Connect public, paid and private patent data with Google Patents Public Datasets

Artificial functional spinal unit assemblies

Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US20070073406A1
US20070073406A1 US11526849 US52684906A US20070073406A1 US 20070073406 A1 US20070073406 A1 US 20070073406A1 US 11526849 US11526849 US 11526849 US 52684906 A US52684906 A US 52684906A US 20070073406 A1 US20070073406 A1 US 20070073406A1
Authority
US
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
body
implant
expansion
expandable
intervertebral
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US11526849
Inventor
Charles Gordon
Corey Harbold
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Flexuspine Inc
Original Assignee
Flexuspine Inc
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Family has litigation

Links

Images

Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/56Surgical instruments or methods for treatment of bones or joints; Devices specially adapted therefor
    • A61B17/58Surgical instruments or methods for treatment of bones or joints; Devices specially adapted therefor for osteosynthesis, e.g. bone plates, screws, setting implements or the like
    • A61B17/68Internal fixation devices, including fasteners and spinal fixators, even if a part thereof projects from the skin
    • A61B17/70Spinal positioners or stabilisers ; Bone stabilisers comprising fluid filler in an implant
    • A61B17/7001Screws or hooks combined with longitudinal elements which do not contact vertebrae
    • A61B17/7002Longitudinal elements, e.g. rods
    • A61B17/7019Longitudinal elements having flexible parts, or parts connected together, such that after implantation the elements can move relative to each other
    • A61B17/7023Longitudinal elements having flexible parts, or parts connected together, such that after implantation the elements can move relative to each other with a pivot joint
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/56Surgical instruments or methods for treatment of bones or joints; Devices specially adapted therefor
    • A61B17/58Surgical instruments or methods for treatment of bones or joints; Devices specially adapted therefor for osteosynthesis, e.g. bone plates, screws, setting implements or the like
    • A61B17/68Internal fixation devices, including fasteners and spinal fixators, even if a part thereof projects from the skin
    • A61B17/70Spinal positioners or stabilisers ; Bone stabilisers comprising fluid filler in an implant
    • A61B17/7001Screws or hooks combined with longitudinal elements which do not contact vertebrae
    • A61B17/7002Longitudinal elements, e.g. rods
    • A61B17/7004Longitudinal elements, e.g. rods with a cross-section which varies along its length
    • A61B17/7005Parts of the longitudinal elements, e.g. their ends, being specially adapted to fit in the screw or hook heads
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/56Surgical instruments or methods for treatment of bones or joints; Devices specially adapted therefor
    • A61B17/58Surgical instruments or methods for treatment of bones or joints; Devices specially adapted therefor for osteosynthesis, e.g. bone plates, screws, setting implements or the like
    • A61B17/68Internal fixation devices, including fasteners and spinal fixators, even if a part thereof projects from the skin
    • A61B17/70Spinal positioners or stabilisers ; Bone stabilisers comprising fluid filler in an implant
    • A61B17/7001Screws or hooks combined with longitudinal elements which do not contact vertebrae
    • A61B17/7032Screws or hooks with U-shaped head or back through which longitudinal rods pass
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/56Surgical instruments or methods for treatment of bones or joints; Devices specially adapted therefor
    • A61B17/58Surgical instruments or methods for treatment of bones or joints; Devices specially adapted therefor for osteosynthesis, e.g. bone plates, screws, setting implements or the like
    • A61B17/68Internal fixation devices, including fasteners and spinal fixators, even if a part thereof projects from the skin
    • A61B17/70Spinal positioners or stabilisers ; Bone stabilisers comprising fluid filler in an implant
    • A61B17/7001Screws or hooks combined with longitudinal elements which do not contact vertebrae
    • A61B17/7035Screws or hooks, wherein a rod-clamping part and a bone-anchoring part can pivot relative to each other
    • A61B17/7037Screws or hooks, wherein a rod-clamping part and a bone-anchoring part can pivot relative to each other wherein pivoting is blocked when the rod is clamped
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/56Surgical instruments or methods for treatment of bones or joints; Devices specially adapted therefor
    • A61B17/58Surgical instruments or methods for treatment of bones or joints; Devices specially adapted therefor for osteosynthesis, e.g. bone plates, screws, setting implements or the like
    • A61B17/68Internal fixation devices, including fasteners and spinal fixators, even if a part thereof projects from the skin
    • A61B17/70Spinal positioners or stabilisers ; Bone stabilisers comprising fluid filler in an implant
    • A61B17/7001Screws or hooks combined with longitudinal elements which do not contact vertebrae
    • A61B17/7035Screws or hooks, wherein a rod-clamping part and a bone-anchoring part can pivot relative to each other
    • A61B17/704Screws or hooks, wherein a rod-clamping part and a bone-anchoring part can pivot relative to each other the longitudinal element passing through a ball-joint in the screw head
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/56Surgical instruments or methods for treatment of bones or joints; Devices specially adapted therefor
    • A61B17/58Surgical instruments or methods for treatment of bones or joints; Devices specially adapted therefor for osteosynthesis, e.g. bone plates, screws, setting implements or the like
    • A61B17/68Internal fixation devices, including fasteners and spinal fixators, even if a part thereof projects from the skin
    • A61B17/70Spinal positioners or stabilisers ; Bone stabilisers comprising fluid filler in an implant
    • A61B17/7001Screws or hooks combined with longitudinal elements which do not contact vertebrae
    • A61B17/7041Screws or hooks combined with longitudinal elements which do not contact vertebrae with single longitudinal rod offset laterally from single row of screws or hooks
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/56Surgical instruments or methods for treatment of bones or joints; Devices specially adapted therefor
    • A61B17/58Surgical instruments or methods for treatment of bones or joints; Devices specially adapted therefor for osteosynthesis, e.g. bone plates, screws, setting implements or the like
    • A61B17/68Internal fixation devices, including fasteners and spinal fixators, even if a part thereof projects from the skin
    • A61B17/70Spinal positioners or stabilisers ; Bone stabilisers comprising fluid filler in an implant
    • A61B17/7049Connectors, not bearing on the vertebrae, for linking longitudinal elements together
    • A61B17/7052Connectors, not bearing on the vertebrae, for linking longitudinal elements together of variable angle or length
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/56Surgical instruments or methods for treatment of bones or joints; Devices specially adapted therefor
    • A61B17/58Surgical instruments or methods for treatment of bones or joints; Devices specially adapted therefor for osteosynthesis, e.g. bone plates, screws, setting implements or the like
    • A61B17/68Internal fixation devices, including fasteners and spinal fixators, even if a part thereof projects from the skin
    • A61B17/74Devices for the head or neck or trochanter of the femur
    • A61B17/742Devices for the head or neck or trochanter of the femur having one or more longitudinal elements oriented along or parallel to the axis of the neck
    • A61B17/746Devices for the head or neck or trochanter of the femur having one or more longitudinal elements oriented along or parallel to the axis of the neck the longitudinal elements coupled to a plate opposite the femoral head
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/30Joints
    • A61F2/44Joints for the spine, e.g. vertebrae, spinal discs
    • A61F2/4405Joints for the spine, e.g. vertebrae, spinal discs for apophyseal or facet joints, i.e. between adjacent spinous or transverse processes
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/30Joints
    • A61F2/44Joints for the spine, e.g. vertebrae, spinal discs
    • A61F2/442Intervertebral or spinal discs, e.g. resilient
    • A61F2/4425Intervertebral or spinal discs, e.g. resilient made of articulated components
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/16Bone cutting, breaking or removal means other than saws, e.g. Osteoclasts; Drills or chisels for bones; Trepans
    • A61B17/1662Bone cutting, breaking or removal means other than saws, e.g. Osteoclasts; Drills or chisels for bones; Trepans for particular parts of the body
    • A61B17/1671Bone cutting, breaking or removal means other than saws, e.g. Osteoclasts; Drills or chisels for bones; Trepans for particular parts of the body for the spine
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/16Bone cutting, breaking or removal means other than saws, e.g. Osteoclasts; Drills or chisels for bones; Trepans
    • A61B17/17Guides or aligning means for drills, mills, pins or wires
    • A61B17/1739Guides or aligning means for drills, mills, pins or wires specially adapted for particular parts of the body
    • A61B17/1757Guides or aligning means for drills, mills, pins or wires specially adapted for particular parts of the body for the spine
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/56Surgical instruments or methods for treatment of bones or joints; Devices specially adapted therefor
    • A61B17/58Surgical instruments or methods for treatment of bones or joints; Devices specially adapted therefor for osteosynthesis, e.g. bone plates, screws, setting implements or the like
    • A61B17/68Internal fixation devices, including fasteners and spinal fixators, even if a part thereof projects from the skin
    • A61B17/70Spinal positioners or stabilisers ; Bone stabilisers comprising fluid filler in an implant
    • A61B17/7001Screws or hooks combined with longitudinal elements which do not contact vertebrae
    • A61B17/7002Longitudinal elements, e.g. rods
    • A61B17/7004Longitudinal elements, e.g. rods with a cross-section which varies along its length
    • A61B17/7008Longitudinal elements, e.g. rods with a cross-section which varies along its length with parts of, or attached to, the longitudinal elements, bearing against an outside of the screw or hook heads, e.g. nuts on threaded rods
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/56Surgical instruments or methods for treatment of bones or joints; Devices specially adapted therefor
    • A61B17/58Surgical instruments or methods for treatment of bones or joints; Devices specially adapted therefor for osteosynthesis, e.g. bone plates, screws, setting implements or the like
    • A61B17/68Internal fixation devices, including fasteners and spinal fixators, even if a part thereof projects from the skin
    • A61B17/70Spinal positioners or stabilisers ; Bone stabilisers comprising fluid filler in an implant
    • A61B17/7062Devices acting on, attached to, or simulating the effect of, vertebral processes, vertebral facets or ribs ; Tools for such devices
    • A61B17/7064Devices acting on, attached to, or simulating the effect of, vertebral facets; Tools therefor
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/56Surgical instruments or methods for treatment of bones or joints; Devices specially adapted therefor
    • A61B17/58Surgical instruments or methods for treatment of bones or joints; Devices specially adapted therefor for osteosynthesis, e.g. bone plates, screws, setting implements or the like
    • A61B17/68Internal fixation devices, including fasteners and spinal fixators, even if a part thereof projects from the skin
    • A61B17/84Fasteners therefor or fasteners being internal fixation devices
    • A61B17/86Threaded wires, pins or screws; Nuts therefor
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/56Surgical instruments or methods for treatment of bones or joints; Devices specially adapted therefor
    • A61B17/58Surgical instruments or methods for treatment of bones or joints; Devices specially adapted therefor for osteosynthesis, e.g. bone plates, screws, setting implements or the like
    • A61B17/88Osteosynthesis instruments; Methods or means for implanting or extracting internal or external fixation devices
    • A61B17/8897Guide wires or guide pins
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/02Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets for holding wounds open; Tractors
    • A61B17/025Joint distractors
    • A61B2017/0256Joint distractors for the spine
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/30Joints
    • A61F2/30767Special external and/or bone-contacting surfaces, e.g. coating for improving bone ingrowth
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/30Joints
    • A61F2/30767Special external and/or bone-contacting surfaces, e.g. coating for improving bone ingrowth
    • A61F2/30771Special external and/or bone-contacting surfaces, e.g. coating for improving bone ingrowth applied in original prostheses, e.g. holes, grooves
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/30Joints
    • A61F2002/30001Additional features of subject-matter classified in A61F2/28, A61F2/30 and subgroups thereof
    • A61F2002/30108Shapes
    • A61F2002/3011Cross-sections or two-dimensional shapes
    • A61F2002/30112Rounded shapes, e.g. with rounded corners
    • A61F2002/30133Rounded shapes, e.g. with rounded corners kidney-shaped or bean-shaped
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/30Joints
    • A61F2002/30001Additional features of subject-matter classified in A61F2/28, A61F2/30 and subgroups thereof
    • A61F2002/30316The prosthesis having different structural features at different locations within the same prosthesis; Connections between prosthetic parts; Special structural features of bone or joint prostheses not otherwise provided for
    • A61F2002/30329Connections or couplings between prosthetic parts, e.g. between modular parts; Connecting elements
    • A61F2002/30331Connections or couplings between prosthetic parts, e.g. between modular parts; Connecting elements made by longitudinally pushing a protrusion into a complementarily-shaped recess, e.g. held by friction fit
    • A61F2002/30362Connections or couplings between prosthetic parts, e.g. between modular parts; Connecting elements made by longitudinally pushing a protrusion into a complementarily-shaped recess, e.g. held by friction fit with possibility of relative movement between the protrusion and the recess
    • A61F2002/30364Rotation about the common longitudinal axis
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/30Joints
    • A61F2002/30001Additional features of subject-matter classified in A61F2/28, A61F2/30 and subgroups thereof
    • A61F2002/30316The prosthesis having different structural features at different locations within the same prosthesis; Connections between prosthetic parts; Special structural features of bone or joint prostheses not otherwise provided for
    • A61F2002/30329Connections or couplings between prosthetic parts, e.g. between modular parts; Connecting elements
    • A61F2002/30331Connections or couplings between prosthetic parts, e.g. between modular parts; Connecting elements made by longitudinally pushing a protrusion into a complementarily-shaped recess, e.g. held by friction fit
    • A61F2002/30362Connections or couplings between prosthetic parts, e.g. between modular parts; Connecting elements made by longitudinally pushing a protrusion into a complementarily-shaped recess, e.g. held by friction fit with possibility of relative movement between the protrusion and the recess
    • A61F2002/30364Rotation about the common longitudinal axis
    • A61F2002/30365Rotation about the common longitudinal axis with additional means for limiting said rotation
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/30Joints
    • A61F2002/30001Additional features of subject-matter classified in A61F2/28, A61F2/30 and subgroups thereof
    • A61F2002/30316The prosthesis having different structural features at different locations within the same prosthesis; Connections between prosthetic parts; Special structural features of bone or joint prostheses not otherwise provided for
    • A61F2002/30329Connections or couplings between prosthetic parts, e.g. between modular parts; Connecting elements
    • A61F2002/30331Connections or couplings between prosthetic parts, e.g. between modular parts; Connecting elements made by longitudinally pushing a protrusion into a complementarily-shaped recess, e.g. held by friction fit
    • A61F2002/30362Connections or couplings between prosthetic parts, e.g. between modular parts; Connecting elements made by longitudinally pushing a protrusion into a complementarily-shaped recess, e.g. held by friction fit with possibility of relative movement between the protrusion and the recess
    • A61F2002/30369Limited lateral translation of the protrusion within a larger recess
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/30Joints
    • A61F2002/30001Additional features of subject-matter classified in A61F2/28, A61F2/30 and subgroups thereof
    • A61F2002/30316The prosthesis having different structural features at different locations within the same prosthesis; Connections between prosthetic parts; Special structural features of bone or joint prostheses not otherwise provided for
    • A61F2002/30329Connections or couplings between prosthetic parts, e.g. between modular parts; Connecting elements
    • A61F2002/30462Connections or couplings between prosthetic parts, e.g. between modular parts; Connecting elements retained or tied with a rope, string, thread, wire or cable
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/30Joints
    • A61F2002/30001Additional features of subject-matter classified in A61F2/28, A61F2/30 and subgroups thereof
    • A61F2002/30316The prosthesis having different structural features at different locations within the same prosthesis; Connections between prosthetic parts; Special structural features of bone or joint prostheses not otherwise provided for
    • A61F2002/30329Connections or couplings between prosthetic parts, e.g. between modular parts; Connecting elements
    • A61F2002/30476Connections or couplings between prosthetic parts, e.g. between modular parts; Connecting elements locked by an additional locking mechanism
    • A61F2002/30492Connections or couplings between prosthetic parts, e.g. between modular parts; Connecting elements locked by an additional locking mechanism using a locking pin
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/30Joints
    • A61F2002/30001Additional features of subject-matter classified in A61F2/28, A61F2/30 and subgroups thereof
    • A61F2002/30316The prosthesis having different structural features at different locations within the same prosthesis; Connections between prosthetic parts; Special structural features of bone or joint prostheses not otherwise provided for
    • A61F2002/30329Connections or couplings between prosthetic parts, e.g. between modular parts; Connecting elements
    • A61F2002/30476Connections or couplings between prosthetic parts, e.g. between modular parts; Connecting elements locked by an additional locking mechanism
    • A61F2002/30507Connections or couplings between prosthetic parts, e.g. between modular parts; Connecting elements locked by an additional locking mechanism using a threaded locking member, e.g. a locking screw or a set screw
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/30Joints
    • A61F2002/30001Additional features of subject-matter classified in A61F2/28, A61F2/30 and subgroups thereof
    • A61F2002/30316The prosthesis having different structural features at different locations within the same prosthesis; Connections between prosthetic parts; Special structural features of bone or joint prostheses not otherwise provided for
    • A61F2002/30329Connections or couplings between prosthetic parts, e.g. between modular parts; Connecting elements
    • A61F2002/30476Connections or couplings between prosthetic parts, e.g. between modular parts; Connecting elements locked by an additional locking mechanism
    • A61F2002/30515Connections or couplings between prosthetic parts, e.g. between modular parts; Connecting elements locked by an additional locking mechanism using a locking wedge or block
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/30Joints
    • A61F2002/30001Additional features of subject-matter classified in A61F2/28, A61F2/30 and subgroups thereof
    • A61F2002/30316The prosthesis having different structural features at different locations within the same prosthesis; Connections between prosthetic parts; Special structural features of bone or joint prostheses not otherwise provided for
    • A61F2002/30535Special structural features of bone or joint prostheses not otherwise provided for
    • A61F2002/30537Special structural features of bone or joint prostheses not otherwise provided for adjustable
    • A61F2002/30538Special structural features of bone or joint prostheses not otherwise provided for adjustable for adjusting angular orientation
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/30Joints
    • A61F2002/30001Additional features of subject-matter classified in A61F2/28, A61F2/30 and subgroups thereof
    • A61F2002/30316The prosthesis having different structural features at different locations within the same prosthesis; Connections between prosthetic parts; Special structural features of bone or joint prostheses not otherwise provided for
    • A61F2002/30535Special structural features of bone or joint prostheses not otherwise provided for
    • A61F2002/30537Special structural features of bone or joint prostheses not otherwise provided for adjustable
    • A61F2002/3055Special structural features of bone or joint prostheses not otherwise provided for adjustable for adjusting length
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/30Joints
    • A61F2002/30001Additional features of subject-matter classified in A61F2/28, A61F2/30 and subgroups thereof
    • A61F2002/30316The prosthesis having different structural features at different locations within the same prosthesis; Connections between prosthetic parts; Special structural features of bone or joint prostheses not otherwise provided for
    • A61F2002/30535Special structural features of bone or joint prostheses not otherwise provided for
    • A61F2002/30537Special structural features of bone or joint prostheses not otherwise provided for adjustable
    • A61F2002/30556Special structural features of bone or joint prostheses not otherwise provided for adjustable for adjusting thickness
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/30Joints
    • A61F2002/30001Additional features of subject-matter classified in A61F2/28, A61F2/30 and subgroups thereof
    • A61F2002/30316The prosthesis having different structural features at different locations within the same prosthesis; Connections between prosthetic parts; Special structural features of bone or joint prostheses not otherwise provided for
    • A61F2002/30535Special structural features of bone or joint prostheses not otherwise provided for
    • A61F2002/30576Special structural features of bone or joint prostheses not otherwise provided for with extending fixation tabs
    • A61F2002/30578Special structural features of bone or joint prostheses not otherwise provided for with extending fixation tabs having apertures, e.g. for receiving fixation screws
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/30Joints
    • A61F2002/30001Additional features of subject-matter classified in A61F2/28, A61F2/30 and subgroups thereof
    • A61F2002/30316The prosthesis having different structural features at different locations within the same prosthesis; Connections between prosthetic parts; Special structural features of bone or joint prostheses not otherwise provided for
    • A61F2002/30535Special structural features of bone or joint prostheses not otherwise provided for
    • A61F2002/30579Special structural features of bone or joint prostheses not otherwise provided for with mechanically expandable devices, e.g. fixation devices
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/30Joints
    • A61F2002/30001Additional features of subject-matter classified in A61F2/28, A61F2/30 and subgroups thereof
    • A61F2002/30316The prosthesis having different structural features at different locations within the same prosthesis; Connections between prosthetic parts; Special structural features of bone or joint prostheses not otherwise provided for
    • A61F2002/30535Special structural features of bone or joint prostheses not otherwise provided for
    • A61F2002/30604Special structural features of bone or joint prostheses not otherwise provided for modular
    • A61F2002/30616Sets comprising a plurality of prosthetic parts of different sizes or orientations
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/30Joints
    • A61F2002/30001Additional features of subject-matter classified in A61F2/28, A61F2/30 and subgroups thereof
    • A61F2002/30621Features concering the anatomical functioning or articulation of the prosthetic joint
    • A61F2002/30624Hinged joint, e.g. with transverse axle restricting the movement
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/30Joints
    • A61F2002/30001Additional features of subject-matter classified in A61F2/28, A61F2/30 and subgroups thereof
    • A61F2002/30621Features concering the anatomical functioning or articulation of the prosthetic joint
    • A61F2002/30649Ball-and-socket joints
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/30Joints
    • A61F2002/30001Additional features of subject-matter classified in A61F2/28, A61F2/30 and subgroups thereof
    • A61F2002/30621Features concering the anatomical functioning or articulation of the prosthetic joint
    • A61F2002/30649Ball-and-socket joints
    • A61F2002/30662Ball-and-socket joints with rotation-limiting means
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/30Joints
    • A61F2002/30001Additional features of subject-matter classified in A61F2/28, A61F2/30 and subgroups thereof
    • A61F2002/30667Features concerning an interaction with the environment or a particular use of the prosthesis
    • A61F2002/3071Identification means; Administration of patients
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/30Joints
    • A61F2/30767Special external and/or bone-contacting surfaces, e.g. coating for improving bone ingrowth
    • A61F2/30771Special external and/or bone-contacting surfaces, e.g. coating for improving bone ingrowth applied in original prostheses, e.g. holes, grooves
    • A61F2002/30772Apertures or holes, e.g. of circular cross section
    • A61F2002/30784Plurality of holes
    • A61F2002/30785Plurality of holes parallel
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/30Joints
    • A61F2/30767Special external and/or bone-contacting surfaces, e.g. coating for improving bone ingrowth
    • A61F2/30771Special external and/or bone-contacting surfaces, e.g. coating for improving bone ingrowth applied in original prostheses, e.g. holes, grooves
    • A61F2002/30772Apertures or holes, e.g. of circular cross section
    • A61F2002/3079Stepped or enlarged apertures, e.g. having discrete diameter changes
    • A61F2002/30794Stepped or enlarged apertures, e.g. having discrete diameter changes the enlarged portion being used for receiving and hiding a screw head, a nut or a closing cap
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/30Joints
    • A61F2/30767Special external and/or bone-contacting surfaces, e.g. coating for improving bone ingrowth
    • A61F2/30771Special external and/or bone-contacting surfaces, e.g. coating for improving bone ingrowth applied in original prostheses, e.g. holes, grooves
    • A61F2002/30841Sharp anchoring protrusions for impaction into the bone, e.g. sharp pins, spikes
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/30Joints
    • A61F2/44Joints for the spine, e.g. vertebrae, spinal discs
    • A61F2/442Intervertebral or spinal discs, e.g. resilient
    • A61F2/4425Intervertebral or spinal discs, e.g. resilient made of articulated components
    • A61F2002/443Intervertebral or spinal discs, e.g. resilient made of articulated components having two transversal endplates and at least one intermediate component
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2220/00Fixations or connections for prostheses classified in groups A61F2/00 - A61F2/26 or A61F2/82 or A61F9/00 or A61F11/00 or subgroups thereof
    • A61F2220/0025Connections or couplings between prosthetic parts, e.g. between modular parts; Connecting elements
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2220/00Fixations or connections for prostheses classified in groups A61F2/00 - A61F2/26 or A61F2/82 or A61F9/00 or A61F11/00 or subgroups thereof
    • A61F2220/0025Connections or couplings between prosthetic parts, e.g. between modular parts; Connecting elements
    • A61F2220/0033Connections or couplings between prosthetic parts, e.g. between modular parts; Connecting elements made by longitudinally pushing a protrusion into a complementary-shaped recess, e.g. held by friction fit
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2220/00Fixations or connections for prostheses classified in groups A61F2/00 - A61F2/26 or A61F2/82 or A61F9/00 or A61F11/00 or subgroups thereof
    • A61F2220/0025Connections or couplings between prosthetic parts, e.g. between modular parts; Connecting elements
    • A61F2220/0075Connections or couplings between prosthetic parts, e.g. between modular parts; Connecting elements sutured, ligatured or stitched, retained or tied with a rope, string, thread, wire or cable
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2230/00Geometry of prostheses classified in groups A61F2/00 - A61F2/26 or A61F2/82 or A61F9/00 or A61F11/00 or subgroups thereof
    • A61F2230/0002Two-dimensional shapes, e.g. cross-sections
    • A61F2230/0004Rounded shapes, e.g. with rounded corners
    • A61F2230/0015Kidney-shaped, e.g. bean-shaped
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2250/00Special features of prostheses classified in groups A61F2/00 - A61F2/26 or A61F2/82 or A61F9/00 or A61F11/00 or subgroups thereof
    • A61F2250/0004Special features of prostheses classified in groups A61F2/00 - A61F2/26 or A61F2/82 or A61F9/00 or A61F11/00 or subgroups thereof adjustable
    • A61F2250/0006Special features of prostheses classified in groups A61F2/00 - A61F2/26 or A61F2/82 or A61F9/00 or A61F11/00 or subgroups thereof adjustable for adjusting angular orientation
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2250/00Special features of prostheses classified in groups A61F2/00 - A61F2/26 or A61F2/82 or A61F9/00 or A61F11/00 or subgroups thereof
    • A61F2250/0004Special features of prostheses classified in groups A61F2/00 - A61F2/26 or A61F2/82 or A61F9/00 or A61F11/00 or subgroups thereof adjustable
    • A61F2250/0007Special features of prostheses classified in groups A61F2/00 - A61F2/26 or A61F2/82 or A61F9/00 or A61F11/00 or subgroups thereof adjustable for adjusting length
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2250/00Special features of prostheses classified in groups A61F2/00 - A61F2/26 or A61F2/82 or A61F9/00 or A61F11/00 or subgroups thereof
    • A61F2250/0004Special features of prostheses classified in groups A61F2/00 - A61F2/26 or A61F2/82 or A61F9/00 or A61F11/00 or subgroups thereof adjustable
    • A61F2250/0009Special features of prostheses classified in groups A61F2/00 - A61F2/26 or A61F2/82 or A61F9/00 or A61F11/00 or subgroups thereof adjustable for adjusting thickness
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2250/00Special features of prostheses classified in groups A61F2/00 - A61F2/26 or A61F2/82 or A61F9/00 or A61F11/00 or subgroups thereof
    • A61F2250/0058Additional features; Implant or prostheses properties not otherwise provided for
    • A61F2250/0085Identification means; Administration of patients
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2310/00Prostheses classified in A61F2/28 or A61F2/30 - A61F2/44 being constructed from or coated with a particular material
    • A61F2310/00389The prosthesis being coated or covered with a particular material
    • A61F2310/00395Coating or prosthesis-covering structure made of metals or of alloys
    • A61F2310/00407Coating made of titanium or of Ti-based alloys
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2310/00Prostheses classified in A61F2/28 or A61F2/30 - A61F2/44 being constructed from or coated with a particular material
    • A61F2310/00389The prosthesis being coated or covered with a particular material
    • A61F2310/00592Coating or prosthesis-covering structure made of ceramics or of ceramic-like compounds
    • A61F2310/00796Coating or prosthesis-covering structure made of a phosphorus-containing compound, e.g. hydroxy(l)apatite
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2310/00Prostheses classified in A61F2/28 or A61F2/30 - A61F2/44 being constructed from or coated with a particular material
    • A61F2310/00389The prosthesis being coated or covered with a particular material
    • A61F2310/00976Coating or prosthesis-covering structure made of proteins or of polypeptides, e.g. of bone morphogenic proteins BMP or of transforming growth factors TGF

Abstract

An artificial functional spinal unit is provided comprising, generally, an expandable artificial intervertebral implant that can be placed via a posterior surgical approach and used in conjunction with one or more artificial facet joints to provide an anatomically correct range of motion. Expandable artificial intervertebral implants in both lordotic and non-lordotic designs are disclosed, as well as lordotic and non-lordotic expandable cages for both PLIF (posterior lumber interbody fusion) and TLIF (transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion) procedures. The expandable implants may have various shapes, such as round, square, rectangular, banana-shaped, kidney-shaped, or other similar shapes. By virtue of their posteriorly implanted approach, the disclosed artificial FSU's allow for posterior decompression of the neural elements, reconstruction of all or part of the natural functional spinal unit, restoration and maintenance of lordosis, maintenance of motion, and restoration and maintenance of disc space height.

Description

    PRIORITY CLAIM
  • [0001]
    This application is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/634,950 entitled “ARTIFICIAL FUNCTIONAL SPINAL UNIT ASSEMBLIES” filed on Aug. 5, 2003, the disclosure of which is hereby incorporated by reference.
  • BACKGROUND
  • [0002]
    1. Field of the Invention
  • [0003]
    The present invention generally relates to functional spinal implant assemblies for insertion into the intervertebral space between adjacent vertebral bones and reconstruction of the posterior elements to provide stability, flexibility and proper biomechanical motion. More specifically, the present invention relates to artificial functional spinal units comprising an expandable artificial intervertebral implant that can be inserted via a posterior surgical approach and used in conjunction with one or more artificial facet joints to provide a more anatomically correct range of motion.
  • [0004]
    2. Description of Related Art
  • [0005]
    The human spine is a complex mechanical structure composed of alternating bony vertebrae and fibrocartilaginous discs that are connected by strong ligaments and supported by musculature that extends from the skull to the pelvis and provides axial support to the body. The intervertebral discs primarily serve as a mechanical cushion between adjacent vertebral segments of the spinal column and generally comprise three basic components: the nucleus pulposus, the anulus fibrosis, and two vertebral end plates. The end plates are made of thin cartilage overlying a thin layer of hard cortical bone that attaches to the spongy, cancellous bone of the vertebral body. The anulus fibrosis forms the disc's perimeter and is a tough outer ring that binds adjacent vertebrae together. The vertebrae generally comprise a vertebral foramen bounded by the anterior vertebral body and the neural arch, which consists of two pedicles and two larninae that are united posteriorly. The spinous and transverse processes protrude from the neural arch. The superior and inferior articular facets lie at the root of the transverse process. The term “functional spinal unit” (“FSU”) refers to the entire motion segment: the anterior disc and the posterior facet joints, along with the supporting ligaments and connective tissues.
  • [0006]
    The spine as a whole is a highly flexible structure capable of a high degree of curvature and twist in nearly every direction. However, genetic or developmental irregularities, trauma, chronic stress, and degenerative wear can result in spinal pathologies for which surgical intervention may be necessary.
  • [0007]
    It is common practice to remove a spinal disc in cases of spinal disc deterioration, disease or spinal injury. The discs sometimes become diseased or damaged such that the intervertebral separation is reduced. Such events cause the height of the disc nucleus to decrease, which in turn causes the anulus to buckle in areas where the laminated plies are loosely bonded. As the overlapping laminated plies of the anulus begin to buckle and separate, either circumferential or radial anular tears may occur. Such disruption to the natural intervertebral separation produces pain, which can be alleviated by removal of the disc and maintenance of the natural separation distance. In cases of chronic back pain resulting from a degenerated or herniated disc, removal of the disc becomes medically necessary.
  • [0008]
    In some cases, the damaged disc may be replaced with a disc prosthesis intended to duplicate the function of the natural spinal disc. U.S. Pat. No. 4,863,477 discloses a resilient spinal disc prosthesis intended to replace the resiliency of a natural human spinal disc. U.S. Pat. No. 5,192,326 teaches a prosthetic nucleus for replacing just the nucleus portion of a human spinal disc.
  • [0009]
    In other cases it is desired to fuse the adjacent vertebrae together after removal of the disc, sometimes referred to as “intervertebral fusion” or “interbody fusion.”
  • [0010]
    Many techniques and instruments have been devised to perform intervertebral fusion. There is common agreement that the strongest intervertebral fusion is the interbody (between the lumbar bodies) fusion, which may be augmented by a posterior or facet fusion. In cases of intervertebral fusion, either structural bone or an interbody fusion cage filled with morselized bone is placed centrally within the space where the spinal disc once resided. Multiple cages or bony grafts may be used within that space.
  • [0011]
    Such practices are characterized by certain disadvantages, most important of which is the actual morbidity of the procedure itself. Placement of rigid cages or structural grafts in the interbody space either requires an anterior surgical approach, which carries certain unavoidable risks to the viscous structures overlying the spine (intestines, major blood vessels, and the ureter), or they may be accomplished from a posterior surgical approach, thereby requiring significant traction on the overlying nerve roots. The interval between the exiting and traversing nerve roots is limited to a few millimeters and does not allow for safe passage of large intervertebral devices, as may be accomplished from the anterior approach. Alternatively, the anterior approach does not allow for inspection of the nerve roots, is not suitable alone for cases in which the posterior elements are not competent, and most importantly, the anterior approach is associated with very high morbidity and risk where there has been previous anterior surgery.
  • [0012]
    Another significant drawback to fusion surgery in general is that adjacent vertebral segments show accelerated deterioration after a successful fusion has been performed at any level. The spine is by definition stiffer after the fusion procedure, and the natural body mechanics place increased stress on levels proximal to the fused segment. Other drawbacks include the possibility of “flat back syndrome” in which there is a disruption in the natural curvature of the spine. The vertebrae in the lower lumbar region of the spine reside in an arch referred as having a sagittal alignment. The sagittal alignment is compromised when adjacent vertebral bodies that were once angled toward each other on their posterior side become fused in a different, less angled orientation relative to one another. Finally, there is always the risk that the fusion attempt may fail, leading to pseudoarthrosis, an often painful condition that may lead to device failure and further surgery.
  • [0013]
    Conventional interbody fusion cages generally comprise a tubular metal body having an external surface threading. They are inserted transverse to the axis of the spine, into preformed cylindrical holes at the junction of adjacent vertebral bodies. Two cages are generally inserted side by side with the external threading tapping into the lower surface of the vertebral bone above, and the upper surface of the vertebral bone below. The cages include holes through which the adjacent bones are to grow. Additional materials, for example autogenous bone graft materials, may be inserted into the hollow interior of the cage to incite or accelerate the growth of the bone into the cage. End caps are often utilized to hold the bone graft material within the cage.
  • [0014]
    These cages of the prior art have enjoyed medical success in promoting fusion and grossly approximating proper disc height. As previously discussed, however, cages that would be placed from the safer posterior route would be limited in size by the interval between the nerve roots. It would therefore, be a considerable advance in the art to provide a fusion implant assembly which could be expanded from within the intervertebral space, thereby minimizing potential trauma to the nerve roots and yet still providing the ability to restore disc space height.
  • [0015]
    Ultimately though, it is important to note that the fusion of the adjacent bones is an incomplete solution to the underlying pathology as it does not cure the ailment, but rather simply masks the pathology under a stabilizing bridge of bone. This bone fusion limits the overall flexibility of the spinal column and artificially constrains the normal motion of the patient. This constraint can cause collateral injury to the patient's spine as additional stresses of motion, normally bone by the now-fused joint, are transferred onto the nearby facet joints and intervertebral discs. Thus, it would be an even greater advance in the art to provide an implant assembly that does not promote fusion, but instead closely mimics the biomechanical action of the natural disc cartilage, thereby permitting continued normal motion and stress distribution.
  • SUMMARY
  • [0016]
    Accordingly, an artificial functional spinal unit (FSU) is provided comprising, generally, an expandable artificial intervertebral implant that can be placed via a posterior surgical approach and used in conjunction with one or more artificial facet joints to provide an anatomically correct range of motion. Expandable artificial intervertebral implants in both lordotic and non-lordotic designs are disclosed, as well as lordotic and non-lordotic expandable cages for both PLIF (posterior lumber interbody fusion) and TLIF (transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion) procedures. The expandable implants may have various shapes, such as round, square, rectangular, banana-shaped, kidney-shaped, or other similar shapes. By virtue of their posteriorly implanted approach, the disclosed artificial FSU's allow for posterior decompression of the neural elements, reconstruction of all or part of the natural functional spinal unit, restoration and maintenance of lordosis, maintenance of motion, and restoration and maintenance of disc space height.
  • [0017]
    The posterior implantation of an interbody device provides critical benefits over other anterior implanted devices. Placement of posterior devices that maintain mobility in the spine have been limited due to the relatively small opening that can be afforded posteriorly between the exiting and transversing nerve roots. Additionally, placement of posterior interbody devices requires the removal of one or both facet joints, further destabilizing the spine. Thus conventional posteriorly placed interbody devices have been generally limited to interbody fusion devices.
  • [0018]
    Since a properly functioning natural FSU relies on intact posterior elements (facet joints) and since it is necessary to remove these elements to place a posterior interbody device, a two-step procedure is disclosed that allows for placement of an expandable intervertebral implant and replacement of one or both facets that are necessarily removed during the surgical procedure. The expansile nature of the disclosed devices allow for restoration of disc height once inside the vertebral interspace. The expandable devices are collapsed prior to placement and then expanded once properly inserted in the intervertebral space. During the process of expansion, the endplates of the natural intervertebral disc, which essentially remain intact after removal or partial removal of the remaining natural disc elements, are compressed against the device, which thereby facilitates bony end growth onto the surface of the artificial implant. Once the interbody device is in place and expanded, the posterior element is reconstructed with the disclosed pedicle screw and rod system, which can also be used to distract the disk space while inserting the artificial implant. Once the interbody device is in place and expanded, the posterior element is further compressed, again promoting bony end growth into the artificial implant. This posterior compression allows for anterior flexion but replaces the limiting element of the facet and interspinous ligament and thereby limits flexion to some degree, and in doing so maintains stability for the anteriorly located interbody device.
  • [0019]
    The posterior approach avoids the potential risks and morbidity of the anterior approach, which requires mobilization of the vascular structures, the ureter, and exposes the bowels to risk. Also, the anterior approach does not offer the surgeon an opportunity to view the posterior neural elements and thereby does not afford an opportunity for decompression of those elements. Once an anterior exposure had been utilized a revision procedure is quite risky and carries significant morbidity.
  • [0020]
    The artificial FSU generally comprises an expandable intervertebral implant and one or more artificial facet joints. The expandable intervertebral implant generally comprises a pair of spaced apart plate members, each with a vertebral body contact surface. The general shape of the plate members may be round, square, rectangular, banana shaped, kidney shaped, or some other similar shape, depending on the desired vertebral implantation site. Because the artificial intervertebral implant is to be positioned between the facing surfaces of adjacent vertebral bodies, the plate members are arranged in a substantially parallel planar alignment (or slightly offset relative to one another in accordance with proper lordotic angulation) with the vertebral body contact surfaces facing away from one another. The plate members are to mate with the vertebral bodies so as to not rotate relative thereto, but rather to permit the spinal segments to axially compress and bend relative to one another in manners that mimic the natural motion of the spinal segment. This natural motion is permitted by the performance of an expandable joint insert, which is disposed between the plate members. The securing of the plate members to the vertebral bone is achieved through the use of a osteoconductive scaffolding machined into the exterior surface of each plate member. Alternatively, a mesh of osteoconductive surface may be secured to the exterior surface of the plate members by methods known in the art. The osteoconductive scaffolding provides a surface through which bone may ultimately grow. If an osteoconductive mesh is employed, it may be constructed of any biocompatible material, both metal and non-metal. Each plate member may also comprise a porous coating (which may be a sprayed deposition layer, or an adhesive applied beaded metal layer, or other suitable porous coatings known in the art, i.e. hydroxy appetite). The porous coating permits the long-term ingrowth of vertebral bone into the plate member, thus permanently securing the prosthesis within the intervertebral space.
  • [0021]
    In more detail, the expandable artificial implant of the present invention comprises four parts: an upper body, a lower body, an expandable joint insert that fits into the lower body, and an expansion device, which may be an expansion plate, screw, or other similar device. The upper body generally comprises a substantially concave inferior surface and a substantially planar superior surface. The substantially planar superior surface of the upper body may have some degree of convexity to promote the joining of the upper body to the intact endplates of the natural intervertebral disc upon compression. The lower body generally comprises a recessed channel, having a rectangular cross section, which extends along the superior surface of the lower body in the medial-lateral direction and substantially conforms to the shape of the upper and lower bodies. The lower body further comprises a substantially planar inferior surface that may have some degree of convexity to promote the joining of the lower body to the intact endplates of the natural intervertebral disc upon compression. The expandable joint insert resides within the channel on the superior surface of the lower body. The expandable joint insert has a generally flat inferior surface and a substantially convex superior surface that articulates with the substantially concave inferior surface of the upper body. Prior to expansion of the artificial implant, the generally flat inferior surface of the expandable joint insert rests on the bottom surface of the channel. The expandable joint insert is raised above the bottom of the channel by means of an expansion screw, an expansion plate, or other similar device, that is inserted through an expansion hole or slot. The expansion hole or slot is disposed through the wall of the lower body formed by the channel. The expansion hole or slot gives access to the lower surface of the channel and is positioned such that the expansion device can be inserted into the expansion hole or slot via a posterior surgical approach. As the expansion device is inserted through the expansion slot, into the channel, and under the expandable joint insert, the expandable joint insert is raised above the floor of the channel and lifts the upper body above the lower body to the desired disc height. The distance from the inferior surface of the lower body and the superior surface of the upper body should be equal to the ideal distraction height of the disk space. As the artificial implant is flexed and extended, the convex superior surface of the expandable joint insert articulates with the concave inferior surface of the upper body.
  • [0022]
    After the insertion and expansion of the expandable intervertebral implant, the posterior facet joints may be reconstructed by employing the disclosed artificial facet joints. One embodiment of the artificial facet joint generally comprises a lower and upper multi-axial pedicle screw joined by a rod bridging the vertebral bodies above and below the artificial implant. The rod comprises a washer-type head at its lower (caudad) end. The rod fits into the heads of the pedicle screws and a top loaded set screw is placed in the pedicle screw heads. The disclosed pedicle screw system may employ different types of pedicle screws so that the top loaded set screw may or may not lock down on the rod depending on surgeon preference. If a non-locking pedicle screw is used the caudad end remains fully multi-axial. The upper (cephalad) end of the rod is held within the head of the upper pedicle screw with a set screw which locks down on the rod and eliminates any rod movement at the cephalad end, which by nature has limited multi-axial function. In an alternative embodiment of an artificial facet joint, the rod may comprise washer-type heads on both ends (caudad and cephalad) so that both pedicle screws can be of the non-locking variety. In the event of a two level surgical procedure, three pedicle screws would be employed with a single rod, which would have washer-type heads at both ends. The middle pedicle screw would be a locking-type and the upper most and lower most pedicle screws would be of the non-locking variety.
  • [0023]
    In addition, another embodiment of the artificial facet joint is disclosed that generally comprises two locked pedicle screws joined by a rod having a ball and socket joint centrally located on the rod between the two pedicle screws. The locking of the pedicle screws prevents the screw head from swiveling, but allows rotation and translation of the rod.
  • [0024]
    In instances where a fusion procedure is unavoidable, a PLIF and TLIF cage are disclosed that utilize the expansion principal of the functional artificial intervertebral implant. The cage generally comprises three parts: An external body, an internal body, and an expansion device. The external and internal bodies will have substantially the same shape and will be shaped accordingly to the procedures for which they will be used, more specifically, a rectangular cage is employed for a PLIF procedure and round or banana shaped cage is employed for the TLIF procedure. Both the external and internal bodies comprise a mesh structure in which an osteoconductive substance can be placed (i.e., morsilized autograph or an osteobiologic substitute). The external body of the cage contains an internal void space that houses the internal body. The external body further comprises an expansion window on its superior surface through which the internal body is raised upon expansion of the cage. The internal body comprises a planar plate member that is slightly larger than the expansion window in the superior surface of the external body such that when the cage is expanded the planar plate member secures itself against the interior side of the expansion window, thereby interlocking the external and internal bodies and eliminating mobility between the two bodies. Similar to the functional expandable implant, an expansion device is placed through an expansion slot. The expansion device lifts the internal body relative to the external body, interlocking the planar plate member of the internal body against the interior of the expansion window, and pushing the mesh structure of the internal body through the expansion window and above the superior surface of the external body. Varying the height of the expansion device and the dimensions of the external and internal bodies allows for various distraction heights to regain disc space. As with the functional intervertebral implant, the PLIF and TLIF cages may take the form of either an expandable lordotic cage or a non-lordotic cage.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • [0025]
    Advantages of the present invention will become apparent to those skilled in the art with the benefit of the following detailed description and upon reference to the accompanying drawings in which:
  • [0026]
    FIG. 1 is a top view of a round, expandable intervertebral implant of the present invention.
  • [0027]
    FIG. 2 is a side cross-sectional view of the round, expandable intervertebral implant shown in FIG. 1.
  • [0028]
    FIG. 3 a is a top view of a banana-shaped, expandable intervertebral implant of the present invention.
  • [0029]
    FIG. 3 b is a side cross-sectional view of the banana-shaped, expandable intervertebral implant shown in FIG. 3 a.
  • [0030]
    FIG. 4 a is a cross-sectional illustration of an expandable intervertebral implant in compression.
  • [0031]
    FIG. 4 b is a cross-sectional illustration of an expandable intervertebral implant in flexion.
  • [0032]
    FIG. 5 a is a top view of a banana-shaped, expandable intervertebral implant, illustrating the insertion of expansion screws to expand the joint.
  • [0033]
    FIG. 5 b is a top view of a banana-shaped, expandable intervertebral implant, illustrating the insertion of a non-threaded expansion device to expand the joint.
  • [0034]
    FIG. 6 a is a top view of a banana-shaped, expandable intervertebral implant, illustrating the insertion of an expansion plate to expand the joint.
  • [0035]
    FIG. 6 b is a side cross-sectional view of a banana-shaped, expandable intervertebral implant, illustrating the insertion of an expansion plate to expand the joint.
  • [0036]
    FIG. 6 c is a side cross-sectional view of an expandable intervertebral implant, featuring retaining pegs.
  • [0037]
    FIG. 6 d is a side cross-sectional view of an expandable intervertebral implant in flexion, featuring retaining pegs.
  • [0038]
    FIG. 7 a is a cross-sectional view of an expandable intervertebral implant, prior to expansion.
  • [0039]
    FIG. 7 b is a cross-sectional view of an expandable intervertebral implant, following expansion.
  • [0040]
    FIG. 8 is a side perspective view illustrating placement of an expandable intervertebral implant within an intervertebral space.
  • [0041]
    FIG. 9 a is a side view of an artificial facet joint of the present invention, featuring a rod with two washer-type heads.
  • [0042]
    FIG. 9 b is a side view of an artificial facet joint of the present invention, featuring a rod with a single washer-type head.
  • [0043]
    FIG. 9 c is a cross-sectional view of a pedicle screw featuring a locking screw head.
  • [0044]
    FIG. 10 is a side view of an artificial facet joint of the present invention, featuring a rod having a ball joint.
  • [0045]
    FIG. 11 is a posterior view of the spine after reconstruction and implantation of an artificial functional spinal unit including an expandable intervertebral implant and an artificial facet joint.
  • [0046]
    FIG. 12 a is a top view of an expandable PLIF cage in accordance with the present invention.
  • [0047]
    FIG. 12 b is a side cross-sectional view of an expandable PLIF cage in accordance with the present invention prior to expansion.
  • [0048]
    FIG. 12 c is a side cross-sectional view of an expandable PLIF cage in accordance with the present invention following expansion.
  • [0049]
    FIG. 12 d is a side cross-sectional view of an expandable TLIF cage in accordance with the present invention prior to expansion.
  • [0050]
    FIG. 12 e is a side cross-sectional view of an expandable TLIF cage in accordance with the present invention following expansion.
  • [0051]
    FIG. 13 a is a posterior view of a banana-shaped lordotic expandable intervertebral implant.
  • [0052]
    FIG. 13 b is a top view of a banana-shaped lordotic expandable intervertebral implant.
  • [0053]
    FIG. 14 a is a lateral view of a banana-shaped lordotic expandable intervertebral implant prior to expansion.
  • [0054]
    FIG. 14 b is a lateral view of a banana-shaped lordotic expandable intervertebral implant following expansion.
  • [0055]
    FIG. 15 a is a side cross-sectional view of an expandable lordotic cage prior to expansion.
  • [0056]
    FIG. 15 b is a side cross-sectional view of an expandable lordotic cage following expansion.
  • [0057]
    FIG. 16 a is a lateral view of a banana-shaped lordotic expandable intervertebral implant featuring an inclined expansion plate.
  • [0058]
    FIG. 16 b is a side cross-sectional view of an expandable lordotic cage featuring an inclined expansion plate.
  • [0059]
    While the invention may be susceptible to various modifications and alternative forms, specific embodiments thereof are shown by way of example in the drawings and will herein be described in detail. The drawings may not be to scale. It should be understood, however, that the drawings and detailed description thereto are not intended to limit the invention to the particular form disclosed, but to the contrary, the intention is to cover all modifications, equivalents, and alternatives falling within the spirit and scope of the present invention as defined by the appended claims.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • [0060]
    In the following detailed description of the preferred embodiments, reference is made to the accompanying drawings, which form a part hereof, and in which are shown by way of illustration specific embodiments in which the invention may be practiced. It is to be understood that other embodiments may be utilized and structural changes may be made without departing from the scope of the present invention.
  • [0061]
    FIGS. 1 and 2 show a round, expandable artificial intervertebral implant designated generally at 10. The device is implemented through a posterior surgical approach by making an incision in the annulus connecting adjacent vertebral bodies after removing one or more facet joints. The natural spinal disc is removed from the incision after which the expandable artificial intervertebral implant is placed through the incision into position between the vertebral bodies. The implant is preferably made of a biocompatible metal having a non-porous quality and a smooth finish; however, it may also be constructed of ceramic or any other suitable inert material.
  • [0062]
    The expandable artificial intervertebral implant 10 generally comprises an upper body 12 and a lower body 14 in a substantially parallel planar configuration. The superior surface 2 of the upper body 12 and the inferior surface 4 of the lower body 14 comprise a machined osteoconductive scaffolding 13 through which the bone may ultimately grow. Osteoconductive scaffolding 13 may also include spines or barbs that project into and secure against the bony endplates of the adjacent bony vertebral bodies upon expansion of the joint and minimize the possibility of sublaxation and/or dislocation. The upper body 12 has a substantially concave inferior surface 16. The lower body 14 has a channel 15 in superior surface 17. Channel 15 has a rectangular cross-section that extends along the lower body 14 in the medial-lateral direction and substantially conforms to the shape of the upper 12 and lower 14 bodies. An expandable joint insert 19 resides within the channel 15 on the lower body. The expandable joint insert 19 has a generally flat inferior surface 20 and a substantially convex superior surface 21 that articulates with the substantially concave inferior surface 16 of the upper body 12. The expandable joint insert 19 is lifted from the bottom of channel 15 by means of an expansion screw 21, or other device, that is inserted between the generally flat inferior surface 20 of the expandable joint insert 19 and the bottom of the channel 15 extending along the lower body 14 through an expansion slot 18. A void space is created between the expandable joint insert 19 and the floor of the channel 15 in cross sections not including the expansion device. A securing means, such as the cables 25, may be employed to ensure the upper body 12 and the lower body 14 remain intact during flexion and extension of the FSU. Alternative means for securing the upper body 12 and lower body 14 may also be employed, such as retaining pegs, torsion springs, or similar devices.
  • [0063]
    FIGS. 3 a and 3 b show a banana-shaped expandable artificial intervertebral implant 50. As with the round implant 10 shown in FIG. 1, the banana-shaped implant also comprises an upper body 52 and a lower body 54 in a substantially planar configuration, each having an external osteoconductive scaffolding 53. Note that the channel 55 and the expandable joint insert 59, which is disposed within the channel 55, substantially conforms to the shape of the upper 52 and lower 54 bodies. Whereas the round expandable implant may comprise a single expansion device, the banana-shaped implant may contain one or more expansion devices 61 that are inserted into expansion slots 60. Otherwise, the cross-section of the banana-shaped implant is substantially similar to FIG. 2.
  • [0064]
    Turning to FIGS. 4 a and 4 b, an expandable artificial intervertebral implant is shown in flexion and extension, respectively. The concave inferior surface of 16 of upper body 12 articulates with the convex superior surface 21 of expandable joint insert 19. As stated above, securing means 25 may be employed to prevent dislocation of the implant.
  • [0065]
    FIGS. 5 a and 5 b illustrate the insertion of expansion devices into a banana-shaped implant. The artificial intervertebral implant 50 in FIG. 5 a employs expansion screws 70 to expand joint insert 19. One or more expansion screws 70 may be inserted through one or more threaded expansion slots 71. Alternatively, as shown in FIG. 5 b, artificial implant 55 may employ a non-threaded expansion device 72 inserted through a non-threaded expansion slot 73 to accomplish the expansion of joint insert 19. The non-threaded expansion slot 73 preferably has an arcuate shape to facilitate insertion after the artificial disc prosthesis has been properly placed within the intervertebral space. The non-threaded expansion device 72 has substantially the same shape as expansion slot 73. A threaded end cap 74 may be employed to retain the expansion device 72 inside the expansion slot 73.
  • [0066]
    FIGS. 6 a and 6 b illustrate an alternative embodiment of a non-threaded expansion device. As shown in FIG. 6 a, a banana-shaped artificial intervertebral implant 80 having a wide expansion slot 81 on either the medial or lateral side of the implant 80. Expansion plate 82 is impacted into place through expansion slot 81 after artificial implant 80 has been properly placed within the intervertebral space. Similar to the previously described embodiments, the artificial implant comprises an upper body 83 and a lower body 84 in a substantially planar configuration, each having an osteoconductive scaffolding 85 machined on their superior and inferior surfaces, respectively. Note that the channel 86, as well as expansion plate 82, substantially conforms to the shape of the upper 83 and lower 84 bodies. Joint insert 87 also generally conforms to the shape of the upper 83 and lower 84 bodies, however, an advantageous shape for the banana-shaped implant 80 is more oval to provide improved biomechanical motion of the implant. The bottom floor of channel 86 may also employ a locking lip 88 to ensure that the expansion plate 82 is properly installed and to minimize the potential for dislocating expansion plate 82.
  • [0067]
    FIGS. 6 c and 6 d illustrate another embodiment of an expandable intervertebral implant featuring retaining pegs 91 to ensure against dislocation of upper body 83 from lower body 84 during flexion, extension and torsional motion. A plurality of retaining pegs 91 project substantially upward from the superior surface of lower body 84. On the inferior surface, upper body 83 comprises a plurality of holes, or containment wells 90, dimensionally larger than captive pegs 91 and arranged such that when upper body 83 is properly positioned upon lower body 84, captive pegs 91 are housed within containment wells 90. As shown in FIG. 6 d, when the intervertebral implant is flexed or extended, captive pegs 91 prohibit dislocation of upper body 83 from lower body 84. While the pegs and containment wells may be any shape, captive pegs 91 are preferably round and containment wells 90 are preferably oval in shape, which gives limited torsional mobility as well.
  • [0068]
    FIGS. 7 a and 7 b illustrate the expansion of joint insert 19 in more detail. As shown in FIG. 7 a and prior to expansion of joint insert 19, upper body 12 rests upon lower body 14 and the generally flat inferior surface 20 of joint insert 19 rests upon the bottom of channel 15, which extends along the lower body 14. Disposed along the generally flat inferior surface 20 of expandable joint insert 19 and adjacent to expansion slot 18, is a lifting notch 17 that engages with the expansion screw 70. Lifting notch 17 facilitates the lifting of expandable joint insert 19 and allows expansion screw 70 to come into contact with the generally flat inferior surface 20 of joint insert 19. Once inserted, as shown in FIG. 7 b, the generally flat inferior surface 20 of expandable joint insert 19 rests upon expansion screw 70 and the upper body 12 is lifted above lower body 14 to the desired intervertebral disc height 71.
  • [0069]
    FIG. 8 shows an expandable artificial intervertebral implant 10 inserted into the spinal column. Note that the expandable artificial implant 10 is posteriorly inserted and expanded through void space 90, which is created by removal of a facet joint.
  • [0070]
    The disclosed techniques of expanding an artificial implant by inserting an expansion plate or similar device may also be employed to expand a PLIF or TLIF cage. As shown in FIGS. 12 a, 12 b and 12 c, a PLIF cage 300 is disclosed comprising a substantially rectangular external cage element 301 housing an internal expandable element 302. The PLIF cage element 301 has an osteoconductive mesh structure 303, in which an osteoconductive substance can be placed, on its inferior surface 304 and an expansion window 305 located on its superior surface 306. The internal expandable element 302 comprises a generally planar plate member 307 having an inferior 308 and superior surface 309. A second osteoconductive mesh structure 310 is secured upon the superior surface 309 of the planar plate member 307 of the internal expandable element 302. The inferior surface 308 of the planar plate member 307 has a lifting notch 311 to facilitate the expansion of the device upon installation of the expansion plate312. The expansion plate 312 is inserted into the posteriorly located expansion slot 313 of the PLIF external cage element 301 and engages the lifting notch 311 of the planar plate member 307 of the internal expandable element 302. Locking lip 314 located within expansion slot 313 minimizes the potential of expansion plate 312 dislocation.
  • [0071]
    FIGS. 12 d and 12 e show a TLIF cage similar to the PLIF cage described above. The primary difference between the TLIF cage and the PLIF cage is that the TLIF cage comprises a t-shaped cross-sectional osteoconductive mesh structure 310 secured upon the superior surface 309 of the planar plate member 307 of the internal expandable element 302 such that the osteoconductive mesh structure 310 overhangs the superior surface 306 of the external cage element 301. Thus providing more surface area between the osteoconductive mesh structure 310 and the bony endplates within the intervertebral space.
  • [0072]
    One embodiment of an artificial facet joint 100 is shown in FIG. 9 a. Artificial facet joint 100 comprises an upper pedicle screw 101 and a lower pedicle screw 102. Rod 103 is retained within the head 104 of upper pedicle screw 101 and the head 105 of lower pedicle screw 102. Rod 103 has washer-type ends 106 that allows for posterior compression, but not extension.
  • [0073]
    Another embodiment of an artificial facet joint 110 is shown in FIG. 9 b. Rod 113 comprises a single washer-type end 116 on its lower end 117. The head 115 of upper pedicle screw 112 has a threaded locking screw 118, as shown in FIG. 9 c, that holds rod 113 in place and prohibits the head 115 of pedicle screw 112 from swiveling, but allows rod 113 to rotate and translate through the head 115 of pedicle screw 102.
  • [0074]
    Another embodiment of an artificial facet joint 200 is shown in FIG. 10. Artificial facet joint 200 generally comprises an upper pedicle screw 201 and a lower pedicle screw 202 and rod 203 retained within the heads of pedicle screws 201, 202. Both pedicle screws 201, 202 are secured with locking screws 218 that prevent the heads 204, 205 of pedicle screws 201, 202 from swiveling, but allow rotation and translation of rod 203. Rod 203 comprises two rod members 206, 207 connected via a ball joint 208. Ball joint 208 allows for a generally upward rotation, away from the bony surfaces of the vertebrae to which they are secured, but prohibit a generally downward rotation, which would bring the ball joint in contact with the vertebrae to which they are secured.
  • [0075]
    FIG. 11 shows the artificial facet joint 200 of FIG. 10 in place on the spinal column. Note that artificial intervertebral implant 10 has been posteriorly placed within the intervertebral space through the void created by the surgical removal of the natural facet joint. In addition, ball joint 208 generally rotates in the posterior (upward) direction during posterior compression to prevent impact upon the bony surfaces of the spine.
  • [0076]
    FIGS. 13 a, 13 b, 14 a and 14 b illustrate a lordotic, banana-shaped expandable artificial intervertebral implant 400. The lumbar spine is lordotic, thus the anterior disc height is naturally larger than the posterior disc height. Therefore, an expandable artificial intervertebral implant for the lumbar spine must be capable of expanding into a lordotic position. FIG. 13 a shows the lordotic expandable artificial intervertebral implant 400 from a posterior view. Lordotic expandable artificial intervertebral implant 400 generally comprises an upper body 412 and a lower hinged body 414 in a substantially planar configuration prior to expansion. The superior surface 402 of the upper body 412 and the inferior surface 404 of the lower hinged body 414 comprise an osteoconductive scaffolding 413 through which the bone may ultimately grow. The upper body 412 has a substantially concave inferior surface 416.
  • [0077]
    The lower hinged body 414 comprises a lower portion 420 and an upper portion 430. Lower portion 420 and upper portion 430 are posteriorly hinged via hinge 440. Hinge 440 effectively fixes the posterior disk height 460 (shown in FIG. 14 b). Upper portion 430 of hinged body 414 has a generally flat inferior surface 431 and a substantially convex superior surface 432. The lower portion 420 has a substantially planar configuration prior to expansion. Located at the anterior end 421 of lower portion 420 is a rotational lifting mechanism 422. Once placed in the intervertebral space, the rotational lifting leg is rotationally engaged, thus lifting the anterior end 421 of the expandable artificial intervertebral implant 400 to achieve the desired anterior disc height 470 and proper lordosis. Securing notch 425 is located on the anterior end 421 of the upper portion 430 of hinged body 414. Securing notch 425 engages with rotational lifting mechanism 422 once the expandable artificial intervertebral implant 400 has been expanded. The height of rotational lifting mechanism 422 is determined by the desired proper lordosis when the intervertebral implant 400 is under neutral load.
  • [0078]
    Upper body 412 has a substantially concave inferior surface 416 that articulates with the substantially convex superior surface 432 of upper portion 430 of lower hinged body 414. When viewed in the medial or lateral direction, as shown in FIGS. 14 a and 14 b, upper body 412 has a downwardly projecting lobe 450 for the attachment of safety bar 452. Safety bar 452 secures upper body 412 to upper portion 430 of lower hinged body 414 and minimizes the possibility of dislocation.
  • [0079]
    FIG. 13 b is a top view of lordotic expandable artificial intervertebral implant 400 illustrating the placement of posterior hinge 440, rotational lifting mechanism 422, and safety bar 452 affixed through upper body 412 and upper portion 430 of lower hinged body 414.
  • [0080]
    The rotational lifting mechanism described above may also be employed to achieve proper lordosis with an expandable PLIF and TLIF cage, as shown in FIGS. 15 a and 15 b. Cage 500 is shown prior to expansion in FIG. 15 a and expanded in FIG. 15 b. Cage 500 comprises an upper body 502 and a lower body 504. Hinge 506 posteriorly connects upper body 502 to lower body 504 and effectively fixes posterior disc height 510 upon expansion of cage 500. The superior surface 512 of upper body 502 and the inferior surface 514 of lower body 504 may include an osteoconductive scaffolding or mesh 520 as previously described. Expansion of cage 500 is accomplished via rotational lifting mechanism 530, which engages with securing notch 525, located on the anterior end 528 of the inferior surface 513 of upper body 502, and minimizes the potential for dislocation. The height of rotational lifting mechanism 530, which effectively fixes anterior disc height 540, is determined by the desired proper lordosis.
  • [0081]
    Another embodiment of an expandable lordotic artificial intervertebral implant is illustrated in FIGS. 16 aand 16 b. Lordotic expandable intervertebral implant 600 and lordotic cage 700 both utilize an inclined expansion plate 650 to achieve proper lordosis. Both devices are similar to those described above with the exception of the expansion device and reference is made to FIGS. 14 a and 14 b for lordotic expandable intervertebral implant 600 and FIGS. 15 a and 15 b for lordotic cage 700 for elements of the intervertebral implants already identified. Expansion plate 650 is generally wedged-shaped and comprises a lifting notch 620 on its posterior end 622 to facilitate expansion. As shown in FIG. 16 a, expansion plate 650 is installed between the upper portion 430 and lower portion 420 of lower hinged body 414. Located on the superior surface 630 at the anterior end 624 is securing ridge 635. Securing ridge 635 engages with securing notch 625 similar to the rotational lifting mechanism described above. Located on the anterior superior surface of lower portion 420 of lower hinged body 414 is a locking lip 637, which minimizes the potential of dislocating inclined expansion plate 650. FIG. 16 b illustrate the use of expansion plate 650 in conjunction with lordotic cage 700.
  • [0082]
    Although the present invention has been described in terms of specific embodiments, it is anticipated that alterations and modifications thereof will no doubt become apparent to those skilled in the art. It is therefore intended that the following claims be interpreted as covering all alterations and modifications that fall within the true spirit and scope of the invention.

Claims (21)

1-106. (canceled)
107. A spinal implant assembly comprising:
at least one intervertebral implant comprising:
a lower body having an inferior surface and a superior surface, the superior surface having an upwardly projecting wall forming a channel thereupon, the wall having an opening defined therethrough;
an upper body located above the lower body, the upper body having a superior surface and a substantially concave inferior surface;
a joint insert having an inferior surface and a substantially convex superior surface, the joint insert residing within the channel on the lower body; and
an expansion device capable of being inserted through the opening in the wall on the lower body such that, upon insertion of the expansion device, the joint insert is lifted above the channel causing the insert to articulate with the substantially concave inferior surface of the upper body; and
at least one artificial facet joint.
108. The spinal implant assembly of claim 107, wherein at least one artificial facet joint comprises:
an upper multi-axial pedicle screw having a non-locking head with a hole defined therethrough;
a lower multi-axial pedicle screw having a non-locking head with a hole defined therethrough; and
a rod having a central rod portion and two washer-type heads on each end of the central rod portion, the central rod portion slidingly positioned through the hole in the non-locking head of the upper multi-axial pedicle screw and the lower multi-axial pedicle screw such that the heads of the upper and lower multi-axial pedicle screws slide freely along the central rod portion.
109. The spinal implant assembly of claim 107, wherein at least one artificial facet joint comprises:
an upper pedicle screw having a lockable head with a hole defined therethrough;
a lower multi-axial pedicle screw having a non-locking head with a hole defined therethrough; and
a rod having a central rod portion, an upper end and a lower end, the lower end having a washer-type head, the central rod portion slidingly positioned through the hole in the non-locking head of the lower multi-axial pedicle screw such that the washer-type lower head prohibits dislocation of the lower multi-axial pedicle screw from the central rod portion, and the upper end of the rod slidingly positioned through the hole in the lockable head of the upper pedicle screw such that, upon locking of the lockable head, rotational and translational motion of the upper end of the rod is prohibited.
110. The spinal implant assembly of claim 107, wherein at least one artificial facet joint comprises:
an upper pedicle screw having a lockable head with a hole defined therethrough;
a lower pedicle screw having a lockable head with a hole defined therethrough; and
a rod having an upper end, a lower end and a central ball joint connecting the upper and lower end that permits the rod to bend, the upper end of the rod slidingly positioned within the hole of the head of the upper pedicle screw, the lower end of the rod slidingly positioned within the hole of the lower pedicle screw, the lockable heads of the upper and lower pedicle screw being locked such that rotational and translational motion of the rod is prohibited.
111. The spinal implant assembly of claim 107, wherein at least one intervertebral implant comprises osteoconductive scaffolding into which bone may grow disposed on the superior surface of the upper body.
112. The spinal implant assembly of claim 107, wherein at least one expandable intervertebral implant comprises osteoconductive scaffolding into which bone may grow disposed on the inferior surface of the lower body.
113. The spinal implant assembly of claim 107, wherein the upper body and lower body have substantially similar shapes.
114. The spinal implant assembly of claim 113, wherein the shape of the upper body when viewed proximally is round.
115. The spinal implant assembly of claim 113, wherein the shape of the upper body when viewed proximally is banana-shaped.
116. An artificial functional spinal unit, comprising:
at least one intervertebral implant, wherein at least one intervertebral implant comprises a lower body configured to couple to a first human vertebra and an upper body configured to couple to a second human vertebra, and wherein the upper body is moveable relative to the lower body to accommodate at least flexion of the first human vertebra relative to the second human vertebra; and
at least one artificial facet joint configured to couple to the first human vertebra and the second human vertebra.
117. The artificial functional spinal unit of claim 116, wherein at least one artificial facet joint comprises:
a first pedicle screw;
a second pedicle screw; and
a rod configured to couple to the first pedicle screw and the second pedicle screw such that a head of the first pedicle screw and a head of the second screw are able to slide relative to the rod after installation of the artificial facet joint.
118. The artificial functional spinal unit of claim 116, wherein at least one artificial facet joint comprises:
a first pedicle screw;
a second pedicle screw; and
a rod configured to couple to the first pedicle screw and the second pedicle screw such that the rod is secured to a head of the first pedicle screw, and the rod is able to slide relative to a head of the second pedicle screw after installation of the artificial facet joint.
119. The artificial functional spinal unit of claim 116, wherein at least one artificial facet joint comprises:
a first pedicle screw;
a second pedicle screw;
a rod configured to couple to the first pedicle screw and the second pedicle screw,
wherein the rod includes a ball joint that allows the rod to bend, and wherein the rod is secured to a head of the first pedicle screw and to a head of the second pedicle screw during installation of the artificial facet joint.
120. The artificial functional spinal unit of claim 116, wherein at least one intervertebral implant comprises osteoconductive scaffolding into which bone may grow.
121. The artificial functional spinal unit of claim 116, wherein the shape of the upper body when viewed proximally is round.
122. The artificial functional spinal unit of claim 116, wherein the shape of the upper body when viewed proximally is banana-shaped.
123. A method of forming an artificial functional spinal unit, comprising:
placing one or more intervertebral implants between a first human vertebra and a second human vertebra, wherein at least one intervertebral implant is configured to accommodate flexion of the first human vertebra relative to the second human vertebra; and
securing at least one artificial facet joint to the first human vertebra and the second human vertebra.
124. The method of claim 123, wherein placing at least one of the intervertebral implants comprises inserting the intervertebral implant between the first human vertebra and the second human vertebra, and expanding the intervertebral implant.
125. The method of claim 123, wherein securing at least one artificial facet joint to the first human vertebra and the second human vertebra comprises: placing a first pedicle screw in the first human vertebra; placing a second pedicle screw in the second human vertebra; coupling a rod to the first pedicle screw and the second pedicle screw, wherein the rod is able to move relative to the first pedicle screw after the rod is coupled to the first pedicle screw.
126. The method of claim 123, wherein at least one artificial facet joint comprises a ball joint configured to accommodate flexion of the first human vertebra relative to the second human vertebra.
US11526849 2003-08-05 2006-09-25 Artificial functional spinal unit assemblies Abandoned US20070073406A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US10634950 US7204853B2 (en) 2003-08-05 2003-08-05 Artificial functional spinal unit assemblies
US11526849 US20070073406A1 (en) 2003-08-05 2006-09-25 Artificial functional spinal unit assemblies

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US11526849 US20070073406A1 (en) 2003-08-05 2006-09-25 Artificial functional spinal unit assemblies

Related Parent Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US10634950 Continuation US7204853B2 (en) 2003-08-05 2003-08-05 Artificial functional spinal unit assemblies

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20070073406A1 true true US20070073406A1 (en) 2007-03-29

Family

ID=34116123

Family Applications (3)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US10634950 Active 2024-09-12 US7204853B2 (en) 2003-08-05 2003-08-05 Artificial functional spinal unit assemblies
US11343933 Abandoned US20060195192A1 (en) 2003-08-05 2006-01-31 Artificial functional spinal unit assemblies
US11526849 Abandoned US20070073406A1 (en) 2003-08-05 2006-09-25 Artificial functional spinal unit assemblies

Family Applications Before (2)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US10634950 Active 2024-09-12 US7204853B2 (en) 2003-08-05 2003-08-05 Artificial functional spinal unit assemblies
US11343933 Abandoned US20060195192A1 (en) 2003-08-05 2006-01-31 Artificial functional spinal unit assemblies

Country Status (1)

Country Link
US (3) US7204853B2 (en)

Cited By (28)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20050273171A1 (en) * 2003-08-05 2005-12-08 Gordon Charles R Method of inserting an expandable intervertebral implant without overdistraction
US20060217809A1 (en) * 2005-03-24 2006-09-28 Accin Corporation Intervertebral disc replacement device
US20060241769A1 (en) * 2003-08-05 2006-10-26 Southwest Research Institute Artificial functional spinal implant unit system and method for use
US20080065211A1 (en) * 2006-07-18 2008-03-13 Accin Corporation Intervertebral disc replacement device
US20080234732A1 (en) * 2007-01-19 2008-09-25 Landry Michael E Dynamic interbody devices
US20090299478A1 (en) * 2008-06-03 2009-12-03 Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc. Lordotic Implant for Posterior Approach
US7815648B2 (en) 2004-06-02 2010-10-19 Facet Solutions, Inc Surgical measurement systems and methods
US7909869B2 (en) 2003-08-05 2011-03-22 Flexuspine, Inc. Artificial spinal unit assemblies
US7914560B2 (en) 2004-02-17 2011-03-29 Gmedelaware 2 Llc Spinal facet implant with spherical implant apposition surface and bone bed and methods of use
US8075596B2 (en) 2007-01-12 2011-12-13 Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc. Spinal prosthesis systems
US8118869B2 (en) 2006-03-08 2012-02-21 Flexuspine, Inc. Dynamic interbody device
US8157844B2 (en) 2007-10-22 2012-04-17 Flexuspine, Inc. Dampener system for a posterior stabilization system with a variable length elongated member
US8162994B2 (en) 2007-10-22 2012-04-24 Flexuspine, Inc. Posterior stabilization system with isolated, dual dampener systems
US8182514B2 (en) 2007-10-22 2012-05-22 Flexuspine, Inc. Dampener system for a posterior stabilization system with a fixed length elongated member
US8187330B2 (en) 2007-10-22 2012-05-29 Flexuspine, Inc. Dampener system for a posterior stabilization system with a variable length elongated member
US8206418B2 (en) 2007-01-10 2012-06-26 Gmedelaware 2 Llc System and method for facet joint replacement with detachable coupler
US8267965B2 (en) 2007-10-22 2012-09-18 Flexuspine, Inc. Spinal stabilization systems with dynamic interbody devices
US8523912B2 (en) 2007-10-22 2013-09-03 Flexuspine, Inc. Posterior stabilization systems with shared, dual dampener systems
US8777994B2 (en) 2004-06-02 2014-07-15 Gmedelaware 2 Llc System and method for multiple level facet joint arthroplasty and fusion
US8940051B2 (en) 2011-03-25 2015-01-27 Flexuspine, Inc. Interbody device insertion systems and methods
US8956414B2 (en) 2010-04-21 2015-02-17 Spinecraft, LLC Intervertebral body implant, instrument and method
US9216096B2 (en) 2010-03-16 2015-12-22 Pinnacle Spine Group, Llc Intervertebral implants and related tools
US9380932B1 (en) 2011-11-02 2016-07-05 Pinnacle Spine Group, Llc Retractor devices for minimally invasive access to the spine
US9492288B2 (en) 2013-02-20 2016-11-15 Flexuspine, Inc. Expandable fusion device for positioning between adjacent vertebral bodies
US9517144B2 (en) 2014-04-24 2016-12-13 Exactech, Inc. Limited profile intervertebral implant with incorporated fastening mechanism
US9526627B2 (en) 2011-11-17 2016-12-27 Exactech, Inc. Expandable interbody device system and method
US9788971B1 (en) 2013-05-22 2017-10-17 Nuvasive, Inc. Expandable fusion implant and related methods
US9801734B1 (en) 2013-08-09 2017-10-31 Nuvasive, Inc. Lordotic expandable interbody implant

Families Citing this family (195)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20080177310A1 (en) * 2000-10-20 2008-07-24 Archus Orthopedics, Inc. Facet arthroplasty devices and methods
US20050027361A1 (en) * 1999-10-22 2005-02-03 Reiley Mark A. Facet arthroplasty devices and methods
US7691145B2 (en) * 1999-10-22 2010-04-06 Facet Solutions, Inc. Prostheses, systems and methods for replacement of natural facet joints with artificial facet joint surfaces
US20050080486A1 (en) 2000-11-29 2005-04-14 Fallin T. Wade Facet joint replacement
US6579319B2 (en) * 2000-11-29 2003-06-17 Medicinelodge, Inc. Facet joint replacement
US6419703B1 (en) 2001-03-01 2002-07-16 T. Wade Fallin Prosthesis for the replacement of a posterior element of a vertebra
US7090698B2 (en) * 2001-03-02 2006-08-15 Facet Solutions Method and apparatus for spine joint replacement
US8876868B2 (en) 2002-09-06 2014-11-04 Roger P. Jackson Helical guide and advancement flange with radially loaded lip
US8926672B2 (en) 2004-11-10 2015-01-06 Roger P. Jackson Splay control closure for open bone anchor
US7828849B2 (en) * 2003-02-03 2010-11-09 Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc. Expanding interbody implant and articulating inserter and method
US7608104B2 (en) 2003-05-14 2009-10-27 Archus Orthopedics, Inc. Prostheses, tools and methods for replacement of natural facet joints with artifical facet joint surfaces
US7967850B2 (en) 2003-06-18 2011-06-28 Jackson Roger P Polyaxial bone anchor with helical capture connection, insert and dual locking assembly
USRE46431E1 (en) 2003-06-18 2017-06-13 Roger P Jackson Polyaxial bone anchor with helical capture connection, insert and dual locking assembly
US8926670B2 (en) 2003-06-18 2015-01-06 Roger P. Jackson Polyaxial bone screw assembly
US7316714B2 (en) * 2003-08-05 2008-01-08 Flexuspine, Inc. Artificial functional spinal unit assemblies
US7204853B2 (en) * 2003-08-05 2007-04-17 Flexuspine, Inc. Artificial functional spinal unit assemblies
US20050131406A1 (en) * 2003-12-15 2005-06-16 Archus Orthopedics, Inc. Polyaxial adjustment of facet joint prostheses
US7771479B2 (en) * 2004-01-09 2010-08-10 Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc. Dual articulating spinal device and method
US7875077B2 (en) 2004-01-09 2011-01-25 Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc. Support structure device and method
US7862587B2 (en) 2004-02-27 2011-01-04 Jackson Roger P Dynamic stabilization assemblies, tool set and method
US7766915B2 (en) 2004-02-27 2010-08-03 Jackson Roger P Dynamic fixation assemblies with inner core and outer coil-like member
US9050148B2 (en) 2004-02-27 2015-06-09 Roger P. Jackson Spinal fixation tool attachment structure
US7160300B2 (en) 2004-02-27 2007-01-09 Jackson Roger P Orthopedic implant rod reduction tool set and method
US7383164B2 (en) * 2004-03-05 2008-06-03 Depuy Products, Inc. System and method for designing a physiometric implant system
WO2005084590A1 (en) * 2004-03-08 2005-09-15 Impliant Ltd. Spinal prosthesis
US7717939B2 (en) 2004-03-31 2010-05-18 Depuy Spine, Inc. Rod attachment for head to head cross connector
US7645294B2 (en) * 2004-03-31 2010-01-12 Depuy Spine, Inc. Head-to-head connector spinal fixation system
US7406775B2 (en) * 2004-04-22 2008-08-05 Archus Orthopedics, Inc. Implantable orthopedic device component selection instrument and methods
US8187303B2 (en) * 2004-04-22 2012-05-29 Gmedelaware 2 Llc Anti-rotation fixation element for spinal prostheses
US7051451B2 (en) * 2004-04-22 2006-05-30 Archus Orthopedics, Inc. Facet joint prosthesis measurement and implant tools
US20070093833A1 (en) * 2004-05-03 2007-04-26 Kuiper Mark K Crossbar spinal prosthesis having a modular design and related implantation methods
US20080082171A1 (en) * 2004-04-22 2008-04-03 Kuiper Mark K Crossbar spinal prosthesis having a modular design and systems for treating spinal pathologies
US20050261770A1 (en) * 2004-04-22 2005-11-24 Kuiper Mark K Crossbar spinal prosthesis having a modular design and related implantation methods
US7674293B2 (en) * 2004-04-22 2010-03-09 Facet Solutions, Inc. Crossbar spinal prosthesis having a modular design and related implantation methods
EP1809214B1 (en) 2004-10-25 2017-07-12 Gmedelaware 2 LLC Spinal prothesis having a modular design
US7854766B2 (en) * 2004-05-13 2010-12-21 Moskowitz Nathan C Artificial total lumbar disc for unilateral safe and simple posterior placement in the lumbar spine, and removable bifunctional screw which drives vertical sliding expansile plate expansion, and interplate widening, and angled traction spikes
US7351261B2 (en) * 2004-06-30 2008-04-01 Depuy Spine, Inc. Multi-joint implant
US7261738B2 (en) 2004-06-30 2007-08-28 Depuy Spine, Inc. C-shaped disc prosthesis
US8021428B2 (en) * 2004-06-30 2011-09-20 Depuy Spine, Inc. Ceramic disc prosthesis
US20060041311A1 (en) * 2004-08-18 2006-02-23 Mcleer Thomas J Devices and methods for treating facet joints
US8398681B2 (en) * 2004-08-18 2013-03-19 Gmedelaware 2 Llc Adjacent level facet arthroplasty devices, spine stabilization systems, and methods
US7717938B2 (en) 2004-08-27 2010-05-18 Depuy Spine, Inc. Dual rod cross connectors and inserter tools
WO2006034436A3 (en) 2004-09-21 2006-10-19 Stout Medical Group Lp Expandable support device and method of use
US7651502B2 (en) 2004-09-24 2010-01-26 Jackson Roger P Spinal fixation tool set and method for rod reduction and fastener insertion
US7481840B2 (en) * 2004-09-29 2009-01-27 Kyphon Sarl Multi-piece artificial spinal disk replacement device with selectably positioning articulating element
US20060069441A1 (en) * 2004-09-29 2006-03-30 Zucherman James F Posterior approach implant method for assembly of multi-piece artificial spinal disk replacement device in situ
US8092496B2 (en) * 2004-09-30 2012-01-10 Depuy Spine, Inc. Methods and devices for posterior stabilization
US20060084976A1 (en) * 2004-09-30 2006-04-20 Depuy Spine, Inc. Posterior stabilization systems and methods
US20060079895A1 (en) * 2004-09-30 2006-04-13 Mcleer Thomas J Methods and devices for improved bonding of devices to bone
US20060085075A1 (en) * 2004-10-04 2006-04-20 Archus Orthopedics, Inc. Polymeric joint complex and methods of use
US8162985B2 (en) * 2004-10-20 2012-04-24 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Systems and methods for posterior dynamic stabilization of the spine
US8025680B2 (en) * 2004-10-20 2011-09-27 Exactech, Inc. Systems and methods for posterior dynamic stabilization of the spine
US8267969B2 (en) 2004-10-20 2012-09-18 Exactech, Inc. Screw systems and methods for use in stabilization of bone structures
US7935134B2 (en) 2004-10-20 2011-05-03 Exactech, Inc. Systems and methods for stabilization of bone structures
US7833250B2 (en) 2004-11-10 2010-11-16 Jackson Roger P Polyaxial bone screw with helically wound capture connection
US8152810B2 (en) 2004-11-23 2012-04-10 Jackson Roger P Spinal fixation tool set and method
JP4601051B2 (en) * 2004-12-20 2010-12-22 株式会社セタ Game chips
US7766940B2 (en) * 2004-12-30 2010-08-03 Depuy Spine, Inc. Posterior stabilization system
US7896906B2 (en) 2004-12-30 2011-03-01 Depuy Spine, Inc. Artificial facet joint
US7993373B2 (en) * 2005-02-22 2011-08-09 Hoy Robert W Polyaxial orthopedic fastening apparatus
US7722647B1 (en) 2005-03-14 2010-05-25 Facet Solutions, Inc. Apparatus and method for posterior vertebral stabilization
US8496686B2 (en) * 2005-03-22 2013-07-30 Gmedelaware 2 Llc Minimally invasive spine restoration systems, devices, methods and kits
WO2006102443A3 (en) * 2005-03-22 2007-05-10 Archus Orthopedics Inc Minimally invasive spine restoration systems, devices, methods and kits
US7758581B2 (en) 2005-03-28 2010-07-20 Facet Solutions, Inc. Polyaxial reaming apparatus and method
US7776067B2 (en) 2005-05-27 2010-08-17 Jackson Roger P Polyaxial bone screw with shank articulation pressure insert and method
US7658752B2 (en) * 2005-06-10 2010-02-09 DePay Spine, Inc. Posterior dynamic stabilization x-device
WO2007009107A3 (en) 2005-07-14 2008-08-07 Scott E Greenhalgh Expandable support device and method of use
US8523865B2 (en) 2005-07-22 2013-09-03 Exactech, Inc. Tissue splitter
US20070239159A1 (en) * 2005-07-22 2007-10-11 Vertiflex, Inc. Systems and methods for stabilization of bone structures
US8226690B2 (en) * 2005-07-22 2012-07-24 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Systems and methods for stabilization of bone structures
US7722674B1 (en) * 2005-08-12 2010-05-25 Innvotec Surgical Inc. Linearly expanding spine cage for enhanced spinal fusion
ES1061036Y (en) * 2005-09-07 2006-04-01 Vanaclocha Vicente Vanaclocha lumbar disc prosthesis.
US9028550B2 (en) 2005-09-26 2015-05-12 Coalign Innovations, Inc. Selectively expanding spine cage with enhanced bone graft infusion
US8070813B2 (en) 2005-09-26 2011-12-06 Coalign Innovations, Inc. Selectively expanding spine cage, hydraulically controllable in three dimensions for vertebral body replacement
US7985256B2 (en) * 2005-09-26 2011-07-26 Coalign Innovations, Inc. Selectively expanding spine cage, hydraulically controllable in three dimensions for enhanced spinal fusion
USH2261H1 (en) 2005-09-26 2011-08-02 Simmons Jr James W Disc and facet replacement
US9271843B2 (en) 2005-09-27 2016-03-01 Henry F. Fabian Spine surgery method and implant
US7879074B2 (en) * 2005-09-27 2011-02-01 Depuy Spine, Inc. Posterior dynamic stabilization systems and methods
US8236058B2 (en) * 2005-09-27 2012-08-07 Fabian Henry F Spine surgery method and implant
US7993376B2 (en) * 2005-09-29 2011-08-09 Depuy Spine, Inc. Methods of implanting a motion segment repair system
US7618454B2 (en) * 2005-12-07 2009-11-17 Zimmer Spine, Inc. Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion spacers
WO2007126428A3 (en) * 2005-12-20 2008-08-28 Archus Orthopedics Inc Arthroplasty revision system and method
US8998959B2 (en) 2009-06-15 2015-04-07 Roger P Jackson Polyaxial bone anchors with pop-on shank, fully constrained friction fit retainer and lock and release insert
US8444681B2 (en) 2009-06-15 2013-05-21 Roger P. Jackson Polyaxial bone anchor with pop-on shank, friction fit retainer and winged insert
US9168069B2 (en) 2009-06-15 2015-10-27 Roger P. Jackson Polyaxial bone anchor with pop-on shank and winged insert with lower skirt for engaging a friction fit retainer
US9668771B2 (en) 2009-06-15 2017-06-06 Roger P Jackson Soft stabilization assemblies with off-set connector
US9393047B2 (en) 2009-06-15 2016-07-19 Roger P. Jackson Polyaxial bone anchor with pop-on shank and friction fit retainer with low profile edge lock
US7833252B2 (en) * 2006-01-27 2010-11-16 Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc. Pivoting joints for spinal implants including designed resistance to motion and methods of use
US8057519B2 (en) * 2006-01-27 2011-11-15 Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc. Multi-axial screw assembly
US20070191839A1 (en) * 2006-01-27 2007-08-16 Sdgi Holdings, Inc. Non-locking multi-axial joints in a vertebral implant and methods of use
US7722652B2 (en) * 2006-01-27 2010-05-25 Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc. Pivoting joints for spinal implants including designed resistance to motion and methods of use
US20070191860A1 (en) * 2006-01-30 2007-08-16 Sdgi Holdings, Inc. Intervertebral prosthetic disc inserter
US20070179614A1 (en) * 2006-01-30 2007-08-02 Sdgi Holdings, Inc. Intervertebral prosthetic disc and method of installing same
US8556973B2 (en) * 2006-02-10 2013-10-15 DePuy Synthes Products, LLC Intervertebral disc prosthesis having multiple bearing surfaces
EP1988854A2 (en) * 2006-02-15 2008-11-12 M. S. Abdou Devices and methods for inter-vertebral orthopedic device placement
WO2007106573A3 (en) * 2006-03-15 2008-03-20 Archus Orthopedics Inc Facet and disc arthroplasty systems and methods
US8282641B2 (en) 2006-03-28 2012-10-09 Depuy Spine, Inc. Methods and instrumentation for disc replacement
US20070233244A1 (en) * 2006-03-28 2007-10-04 Depuy Spine, Inc. Artificial Disc Replacement Using Posterior Approach
US8137404B2 (en) * 2006-03-28 2012-03-20 Depuy Spine, Inc. Artificial disc replacement using posterior approach
US8535379B2 (en) 2006-04-04 2013-09-17 Nathan C. Moskowitz Artificial cervical and lumbar discs, disc plate insertion gun for performing sequential single plate intervertebral implantation enabling symmetric bi-disc plate alignment for interplate mobile core placement
US20070270959A1 (en) * 2006-04-18 2007-11-22 Sdgi Holdings, Inc. Arthroplasty device
US8303660B1 (en) 2006-04-22 2012-11-06 Samy Abdou Inter-vertebral disc prosthesis with variable rotational stop and methods of use
US8252031B2 (en) 2006-04-28 2012-08-28 Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc. Molding device for an expandable interspinous process implant
US8348978B2 (en) * 2006-04-28 2013-01-08 Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc. Interosteotic implant
US7846185B2 (en) * 2006-04-28 2010-12-07 Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc. Expandable interspinous process implant and method of installing same
US20070270824A1 (en) * 2006-04-28 2007-11-22 Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc. Interspinous process brace
US8048118B2 (en) * 2006-04-28 2011-11-01 Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc. Adjustable interspinous process brace
US8105357B2 (en) * 2006-04-28 2012-01-31 Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc. Interspinous process brace
EP2032086A4 (en) * 2006-05-26 2013-01-16 Samy M Abdou Inter-vertebral disc motion devices and methods of use
US20070276369A1 (en) * 2006-05-26 2007-11-29 Sdgi Holdings, Inc. In vivo-customizable implant
WO2008019397A8 (en) * 2006-08-11 2008-12-24 Archus Orthopedics Inc Angled washer polyaxial connection for dynamic spine prosthesis
US8361117B2 (en) 2006-11-08 2013-01-29 Depuy Spine, Inc. Spinal cross connectors
EP2088945A4 (en) 2006-12-08 2010-02-17 Roger P Jackson Tool system for dynamic spinal implants
US8715352B2 (en) * 2006-12-14 2014-05-06 Depuy Spine, Inc. Buckling disc replacement
US7901437B2 (en) 2007-01-26 2011-03-08 Jackson Roger P Dynamic stabilization member with molded connection
US8034081B2 (en) 2007-02-06 2011-10-11 CollabComl, LLC Interspinous dynamic stabilization implant and method of implanting
US8096996B2 (en) 2007-03-20 2012-01-17 Exactech, Inc. Rod reducer
FI122996B (en) * 2007-05-10 2012-09-28 Teliasonera Ab related to the service request processing
US8328818B1 (en) 2007-08-31 2012-12-11 Globus Medical, Inc. Devices and methods for treating bone
EP2211742A4 (en) 2007-10-24 2012-12-19 Nuvasive Inc Surgical fixation system and related methods
US8932355B2 (en) * 2008-02-22 2015-01-13 Coalign Innovations, Inc. Spinal implant with expandable fixation
US8267939B2 (en) 2008-02-28 2012-09-18 Stryker Spine Tool for implanting expandable intervertebral implant
US9060813B1 (en) 2008-02-29 2015-06-23 Nuvasive, Inc. Surgical fixation system and related methods
US20090270873A1 (en) 2008-04-24 2009-10-29 Fabian Henry F Spine surgery method and inserter
US8187333B2 (en) * 2008-09-18 2012-05-29 Mayer Peter L Intervertebral disc prosthesis and method for implanting and explanting
US8814937B2 (en) 2008-09-18 2014-08-26 Peter L. Mayer Intervertebral disc prosthesis, method for assembling, method for implanting prosthesis, and method for explanting
US8147554B2 (en) * 2008-10-13 2012-04-03 Globus Medical, Inc. Intervertebral spacer
US8696751B2 (en) * 2008-12-10 2014-04-15 Coalign Innovations, Inc. Adjustable distraction cage with linked locking mechanisms
US20100145455A1 (en) 2008-12-10 2010-06-10 Innvotec Surgical, Inc. Lockable spinal implant
US8992620B2 (en) 2008-12-10 2015-03-31 Coalign Innovations, Inc. Adjustable distraction cage with linked locking mechanisms
US9155628B2 (en) 2009-10-15 2015-10-13 Globus Medical, Inc. Expandable fusion device and method of installation thereof
US8062375B2 (en) 2009-10-15 2011-11-22 Globus Medical, Inc. Expandable fusion device and method of installation thereof
US9216095B2 (en) 2009-10-15 2015-12-22 Globus Medical, Inc. Expandable fusion device and method of installation thereof
US8556979B2 (en) 2009-10-15 2013-10-15 Globus Medical, Inc. Expandable fusion device and method of installation thereof
US8709086B2 (en) 2009-10-15 2014-04-29 Globus Medical, Inc. Expandable fusion device and method of installation thereof
US8353963B2 (en) 2010-01-12 2013-01-15 Globus Medical Expandable spacer and method for use thereof
US9579211B2 (en) 2010-04-12 2017-02-28 Globus Medical, Inc. Expandable vertebral implant
US8591585B2 (en) 2010-04-12 2013-11-26 Globus Medical, Inc. Expandable vertebral implant
US8535380B2 (en) 2010-05-13 2013-09-17 Stout Medical Group, L.P. Fixation device and method
US8685098B2 (en) 2010-06-25 2014-04-01 Globus Medical, Inc. Expandable fusion device and method of installation thereof
US9597200B2 (en) 2010-06-25 2017-03-21 Globus Medical, Inc Expandable fusion device and method of installation thereof
US8679183B2 (en) 2010-06-25 2014-03-25 Globus Medical Expandable fusion device and method of installation thereof
US8435298B2 (en) 2010-09-03 2013-05-07 Globus Medical, Inc. Expandable fusion device and method of installation thereof
US9351848B2 (en) 2010-09-03 2016-05-31 Globus Medical, Inc. Expandable fusion device and method of installation thereof
US9855151B2 (en) 2010-09-03 2018-01-02 Globus Medical, Inc Expandable fusion device and method of installation thereof
US8852279B2 (en) 2010-09-03 2014-10-07 Globus Medical, Inc. Expandable fusion device and method of installation thereof
US9566168B2 (en) 2010-09-03 2017-02-14 Globus Medical, Inc. Expandable fusion device and method of installation thereof
US8491659B2 (en) 2010-09-03 2013-07-23 Globus Medical, Inc. Expandable fusion device and method of installation thereof
US8632595B2 (en) 2010-09-03 2014-01-21 Globus Medical, Inc. Expandable fusion device and method of installation thereof
US8845734B2 (en) 2010-09-03 2014-09-30 Globus Medical, Inc. Expandable fusion device and method of installation thereof
US8845731B2 (en) 2010-09-03 2014-09-30 Globus Medical, Inc. Expandable fusion device and method of installation thereof
US9474625B2 (en) 2010-09-03 2016-10-25 Globus Medical, Inc Expandable fusion device and method of installation thereof
US9149286B1 (en) 2010-11-12 2015-10-06 Flexmedex, LLC Guidance tool and method for use
US8876866B2 (en) 2010-12-13 2014-11-04 Globus Medical, Inc. Spinous process fusion devices and methods thereof
US8998991B2 (en) * 2011-02-23 2015-04-07 Globus Medical, Inc. Six degree spine stabilization devices and methods
US9387013B1 (en) 2011-03-01 2016-07-12 Nuvasive, Inc. Posterior cervical fixation system
US9700425B1 (en) 2011-03-20 2017-07-11 Nuvasive, Inc. Vertebral body replacement and insertion methods
JP6047571B2 (en) 2011-08-16 2016-12-21 ストライカー・スピン Expandable graft
EP2747682A4 (en) 2011-08-23 2015-01-21 Flexmedex Llc Tissue removal device and method
US8845728B1 (en) 2011-09-23 2014-09-30 Samy Abdou Spinal fixation devices and methods of use
US8864833B2 (en) 2011-09-30 2014-10-21 Globus Medical, Inc. Expandable fusion device and method of installation thereof
US8911479B2 (en) 2012-01-10 2014-12-16 Roger P. Jackson Multi-start closures for open implants
US9393126B2 (en) 2012-04-20 2016-07-19 Peter L. Mayer Bilaterally placed disc prosthesis for spinal implant and method of bilateral placement
US9622876B1 (en) 2012-04-25 2017-04-18 Theken Spine, Llc Expandable support device and method of use
US9364339B2 (en) 2012-04-30 2016-06-14 Peter L. Mayer Unilaterally placed expansile spinal prosthesis
US8771277B2 (en) 2012-05-08 2014-07-08 Globus Medical, Inc Device and a method for implanting a spinous process fixation device
US8911478B2 (en) 2012-11-21 2014-12-16 Roger P. Jackson Splay control closure for open bone anchor
US9486251B2 (en) 2012-12-31 2016-11-08 Globus Medical, Inc. Spinous process fixation system and methods thereof
US9011493B2 (en) 2012-12-31 2015-04-21 Globus Medical, Inc. Spinous process fixation system and methods thereof
CN103126756B (en) * 2013-02-04 2015-04-15 中国人民解放军第二军医大学 Posterior pelvic ring fracture minimally-invasive fixator
US9585765B2 (en) 2013-02-14 2017-03-07 Globus Medical, Inc Devices and methods for correcting vertebral misalignment
US9402738B2 (en) 2013-02-14 2016-08-02 Globus Medical, Inc. Devices and methods for correcting vertebral misalignment
US8852239B2 (en) 2013-02-15 2014-10-07 Roger P Jackson Sagittal angle screw with integral shank and receiver
US9782265B2 (en) 2013-02-15 2017-10-10 Globus Medical, Inc Articulating and expandable vertebral implant
US9198772B2 (en) 2013-03-01 2015-12-01 Globus Medical, Inc. Articulating expandable intervertebral implant
US9204972B2 (en) 2013-03-01 2015-12-08 Globus Medical, Inc. Articulating expandable intervertebral implant
US9554918B2 (en) 2013-03-01 2017-01-31 Globus Medical, Inc. Articulating expandable intervertebral implant
US9770343B2 (en) 2013-03-01 2017-09-26 Globus Medical Inc. Articulating expandable intervertebral implant
US9456908B2 (en) 2013-03-12 2016-10-04 Coorstek Medical Llc Fusion cage
US9198697B2 (en) 2013-03-13 2015-12-01 Globus Medical, Inc. Spinous process fixation system and methods thereof
US9480574B2 (en) 2013-03-14 2016-11-01 Benvenue Medical, Inc. Spinal fusion implants and devices and methods for deploying such implants
US9233009B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2016-01-12 Globus Medical, Inc. Expandable intervertebral implant
US9186258B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2015-11-17 Globus Medical, Inc. Expandable intervertebral implant
US9149367B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2015-10-06 Globus Medical Inc Expandable intervertebral implant
US9034045B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2015-05-19 Globus Medical, Inc Expandable intervertebral implant
US9456906B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2016-10-04 Globus Medical, Inc. Expandable intervertebral implant
US9566092B2 (en) 2013-10-29 2017-02-14 Roger P. Jackson Cervical bone anchor with collet retainer and outer locking sleeve
US9717533B2 (en) 2013-12-12 2017-08-01 Roger P. Jackson Bone anchor closure pivot-splay control flange form guide and advancement structure
US9451993B2 (en) 2014-01-09 2016-09-27 Roger P. Jackson Bi-radial pop-on cervical bone anchor
US9662224B2 (en) 2014-02-07 2017-05-30 Globus Medical, Inc. Variable lordosis spacer and related methods of use
US9839528B2 (en) 2014-02-07 2017-12-12 Globus Medical, Inc. Variable lordosis spacer and related methods of use
US9402739B2 (en) 2014-02-07 2016-08-02 Globus Medical, Inc. Variable lordosis spacer and related methods of use
US9597119B2 (en) 2014-06-04 2017-03-21 Roger P. Jackson Polyaxial bone anchor with polymer sleeve
US9848996B2 (en) 2015-06-17 2017-12-26 Globus Medical, Inc. Variable lordotic interbody spacer
WO2017143249A1 (en) * 2016-02-18 2017-08-24 Kraemer Paul E Spinal fusion apparatus

Citations (73)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5207678B1 (en) *
US4611581A (en) * 1983-12-16 1986-09-16 Acromed Corporation Apparatus for straightening spinal columns
US4696290A (en) * 1983-12-16 1987-09-29 Acromed Corporation Apparatus for straightening spinal columns
US4854311A (en) * 1986-01-09 1989-08-08 Acro Med Corporation Bone screw
US4863477A (en) * 1987-05-12 1989-09-05 Monson Gary L Synthetic intervertebral disc prosthesis
US4863476A (en) * 1986-08-29 1989-09-05 Shepperd John A N Spinal implant
US4946458A (en) * 1986-04-25 1990-08-07 Harms Juergen Pedicle screw
US5042982A (en) * 1987-07-08 1991-08-27 Harms Juergen Positioning device
US5092867A (en) * 1988-07-13 1992-03-03 Harms Juergen Correction and supporting apparatus, in particular for the spinal column
US5192326A (en) * 1990-12-21 1993-03-09 Pfizer Hospital Products Group, Inc. Hydrogel bead intervertebral disc nucleus
US5196013A (en) * 1989-11-03 1993-03-23 Harms Juergen Pedicel screw and correcting and supporting apparatus comprising such screw
US5207678A (en) * 1989-07-20 1993-05-04 Prufer Pedicle screw and receiver member therefore
US5314477A (en) * 1990-03-07 1994-05-24 J.B.S. Limited Company Prosthesis for intervertebral discs and instruments for implanting it
US5443467A (en) * 1993-03-10 1995-08-22 Biedermann Motech Gmbh Bone screw
US5498263A (en) * 1994-06-28 1996-03-12 Acromed Corporation Transverse connector for spinal column corrective devices
US5545165A (en) * 1992-10-09 1996-08-13 Biedermann Motech Gmbh Anchoring member
US5672176A (en) * 1995-03-15 1997-09-30 Biedermann; Lutz Anchoring member
US5782832A (en) * 1996-10-01 1998-07-21 Surgical Dynamics, Inc. Spinal fusion implant and method of insertion thereof
US5810819A (en) * 1997-05-15 1998-09-22 Spinal Concepts, Inc. Polyaxial pedicle screw having a compression locking rod gripping mechanism
US6017344A (en) * 1997-05-15 2000-01-25 Spinal Concepts, Inc. Polyaxial pedicle screw having a through bar clamp locking mechanism
US6045579A (en) * 1997-05-01 2000-04-04 Spinal Concepts, Inc. Adjustable height fusion device
US6063089A (en) * 1996-12-23 2000-05-16 Spinal Concepts, Inc. Side mounted polyaxial pedicle screw
USRE36758E (en) * 1995-03-16 2000-06-27 Fitz; William R. Artificial facet joint
US6102950A (en) * 1999-01-19 2000-08-15 Vaccaro; Alex Intervertebral body fusion device
US6106526A (en) * 1995-03-15 2000-08-22 Harms; Juergen Member for stabilizing cervical vertebrae
US6113637A (en) * 1998-10-22 2000-09-05 Sofamor Danek Holdings, Inc. Artificial intervertebral joint permitting translational and rotational motion
US6217579B1 (en) * 1994-07-22 2001-04-17 Tibor Koros Expandable spinal implants
US20010020476A1 (en) * 1996-08-08 2001-09-13 The Trustees Of The University Of Pennsylvania Compositions and methods for intervertebral disc reformation
USRE37665E1 (en) * 1995-04-13 2002-04-16 Fastenetix, Llc Polyaxial pedicle screw having a threaded and tapered compression locking mechanism
US6375682B1 (en) * 2001-08-06 2002-04-23 Lewis W. Fleischmann Collapsible, rotatable and expandable spinal hydraulic prosthetic device
US20020065557A1 (en) * 2000-11-29 2002-05-30 Goble E. Marlowe Facet joint replacement
US6413259B1 (en) * 2000-12-14 2002-07-02 Blackstone Medical, Inc Bone plate assembly including a screw retaining member
US6419704B1 (en) * 1999-10-08 2002-07-16 Bret Ferree Artificial intervertebral disc replacement methods and apparatus
US6443990B1 (en) * 1997-08-06 2002-09-03 Synthes (U.S.A.) Adjustable intervertebral implant
US20020123806A1 (en) * 1999-10-22 2002-09-05 Total Facet Technologies, Inc. Facet arthroplasty devices and methods
US6447544B1 (en) * 1995-06-07 2002-09-10 Gary Karlin Michelson Lordotic interbody spinal fusion implants
US20020128659A1 (en) * 2001-03-01 2002-09-12 Michelson Gary K. Dynamic lordotic guard with movable extensions for creating an implantation space posteriorly in the lumbar spine and method for use thereof
US6451021B1 (en) * 2001-02-15 2002-09-17 Third Millennium Engineering, Llc Polyaxial pedicle screw having a rotating locking element
US6454806B1 (en) * 1999-07-26 2002-09-24 Advanced Prosthetic Technologies, Inc. Spinal surgical prosthesis
US20020138077A1 (en) * 2001-03-26 2002-09-26 Ferree Bret A. Spinal alignment apparatus and methods
US20030028250A1 (en) * 1999-10-22 2003-02-06 Archus Orthopedics, Inc. Prostheses, systems and methods for replacement of natural facet joints with artifical facet joint surfaces
US20030040802A1 (en) * 2001-07-16 2003-02-27 Errico Joseph P. Artificial intervertebral disc having limited rotation using a captured ball and socket joint with a solid ball and compression locking post
US6533818B1 (en) * 2000-04-26 2003-03-18 Pearl Technology Holdings, Llc Artificial spinal disc
US6540748B2 (en) * 1999-09-27 2003-04-01 Blackstone Medical, Inc. Surgical screw system and method of use
US20030069643A1 (en) * 2001-07-16 2003-04-10 Ralph James D. Tension bearing artificial disc providing a centroid of motion centrally located within an intervertebral space
US20030074066A1 (en) * 2001-07-16 2003-04-17 Errico Joseph P. Artificial intervertebral disc having limited rotation using a captured ball and socket joint with a solid ball, a retaining cap, and an interference pin
US6558423B1 (en) * 1999-05-05 2003-05-06 Gary K. Michelson Interbody spinal fusion implants with multi-lock for locking opposed screws
US6562074B2 (en) * 2001-10-17 2003-05-13 Medicinelodge, Inc. Adjustable bone fusion implant and method
US6565605B2 (en) * 2000-12-13 2003-05-20 Medicinelodge, Inc. Multiple facet joint replacement
US6579318B2 (en) * 2000-06-12 2003-06-17 Ortho Development Corporation Intervertebral spacer
US6582467B1 (en) * 2000-10-31 2003-06-24 Vertelink Corporation Expandable fusion cage
US20030135275A1 (en) * 2001-11-09 2003-07-17 Javier Garcia Instruments and methods for inserting a spinal implant
US6610091B1 (en) * 1999-10-22 2003-08-26 Archus Orthopedics Inc. Facet arthroplasty devices and methods
US6616671B2 (en) * 2000-01-06 2003-09-09 Spinal Concepts, Inc. Instrument and method for implanting an interbody fusion device
US6679915B1 (en) * 1998-04-23 2004-01-20 Sdgi Holdings, Inc. Articulating spinal implant
US6685742B1 (en) * 2002-11-12 2004-02-03 Roger P. Jackson Articulated anterior expandable spinal fusion cage system
US20040044411A1 (en) * 2002-08-30 2004-03-04 Loubert Suddaby Lordotic fusion implant
US20040049190A1 (en) * 2002-08-09 2004-03-11 Biedermann Motech Gmbh Dynamic stabilization device for bones, in particular for vertebrae
US6706070B1 (en) * 1997-05-01 2004-03-16 Spinal Concepts, Inc. Multi-variable-height fusion device
US20040087947A1 (en) * 2002-08-28 2004-05-06 Roy Lim Minimally invasive expanding spacer and method
US6743257B2 (en) * 2000-12-19 2004-06-01 Cortek, Inc. Dynamic implanted intervertebral spacer
US20040117020A1 (en) * 1999-10-21 2004-06-17 George Frey Devices and techniques for a posterior lateral disc space approach
US20040127989A1 (en) * 2002-12-31 2004-07-01 Andrew Dooris Prosthetic facet joint ligament
US20040167626A1 (en) * 2003-01-23 2004-08-26 Geremakis Perry A. Expandable artificial disc prosthesis
US20050010295A1 (en) * 2001-03-27 2005-01-13 Michelson Gary K. Radially expanding interbody spinal fusion implants, instrumentation, and method of insertion
US20050015149A1 (en) * 2001-02-04 2005-01-20 Michelson Gary K. Instrumentation with inwardly moveable extensions for inserting an expandable interbody spinal fusion implant
US20050015146A1 (en) * 2001-11-15 2005-01-20 Rene Louis Posterior vertebral joint prosthesis
US20050021144A1 (en) * 2003-07-23 2005-01-27 Malberg Marc I. Expandable spinal implant
US20050033431A1 (en) * 2003-08-05 2005-02-10 Charles Gordon Artificial functional spinal unit assemblies
US20050033432A1 (en) * 2003-08-05 2005-02-10 Charles Gordon Artificial spinal unit assemblies
US20050113927A1 (en) * 2003-11-25 2005-05-26 Malek Michel H. Spinal stabilization systems
US20050209698A1 (en) * 2003-08-05 2005-09-22 Gordon Charles R Expandable intervertebral implant
US20060195192A1 (en) * 2003-08-05 2006-08-31 Flexuspine, Inc. Artificial functional spinal unit assemblies

Family Cites Families (15)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CA1333209C (en) 1988-06-28 1994-11-29 Gary Karlin Michelson Artificial spinal fusion implants
US5261909A (en) 1992-02-18 1993-11-16 Danek Medical, Inc. Variable angle screw for spinal implant system
FR2721501B1 (en) 1994-06-24 1996-08-23 Fairant Paulette Prosthetic vertebral facet joints.
US5665122A (en) * 1995-01-31 1997-09-09 Kambin; Parviz Expandable intervertebral cage and surgical method
US5653763A (en) * 1996-03-29 1997-08-05 Fastenetix, L.L.C. Intervertebral space shape conforming cage device
US6648915B2 (en) * 1999-12-23 2003-11-18 John A. Sazy Intervertebral cage and method of use
US6500205B1 (en) 2000-04-19 2002-12-31 Gary K. Michelson Expandable threaded arcuate interbody spinal fusion implant with cylindrical configuration during insertion
US6482207B1 (en) 2000-07-13 2002-11-19 Fastenetix, Llc Efficient assembling modular locking pedicle screw
US6648893B2 (en) 2000-10-27 2003-11-18 Blackstone Medical, Inc. Facet fixation devices
US20030070073A1 (en) * 2001-10-09 2003-04-10 Alps Electric Co., Ltd. Card authenticating apparatus
DE60314096T2 (en) 2002-03-11 2008-01-24 Spinal Concepts, Inc., Austin Device for use of spinal implants
US20040024471A1 (en) * 2002-06-27 2004-02-05 Ferree Bret A. Bone cell covered arthroplasty devices
US7018415B1 (en) * 2002-09-23 2006-03-28 Sdgi Holdings, Inc. Expandable spinal fusion device and methods of promoting spinal fusion
US7214243B2 (en) 2002-10-21 2007-05-08 3Hbfm, Llc Intervertebral disk prosthesis
FR2856587B1 (en) 2003-06-26 2006-02-24 Scient X A disk prosthesis for cervical vertebrae ALL TRAVEL Control

Patent Citations (100)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5207678B1 (en) *
US4611581A (en) * 1983-12-16 1986-09-16 Acromed Corporation Apparatus for straightening spinal columns
US4696290A (en) * 1983-12-16 1987-09-29 Acromed Corporation Apparatus for straightening spinal columns
US4854311A (en) * 1986-01-09 1989-08-08 Acro Med Corporation Bone screw
US4946458A (en) * 1986-04-25 1990-08-07 Harms Juergen Pedicle screw
US4863476A (en) * 1986-08-29 1989-09-05 Shepperd John A N Spinal implant
US4863477A (en) * 1987-05-12 1989-09-05 Monson Gary L Synthetic intervertebral disc prosthesis
US5042982A (en) * 1987-07-08 1991-08-27 Harms Juergen Positioning device
US5092867A (en) * 1988-07-13 1992-03-03 Harms Juergen Correction and supporting apparatus, in particular for the spinal column
US5207678A (en) * 1989-07-20 1993-05-04 Prufer Pedicle screw and receiver member therefore
US5196013A (en) * 1989-11-03 1993-03-23 Harms Juergen Pedicel screw and correcting and supporting apparatus comprising such screw
US5314477A (en) * 1990-03-07 1994-05-24 J.B.S. Limited Company Prosthesis for intervertebral discs and instruments for implanting it
US5192326A (en) * 1990-12-21 1993-03-09 Pfizer Hospital Products Group, Inc. Hydrogel bead intervertebral disc nucleus
US5725527A (en) * 1992-09-10 1998-03-10 Biedermann Motech Gmbh Anchoring member
US5545165A (en) * 1992-10-09 1996-08-13 Biedermann Motech Gmbh Anchoring member
US5443467A (en) * 1993-03-10 1995-08-22 Biedermann Motech Gmbh Bone screw
US5498263A (en) * 1994-06-28 1996-03-12 Acromed Corporation Transverse connector for spinal column corrective devices
US6217579B1 (en) * 1994-07-22 2001-04-17 Tibor Koros Expandable spinal implants
US5672176A (en) * 1995-03-15 1997-09-30 Biedermann; Lutz Anchoring member
US6106526A (en) * 1995-03-15 2000-08-22 Harms; Juergen Member for stabilizing cervical vertebrae
USRE36758E (en) * 1995-03-16 2000-06-27 Fitz; William R. Artificial facet joint
USRE37665E1 (en) * 1995-04-13 2002-04-16 Fastenetix, Llc Polyaxial pedicle screw having a threaded and tapered compression locking mechanism
US6447544B1 (en) * 1995-06-07 2002-09-10 Gary Karlin Michelson Lordotic interbody spinal fusion implants
US20010020476A1 (en) * 1996-08-08 2001-09-13 The Trustees Of The University Of Pennsylvania Compositions and methods for intervertebral disc reformation
US6569442B2 (en) * 1996-08-08 2003-05-27 The Trustees Of The University Of Pennsylvania Preparation of polymer foam having gelled sol coating for intervertebral disc reformation
US5782832A (en) * 1996-10-01 1998-07-21 Surgical Dynamics, Inc. Spinal fusion implant and method of insertion thereof
US6063089A (en) * 1996-12-23 2000-05-16 Spinal Concepts, Inc. Side mounted polyaxial pedicle screw
US6576016B1 (en) * 1997-05-01 2003-06-10 Spinal Concepts, Inc. Adjustable height fusion device
US6045579A (en) * 1997-05-01 2000-04-04 Spinal Concepts, Inc. Adjustable height fusion device
US6080193A (en) * 1997-05-01 2000-06-27 Spinal Concepts, Inc. Adjustable height fusion device
US6706070B1 (en) * 1997-05-01 2004-03-16 Spinal Concepts, Inc. Multi-variable-height fusion device
US5810819A (en) * 1997-05-15 1998-09-22 Spinal Concepts, Inc. Polyaxial pedicle screw having a compression locking rod gripping mechanism
US6017344A (en) * 1997-05-15 2000-01-25 Spinal Concepts, Inc. Polyaxial pedicle screw having a through bar clamp locking mechanism
US6443990B1 (en) * 1997-08-06 2002-09-03 Synthes (U.S.A.) Adjustable intervertebral implant
US6679915B1 (en) * 1998-04-23 2004-01-20 Sdgi Holdings, Inc. Articulating spinal implant
US20040049280A1 (en) * 1998-04-23 2004-03-11 Cauthen Joseph C. Articulating spinal implant
US6113637A (en) * 1998-10-22 2000-09-05 Sofamor Danek Holdings, Inc. Artificial intervertebral joint permitting translational and rotational motion
US6102950A (en) * 1999-01-19 2000-08-15 Vaccaro; Alex Intervertebral body fusion device
US6558423B1 (en) * 1999-05-05 2003-05-06 Gary K. Michelson Interbody spinal fusion implants with multi-lock for locking opposed screws
US6454806B1 (en) * 1999-07-26 2002-09-24 Advanced Prosthetic Technologies, Inc. Spinal surgical prosthesis
US6540748B2 (en) * 1999-09-27 2003-04-01 Blackstone Medical, Inc. Surgical screw system and method of use
US6419704B1 (en) * 1999-10-08 2002-07-16 Bret Ferree Artificial intervertebral disc replacement methods and apparatus
US20040117020A1 (en) * 1999-10-21 2004-06-17 George Frey Devices and techniques for a posterior lateral disc space approach
US20040049278A1 (en) * 1999-10-22 2004-03-11 Archus Orthopedics, Inc. Facet arthroplasty devices and methods
US20030028250A1 (en) * 1999-10-22 2003-02-06 Archus Orthopedics, Inc. Prostheses, systems and methods for replacement of natural facet joints with artifical facet joint surfaces
US20020123806A1 (en) * 1999-10-22 2002-09-05 Total Facet Technologies, Inc. Facet arthroplasty devices and methods
US20040049273A1 (en) * 1999-10-22 2004-03-11 Archus Orthopedics, Inc. Facet Arthroplasty devices and methods
US20040006391A1 (en) * 1999-10-22 2004-01-08 Archus Orthopedics Inc. Facet arthroplasty devices and methods
US20040049272A1 (en) * 1999-10-22 2004-03-11 Archus Orthopedics, Inc. Facet arthroplasty devices and methods
US20040049274A1 (en) * 1999-10-22 2004-03-11 Archus Orthopedics, Inc. Facet arthroplasty devices and methods
US6610091B1 (en) * 1999-10-22 2003-08-26 Archus Orthopedics Inc. Facet arthroplasty devices and methods
US20040049277A1 (en) * 1999-10-22 2004-03-11 Archus Orthopedics, Inc. Facet arthroplasty devices and methods
US20040049281A1 (en) * 1999-10-22 2004-03-11 Archus Orthopedics, Inc. Facet arthroplasty devices and methods
US20040049276A1 (en) * 1999-10-22 2004-03-11 Archus Orthopedics, Inc. Facet arthroplasty devices and methods
US20040049275A1 (en) * 1999-10-22 2004-03-11 Archus Orthopedics, Inc. Facet arthroplasty devices and methods
US6616671B2 (en) * 2000-01-06 2003-09-09 Spinal Concepts, Inc. Instrument and method for implanting an interbody fusion device
US6533818B1 (en) * 2000-04-26 2003-03-18 Pearl Technology Holdings, Llc Artificial spinal disc
US6579318B2 (en) * 2000-06-12 2003-06-17 Ortho Development Corporation Intervertebral spacer
US6582467B1 (en) * 2000-10-31 2003-06-24 Vertelink Corporation Expandable fusion cage
US6579319B2 (en) * 2000-11-29 2003-06-17 Medicinelodge, Inc. Facet joint replacement
US20020065557A1 (en) * 2000-11-29 2002-05-30 Goble E. Marlowe Facet joint replacement
US6565605B2 (en) * 2000-12-13 2003-05-20 Medicinelodge, Inc. Multiple facet joint replacement
US6413259B1 (en) * 2000-12-14 2002-07-02 Blackstone Medical, Inc Bone plate assembly including a screw retaining member
US6743257B2 (en) * 2000-12-19 2004-06-01 Cortek, Inc. Dynamic implanted intervertebral spacer
US20050015149A1 (en) * 2001-02-04 2005-01-20 Michelson Gary K. Instrumentation with inwardly moveable extensions for inserting an expandable interbody spinal fusion implant
US6451021B1 (en) * 2001-02-15 2002-09-17 Third Millennium Engineering, Llc Polyaxial pedicle screw having a rotating locking element
US20020128659A1 (en) * 2001-03-01 2002-09-12 Michelson Gary K. Dynamic lordotic guard with movable extensions for creating an implantation space posteriorly in the lumbar spine and method for use thereof
US20020138077A1 (en) * 2001-03-26 2002-09-26 Ferree Bret A. Spinal alignment apparatus and methods
US20050010295A1 (en) * 2001-03-27 2005-01-13 Michelson Gary K. Radially expanding interbody spinal fusion implants, instrumentation, and method of insertion
US20030074066A1 (en) * 2001-07-16 2003-04-17 Errico Joseph P. Artificial intervertebral disc having limited rotation using a captured ball and socket joint with a solid ball, a retaining cap, and an interference pin
US20030040802A1 (en) * 2001-07-16 2003-02-27 Errico Joseph P. Artificial intervertebral disc having limited rotation using a captured ball and socket joint with a solid ball and compression locking post
US20030069643A1 (en) * 2001-07-16 2003-04-10 Ralph James D. Tension bearing artificial disc providing a centroid of motion centrally located within an intervertebral space
US20030074068A1 (en) * 2001-07-16 2003-04-17 Errico Joseph P. Artificial intervertebral disc having limited rotation using a captured ball and socket joint with a solid ball and retaining cap
US20030074074A1 (en) * 2001-07-16 2003-04-17 Errico Joseph P. Artificial intervertebral disc having limited rotation using a captured ball and socket joint with a solid ball, a compression locking post, and an interference ball bearing
US20030074072A1 (en) * 2001-07-16 2003-04-17 Errico Joseph P. Artificial intervertebral disc having limited rotation using a captured ball and socket joint with a solid ball, a compression locking post, and an interference pin
US20030074067A1 (en) * 2001-07-16 2003-04-17 Errico Joseph P. Artificial intervertebral disc having a captured ball and socket joint with a solid ball and compression locking post
US20030074070A1 (en) * 2001-07-16 2003-04-17 Errico Joseph P. Artificial intervertebral disc having limited rotation using a captured ball and socket joint with a retaining cap and a solid ball having a protrusion
US20030074069A1 (en) * 2001-07-16 2003-04-17 Errico Joseph P. Artificial intervertebral disc having a captured ball and socket joint with a solid ball and retaining cap
US20030074073A1 (en) * 2001-07-16 2003-04-17 Errico Joseph P. Artificial intervertebral disc having limited rotation using a captured ball and socket joint with a solid ball, a retaining cap, and an interference ball bearing
US20030074071A1 (en) * 2001-07-16 2003-04-17 Errico Joseph P. Artificial intervertebral disc having limited rotation using a captured ball and socket joint with a compression locking post and a solid ball having a protrusion
US6375682B1 (en) * 2001-08-06 2002-04-23 Lewis W. Fleischmann Collapsible, rotatable and expandable spinal hydraulic prosthetic device
US6863673B2 (en) * 2001-10-17 2005-03-08 Movdice Holding, Inc. Methods for adjustable bone fusion implants
US6562074B2 (en) * 2001-10-17 2003-05-13 Medicinelodge, Inc. Adjustable bone fusion implant and method
US6852129B2 (en) * 2001-10-17 2005-02-08 Movdice Holding, Inc. Adjustable bone fusion implant and method
US20030139812A1 (en) * 2001-11-09 2003-07-24 Javier Garcia Spinal implant
US20030135275A1 (en) * 2001-11-09 2003-07-17 Javier Garcia Instruments and methods for inserting a spinal implant
US20050015146A1 (en) * 2001-11-15 2005-01-20 Rene Louis Posterior vertebral joint prosthesis
US20040049190A1 (en) * 2002-08-09 2004-03-11 Biedermann Motech Gmbh Dynamic stabilization device for bones, in particular for vertebrae
US20040087947A1 (en) * 2002-08-28 2004-05-06 Roy Lim Minimally invasive expanding spacer and method
US20040044411A1 (en) * 2002-08-30 2004-03-04 Loubert Suddaby Lordotic fusion implant
US6685742B1 (en) * 2002-11-12 2004-02-03 Roger P. Jackson Articulated anterior expandable spinal fusion cage system
US20040127989A1 (en) * 2002-12-31 2004-07-01 Andrew Dooris Prosthetic facet joint ligament
US20040167626A1 (en) * 2003-01-23 2004-08-26 Geremakis Perry A. Expandable artificial disc prosthesis
US20050021144A1 (en) * 2003-07-23 2005-01-27 Malberg Marc I. Expandable spinal implant
US7204853B2 (en) * 2003-08-05 2007-04-17 Flexuspine, Inc. Artificial functional spinal unit assemblies
US20050033432A1 (en) * 2003-08-05 2005-02-10 Charles Gordon Artificial spinal unit assemblies
US20050209698A1 (en) * 2003-08-05 2005-09-22 Gordon Charles R Expandable intervertebral implant
US20060195192A1 (en) * 2003-08-05 2006-08-31 Flexuspine, Inc. Artificial functional spinal unit assemblies
US20050033431A1 (en) * 2003-08-05 2005-02-10 Charles Gordon Artificial functional spinal unit assemblies
US20050113927A1 (en) * 2003-11-25 2005-05-26 Malek Michel H. Spinal stabilization systems

Cited By (62)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US8118870B2 (en) 2003-08-05 2012-02-21 Flexuspine, Inc. Expandable articulating intervertebral implant with spacer
US8647386B2 (en) 2003-08-05 2014-02-11 Charles R. Gordon Expandable intervertebral implant system and method
US20060241769A1 (en) * 2003-08-05 2006-10-26 Southwest Research Institute Artificial functional spinal implant unit system and method for use
US20070270972A1 (en) * 2003-08-05 2007-11-22 Southwest Research Institute Artificial functional spinal unit system and method for use
US8753398B2 (en) 2003-08-05 2014-06-17 Charles R. Gordon Method of inserting an expandable intervertebral implant without overdistraction
US8603168B2 (en) 2003-08-05 2013-12-10 Flexuspine, Inc. Artificial functional spinal unit system and method for use
US8257440B2 (en) 2003-08-05 2012-09-04 Gordon Charles R Method of insertion of an expandable intervertebral implant
US20050273171A1 (en) * 2003-08-05 2005-12-08 Gordon Charles R Method of inserting an expandable intervertebral implant without overdistraction
US7708778B2 (en) 2003-08-05 2010-05-04 Flexuspine, Inc. Expandable articulating intervertebral implant with cam
US8172903B2 (en) 2003-08-05 2012-05-08 Gordon Charles R Expandable intervertebral implant with spacer
US8147550B2 (en) 2003-08-05 2012-04-03 Flexuspine, Inc. Expandable articulating intervertebral implant with limited articulation
US7785351B2 (en) 2003-08-05 2010-08-31 Flexuspine, Inc. Artificial functional spinal implant unit system and method for use
US7794480B2 (en) 2003-08-05 2010-09-14 Flexuspine, Inc. Artificial functional spinal unit system and method for use
US7799082B2 (en) 2003-08-05 2010-09-21 Flexuspine, Inc. Artificial functional spinal unit system and method for use
US9579124B2 (en) 2003-08-05 2017-02-28 Flexuspine, Inc. Expandable articulating intervertebral implant with limited articulation
US7909869B2 (en) 2003-08-05 2011-03-22 Flexuspine, Inc. Artificial spinal unit assemblies
US8123810B2 (en) 2003-08-05 2012-02-28 Gordon Charles R Expandable intervertebral implant with wedged expansion member
US8118871B2 (en) 2003-08-05 2012-02-21 Flexuspine, Inc. Expandable articulating intervertebral implant
US8052723B2 (en) 2003-08-05 2011-11-08 Flexuspine Inc. Dynamic posterior stabilization systems and methods of use
US7753958B2 (en) 2003-08-05 2010-07-13 Gordon Charles R Expandable intervertebral implant
US7914560B2 (en) 2004-02-17 2011-03-29 Gmedelaware 2 Llc Spinal facet implant with spherical implant apposition surface and bone bed and methods of use
US7998177B2 (en) 2004-02-17 2011-08-16 Gmedelaware 2 Llc Linked bilateral spinal facet implants and methods of use
US7998178B2 (en) 2004-02-17 2011-08-16 Gmedelaware 2 Llc Linked bilateral spinal facet implants and methods of use
US8906063B2 (en) 2004-02-17 2014-12-09 Gmedelaware 2 Llc Spinal facet joint implant
US7815648B2 (en) 2004-06-02 2010-10-19 Facet Solutions, Inc Surgical measurement systems and methods
US8777994B2 (en) 2004-06-02 2014-07-15 Gmedelaware 2 Llc System and method for multiple level facet joint arthroplasty and fusion
US20060217809A1 (en) * 2005-03-24 2006-09-28 Accin Corporation Intervertebral disc replacement device
US7753957B2 (en) * 2005-03-24 2010-07-13 Accelerated Innovation, Llc Ball and Socket intervertebral disc replacement device with keyed surfaces assembly
US8118869B2 (en) 2006-03-08 2012-02-21 Flexuspine, Inc. Dynamic interbody device
US20080065211A1 (en) * 2006-07-18 2008-03-13 Accin Corporation Intervertebral disc replacement device
US8016886B2 (en) 2006-07-18 2011-09-13 Altus Partners, Llc Intervertebral disc replacement device
US8211147B2 (en) 2007-01-10 2012-07-03 Gmedelaware 2 Llc System and method for facet joint replacement
US8206418B2 (en) 2007-01-10 2012-06-26 Gmedelaware 2 Llc System and method for facet joint replacement with detachable coupler
US8252027B2 (en) 2007-01-10 2012-08-28 Gmedelaware 2 Llc System and method for facet joint replacement
US8075596B2 (en) 2007-01-12 2011-12-13 Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc. Spinal prosthesis systems
US8940022B2 (en) 2007-01-19 2015-01-27 Flexuspine, Inc. Artificial functional spinal unit system and method for use
US9066811B2 (en) 2007-01-19 2015-06-30 Flexuspine, Inc. Artificial functional spinal unit system and method for use
US20080234741A1 (en) * 2007-01-19 2008-09-25 Landry Michael E Artificial functional spinal unit system and method for use
US20080234732A1 (en) * 2007-01-19 2008-09-25 Landry Michael E Dynamic interbody devices
US7959677B2 (en) 2007-01-19 2011-06-14 Flexuspine, Inc. Artificial functional spinal unit system and method for use
US8597358B2 (en) 2007-01-19 2013-12-03 Flexuspine, Inc. Dynamic interbody devices
US8377098B2 (en) 2007-01-19 2013-02-19 Flexuspine, Inc. Artificial functional spinal unit system and method for use
US8702759B2 (en) 2007-04-17 2014-04-22 Gmedelaware 2 Llc System and method for bone anchorage
US9050144B2 (en) 2007-04-17 2015-06-09 Gmedelaware 2 Llc System and method for implant anchorage with anti-rotation features
US8162994B2 (en) 2007-10-22 2012-04-24 Flexuspine, Inc. Posterior stabilization system with isolated, dual dampener systems
US8267965B2 (en) 2007-10-22 2012-09-18 Flexuspine, Inc. Spinal stabilization systems with dynamic interbody devices
US8187330B2 (en) 2007-10-22 2012-05-29 Flexuspine, Inc. Dampener system for a posterior stabilization system with a variable length elongated member
US8182514B2 (en) 2007-10-22 2012-05-22 Flexuspine, Inc. Dampener system for a posterior stabilization system with a fixed length elongated member
US8157844B2 (en) 2007-10-22 2012-04-17 Flexuspine, Inc. Dampener system for a posterior stabilization system with a variable length elongated member
US8523912B2 (en) 2007-10-22 2013-09-03 Flexuspine, Inc. Posterior stabilization systems with shared, dual dampener systems
US20090299478A1 (en) * 2008-06-03 2009-12-03 Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc. Lordotic Implant for Posterior Approach
US9788973B2 (en) 2010-03-16 2017-10-17 Pinnacle Spine Group, Llc Spinal implant
US9649203B2 (en) 2010-03-16 2017-05-16 Pinnacle Spine Group, Llc Methods of post-filling an intervertebral implant
US9216096B2 (en) 2010-03-16 2015-12-22 Pinnacle Spine Group, Llc Intervertebral implants and related tools
US8956414B2 (en) 2010-04-21 2015-02-17 Spinecraft, LLC Intervertebral body implant, instrument and method
US8940051B2 (en) 2011-03-25 2015-01-27 Flexuspine, Inc. Interbody device insertion systems and methods
US9380932B1 (en) 2011-11-02 2016-07-05 Pinnacle Spine Group, Llc Retractor devices for minimally invasive access to the spine
US9526627B2 (en) 2011-11-17 2016-12-27 Exactech, Inc. Expandable interbody device system and method
US9492288B2 (en) 2013-02-20 2016-11-15 Flexuspine, Inc. Expandable fusion device for positioning between adjacent vertebral bodies
US9788971B1 (en) 2013-05-22 2017-10-17 Nuvasive, Inc. Expandable fusion implant and related methods
US9801734B1 (en) 2013-08-09 2017-10-31 Nuvasive, Inc. Lordotic expandable interbody implant
US9517144B2 (en) 2014-04-24 2016-12-13 Exactech, Inc. Limited profile intervertebral implant with incorporated fastening mechanism

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
US7204853B2 (en) 2007-04-17 grant
US20050033439A1 (en) 2005-02-10 application
US20060195192A1 (en) 2006-08-31 application

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US6113638A (en) Method and apparatus for intervertebral implant anchorage
US7563286B2 (en) Controlled artificial intervertebral disc implant
US6758862B2 (en) Vertebral body and disc space replacement devices
US6454806B1 (en) Spinal surgical prosthesis
US5865846A (en) Human spinal disc prosthesis
US6491724B1 (en) Spinal fusion cage with lordosis correction
US6846328B2 (en) Articulating spinal implant
US6395034B1 (en) Intervertebral disc prosthesis
US6179874B1 (en) Articulating spinal implant
US7179293B2 (en) Osteogenic fusion device
US6579318B2 (en) Intervertebral spacer
US7445635B2 (en) Method and apparatus for spine joint replacement
US6342074B1 (en) Anterior lumbar interbody fusion implant and method for fusing adjacent vertebrae
US20060247635A1 (en) Dynamic posterior stabilization systems and methods of use
US20080015698A1 (en) Spinal disc implant
US20120083889A1 (en) Intervertebral device and methods of use
US20040167626A1 (en) Expandable artificial disc prosthesis
US5390683A (en) Spinal implantation methods utilizing a middle expandable implant
US7044971B2 (en) Lordotic fusion implant
US6228118B1 (en) Multiple axis intervertebral prosthesis
US5861041A (en) Intervertebral disk prosthesis and method of making the same
US7282063B2 (en) Artificial disc spinal surgical prosthesis
US5653763A (en) Intervertebral space shape conforming cage device
US20090048676A1 (en) Spine surgery method and motion preserving implant
US6159244A (en) Expandable variable angle intervertebral fusion implant

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AS Assignment

Owner name: FLEXUSPINE, INC., TEXAS

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:GORDON, CHARLES R.;HARBOLD, COREY;REEL/FRAME:018705/0287

Effective date: 20050523