US20070084375A1 - High density cartridge and method for reloading - Google Patents

High density cartridge and method for reloading Download PDF

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Publication number
US20070084375A1
US20070084375A1 US11/161,622 US16162205A US2007084375A1 US 20070084375 A1 US20070084375 A1 US 20070084375A1 US 16162205 A US16162205 A US 16162205A US 2007084375 A1 US2007084375 A1 US 2007084375A1
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cartridge
pellets
shot
method
shell
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Abandoned
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US11/161,622
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Kyle Smith
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Smith Kyle S
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Smith Kyle S
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F42AMMUNITION; BLASTING
    • F42BEXPLOSIVE CHARGES, e.g. FOR BLASTING, FIREWORKS, AMMUNITION
    • F42B7/00Shotgun ammunition
    • F42B7/02Cartridges, i.e. cases with propellant charge and missile
    • F42B7/04Cartridges, i.e. cases with propellant charge and missile of pellet type
    • F42B7/046Pellets or shot therefor
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F42AMMUNITION; BLASTING
    • F42BEXPLOSIVE CHARGES, e.g. FOR BLASTING, FIREWORKS, AMMUNITION
    • F42B12/00Projectiles, missiles or mines characterised by the warhead, the intended effect, or the material
    • F42B12/72Projectiles, missiles or mines characterised by the warhead, the intended effect, or the material characterised by the material
    • F42B12/74Projectiles, missiles or mines characterised by the warhead, the intended effect, or the material characterised by the material of the core or solid body

Abstract

A cartridge (10), constructed in accordance with the principles of a preferred embodiment of the present invention and configured for use in a firearm (not shown), such as a traditional 12-gauge shotgun, broadly includes a shell (12), powder (14) housed within the shell (12), wadding (16) separating the powder (14) within the shell (12), and high density, non-toxic, non-steel shot (18) received within the wadding (16). The high density shot (18) includes a plurality of pellets (44), each including tungsten (46) and presenting a density between about sixteen and nineteen grams per cubic centimeter. Each of the pellets (44) present a uniform, smooth spherical shape. The high density shot (18) is a non-toxic, non-steel shot that patterns well even at long range applications while providing the desired lethality without the need for relatively large payloads.

Description

    BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • 1. Field of the Invention
  • The present invention relates generally to shells for use with a firearm, such as a shotgun or the like. More specifically, the present invention concerns a cartridge having a non-toxic, non-steel high density shot and a method for reloading the same.
  • 2. Discussion of Prior Art
  • Shotgun shells, also known as slugs or cartridges, are known in the art and typically include a plastic body having a head formed from metal, such as brass. The metal head includes a primer cap—which is filled with priming mixture—an anvil, and a battery cup that defines a flash hole into the chamber defined by the body. A base wad, that may be integrally formed with the plastic body, typically surrounds the cap, anvil, and cup and defines a powder chamber that is filled with gunpowder. An additional wad is then used to separate the powder and define a shot chamber that is filled with shot pellets. The top of the plastic body is then closed with a crimp. The size of the powder charge correlates to the weight of the shot load for a particular application and the diameter of the shell correlates to the particular firearm it is used in. For larger shot loads, longer bodies are utilized.
  • Prior to the early 1980's, the vast majority of all prior art shot pellets were formed primarily from lead with certain alloys, such as antimony, or plating, such as copper or nickel, utilized to adjust the hardness, and thus, the lethality of the pellets. However, in the 1970's and 1980's, it was becoming increasingly more clear that spent lead shot was toxic to waterfowl and larger unintended numbers of waterfowl were dying from poisoning occasioned by ingesting spent lead shot. In 1982, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (“USFWS”) banned the use of lead shot for hunting waterfowl. Since that time, lead shot has been replaced primarily by steel shot pellets. Unfortunately, steel shot is significantly less lethal than similarly configured lead shot. In order to compensate, ammunition manufacturers have utilized larger volume shot loads, larger pellet sizes, and increased the firing velocity with larger powder charges in an attempt to overcome the lethality differences between lead and steel.
  • Despite the industry's attempts to make steel shot a viable alternative to lead, several limitations have prevented this. For example, aerodynamic drag on the larger shot pellets required for the necessary lethality reduce its ability to pattern well at the desired ranges. Additionally, potential damage to the firearm increases with the required increased pellet size and shot payloads that compensate for both lethality and pattering problems. Although firearm manufacturers now offer screw-on type chokes for newer models, many hunters prefer to use older guns that have thin walled barrels with integrated chokes. These older models can present a damage risk, such as shot peening at the choke constriction point. These problems forced many avid hunters to quit the sport altogether.
  • There are at least two non-toxic alternatives to steel shot that are known in the art. The first is soft media shot. Soft media shot has a density greater than steel but less than lead (e.g., 9-10 grams per cubic centimeter). Soft media shot has the advantage that it is softer than gun metal and therefore can be used in older, integrated choke style firearms without the risk of damaging the gun. Examples of soft media shot include shot pellets formed from a bismuth/tin alloy and pellets formed from tungsten powder blended with plastic. Although soft media shot does not present the risk of damaging older firearms that steel shot does, soft media shot still suffers from the same lethality and patterning problems as steel shot does when compared with lead. The second prior art non-toxic alternative to steel shot is a non-steel hard media shot. One such example is marketed by EnvironMetal Inc. of Sweet Home, Oreg. under the designation Hevi-Shot®. Hevi-Shot® includes fifty percent tungsten, thirty percent nickel, and twenty percent iron by weight with a density of twelve grams per cubic centimeters, which is greater than the density of lead shot (e.g., eleven grams per cubic centimeter). Hevi-Shot has been approved by the USFWS as a non-toxic shot for use in waterfowl hunting. Existing prior art hard media non-steel shots, while offering some improvements over steel shot, are still problematic and suffer from several undesirable limitations. For example, these prior art hard media non-steel shots do not pattern well, particularly at long range, thereby impacting their lethality. Accordingly, for many applications—particularly long range applications—these prior art shots must use maximum payloads (e.g., one and three-quarter ounces of shot), as well as utilize larger powder charges to propel the shot. Larger payloads and powder charges are undesirable; they dramatically increase the unwanted recoil forces experienced by the hunter and they increase the risk of damaging the barrel of the firearm. Additionally, these prior art heavy media non-steel shot cannot utilize standard wads—they require a heavier, thicker wad to keep the pellets from breaking through the wad and thus reducing the patterning ability and potentially damaging the firearm. Specialized wads are more expensive and thus undesirably impact the hunter's ability to reload their own shells. There is also another problem with reloading shells with the existing prior art heavy media non-steel shot—desirable user-owned reloading machines cannot be used with these prior art shots—they must be manually weighed and loaded. Accordingly, there is a need for an improved heavy media non-toxic, non-steel shot.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • The present invention provides an improved cartridge having a non-toxic, non-steel high density shot that does not suffer from the problems and limitations of the prior art hard media non-toxic, non-steel shot cartridges detailed above. The inventive cartridge enables hunter's to utilize lower payloads and lower powder charges yet still achieve improved, and desired, lethality and patterning for short, medium, and even long range waterfowl applications thereby providing a cost-competitive and more effective cartridge—capable of automated reloading—without any increased and undesirable recoil forces.
  • A first aspect of the present invention concerns a cartridge broadly including a body, shot housed within the body and including a plurality of pellets, and powder operable to propel the shot out of the body when ignited. Each of the pellets includes tungsten and presents a density of at least about 16 grams per cubic centimeter.
  • A second aspect of the present invention concerns a method of reloading a cartridge and broadly includes the steps of placing powder in a shell, isolating the powder within the shell, and placing shot in the shell. The shot includes a plurality of pellets wherein each of the pellets includes tungsten and presents a density of at least about 16 grams per cubic centimeter.
  • In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the cartridge is loaded with non-toxic, non-steel shot pellets having at least ninety percent tungsten and presenting a density of at least sixteen grams per cubic centimeters. The preferred shot pellets are sintered, ground, and polished. The preferred cartridge utilizes only one and one-quarter ounces of shot propelled to achieve lethality and patterning that outperforms even the one and three-quarter ounce shot of the prior art heavy media non-toxic, non-steel shot, with the use of substantially less choke. The preferred cartridge can utilize a standard wad and be reloaded with do-it-yourself automated reloading machines.
  • Other aspects and advantages of the present invention will be apparent from the following detailed description of the preferred embodiments and the accompanying drawing figures.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING FIGURES
  • Preferred embodiments of the invention are described in detail below with reference to the attached drawing figures, wherein:
  • FIG. 1 is an elevational view of a cartridge having a high density non-toxic shot according to the principles of a preferred embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 2 is a longitudinal sectional view of the cartridge illustrated in FIG. 1;
  • FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of one of the shot pellets from the cartridge illustrated in FIGS. 1 and 2; and
  • FIG. 4 is a diagram depicting the advantages of the cartridge illustrated in FIGS. 1-3 versus the prior art hard media non-toxic, non-steel shot.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
  • FIGS. 1 and 2 illustrate a cartridge 10 constructed in accordance with the principles of a preferred embodiment of the present invention and configured for use in a firearm (not shown), such as a traditional 12-gauge shotgun. While the principles of the present invention are particularly well suited for ammunition used in hunting waterfowl, they are not limited to any particular size or gauge of ammunition, nor are they limited to use in any particular type or size of firearm. However, the principles of the present invention are particularly well suited for ammunition utilizing a plurality of shot pellets packed in a single cartridge. The illustrated cartridge 10 broadly includes a shell 12, powder 14 housed within the shell 12, wading 16 separating the powder 14 within the shell 12, and high density, non-toxic, non-steel shot 18 received within the wading 16.
  • Turning now to FIGS. 1 and 2, the shell 12 is configured to house the remaining components of the cartridge 10 and is sized and dimensioned to be received in a corresponding firearm for firing once loaded with these components. In more detail, the illustrated shell 12 includes a body 20 and a head 22. The body 20 is generally cylindrical and defines an internal chamber 20 a that is initially open to enable the body 20 to be loaded with the remaining components of the cartridge 10, as will be described in detail below. The body 20 is preferably formed in major portion from a synthetic resin; the illustrated body 20 is formed from plastic. In one manner well known in the art, the illustrated body 20 includes a base wad 24 integrally formed in the lower end of the base 20 (see FIG. 2). For purposes that will subsequently be described, the base wad 24 defines a central aperture 24 a extending through the base wad 24. The head 22 is received over the lower end of the body 20. In one manner well known in the art, the illustrated head 22 is formed from metal, such as brass or the like, and includes and embossed rim on its distal end configured to properly align the cartridge 10 in the firing chamber of the firearm. For purposes that will subsequently be described, and in one manner known in the art, the head 22 includes a primer cup 26, filled with a priming mixture 28, and an anvil 30, both received within a battery cup 32. One suitable primer is available from the Federal Cartridge Company of Anoka, Minn. under the designation Primer as Model No. 209A. The battery cup 32 is received within the aperture 24 a formed in the base wad 24 and defines a flash hole 34 operable to communicate with the chamber 20 a, as will be described below. As will be further described below, once the shell 12 is loaded with all of the remaining components of the cartridge 10, the open end is crimped to sealingly close the shell 12. The illustrated shell 12, once loaded and crimped, is about two and three-quarters inches in length and is configured for firing in a traditional 12-gauge shotgun when loaded. One such suitable shell is available from Fiocchi of America of Ozark, Mo. sold under the designation 2¾ inch Clear Premium Hull. However, it is within the ambit of the present invention to configure the cartridge 10 with various sizes and lengths for firing in any suitable firearm. Additionally, the shell could be variously alternatively configured, for example, and could include a separate base wad and variously configured heads.
  • The powder 14 is configured, so that when ignited, it propels the shot 18 out of the firearm. In more detail, the illustrated powder 14 is received in the bottom of the chamber 20 a over the base wad 24. The illustrated powder 14 is configured to both open the crimped body 20 (e.g., requires about two-hundred and fifty foot-pounds of force) and propel the shot 18 out of the firearm at at least about thirteen-hundred feet per second once ignited. The powder 14 is preferably configured to burn in cold weather applications (e.g., zero degrees Fahrenheit). One suitable powder for the illustrated cartridge 10 is 35 grains of gunpowder available from Alliant Powder, a division of Alliant Techsystems (ATK) of Edina, Minn. under the designation STEEL gunpowder. As further detailed below, the cartridge 10 is configured to provide enhanced lethality and patterning without the need for relatively large payloads and attendant larger powder charges. In this regard, despite the enhanced lethality and patterning relative to the prior art cartridges, the firing of the cartridge 10 produces significantly lower recoil forces than generated with the firing of the prior art hard media non-toxic, non-steel cartridges. However, it is within the ambit of the present invention to utilize various alternatively configured powder charges known in the art. For example, in some applications, it may be desirable to configure the powder charge to propel the shot at muzzle velocities in excess of thirteen-hundred feet per second (e.g., fourteen-hundred and fifty feet per second, etc.).
  • The wadding 16 is configured to isolate the powder 14 in the chamber 20 a as well as house the shot 18. In more detail, the illustrated wadding 16 includes a primary wad 36 and three filler wads 38, 40, and 42. In one manner known in the art, the primary wad 36 divides the chamber 20 a into a powder chamber 20 b and a shot column 20 c. In this manner, the powder 14 is isolated within the powder chamber 20 b and the shot column 20 c provides a receptacle for the shot 18. The primary wad 36 could be any conventional wad and need not be a thick-walled wad; however, a thick-walled wad is preferable, particularly if choke constriction is utilized (e.g., for ultra-long range applications, such as 80-90 yards). One such suitable wad is available from Ballistic Products Inc. of Hamel, Minn. as Model No. TPS1275. As further detailed below, the illustrated cartridge 10 enables the use of relatively smaller payloads while still achieving enhanced lethality and patterning at longer ranges. In this regard, the standard wad 36 provides too large of a shot column and thus the filler wads 38-42 are utilized to shorten the shot column 20 c. The filler wad 38 is placed in the bottom of the shot column 20 c, or shotcup. Any suitable filler wad will suffice; however, the illustrated filler wad 38 is 20-gauge one-quarter inch cork filler wad. The filler wad 40 is placed over the cork filler wad 38. Again, any suitable filler wad will suffice; however, the illustrated filler wad 40 is a 20-gauge one-half inch fiber filler wad. The filler wad 42 is placed over the fiber filler wad 40. Although any suitable filler wad will work, the illustrated filler wad 42 is a 20-gauge one-eight inch felt filler wad. The wadding 16 could be variously alternatively configured, for example, one single wad could be utilized without the need for the multiple filler wads.
  • Turning now to FIGS. 2 and 3, the high density shot 18 is configured to be propelled out of the end of the shell 12 once the powder 14 is ignited. The high density shot 18 is a non-toxic, non-steel shot that patterns well even at medium and long range applications while providing the desired lethality without the need for relatively large payloads or powder charges. In more detail, the illustrated shot 18 includes a plurality of shot pellets 44. Each of the pellets 44 are virtually identical in configuration. Each of the pellets 44 preferably include tungsten 46 and present a density between about sixteen and nineteen grams per cubic centimeter. Particularly, each of the pellets 44 preferably includes between ninety and ninety seven percent by weight of tungsten 46. The illustrated pellets 44 include about ninety-five percent tungsten 46 by weight. The illustrated pellets 44 also include binders, preferably nickel 48 and iron 50. The pellets 44 preferably include between about one and six percent nickel 48 by weight and between about zero and four percent iron 50 by weight. The illustrated pellets include about three and one-half percent nickel 48 by weight and about one and one-half percent iron 50 by weight. The illustrated pellets 44 each present a density of about 17.8 grams per cubic centimeter. Although the shot 18 is considered non-steel shot, steel could be used to replace the iron 50 if utilized in the preferred small percentages as a binder. Additionally, binders other than nickel and iron could also be utilized. The tungsten 46, nickel 48, and iron 50 combination provides non-toxicity for the shot 18. The composition of the pellets 44 could be variously configured so long as each pellet includes tungsten 46 and presents a density between about sixteen and nineteen grams per cubic centimeter. As further detailed below, it is believed this range of density, which is significantly greater than that of lead at about eleven grams per cubic centimeter, enables the shot 18 to provide the enhanced lethality without the need for undesirably large payloads and powder charges.
  • In addition to the superior densities presented by the pellets 44, each of the pellets 44 are also sintered, ground, and polished. Sintering is typically accomplished in a two piece mold and therefore leaves a somewhat sharp “ridge” around the pellet. Each of the illustrated pellets 44 have had this ridge ground off. Each of the pellets 44 are then polished to achieve as close to a uniform spherical shape as possible. It is believed this uniform shape for each of the pellets 44 enable the shot 18 to pattern tighter at longer ranges, thus enhancing the lethality at longer ranges while decreasing the need for increased numbers of pellets as well as the need for increased muzzle velocity. In this regard, each of the pellets 44 preferably presents a surface smoothness of between about 125 and 016 on the rms scale, and more preferably about 032. Similarly, each of the pellets 44 preferably presents a volume defined by the equation V=(4Πr3)/3±three percent. In this regard, each of the pellets 44 preferably presents a nominal diameter of between about 0.100 and about 0.125 inches±0.002 inches. Each of the illustrated pellets 44 presents a diameter of about 0.123 inches±0.002 inches (e.g., a #5 pellet). Although it is within the ambit of the present invention to utilize alternative sizes and methods for manufacturing the pellets 44, it is important that each of the pellets 44 be generally uniform in shape and that the shape be substantially spherical and present a smooth, uniform surface substantially without edges or protrusions. Suitable pellets are available from Zhuzhou Luke's Metal Powder Product Co., Ltd. of Zhuzhou Hunan, China under the designation Tungsten Alloy Ball 3.1 mm.
  • In the illustrated shot 18, the plurality of pellets 44 preferably weight about one and one-quarter ounces. In this regard, the illustrated cartridge 10 preferably includes about 129 pellets 44 each presenting a diameter of about 0.123 inches (e.g., a #5 shot pellet). However, the shot 18 could be variously alternatively sized and configured and could include for example smaller or larger pellets and payloads, such as one and three-quarter ounces of #2 pellets.
  • EXAMPLE
  • Turning now to FIG. 4, the combination of the high density shot pellets 44 with the uniform smooth spherical configuration provides several advantages over all prior art hard media non-toxic, non-steel shot. The graph illustrated in FIG. 4 diagrams the a performance characteristic study of the illustrated cartridge 10 and a Hevi-Shot® cartridge. In more detail, a one and one-quarter ounce shot 18 of 129 #5 pellets 44 packed in a two and three-quarter inch 3 ft vel shell 12 with powder 14 configured to propel the shot 18 at a muzzle velocity of 1330 fps was tested against a Hevi-Shot® one and three-quarter ounce, 140 #2 pellets in a three and one-half inch 3 ft vel (1300 fps) shell, using a Remington factory load purchased commercially. The graph in FIG. 4 compares six different characteristics of these two cartridges (listed along the X-axis of the graph), each characteristic tested being listed in a column comprising side-by-side quantitative results with one being a percentage (listed along the Y-axis of the graph) of the other. The solid bars represent the results for the cartridge 10 while the hatched bars represent the results for the Hevi-Shot® cartridge. In the performance characteristics, both the cartridge 10 and the Hevi-Shot® cartridge were fired out of a seven and three-quarter pound 12-gauge shotgun. All of the tested characteristics that required calculations were calculated using Ed Lowry's Shotshell Ballistics for Windows software.
  • The first comparison column in the graph in FIG. 4 is the price per a single cartridge and represents the anticipated reloader price of the cartridge 10 and the actual retail price of the Hevi-Shot® cartridge. The shot price 52 of the cartridge 10 is estimated at $2.65 when assembled by reloaders, which is only about twenty percent higher than the shot price 54 of $2.05 for the Hevi-Shot®, despite the significantly improved performance obtained from the cartridge 10. The recoil force 56 of the cartridge 10 is about 34.1 ft-lbs, comprising about half as much as the recoil force 58 of the Hevi-Shot® cartridge at 62.9 ft-lbs. The energy density, a measure of the pellet's ability to penetrate a target, is a key indicator of lethality. As shown in the graph in FIG. 4, the energy density 60 of the pellets 44 in the cartridge 10 at 436 ft-lbs/in2 is more than one and half times greater than the energy density 62 of the pellets of the Hevi-Shot® cartridge at 280 ft-lbs/in2.
  • The pellet density, measured at 70 yards in a circle having a 30 inch diameter using the optimum load and choke combinations, is also an important indicator of lethality. The pellet density 64 of the cartridge 10 was about 85, again more than one and half times greater than the pellet density 66 of the Hevi-Shot® cartridge at about 55. The string length is the extreme shot string length measured at 70 yards on a target moving at 40 mph. A shorter string length is highly desirable, both for its indication of lethality, as well as the undesired risk of hitting an unintended target with longer string lengths. The string length 68 of the cartridge 10 was about 52 inches, almost two and a half times shorter than the string length 70 of the Hevi-Shot® cartridge at about 121 inches. Penetration is a measure of the penetration depth of the pellets into 10% ballistic gelatin measured at 70 yards and is also a indicator of lethality. The penetration 72 of the cartridge 10 was about 4.14 inches, almost twice as deep as the penetration 74 of the Hevi-Shot® cartridge at about 2.40 inches.
  • As shown in FIG. 4, the cartridge 10 significantly outperformed the Hevi-Shot® cartridge in all of the performance characteristics providing increased pattering and greater lethality. This enhanced lethality is accomplished with a significantly smaller payload—one and one-quarter ounces of shot versus one and three-quarter ounces of shot. Accordingly, the recoil forces experienced by the hunter utilizing the cartridge 10 is significantly reduced versus the Hevi-Shot®, on the scale of about half as much. It is believed these reduced recoil forces will enable hunters to take-up the sport of waterfowl hunting that currently cannot participate comfortably with existing hard media non-toxic, non-steel shot, such as some women and youths. Furthermore, the reduced payloads enable the cartridge 10 to be manufactured in a cost-competitive manner relative to the prior art hard media shot. Additionally, the cartridge 10 is well suited for use with or without a choke on the firearm. The smaller payloads that are capable of the enhanced lethality also significantly reduces the risk of damage to the barrel of the firearm. It is believed this may promote a reversal of the trend of using larger and larger guns to achieve the desired lethality, again making the sport available to more hunters.
  • In addition, as indicated above, unlike the prior art hard media shot, the cartridge 10 could utilize a standard wad, particularly when not utilizing choke constriction (e.g., for most applications not involving ultra-long range). The uniform, smooth spherical shape of the pellets 44 enable them to be retained within a standard wad rather than the need for a relatively thicker wad, as is required to keep the prior art hard media shot from breaking through the wad within the barrel of the firearm, thereby increasing the risk of damage to the barrel. In addition to cost savings, this has the added advantage of facilitating do-it-yourself reloading of cartridges, which is popular among waterfowl hunters. Furthermore, the prior art hard media shot are not capable of being reloaded into cartridges with the use of automated reloading machines, which are also popular amongst waterfowl hunters. The prior art hard media shot must be manually reloaded, each cartridge requiring hand weighing and loading. The uniform, smooth spherical shape of the pellets 44 enable them to be reloaded into a cartridge by a do-it-yourselfer utilizing an automated reloading machine, such as are available from Mayville Engineering Company, INC of Mayville, Wis.
  • As previously indicated, the cartridge 10 could be variously alternatively configured for virtually any waterfowl application. For example, the shell 12 need not be a two and three-quarter inch shell configured for use in a 12-gauge shotgun, but could be any suitable size and caliber. Similarly, the powder charge and the payload could be appropriately configured for the desired application. However, it is important that the pellets include tungsten and present a density of between about sixteen and nineteen grams per cubic centimeter and that each pellet present a uniform, smooth spherical shape. It is believed that the full range of advantages provided by the inventive cartridge are maximized when relatively smaller payloads and powder charges are utilized.
  • In a reloading operation, the battery cup 32, including the priming mixture 28 within the priming cup 26, is first pressed into the aperture 24 a of the base wad 24 through the open end of the shell 12. The powder 14 is then placed into the powder chamber 20 b. The primary wad 36 is then placed over the powder 14 and the filler wads 38-40 are consecutively placed within the shot column 20 c. The shot pellets 44 are then placed over the filler wad 42 in the shot column 20 c and the open end of the shell 12 is crimped shut. One or more or all of these steps can also be accomplished with the use of an automated reloading device. The cartridge 10 is now ready for insertion into the firing chamber of a firearm.
  • The preferred forms of the invention described above are to be used as illustration only, and should not be utilized in a limiting sense in interpreting the scope of the present invention. Obvious modifications to the exemplary embodiments, as hereinabove set forth, could be readily made by those skilled in the art without departing from the spirit of the present invention.
  • The inventor hereby states his intent to rely on the Doctrine of Equivalents to determine and assess the reasonably fair scope of the present invention as pertains to any apparatus not materially departing from but outside the literal scope of the invention as set forth in the following claims.

Claims (31)

1. A cartridge comprising:
a body;
shot housed within the body and including a plurality of pellets; and
powder operable to propel the shot out of the body when ignited, each of said pellets including tungsten and presenting a density of at least about 16 grams per cubic centimeter.
2. The cartridge as claimed in claim 1,
each of said pellets being sintered.
3. The cartridge as claimed in claim 2,
each of said pellets being ground.
4. The cartridge as claimed in claim 3,
each of said pellets presenting a volume defined by the equation V=(4Πr3)/3±three percent, wherein V=volume of the pellet and r=the radius of the pellet.
5. The cartridge as claimed in claim 4,
each of said pellets presenting a diameter within ±0.002 inches of the diameter of each other pellet.
6. The cartridge as claimed in claim 3,
each of said pellets being polished.
7. The cartridge as claimed in claim 6,
each of said pellets presenting a surface smoothness of between about 125 and 016 on the rms scale.
8. The cartridge as claimed in claim 1,
each of said pellets including nickel.
9. The cartridge as claimed in claim 8,
each of said pellets including iron.
10. The cartridge as claimed in claim 9,
said tungsten comprising at least about ninety percent of the weight of each pellet.
11. The cartridge as claimed in claim 10,
said nickel comprising at least about three percent of the weight of each pellet.
12. The cartridge as claimed in claim 11,
said iron comprising at least about one percent of the weight of each pellet.
13. The cartridge as claimed in claim 1,
said tungsten comprising about ninety-five percent of the weight of each pellet.
14. The cartridge as claimed in claim 1,
each of said pellets presenting a density of about 17.8 grams per cubic centimeter.
15. The cartridge as claimed in claim 1,
said body being formed at least primarily from plastic.
16. The cartridge as claimed in claim 15,
said body presenting a length of at least about two inches.
17. The cartridge as claimed in claim 16,
said length being less than three inches,
said shot presenting a weight of about one and one-quarter ounces.
18. The cartridge as claimed in claim 17,
said powder being configured to propel the shot out of the body at about thirteen hundred feet per second when ignited while generating a recoil force of less than thirty-five foot-pounds.
19. A method of reloading a cartridge comprising the steps of:
(a) placing powder in a shell;
(b) isolating the powder within the shell; and
(c) placing shot in the shell,
said shot including a plurality of pellets wherein each of said pellets includes tungsten and presents a density of at least about 16 grams per cubic centimeter.
20. The method as claimed in claim 19,
step (b) including the step of placing a wad in the shell after the powder is placed and before the shot is placed.
21. The method as claimed in claim 20,
step (b) further including the steps of placing at least one additional wad in the shell after the first-mentioned wad has been placed.
22. The method as claimed in claim 20,
said shell being formed at least primarily from plastic and being about two and three-quarter inches in length.
23. The method as claimed in claim 22,
step (b) including the step of placing at least about three-quarter inch of wad between the powder and the shot.
24. The method as claimed in claim 23
step (a) including the step of placing at least about 35 grains gunpowder in the shell,
step (c) including the step of placing about one and one-quarter ounces of shot in the shell.
25. The method as claimed in claim 19,
each of said pellets being sintered, ground, and polished.
26. The method as claimed in claim 19,
each of said pellets including nickel and iron.
27. The method as claimed in claim 26,
said tungsten comprising at least about ninety-five percent of the weight of each pellet.
28. The method as claimed in claim 27,
said nickel comprising at least about three percent of the weight of each pellet.
29. The method as claimed in claim 28,
said iron comprising at least about one percent of the weight of each pellet.
30. The method as claimed in claim 26,
each of said pellets presenting a density of less than about 19 grams per cubic centimeter.
31. The method as claimed in claim 19,
at least one of the steps (a), (b), or (c) being performed using an automated reloading machine.
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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2011085279A2 (en) * 2010-01-08 2011-07-14 Olin Corporation Shotshell with combination load for personal defense
US20120092490A1 (en) * 2005-11-28 2012-04-19 Metadigm Llc Velocity, internal ballistics and external ballistics detection and control for projectile devices and a reduction in device related pollution
WO2012125944A1 (en) * 2011-03-16 2012-09-20 Olin Corporation Rounded cubic shot and shotshells loaded with rounded cubic shot
US9470485B1 (en) 2004-03-29 2016-10-18 Victor B. Kley Molded plastic cartridge with extended flash tube, sub-sonic cartridges, and user identification for firearms and site sensing fire control
USD773008S1 (en) 2010-10-20 2016-11-29 Olin Corporation Shot
US9541357B2 (en) 2010-08-14 2017-01-10 Daniel L. Klement High visibility ammunition casings
US9921017B1 (en) 2013-03-15 2018-03-20 Victor B. Kley User identification for weapons and site sensing fire control
USD831472S1 (en) * 2017-08-08 2018-10-23 Anthony Chidichimo Decorative wall hanger

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Cited By (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US9891030B1 (en) 2004-03-29 2018-02-13 Victor B. Kley Molded plastic cartridge with extended flash tube, sub-sonic cartridges, and user identification for firearms and site sensing fire control
US9470485B1 (en) 2004-03-29 2016-10-18 Victor B. Kley Molded plastic cartridge with extended flash tube, sub-sonic cartridges, and user identification for firearms and site sensing fire control
US20120092490A1 (en) * 2005-11-28 2012-04-19 Metadigm Llc Velocity, internal ballistics and external ballistics detection and control for projectile devices and a reduction in device related pollution
WO2011085279A2 (en) * 2010-01-08 2011-07-14 Olin Corporation Shotshell with combination load for personal defense
WO2011085279A3 (en) * 2010-01-08 2012-06-14 Olin Corporation Shotshell with combination load for personal defense
US9541357B2 (en) 2010-08-14 2017-01-10 Daniel L. Klement High visibility ammunition casings
USD773008S1 (en) 2010-10-20 2016-11-29 Olin Corporation Shot
WO2012125944A1 (en) * 2011-03-16 2012-09-20 Olin Corporation Rounded cubic shot and shotshells loaded with rounded cubic shot
US8622000B2 (en) 2011-03-16 2014-01-07 Olin Corporation Rounded cubic shot and shotshells loaded with rounded cubic shot
US9921017B1 (en) 2013-03-15 2018-03-20 Victor B. Kley User identification for weapons and site sensing fire control
USD831472S1 (en) * 2017-08-08 2018-10-23 Anthony Chidichimo Decorative wall hanger

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