layer waveform (11 s at 500 mA/cm2), and “single-layer 2” was prepared using the second part of the double-layer waveform (55 s at 167 mA/cm2). The resulting freshly etched porous Si samples are hydride-terminated and slowly degrade in air or water by oxidative or hydrolytic corrosion. To prevent corrosion in the aqueous solutions used in experiments, siloxy-terminated porous Si surfaces were prepared by thermal oxidation. Oxidation increases the hydrophilicity of porous Si, allowing water to effectively infiltrate the pores.
2. Determination of Porosity and Thickness of Porous Si Layers
The porosities and thicknesses of the individual porous Si layers were independently determined by gravimetry, SEM (thickness only) and by optical measurements. The average values obtained from at least three measurements are summarized in Table 1. Gravimetric measurements were performed by weighing the sample before etch, after etch, and after chemical dissolution of the porous layer. Cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveals that the conditions used to prepare “single-layer 1” (11 s at 500 mA/cm2) produce a ˜2600 nm-thick porous Si film with cylindrical pores possessing diameters of ˜50 to 100 nm. The conditions used to prepare “single-layer 2” (55 s at 167 mA/cm2) produce a film of ˜5400 nm in thickness. The pores in this layer are smaller, with diameters that are too small to be reliably resolved in the SEM images (<20 nm).
The results are confirmed by an approximately exponential dependence of the pore diameter on the current density for highly-doped p-type samples, a fact that has been previously recognized. The porous Si double-layer, produced by applying the “single-layer 1
” etching conditions followed immediately by the “single-layer 2
” conditions, possesses a combination of the two single layers one on top of the other. An SEM image obtained of the sample displayed the porous structure; layer thicknesses (˜2900 nm and ˜5600 nm for layers 1
, respectively), and pore sizes were consistent with the images obtained from the single-layers.
|TABLE 1 |
|Porosity and Thickness of Thermally Oxidized Porous Si Layers[a] |
| ||Gravimetry ||Spectral Measurement[b] ||SEM |
|Porous Si ||porosity ||thickness ||porosity ||thickness ||thickness |
|Layer ||(%) ||(nm) ||(%) ||(nm) ||(nm) |
|Single-layer 1 ||81 ± 1 ||2540 ± 35 ||85 ± 4 ||2890 ± 150 ||2572 ± 410 |
|Single-layer 2 ||64 ± 5 ||4435 ± 260 ||66 ± 4 ||5376 ± 160 ||5461 ± 210 |
|layer 1 (top) || || ||88 ± 4 ||3012 ± 190 ||2940 ± 180 |
|layer 2 (bottom) || || ||63 ± 2 ||5306 ± 140 ||5640 ± 120 |
|combination ||71 ± 1[c] ||7165 ± 450[c] ||72 ± 2 ||8307 ± 300 ||8677 ± 120 |
[a]Porosities and thicknesses of porous Si single- and double-layers as determined by gravimetry, by spectral measurement, and by SEM. “Single-layer 1” was etched at 500 mA/cm2 for 11 s, “single-layer 2” at 167 mA/cm2 for 55 s, and “double-layer” at 500 mA/cm2 for 11 s followed by 167 mA/cm2 for 55 s. All samples have been thermally oxidized in air at 600° C.
[b]For the spectral measurement, calculation of porosity and thickness of “single-layer 1,” “single-layer 2,” and the top (“layer 1”) and bottom (“layer 2”) layers of “double-layer” is based on application of the Bruggeman approximation to the values of optical
|# thickness (2 nL) obtained from FFT of the reflectivity spectra of samples immersed in various liquids, as described in the text. Porosity and thickness of “layer 1” in the porous silicon double layers is calculated using a value of EOT determined from the difference in EOT between “combination” (layer 3 in FIG. 1) and “layer 2.” |
[c]Gravimetric measurements do not distinguish between the two layers of the porous Si double-layers, and provide an average value of porosity and thickness of both layers.
Thickness and porosity of the layers were also determined by optical measurements. The Bruggeman theory, one of a number of effective medium approximations, has been shown to predict the porosity of porous Si in reasonable agreement with gravimetric determinations. In this technique, the porous Si white-light reflection spectrum is measured with the film held in air and in the series of solvents ethanol, acetone, and hexane, having refractive indices 1.360, 1.357, and 1.375, respectively. The difference between the spectra can be attributed to the changes in optical thickness as the medium in the pores changes, with the assumption that all the void spaces in the film are filled equally (i.e., no remaining air bubbles). The value of the product 2 nL, where n and L are the refractive index and the thickness of the film, respectively, are obtained from the reflectivity spectra. For the Bruggeman calculation, only the product nL is used. Data obtained from a given sample in air and in the three liquids is then fit to the two-component Bruggeman approximation, yielding an over-determined solution for both the porosity and the thickness of the sample. The value of refractive index for oxidized porous Si used in the Bruggeman fit that provided the most self-consistent results was 2.1.
The calculated porosities of the porous Si single-layers (Table 1) agree with the results obtained by gravimetry. However, the film thickness values obtained from the Bruggeman calculations and the SEM measurements deviate somewhat from the gravimetric results. This can be explained since the gravimetric measurements do not account for the increase in mass and in volume that occurs when the porous Si film is oxidized. The gravimetry instead measures of the amount of Si lost in etching. Thus, in the case of oxidized porous Si films, gravimetry provides an under-estimation of film thickness. The SEM and optical measurements are more accurate measures of film thickness.
3. Interpretation of Interferometric Reflectance Spectra
FIG. 2 displays reflectivity spectra of thermally oxidized porous Si single- and double-layers. FIG. 2 shows relative reflectance spectra of thermally oxidized porous Si single- and double-layers. “single-layer 1” is the spectrum of a single layer etched for 11 s at 500 mA/cm2. “single-layer 2” corresponds to the single layer etched for 55 s at 167 mA/cm2. “double-layer” corresponds to the double-layer etched for 11 s at 500 mA/cm2, followed by 55 s at 167 mA/cm2. “Fit” shows a least-squares fit of the double-layer spectrum to a two-layer interference model (eq. 2), as explained below. The peaks from the fit matching the spectral peaks are indicated with the vertical dashed lines. All spectra were obtained from a spot ˜1 mm in diameter on the porous Si film. Spectra of samples were measured in air and are not corrected for instrumental spectral response.
The spectra, obtained using a spectrometer and a white light (tungsten) illumination source in a 90° backscatter configuration, display a series of interference fringes. These fringe patterns result from Fabry-Pérot interference of light reflected from the various interfaces present in the structures. The fringe maxima are described by the Fabry-Pérot relationship given in eq. 1
where m is an integer, L is the thickness of the porous Si layer, n is the average refractive index, and λ is the wavelength of incident light. The factor of 2 derives from the 90° backscatter configuration of the illumination source and detector. The term 2 nL is thus the optical path, referred to as the effective optical thickness (EOT) in this application. The pore dimensions in these structures are too small to effectively scatter light, and each porous layer is treated as a single medium with a single value for refractive index.
As expected from the relationship of eq. 1, the series of Fabry-Pérot fringes observed in the “single-layer 1” and the “single-layer 2” samples are spaced evenly in frequency (FIG. 2). A linear least-squares fit of the wavelength of the peak maxima to eq. 1 yields directly the 2 nL values for “single-layer 1” and “single-layer 2”. See, Table 2. The double-layer film displays a more complex fringe pattern that cannot be fit to eq. 1. The spectrum arises from interference in all three layers represented in FIG. 1, and can be fit to a double layer interference model. Ignoring multiple reflections, the reflectance R of light from a double layer is given by:
R=(ρa 2+ρb 2+ρc 2)+2ρaρbcos(2δ1)+2βbρccos(2δ2)+2ρaρccos[2(δ1+δ2)] (2)
where δi represents the phase relationship of layer i:
Here ni represents the refractive index of layer i with thickness Li. The terms ρa, ρb, and ρc in eq. 2 represent the index contrast at each of the interfaces a, b, or c (see FIG. 1):
, and nsi
represent the refractive index of air (or of the solution), layer 1
, layer 2
, and bulk Si, respectively. The quantities n1
represent the total refractive index of the layer and everything it contains (silicon, SiO2
, solution, air, biomolecule, etc.). A least-squares fit of the reflectivity spectrum of the double layer to eq. 2 is shown in FIG. 2
. The spectra shown in FIG. 2
are not corrected for the spectral response of the lamp or spectrometer, and the values ρa
, and ρc
cannot be accurately evaluated from such data. Thus the absolute intensity of the spectrum is not fit by the model. However, the phase relationship δi
can be reliably extracted, yielding values of 2 nL for layer 1
and for layer 2
of 6200 nm and 13,800 nm, respectively, as seen in Table 2. These values somewhat under-estimate the single-layer values determined from eq. 1 discussed above. Although the models used to fit the data are quite simplified, they provide a consistent picture of the optical properties of these structures.
|TABLE 2 |
|Comparison of methods used to evaluate EOT (2 nL) from the reflectivity |
|spectrum: Fabry-Pérot interference calculation vs FFT.[a] |
| || ||Fit to Interference || |
| ||Porous Si Layer ||Equations (nm)[b] ||FFT(nm) |
| || |
| ||single-layer 1 ||7220 ||6950 |
| ||single-layer 2 ||14,400 ||14,400 |
| ||double-layer: |
| ||layer 1 (top) ||6200 ||6250 |
| ||layer 2 (bottom) ||13,800 ||13,900 |
| ||combination ||19,800 ||20,100 |
| || |
| || |
[a]Thermally oxidized porous Si layers as prepared in Table 1.
| || |
[b]“Single-layer 1” and “single-layer 2” calculated from least squares fit to eq. 1. “Double-layer” calculated from least-squares fit to eq. 2.
4. Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of Reflectance Spectra
A FFT of the spectrum provides a computationally simple and reliable technique for extracting the optical parameters. More complex models can also be used, such as models incorporating the frequency dispersion of refractive index, the effect of multiple reflections, and the instrumental response function. Such models provide a more rigorous description of the optical properties of the porous Si films. However, the FFT is a faster and more convenient method of extracting the optical parameters. The FFT can provide more reliable data for complicated optical structures, in particular when the optical constants are changing due to analyte admission into the pores. For biosensing, the relative change in these optical constants is the important parameter.
The Fourier transforms of the optical interference spectra of FIG. 2 are presented in FIG. 3. The complex interference pattern for the double-layer is deconvoluted into its three components (layer 1, layer 2, and layer 1+layer 2) by the Fourier transform. Peaks in the “in ethanol” spectra all display lower intensity relative to the corresponding “in air” spectra due to the decrease in refractive index contrast that occurs when the pores fill with liquid. All spectra were obtained from a spot ˜1 mm in diameter, and are offset along the y-axis for clarity.
The value of 2 nL can be obtained directly as the position of the peak in the FFT. Thus the “single-layer 1” film in air displays a spectral interference pattern (FIG. 2) whose FFT yields a peak at 6950 nm (FIG. 3 and Table 2). As mentioned above, the position of this peak in the FFT is equal to the value 2 nL from eq. 1. Similarly, the “single-layer 2” film displays a spectral interference pattern whose FFT yields a peak at 14,400 nm. If more than one layer exists in the film, the FFT yields values of 2 nL for the separate layers as distinct peaks. Thus the FFT of the interference spectrum for the double-layer (FIG. 2, “double-layer”) displays 3 peaks (FIG. 3, “double-layer”) at 6250, 13,900, and 20,100 nm, corresponding to the values of 2 nL for layers 1, 2, and 3, respectively, as depicted in FIG. 1.
The sum of the values of 2 nL for layer 1 and 2 is predicted by eq. 2 to be equal to the value of 2 nL for layer 3, and there is agreement within the error of the measurement (20,150 nm vs 20,100 nm, respectively). As with the least-squares fits of the spectra to eqs. 1 and 2, the FFT analysis yields a 2 nL value for each individual layer of the double-layer that is smaller than the value obtained from the corresponding single-layer, consistent with the SEM measurements (Table 1).
The information contained in both the intensity and in the position of the peaks in the Fourier transform can be related to the optical constants presented in the double-layer interference model of eq. 2. As discussed above, the position of a peak in the FFT is equal to the EOT, or 2 nL of a porous Si layer. It is related to the phase relationship of eq. 3 by:
Eq. 2 represents a sum of 3 cosine terms corresponding to the 3 optical layers represented in FIG. 1. The frequency of each of the cosine terms is thus related to the EOT of one of the layers. The amplitude of each cosine term is related to the amplitude of light reflected at the interfaces, and therefore related to the index contrast at each pair of interfaces that defines the relevant layer, as given by eq. 4. The amplitude of a peak in the FFT spectrum is proportional to this index contrast:
A 1 =kρ aρb , A 2 =kρ bρc , A 3 =kρ aρc (6)
where A1, A2 and A3 are the amplitudes of the FFT peaks corresponding to layer 1, 2, and 3 of FIG. 1, respectively, ρa, ρb, and ρc are as defined above for eq. 4, and k is a proportionality constant. The relationship of FFT peak amplitude to index contrast is only strictly valid if the spectrum from which the FFT derives is an absolute reflectivity spectrum (corrected for instrument response). In that case, k=2. In the present application, uncorrected intensity-wavelength spectra are used (see below). The FFT contains the necessary information to determine the optical constants of the films relevant for sensing; in particular the refractive index of the film. The position of a given peak measures the refractive index of the layer, and the amplitude measures the refractive index contrast of the layer, relative to its neighboring layers. The relationships of eqs. 5 and 6 provide the key to extracting a reference channel from the double-layer interferometers described in this application.
5. Changes in the Optical Parameters Due to Infiltration of Molecules
Infiltration of a liquid into the porous structures leads to predictable changes in both the position and in the intensity of the peaks in the FFT spectrum. The intensity changes correspond to changes in the relative reflectivity of the various interfaces in the structure. As seen in FIG. 3, peaks in the FFT of spectra from the “in ethanol” samples all display lower intensity relative to the corresponding “in air” peaks. This is attributed to the decrease in refractive index contrast that occurs when the pores fill with liquid, as predicted by the relationships of eqs 4 and 6. Additionally, the peak corresponding to layer 1 of the double-layer, already weak in the “in air” spectrum, disappears completely in the “in ethanol” spectrum, indicating an almost complete disappearance of index contrast in that layer relative to the surrounding layers. The reduction in index contrast when a single-layer or double-layer film is immersed in liquid is also observed in the reflectivity spectrum, manifested as a decrease in fidelity of the Fabry-Pérot fringes.
The decrease in intensity of the FFT peaks that occurs when the sample is immersed in liquid is most noticeable for samples that have been extensively oxidized, where the refractive index of the solid component of the porous film is closer to pure SiO2 (n=1.5) than to Si (n=3.8). Ozone-oxidation is milder, producing less SiO2 in the film. For a given porosity, ozone-oxidized films have a larger refractive index than thermally oxidized films, and the peak corresponding to “layer 1” is more discernable in the FFT when such samples are immersed in liquids. However, the ozone-oxidized films were found to be insufficiently stable in the aqueous solutions, and so the thermally oxidized films are preferred for introduction of molecules via an aqueous solution.
Shifts in the position of the peaks in the FFT spectrum indicate a change in average refractive index (EOT or 2 nL) of the film. Infiltration of ethanol into the pores leads to an increase in the value of EOT for either the single- or the double-layer films. The “single-layer 1” film displays a spectrum with a peak in the Fourier transform at 6950 nm in air, increasing to 9080 nm in ethanol. Similarly, the FFT peak from the “single-layer 2” film shifts from 14,400 nm to 17,000 nm when the film is placed in the liquid.
The peaks in the FFT spectrum of the double-layer also shift upon infiltration of ethanol, in line with the single-layer results. As mentioned above, the peak corresponding to layer 1 of the double-layer structure often become too weak to observe upon immersion in ethanol due to the loss in index contrast, but the peaks corresponding to layer 2 and to the combination of both layer 1 and layer 2 (layer 3 of FIG. 1) are observable (FIG. 3). Since the combination represents a sum of layers 1 and 2 (eq. 2), the position of the peak corresponding to layer 1 can be calculated as the quantity (EOT3−EOT2). Using this relationship, the 2 nL value for layer 1 shifts by 1780 nm, from 6250 nm in air to 8030 nm in ethanol, and for layer 2 the shift is 2600 nm, from 13,900 nm to 16,500 nm.
6. Sensing of Bovine Serum Albumin and Sucrose in Double Layers
The penetration of biomolecules into a porous Si Fabry-Pérot layer leads to an increase in EOT resulting from partial replacement of aqueous buffer by molecules with a larger index of refraction. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) and sucrose were used to test the ability of the porous Si double-layer to discriminate biomolecules of different sizes. BSA is a heart-shaped protein with dimensions roughly of the order of 3×8×8 nm (at pH 4) and a molecular weight of 68 kDa. Sucrose is a small molecule with dimensions less than 2×2×2 nm, and a molecular weight of 342 g/mol. Because of the difference in pore dimensions between the two layers of the double-layer, both molecules are expected to be admitted into layer 1 and only sucrose is expected to enter into layer 2.
Aqueous buffer solutions of the test molecules were introduced to the porous Si films using a transparent flow-cell such that real-time reflectivity spectra could be obtained. The flow-cell was flushed with either pure pH 4 buffer or pure pH 7 buffer followed by pure pH 4 buffer in between samples. The purpose of the pH 7 rinse is to more efficiently remove the BSA molecule from the oxidized porous Si surface by changing the net charge on the molecule. The isoelectric point of BSA is 4.8, so at pH 4 it has a net positive charge while oxidized porous Si is negative, leading to strong non-specific binding. At pH 7 both BSA and oxidized porous Si are negatively charged, and electrostatic forces aid in expulsion of the protein from the pores.
Protein adsorption to silica is an extremely complex process that depends on pH, temperature, ionic strength, and solvent properties. Others have shown attachment of poly(ethylene glycol) or large biomolecules to the inner pore surfaces minimizes non-specific adsorption to porous Si.
In the experiments, the surfactant Triton X-100 was added to the solutions in order to enhance diffusion of BSA out of the pores of thermally oxidized porous Si. It was found that even the addition of detergent could not displace all of the BSA from the surface, and the initial introduction of BSA to the porous Si double-layer forms a thin coating that is not removed with subsequent rinsing steps. Thus, all samples in the biomolecule binding studies were pre-treated with BSA solution and then rinsed with pH 7 buffer followed by pH 4 buffer. After this “pre-treatment” which led to a new baseline, both sucrose and BSA were found to readily diffuse in and out of the pores and to provide reproducible binding curves during the flow cell experiments. Sucrose is a neutral molecule, and did not display any such enhanced binding effects with the samples used in the present study.
7. Shifts in FFT Peak Positions (EOT) on Exposure to BSA and Sucrose
The response of the layers can be probed using the FFT methods, as described above. As described above, the interference spectrum of a double-layer film displays a complicated pattern of maxima and minima that corresponds to a combination of the Fabry-Pérot interference spectra from the three layers defined in FIG. 1. Additional layers would provide additional interference spectra. The FFT deconvolutes the spectrum, and can distinguish between the filling of the big pores and the small pores.
FIG. 4 shows the shift of the two FFT peaks corresponding to layer 2 (the layer with small pores) and layer 3 (the combination of layer 1 and layer 2, see FIG. 1) versus time during a flow cell experiment. For the experiment described by FIG. 4, the sample was successively exposed to a buffer solution containing BSA with excess sucrose, sucrose alone, BSA alone, and then again BSA with sucrose. FIG. 4 shows the effect of introduction of sucrose and bovine serum albumin (BSA), separately and in combination, on the effective optical thickness (EOT, or 2 nL) of layers 2 and 3 of a thermally-oxidized double-layer sensor. EOT for a given layer is measured as the position of the corresponding peak in the FFT spectrum. Layer 2 contains the smaller pores, and does not respond to the larger BSA molecule. Layer 3 represents the combination of layer 1 and 2 (see FIG. 1) and so responds to both BSA and sucrose. The weighted (γ=1.58) difference of the EOT values from the two films, shown as the top trace, eliminates the effect of sucrose, allowing selective detection of BSA. (a) pH 4 buffer (potassium biphthalate), (b) 1 mg/mL BSA and 50 mg/mL sucrose in pH 4 buffer, (c) pH 4 buffer, followed by pH 7 buffer, (d) pH 4 buffer, (e) 50 mg/mL sucrose in pH 4 buffer, (f) pH 4 buffer, (g) 1 mg/mL BSA in pH 4 buffer, (h) pH 4 buffer, followed by pH 7 buffer, (i) pH 4 buffer, (j) 1 mg/mL BSA and 50 mg/mL sucrose in pH 4 buffer, (k) pH 4 buffer, followed by pH 7 buffer, (l) pH 4 buffer. All data were acquired under a constant peristaltic flow of 0.5 mL/min in a flow cell. The sample had been pre-treated by exposure to BSA at pH 4 followed by a rinse with pure buffer at pH 7.
When the double-layer sample is exposed to a solution containing 1 mg/mL of BSA and 50 mg/mL sucrose, the FFT peaks corresponding to layers 2 and 3 shift to larger values, corresponding to an increase in EOT as the molecules enter the pores (FIG. 4, region b). When only sucrose is added (FIG. 4, region e), the peak assigned to layer 2 increases by the same amount, and the peak assigned to layer 3 increases by approximately half of the BSA+sucrose value. The responses are additive, with layer 3 showing approximately the same response to 1 mg/mL of BSA as it does to 50 mg/mL of sucrose. The greater response that layer 3 displays towards BSA relative to sucrose derives from the increased non-specific binding interaction of the protein.34
When only BSA is added (FIG. 4, region g), the peak assigned to layer 2 does not increase at all, indicating that the pores of this layer are not large enough to admit the protein. The peak assigned to layer 3 again only increases by approximately half of the BSA+sucrose value. A final dose containing both BSA and sucrose (FIG. 4, region j) replicates the initial dose. This data indicates that the small molecule sucrose can penetrate both layers, while the large protein BSA only enters the top layer (layer 1).
8. Detection of Biomolecules in Double-Layers by Differential EOT Measurement
The main difference in composition between layer 1 and layer 2 is that layer 1 contains the protein BSA and layer 2, because of its smaller pores, does not. In addition, because they have different porosities, the relative amount of SiO2 and solution are different in each layer. If this latter difference can be accounted for, then a technique to measure the binding of protein in the film is provided. Binding of protein can be measured as the difference in index between layer 1 (n1) and layer 2 (n2). Since the total refractive index of a layer is related to its EOT by eq. 5, the difference can be expressed as:
EOT 3 −γEOT 2 =n 1 L 1 +n 2 L 2(1−γ), (7)
Here the term γ is a weighting factor that accounts for the differences in porosity and thickness between the two layers. It assumes that the index of a layer is proportional to its fractional composition, which is not strictly valid if the Bruggeman effective medium approximation applies. However, for small changes in n as encountered in the present biosensing application it is approximately correct. If γ=2 and L1=L2, the left side of eq. 7 reduces to (n1-n2)L, as expected. The quantity γ indicates how the relative responses of the two layers scale with each other, and can be determined empirically from the sucrose data by application of eq. 8:
Where EOTi(sucrose) is the EOT measured for layer i infused with buffer containing sucrose, and EOTi(buffer) is the EOT measured for layer i infused with buffer only. For the data in FIG. 4, a value of 1.58 was determined for γ. A plot of the quantity (EOT3−γEOT2) then detects BSA only, essentially nulling the response to sucrose (FIG. 4).
9. Dependence of Differential EOT Measurement on Concentration of Matrix Interferents
The effect of a changing sample matrix on the differential EOT measurement is shown in FIG. 5. Dependence of the EOT values of a thermally-oxidized double layer sensor towards BSA (1 mg/mL) in the presence of changing concentrations of sucrose. The weighted (γ=1.96) difference of the EOT values from the two films, shown as the top trace, eliminates the effect of sucrose at all concentrations, allowing selective detection of BSA. The effective optical thickness (EOT, or 2 nL) of layers 2 and 3 and the weighted difference of the two values are plotted as in FIG. 5. Layer 2 contains the smaller pores, and does not respond to the larger BSA molecule. Layer 3 represents layer 1 and 2 (see FIG. 1) and so responds to both BSA and to sucrose. (a) pH 4 buffer, (b) 20 mg/mL sucrose in pH 4 buffer, (c) pH 4 buffer, (d) 1 mg/mL BSA and 20 mg/mL sucrose in pH 4 buffer, (e) pH 4 buffer, followed by pH 7 buffer, then by pH 4 buffer, (f) 1 mg/mL BSA in pH 4 buffer, (g) pH 4 buffer, followed by pH 7 buffer, then by pH 4 buffer, (h) 100 mg/mL sucrose in pH 4 buffer, (i) pH 4 buffer (j) 1 mg/mL BSA and 100 mg/mL sucrose in pH 4 buffer, (k) pH 4 buffer, followed by pH 7 buffer, then pH 4 buffer, (l) 50 mg/mL sucrose in pH 4 buffer, (m) pH 4 buffer, (n) 1 mg/mL BSA and 50 mg/mL sucrose in pH 4 buffer, (o) pH 4 buffer, followed by pH 7 buffer, then pH 4 buffer. All data were acquired under a constant peristaltic flow of 0.5 mL/min in a flow cell. Sample had been pre-treated by exposure to BSA at pH 4 followed by a rinse with pure buffer at pH 7.
In this experiment, a constant amount of BSA (1 mg/mL) is tested in the presence of sucrose concentrations varying from 0 to 100 mg/mL. The effective optical thickness (EOT, or 2 nL) of layers 2 and 3 and the weighted difference of the two values are plotted as in FIG. 4. As with the sample of FIG. 4, the pores in layer 2 are too small to admit BSA, and this layer only responds to sucrose. Layer 3, consisting of both the large pore (layer 1) film and the small pore (layer 2) film, responds to both BSA and to sucrose. The weighted difference of the EOT values from the two films, shown as the top trace in FIG. 5, completely eliminates the response from sucrose at all concentrations, allowing selective detection of BSA. For this sample the value of y was determined to be 1.96 (by application of eq. 8).
10. Detection of Biomolecules in Double-Layers by Measuring Shifts in FFT Peak Intensity
The amplitude of a peak Ai in the FFT spectrum is related to the reflectivity of the two interfaces bordering layer i by eq. 6. The reflectivity at a given interface is related to the index contrast by eq. 4. When protein infuses into either layer 1 or layer 2, it exerts an effect on the magnitude of Ai for both layers, since they share a common interface. Binding of protein can be measured as the ratio of peak amplitudes A1 to A2. This ratio is related to the index contrast at two of the three interfaces present in the double-layer (eq. 4 and 6) by eq. 9:
Here, there is no weighting factor to account for differences in porosity and thickness between the two layers as was introduced in eq. 7. In the present case the data deriving from layer 1 is used instead of layer 3. In some instances the amplitude A1 in the FFT spectrum can be too small to measure reliably, especially when using fully oxidized porous Si (where the index contrast of layer 1 is small relative to its neighboring layers). In such cases it is also possible to isolate the response to BSA by plotting the ratio A3/A2.
The amplitude of the FFT peaks corresponding to layer 1 and layer 2 of the double-layer (A1 and A2), and the ratio of A1 to A2 are presented in FIG. 6. The raw data sets from FIG. 5 were used. FIG. 6 shows the dependence of the amplitude of the FFT peaks from the double layer sensor towards BSA (1 mg/mL) in the presence of changing concentrations of sucrose, as in FIG. 5. A1 and A2 represent the integrated areas of the FFT peaks corresponding to layer 1 and layer 2 (A1 and A2 of eq. 6) respectively. The ratio of A1 to A2 is shown in the top trace. The ratio eliminates the effect of sucrose at all concentrations, allowing selective detection of BSA. The absolute scales for A1 and A2 differ. The labels (a) through (o) are the same as in FIG. 5.
As can be seen, the plots of A1 and A2 vs time are very noisy. The noise in the measurement relates to fluctuations in lamp intensity, bubbles in the flow cell, cell temperature, and other undetermined experimental variables during the course of the measurement. The measurement of EOT (FFT peak position) is less sensitive to such variations. However, the errors apparent in the plots of A1 and A2 are correlated, and they are effectively eliminated in the ratio of A1 to A2, as shown in FIG. 6. The quantity A2 represents the product of the index contrast at both the bulk Si/layer 2 interface and the layer 1/layer 2 interface. It does not change significantly with either a large dose of sucrose or with BSA. The quantity A1 represents the product of the index contrast at both the layer 1/layer 2 interface and the bulk solution/layer 2 interface, and it tracks the admission of protein into layer 1. Although A2 appears to contain no information, it tracks lamp fluctuations, bubbles, and other sources of experimental error that also appear in A1. In particular, note point k in the traces of FIG. 6, the stage at which the largest dose of sucrose/BSA is removed; the relative reflectivity of the interfaces changes dramatically, but the ratio A1/A2 successfully nulls the effect.
11. Experimental Procedures
All reagents were used as received. Potassium phosphate pH 7 buffer was obtained from Fisher, Inc. as a 0.05 M potassium phosphate Certified Buffer Solution (Cat. No. SB108-20). The potassium biphthalate pH 4 buffer was obtained from Fisher, Inc. as a 0.05 M potassium biphthalate Certified Buffer Solution (Cat. No. SB98-500). Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA), lyophilized powder, 1×crystallized, >97% purity, was obtained from Sigma-Aldrich (Cat. No. A 4378). Sucrose was obtained from EM Science (Cat. No. SX 1075-1). Aqueous HF (48%) and ethanol (99.9%) were supplied by Fisher Scientific and AAper, respectively. Porous Si samples were prepared from single-crystalline highly-doped p-type Si (0.0008-0.0012Ω-cm resistivity, <100> oriented, B-doped, from Siltronix Corp.)
Porous Si samples were prepared by anodization of the degenerately doped p-type Si wafers in ethanolic HF solution (3:1 v/v 48% aqueous HF:ethanol) in a two-electrode configuration using a platinum mesh counter-electrode. Si wafers with an exposed area of 1.2 cm2 were contacted on the back side with a strip of aluminium foil and mounted in a Teflon etching cell. Galvanostatic anodization was performed in the dark. Single-layers were etched by applying 500 mA/cm2 for 11 s (“single-layer 1”) or 167 mA/cm2 for 55 s (“single-layer 2”). Double-layer samples were prepared by application of 500 mA/cm2 for 11 s followed immediately by application of 167 mA/cm2 for 55 s. After etching, the samples were rinsed thoroughly with ethanol and then dried under a stream of nitrogen.
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images were obtained with a Cambridge EM-360 electron microscope using an accelerating voltage of 20 keV. In order to avoid sample charging anomalies, the porous Si samples were sputter-coated with a thin layer of gold (20 nm) prior to the SEM analysis.
Interferometric reflectance spectra of porous Si were collected by using an Ocean Optics CCD S-2000 spectrometer fitted with a microscope objective lens coupled to a bifurcated fiber optic cable. A tungsten light source was focused onto the center of a porous Si surface with a spot size of approximately 1-2 mm2. Reflectivity data were recorded with a CCD detector in the wavelength range of 400-1000 nm, with a spectral acquisition time of 100 ms. Typically 10 spectral scans (1 s total integration time) were averaged before FFT processing. Both the illumination of the surface and the detection of the reflected light were performed along an axis coincident with the surface normal.
Porous Si samples were thermally oxidized by heat treatment in a tube furnace (Fisher Blue M). The samples were heated at 600° C. for 1 h in ambient air, then allowed to cool to room temperature.
Three porous Si samples were weighed on a laboratory balance with a resolution of 10 μg before (m1) and after etching at mA/cm2, respectively. Each sample was thermally oxidized and weighed again (m2). The oxidized porous Si layer was then dissolved in 48% aqueous HF:ethanol (3:1, v:v), and the wafer remaining was weighed (m3). The porosity P was calculated using the following equation:24
The thickness W of the porous Si layer was determined by applying the equation:
where S is the wafer area exposed to HF during the electrochemical etching and d is the density of bulk Si.
Biomolecule penetration experiments were carried out in a custom-made flow cell. Briefly, the flow cell was constructed of plexiglass and connected via an outlet and inlet to a peristaltic pump. The light beam was focused on the surface of the sample through the plexiglass cover and interference spectra were recorded.
- PROTEIN A AND RABBIT IMMUNOGLOBULIN PEAK AMPLITUDE SHIFT EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
The wavelength axis of the spectrum from the Ocean Optics spectrometer was calibrated using a least-squares fit of five spectral lines observed from a neon lamp, at 585.3, 614.3, 640.2, 703.2, and 811.5 nm. The data spacing is approximately 0.4 nm. The x-axis was inverted and a linear interpolation was applied such that the data were spaced evenly in units of nm−1. A Hanning window was applied to the spectrum, it was redimensioned to 4096 data points and the zero padded to the power of two. A discrete Fourier transform using a multidimensional fast prime factor decomposition algorithm from the Wavemetrics, inc IGOR program library (FFT) was applied.
12. Fabrication of Two Layer Biosensor
The example biosensors for this experiment were generally consistent with FIG. 1 and the procedures outlined above. In this case, the biosensor was prepared by electrochemically etching single-crystal silicon (p-type, ca. 1 mΩ-cm, 100 orientation) in aqueous ethanolic HF solution (3:1 v/v 48% aqueous HF:ethanol), using a short period of high applied current (250 mA/cm2 for 23 s) followed by a longer period at low current (83 mA/cm2 for 115 s). The current waveform produces a high porosity, low refractive index layer on top of a lower porosity, higher refractive index layer (see, FIG. 1).
13. Results Summary
Spectra were taken to determine the response of the biosensor to Protein A (FIG. 7, region b) suggests that exposure to high concentrations of Protein A (0.25 mg/mL) leads to either a closely packed or multilayer adsorption, with the number of adsorbed Protein A molecules being greatly reduced upon rinsing with buffers (end of region b). In FIG. 7, the ratio of A3 to A2 is shown in the top trace. The ratio eliminates baseline drift and significantly reduces noise in the measurement of rabbit IgG binding. BSA does not interact with the surface, while refractive index changes due to penetration of small molecules such as sucrose and buffer into both porous silicon layers are cancelled by the ratio procedure, so none of these species are detected. FIG. 7 shows the response of: a) Phosphate Buffered Saline Solution (PBS) buffer; b) 0.25 mg/ml Protein A in PBS, followed by PBS, then by 0.1 M acetic acid; c) PBS; d) 0.05 mg/ml rabbit IgG, followed by PBS, then 0.1 M acetic acid; e) PBS; f) 0.025 mg/ml rabbit IgG, followed by PBS, then 0.1 M acetic acid; g) PBS; h) 0.05 mg/ml rabbit IgG, followed by PBS, then 0.1 M acetic acid; i) PBS; j) 0.025 mg/ml rabbit IgG, followed by PBS, then 0.1 M acetic acid; k) PBS; l) 50 mg/ml sucrose in PBS; m) PBS; n) 1 mg/ml BSA in PBS, followed by PBS, then 0.1 M acetic acid; o) PBS; p) 0.025 mg/ml rabbit IgG, followed by PBS, then 0.1 M acetic acid; q) PBS; r) 0.0125 mg/ml rabbit IgG, followed by PBS, then 0.1 M acetic acid; s) PBS; t) 50 mg/ml sucrose in PBS, followed by PBS; u) 1 mg/ml BSA in PBS, followed by PBS, then 0.1 M acetic acid and PBS.
The response of the protein A-modified sensor to IgG (ratio change ca. 0.27 for 0.05 mg/mL) is approximately ten times greater than the change observed for strongly-adsorbed Protein A (ca. 0.029). Part of this difference is due to the differences in molecular weight (Protein A: 42 kDa, Rabbit IgG ca. 150 kDa), which can account for ˜3.6-fold difference in response. The additional difference may be due to Protein A binding two IgG molecules under these conditions as has been reported for some solution studies or to differences in the refractive index of IgG relative to Protein A. The sensor response here is proportional to a change in the interfacial refractive index contrast rather than just a change in magnitude of the index.
- EXAMPLE EXTENSIONS OF EXPERIMENTS AND PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
The double-layer biosensor provides a quantitative measurement of equilibrium binding constants. The thermodynamic equilibrium binding constant can be obtained from the A3/A2 signal at equilibrium for various analyte concentrations by application of a Langmuir fit to the binding isotherm. A fit of the average values of three trials yields a calculated equilibrium dissociation constant KD of 3×10-7 mol/L for rabbit IgG binding to protein A, consistent with the published values. The results demonstrate that you can use a change in intensity of the peaks to correct for background.
The approach should also be amenable to other label-free transduction modalities that utilize refractive index changes, such as surface plasmon resonance or microcavity resonance. The built-in reference channel and Fourier method of analysis provides a general means to compensate for changes in sample matrix, non-specific binding, temperature, and other experimental variables.
An advantage of the interferometric biosensor optical structures of the invention compared to other optical transduction methods is that the sensitivity of the measurement can be improved. Additionally, compared to other optical transduction methods, the equipment needed to monitor binding events can be simplified. The interferometric biosensor of preferred embodiments provides the basis to incorporating sophisticated detection functions, such as correction for drifts due to thermal fluctuation, changes in sample composition, or degradation of the sample matrix.
While various embodiments of the present invention have been shown and described, it should be understood that other modifications, substitutions and alternatives are apparent to one of ordinary skill in the art. Such modifications, substitutions and alternatives can be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention, which should be determined from the appended claims.
Various features of the invention are set forth in the following claims.