US20070090644A1 - Integrated Seal for Tube to Hose Connection - Google Patents

Integrated Seal for Tube to Hose Connection Download PDF

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Publication number
US20070090644A1
US20070090644A1 US11/557,335 US55733506A US2007090644A1 US 20070090644 A1 US20070090644 A1 US 20070090644A1 US 55733506 A US55733506 A US 55733506A US 2007090644 A1 US2007090644 A1 US 2007090644A1
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US
United States
Prior art keywords
portion
hose connector
resilient member
hose
ring portion
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US11/557,335
Inventor
David Poirier
Jim Kerin
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TI Group Automotive Systems LLC
Original Assignee
TI Group Automotive Systems LLC
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to US10/893,666 priority Critical patent/US7150478B2/en
Application filed by TI Group Automotive Systems LLC filed Critical TI Group Automotive Systems LLC
Priority to US11/557,335 priority patent/US20070090644A1/en
Publication of US20070090644A1 publication Critical patent/US20070090644A1/en
Assigned to JPMORGAN CHASE BANK, N.A. reassignment JPMORGAN CHASE BANK, N.A. SECURITY AGREEMENT Assignors: HANIL USA, L.L.C., TI AUTOMOTIVE, L.L.C., TI GROUP AUTOMOTIVE SYSTEMS, L.L.C.
Assigned to WILMINGTON TRUST (LONDON) LIMITED reassignment WILMINGTON TRUST (LONDON) LIMITED ASSIGNMENT OF SECURITY INTEREST Assignors: JP MORGAN CHASE BANK, N.A.
Assigned to CITIBANK N.A. reassignment CITIBANK N.A. TERM PATENT SECURITY AGREEMENT Assignors: TI GROUP AUTOMOTIVE SYSTEMS, L.L.C.
Assigned to TI AUTOMOTIVE, L.L.C., HANIL USA, L.L.C., TI GROUP AUTOMOTIVE SYSTEMS, L.L.C. reassignment TI AUTOMOTIVE, L.L.C. RELEASE AND TERMINATION OF PATENT SECURITY INTEREST Assignors: WILMINGTON TRUST (LONDON) LIMITED (AS SUCCESSOR IN INTEREST TO JP MORGAN CHASE BANK, N.A.)
Assigned to CITIBANK N.A. reassignment CITIBANK N.A. ABL PATENT SECURITY AGREEMENT Assignors: TI GROUP AUTOMOTIVE SYSTEMS, L.L.C.
Assigned to TI GROUP AUTOMOTIVE SYSTEMS, L.L.C. reassignment TI GROUP AUTOMOTIVE SYSTEMS, L.L.C. RELEASE BY SECURED PARTY (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: CITIBANK, N.A.
Assigned to JPMORGAN CHASE BANK, N.A. reassignment JPMORGAN CHASE BANK, N.A. SECURITY AGREEMENT Assignors: HANIL USA, L.L.C., TI AUTOMOTIVE CANADA, INC., TI AUTOMOTIVE LIMITED, TI AUTOMOTIVE, L.L.C., TI GROUP AUTOMOTIVE SYSTEMS S DE R.L. DE C.V., TI GROUP AUTOMOTIVE SYSTEMS, L.L.C.
Assigned to TI GROUP AUTOMOTIVE SYSTEMS S DE R.L. DE C.V., TI AUTOMOTIVE, L.L.C., TI GROUP AUTOMOTIVE SYSTEMS, L.L.C., TI AUTOMOTIVE LIMITED, TI AUTOMOTIVE CANADA, INC., HANIL USA L.L.C. reassignment TI GROUP AUTOMOTIVE SYSTEMS S DE R.L. DE C.V. TERMINATION AND RELEASE Assignors: JPMORGAN CHASE BANK, N.A., AS ADMINISTRATIVE AGENT
Abandoned legal-status Critical Current

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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16LPIPES; JOINTS OR FITTINGS FOR PIPES; SUPPORTS FOR PIPES, CABLES OR PROTECTIVE TUBING; MEANS FOR THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16L33/00Arrangements for connecting hoses to rigid members; Rigid hose connectors, i.e. single members engaging both hoses
    • F16L33/18Arrangements for connecting hoses to rigid members; Rigid hose connectors, i.e. single members engaging both hoses characterised by the use of additional sealing means
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16LPIPES; JOINTS OR FITTINGS FOR PIPES; SUPPORTS FOR PIPES, CABLES OR PROTECTIVE TUBING; MEANS FOR THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16L33/00Arrangements for connecting hoses to rigid members; Rigid hose connectors, i.e. single members engaging both hoses
    • F16L33/30Arrangements for connecting hoses to rigid members; Rigid hose connectors, i.e. single members engaging both hoses comprising parts inside the hoses only
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16LPIPES; JOINTS OR FITTINGS FOR PIPES; SUPPORTS FOR PIPES, CABLES OR PROTECTIVE TUBING; MEANS FOR THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16L47/00Connecting arrangements or other fittings specially adapted to be made of plastics or to be used with pipes made of plastics
    • F16L47/20Connecting arrangements or other fittings specially adapted to be made of plastics or to be used with pipes made of plastics based principally on specific properties of plastics
    • F16L47/24Connecting arrangements or other fittings specially adapted to be made of plastics or to be used with pipes made of plastics based principally on specific properties of plastics for joints between metal and plastics pipes

Abstract

A hose connector adapted to have a polymeric hose fitted on the outer periphery of the hose connector. The hose connector comprises a metal tubing and a sealing element. The sealing element includes a ring portion and a resilient member portion attached to the ring portion.

Description

    CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • This patent application is a continuation application of application Ser. No. 10/893,666 filed Jul. 16, 2004, and a claim of priority is made thereto pursuant to Title 35 USC, Section 120.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • The present invention relates to a hose connector adapted to have a flexible polymeric hose fitted on the outer periphery of the hose connector. More specifically, it relates to a hose connector comprising a sealing element mounted on the end of a metal tubing.
  • A hose connector formed at the end of a metal tubing is typically used to connect the metal tubing to a flexible polymeric hose. The metal tubing can be part of a long rigid fluid line or a stem defined at the end of a metal connector body. The polymeric hose is fitted on the outer periphery of the hose connector to form a fluid connection between the fluid line or connector body with the polymeric hose. A typical prior art hose connector adapted to have a flexible polymeric hose fitted on the outer periphery of the hose connector is illustrated in FIG. 1. The hose connector 10 has a pair of beads 20, 26 extending radially outward from the remainder of a metal tubing 14. Each bead 20, 26 has a lead-in portion 22, 28 and a slip-out preventive portion 24, 30. The lead-in portions 22, 28 allow the hose 18 to slide axially inward along the outer surface of the metal tubing 14. The slip-out preventive portions 24, 30 enhance the retention of the hose 18 onto the metal tube 14. For this type of hose connector, a fluid tight seal is maintained only by the tightness of the hose 18. Therefore, when creep deformation of the hose occurs due to heat deterioration, the holding force decreases such that a fluid tight seal cannot be maintained. Other factors which contribute to a lack of fluid tight seal include variations in the size and tolerances of the hose connector and the polymeric hose, the inner surface finish of the hose, the outer surface finish of the metal tubing, and the hardness of the hose.
  • To maintain a fluid tight seal for a long period of time, a resilient O-ring can be installed on the outer surface of the metal tubing such that once the flexible polymeric hose has been positioned over the O-ring, the O-ring will be radially deformed between the hose and the metal tubing to provide a fluid tight seal. Two types of hose connectors having a resilient O-ring installed and retained onto a metal tubing are known and disclosed in prior art references. One such type of hose connectors is illustrated in FIG. 2. The hose connector 10 has an annular channel 132 formed around the outer surface of the metal tubing 114. An O-ring 136 is situated in the annular channel 132. An example of such a hose connector with an annular channel formed around the outer surface of the metal tubing is disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,135,268.
  • Another type of hose connectors having an O-ring installed and retained onto a metal tubing is illustrated in FIG. 3. The hose connector 210 uses a separate end form 234. The end form 234 is mounted to the end of the metal tubing 214 having an upset 220 formed thereon. The end form 234, along with the upset 220 of the metal tubing 214, forms a channel 232 for an O-ring 236 to be situated therein. An example of such a hose connector with an end form mounted to the end of a metal tubing is disclosed in the U.S. Pat. No. 5,779,286.
  • While for certain applications, an O-ring installed and retained onto a metal tubing is an improvement over the prior art hose connector illustrated in FIG. 1, it does have several disadvantages. One disadvantage is that during the insertion of the hose connector into the hose, the O-ring may roll out of the channel and is then unable to provide an adequate fluid seal. Another problem associated with using an end form, as illustrated in FIG. 3, is that a component, separate from the sealing element, must be mounted to the end of the metal tubing. This usage of the an end form increases the cost of the hose connector by requiring the manufacturing of a separate end form and the steps of installing the O-ring to the end form and inserting the end form into the metal tubing.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • FIG. 1 is a sectional view of a typical prior art hose connector;
  • FIG. 2 is a sectional view of a prior art hose connector with an annular channel formed around the outer surface of a metal tubing;
  • FIG. 3 is a sectional view of a prior art hose connector with an end form mounted to the end of a metal tubing;
  • FIG. 4 is a side view of a hose connector as part of a connector body prior to assembling the hose connector;
  • FIG. 5 is a side view of a hose connector as part of a long rigid fluid line prior to assembling the hose connector;
  • FIG. 6 is a sectional view of a hose connector of FIG. 4 as assembled;
  • FIG. 7 is an enlarged view of FIG. 6 within circle 7;
  • FIG. 8 is a front view of the sealing element of FIG. 4;
  • FIG. 9 is a sectional view of the sealing element of FIG. 8 as taken along line 9-9;
  • FIG. 10 is a sectional view of an alternative embodiment of a hose connector in accordance to the present invention; and
  • FIG. 11 is an enlarged view of FIG. 10 within circle 11.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • One embodiment of a hose connector in accordance to the present invention is illustrated in FIGS. 4-7. The hose connector 310 includes a metal tubing 314 and a sealing element 336.
  • For illustrative purposes, the metal tubing 314 illustrated in FIGS. 4 and 6 is part of a connector body 312. Alternatively, as illustrated in FIG. 5, the metal tubing 314 can be part of a long rigid fluid line 312A with another metal tubing in accordance to the present invention at the other end of the fluid line.
  • The metal tubing 314 is adapted to be inserted into the end of a flexible polymeric hose 318. The metal tubing 314 has a pair of radially outward extending beads 320, 326. Each bead 320, 326 has a lead-in portion 322, 328 and a slip-out preventive portion 324, 330. For the connector body 312 illustrated in FIGS. 4 and 6, the other end of the connector body 312 is a female housing 316 as disclosed in U.S Pat. No. 5,135,268, which is herein incorporated by reference.
  • As illustrated in FIGS. 7-9, the sealing element 336 includes a rigid ring portion 338 and a resilient member portion 340 permanently attached to the rigid ring portion 338. For the purpose of describing the present invention, a “resilient” material is one that can be easily deformed by the radially inward force experienced by the resilient member portion when it is inserted into the flexible hose. Whereas, a “rigid” material can not be easily deformed by a compressive force and is generally able to retain it's shape under compression. Also for the purpose of describing the present invention, components that are “permanently attached” cannot be easily separated by hand and are not intended to be separated once they are attached. The resilient member portion 340 is permanently attached to the rigid ring portion 338 by either overmolding the resilient member portion 340 to the rigid ring portion 338 or by fusing the resilient member portion 340 to the rigid ring portion 338. The rigid ring portion 338 can be formed from a metallic material or from a rigid polymeric material. Examples of metallic materials suitable for forming the ring portion include but are not limited to brass, aluminum, steel and stainless steel. Examples of rigid polymeric materials suitable for forming the ring portion include but are not limited to glass filled 12-carbon polyamide and other types of polyamide.
  • The resilient member portion 340 has an annular portion 348 attached to an attachment end surface 342 of the ring portion 338. The annular portion 348 allows the resilient member portion 340 to have sufficient contact surface with the ring portion 338 to permanently attach the resilient member portion 340 to the ring portion 338. Extending axially from the annular portion 348 and located generally radially outward of the ring portion 338 is a bulge portion 350 of the resilient member portion 340. The radially inner surface of the bulge portion 350 is in direct contact with the radially outer surface 346 of the ring portion 338 to provide additional contact surface between the resilient member portion 340 and the ring portion 338. Extending axially from the bulge portion 350 is a conical skirt 352. The inner surface of the skirt 352 is shaped approximately the same as the outer surface of the lead-in portion 322 of the first bead 320. The outer surface of the resilient member portion 340 narrows radially inward at the transition of the bulge portion 350 and the skirt portion 352 to form a radially inward channel 354 circumferentially surrounding the outer surface of the resilient member portion 340. The thickness of the skirt 352 is approximately the same throughout its axial length.
  • The resilient member portion 340 can be formed from a polymeric material. Examples of polymeric materials suitable for forming the resilient member portion include but are not limited to fluorsilicone and vulcanized rubber.
  • The sealing element 336 is positioned over the end of the metal tubing 314 by inserting the lead-in portion 322 of the first bead 320 into an opening 356 defined by the skirt 352. The metal tubing 314 is further inserted into the opening 356 until the terminal end 315 of the metal tubing 314 abuts the abutment end surface 344 of the rigid ring portion 338. At this installed position, the skirt 352 is located radially outward of the end of the metal tubing 314. It is preferable that the skirt 352 is not tightly bound around the end of the metal tubing, but is rather loosely fit around metal tubing. This loose fit allows the expansion and contraction of the skirt and the metal tubing relative to each other without tearing the skirt.
  • To connect the flexible polymeric hose 318 to the hose connector 310, the end of the hose connector 310 is inserted into the hose 318. The hose 318 is then slid over sealing element 336. Since the outer diameter of the sealing element 336 is greater than the inner diameter of the hose 318, the hose 318 is expanded radially outward and the sealing element 336 is deformed radially inward to allow the hose 318 to be positioned radially outward of the sealing element 336. The hose connector 310 is inserted into the hose 318 until the hose 318 has slid beyond the second bead 326 to the position illustrated in FIG. 6. At this position, the bulge portion 350 of the resilient member portion 340, the first bead 320 and the second bead 326 of the metal tubing 314, along with the compressive force by the hose 318 on the outer surface of the hose connector 310, prevents the hose connector 310 from being pulled out of the hose 318. It is preferable that the pull out force of the hose connector 310 relative to hose 318 is at least 100 pounds. Once the hose connector 310 has been fully inserted into the hose 318, the sealing element 336 is seated axially relative to the metal tubing 314. The sealing element 336 is prevented from moving axially toward the hose connector 310 by the abutment of the ring portion 338 with the terminal end 315 of the metal tubing 314. The sealing element 336 is prevented from moving axially away from the hose connector 310 due to the high pull out force and the sealing element 336 sandwiched between the hose 318 and the metal tubing 314.
  • An alternative embodiment of a hose connector in accordance to the present invention is illustrated in FIGS. 10 and 11. The hose connector 410 of the second embodiment includes a metal tubing 414 and a sealing element 436.
  • The metal tubing 414 of the second embodiment is identical to the metal tubing 314 of the first embodiment. As with the first embodiment, the metal tubing 414 of the second embodiment has a pair of radially outward extending beads 420, 426. Each bead 420, 426 has a lead-in portion 422, 428 and a slip-out preventive portion 424, 430. The other end of the connector body 412 is a female housing 416.
  • The sealing element 436 of the second embodiment is similar to the sealing element 336 of the first embodiment with the exception of the ring portion 438 and the resilient member portion 440 formed of the same resilient material, preferably a material disclosed for the first embodiment for forming the resilient member portion 340. The sealing element has a ring portion 438, a bulge portion 450 and a skirt 452. The ring portion 438 has an abutment end surface 444 adapted to abut the terminal end of the metal tubing 414 upon the sealing element 436 properly positioned over the end of the metal tubing 414. The bulge portion 450 extends radially outward and axially from the ring portion 438. The bulge portion 450, the first bend 420 and the second bead 426 of the metal tubing 414, along with the compressive force by the hose 418 on the outer surface of the hose connector 410, prevents the hose connector 410 from being pulled out of the hose 418. Extending axially from the bulge portion 450 is a conical skirt 452. The inner surface of the skirt 452 is shaped approximately the same as the outer surface of the lead-in portion 422 of the first bead 420. The outer surface of the sealing element 436 narrows radially inward at the transition of the bulge portion 450 and the skirt portion 452 to form a radially inward channel 454 circumferentially surrounding the outer surface of the resilient member portion 440. The thickness of the skirt 452 is approximately the same throughout its axial length.
  • Various features of the present invention have been described with reference to the above embodiments. It should be understood that modification may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as represented by the following claims.

Claims (20)

1. A hose connector connecting a flexible polymeric hose fitted on the outer periphery of the hose connector, the hose connector comprising:
metal tubing member having a radial terminal end portion and defining an outer hose receiving surface; and
a sealing element including a rigid ring portion with a radial abutment surface abutting the terminal end of said metal tubing member, and a resilient member portion defining a skirt portion overlying a portion of said outer hose receiving surface wherein said rigid ring portion is made of a material different from said resilient member portion and is permanently attached to said resilient member portion
wherein said resilient member portion includes a bulge portion, said rigid ring portion is located radially inward of said bulge portion and includes a radially outer surface with said bulge portion in direct contact with said radially outer surface of said ring portion and said bulge portion extending radially outwardly from said radially outer surface of said ring portion.
2. The hose connector as claimed in claim 1 wherein said ring portion is made of metal and said resilient member portion is made of a polymeric material.
3. The hose connector as claimed in claim 1 wherein said skirt portion is located immediately radially outward of said end portion of said metal tube.
4. The hose connector as claimed in claim 1 wherein said ring portion includes an attachment end surface opposite said radial abutment surface and said resilient member portion includes an annular portion with said annular portion in contact with and attached to said attachment end surface of said ring portion.
5. The hose connector as claimed in claim 1 wherein said bulge portion and said skirt portion define a transition that narrows radially inward defining a radially inward channel circumferentially surrounding the outer surface of said resilient member portion.
6. The hose connector as claimed in claim 1 wherein said ring portion is formed from a metallic material.
7. The hose connector as claimed in claim 6 wherein said metallic material is selected from the group consisting of brass, aluminum, steel and stainless steel.
8. The hose connector as claimed in claim 1 wherein said ring portion is formed from polyamide and said resilient member portion is made from flurosilicone.
9. The hose connector as claimed in claim 1 wherein said ring portion material is polyamide and said resilient member portion is made of vulcanized rubber.
10. The hose connector as claimed in claim 8 wherein said polyamide is 12-carbon polyamide.
11. The hose connector as claimed in claim 8 wherein said polyamide is glass filled 12-carbon polyamide.
12. A sealing element for a hose connector comprising:
an annular rigid ring portion having a radial abutment surface for abutting the end of a hose receiving tube and a radially outer surface;
a separate resilient member portion made of a different material than said rigid ring portion and permanently attached to said ring portion, said resilient member portion defining a bulge portion disposed generally radially outward of said ring portion and defining a radially inner surface, said radially inner surface of said bulge portion in direct contact with said radially outer surface of said ring portion; and
said resilient member portion further defining an annular skirt portion extending axially from said bulge portion said skirt portion including an inner tube contacting surface.
13. A sealing element for a hose connection as claimed in claim 12 wherein said skirt portion is conical and diverges in a direction away from said bulge portion.
14. A sealing element for a hose connection as claimed in claim 12 wherein said rigid ring portion includes an attachment end surface and said resilient member portion includes an annular portion extending axially from said bulge portion in the direction opposite said skirt portion; and
said annular portion of said resilient member portion is attached to said attachment end surface of said ring portion.
15. A sealing element for a hose connection as claimed in claim 12 wherein said bulge portion and said skirt portion define a transition that narrows radially inward defining a radially inward channel circumferentially surrounding the outer surface of said resilient member portion.
16. The hose connector as claimed in claim 12 wherein said ring portion is formed from a metallic material.
17. The hose connector as claimed in claim 16 wherein said metallic material is selected from the group consisting of brass, aluminum, steel and stainless steel.
18. The hose connector as claimed in claim 12 wherein said ring portion is formed from polyamide and said resilient member portion is made from flurosilicone.
19. The hose connector as claimed in claim 18 wherein said ring portion material is polyamide and said resilient member portion is made of vulcanized rubber.
20. The hose connector as claimed in claim 18 wherein said polyamide is 12-carbon polyamide.
US11/557,335 2004-07-16 2006-11-07 Integrated Seal for Tube to Hose Connection Abandoned US20070090644A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US10/893,666 US7150478B2 (en) 2004-07-16 2004-07-16 Integrated seal for tube to hose connection
US11/557,335 US20070090644A1 (en) 2004-07-16 2006-11-07 Integrated Seal for Tube to Hose Connection

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US11/557,335 US20070090644A1 (en) 2004-07-16 2006-11-07 Integrated Seal for Tube to Hose Connection

Related Parent Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US10/893,666 Continuation US7150478B2 (en) 2004-07-16 2004-07-16 Integrated seal for tube to hose connection

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US20070090644A1 true US20070090644A1 (en) 2007-04-26

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US10/893,666 Expired - Fee Related US7150478B2 (en) 2004-07-16 2004-07-16 Integrated seal for tube to hose connection
US11/557,335 Abandoned US20070090644A1 (en) 2004-07-16 2006-11-07 Integrated Seal for Tube to Hose Connection

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US10/893,666 Expired - Fee Related US7150478B2 (en) 2004-07-16 2004-07-16 Integrated seal for tube to hose connection

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US20100052314A1 (en) * 2008-08-28 2010-03-04 Toyoda Gosei Co., Ltd. Connecting structure for tube
WO2016011453A1 (en) * 2014-07-18 2016-01-21 Cm Brewing Technologies, Inc. Container system for brewing beer
USD879529S1 (en) 2014-07-20 2020-03-31 Cm Brewing Technologies Container for brewing beer

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US7448653B2 (en) 2005-06-10 2008-11-11 Value Plastics, Inc. Female connector for releasable coupling with a male connector defining a fluid conduit
US7806139B2 (en) 2006-01-20 2010-10-05 Value Plastics, Inc. Fluid conduit coupling assembly having male and female couplers with integral valves
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US20100052314A1 (en) * 2008-08-28 2010-03-04 Toyoda Gosei Co., Ltd. Connecting structure for tube
US9217523B2 (en) * 2008-08-28 2015-12-22 Toyoda Gosei Co., Ltd. Connecting structure for tube
WO2016011453A1 (en) * 2014-07-18 2016-01-21 Cm Brewing Technologies, Inc. Container system for brewing beer
USD879529S1 (en) 2014-07-20 2020-03-31 Cm Brewing Technologies Container for brewing beer

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US7150478B2 (en) 2006-12-19
US20060012168A1 (en) 2006-01-19

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