US20070031799A1 - Three-dimensional periodic table - Google Patents

Three-dimensional periodic table Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US20070031799A1
US20070031799A1 US11/199,031 US19903105A US2007031799A1 US 20070031799 A1 US20070031799 A1 US 20070031799A1 US 19903105 A US19903105 A US 19903105A US 2007031799 A1 US2007031799 A1 US 2007031799A1
Authority
US
United States
Prior art keywords
elements
groupings
plurality
element representations
element
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US11/199,031
Inventor
Michael Aldersley
Original Assignee
Aldersley Michael F
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Aldersley Michael F filed Critical Aldersley Michael F
Priority to US11/199,031 priority Critical patent/US20070031799A1/en
Publication of US20070031799A1 publication Critical patent/US20070031799A1/en
Application status is Abandoned legal-status Critical

Links

Images

Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09BEDUCATIONAL OR DEMONSTRATION APPLIANCES; APPLIANCES FOR TEACHING, OR COMMUNICATING WITH, THE BLIND, DEAF OR MUTE; MODELS; PLANETARIA; GLOBES; MAPS; DIAGRAMS
    • G09B23/00Models for scientific, medical, or mathematical purposes, e.g. full-sized devices for demonstration purposes
    • G09B23/24Models for scientific, medical, or mathematical purposes, e.g. full-sized devices for demonstration purposes for chemistry

Abstract

The invention includes a three dimensional periodic table of the chemical elements and a method of learning about the periodic nature of the elements. Included are several cardboard or paper sheets, each having a plurality of blocks that display information about particular elements. The blocks are arranged in groupings of elements with similar properties, such as the transition Earth metals. Students follow a set of instructions provided with the sheets to cut out the groups, fold along particular lines, and affix tabs together to assemble several three dimensional forms. The students then place the forms on a planar map that indicates where to place each form and indicates how to follow the periods of elements between the forms.

Description

    FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • This invention relates to a periodic table of the chemical elements as a tool for learning about the elements.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • It is generally accepted in physics and chemistry that the universe is made up of a number of stable and less stable elements ranging in progressive units of atomic masses. The periodic law states that the properties of the chemical elements and their compounds are a periodic function of their atomic number. The periodic table is a table of the elements written in sequence in the order of atomic number and arranged in horizontal rows (periods) and vertical columns (groups) to illustrate the occurrence of similarities in the properties of the elements as a periodic function of the sequence. Present versions of the table used in texts have remained essentially unchanged for the past fifty years, except for the addition of new elements.
  • Every chemistry laboratory and classroom has a periodic table displayed. It can be difficult, however, to engage students to learn about the elements with a conventional periodic table. Also, the significance of the natural grouping of elements shown by the periodic table may be lost on many students, and some heavier elements might be completely ignored. Therefore a periodic table of the elements and a method of learning about the elements that engage students to learn about the elements, including the most unusual of them, and that helps students see the groupings of the elements within the table are needed.
  • U.S. Pat. No. 3,581,409, by Roy H. Alexander teaches a three dimensional symbolic representation of the elements with fully grouped families including the Rare Earth series is presented in which the symbolic representations of the elements are arranged contiguously and continuously according to the atomic number. Alexander teaches an arrangement of the elements that includes a single three dimensional form with the elements arranged according to atomic number and without interruption of the atomic number. Therefore a three dimensional representation of the elements with multiple three dimensional forms to be assembled and which challenges a student to thereby encourage learning about the elements is needed.
  • U.S. Pat. No. 4,199,876, by Gerson Katz teaches a device for displaying a periodic table of the chemical elements. Katz's table includes four detachable, coaxially mounted cylinders. Each cylinder is divided into an upper cylindrical section and a lower cylindrical section. The sections are also detachably mounted. The upper surfaces of each of the cylindrical sections are marked with discrete sectors containing indicia that denote the chemical elements. The device can also be used to determine n and l numbers of quantum theory for selected elements. An aid that has a transverse surface marked to correspond to the discrete sectors on the upper surfaces of the cylindrical sections is used to determine ml and ms numbers of quantum theory for selected elements. A second device for displaying the periodic table of the elements is in the form of four detachable, concentrically mounted spheres. The surface of each of the spheres is divided into an upper hemisphere and a lower hemisphere. The hemispheres are preferably detachably mounted. The outer surface of each of the hemispheres is marked with discrete sectors containing indicia that denote the chemical elements. The tables taught by Katz do not readily depict the natural groupings of the elements, such as the transition metals and alkaline groups. Further, since the spheres taught by Katz are concentrically mounted, the inner spheres are at least partially concealed by the outer spheres. Therefore an improved three dimensional periodic table that readily displays the natural groupings of the elements and which does not conceal information about any of the elements is needed.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • The invention comprises, in one form thereof, a three dimensional periodic table of the chemical elements and a method of learning about the periodic nature of the elements. The invention comprises several cardboard or paper sheets, each having a plurality of blocks that display information about particular elements. The blocks are arranged in groupings of elements with similar properties, such as the transition Earth metals. Students follow a set of instructions provided with the sheets to cut out the groups, fold along particular lines, and affix tabs together to assemble several three dimensional forms. The students then place the forms on a planar map that indicates where to place each form and indicates how to follow the periods of elements between the forms.
  • More particularly, the invention includes a periodic representation of the elements, which comprises a plurality of three-dimensional forms, and a plurality of element representations displayed on each of the forms. Each of the element representations displays information about a particular element and the three dimensional forms are displayed in proximity to each other on a planar map such that all of the forms may be viewed together.
  • In another form, the invention includes a periodic representation of the elements, which comprises a plurality of planar sheets, a plurality of element representations printed on each of the sheets in one or more groupings, and a plurality of tabs in communication with each of the groupings.
  • In a further form, the invention includes a kit for assembling a three-dimensional periodic representation of the elements, which comprises a plurality of planar sheets, a plurality of element representations printed on each of the sheets in one or more groupings, a plurality of tabs in communication with each of the groupings, and a set of instructions for cutting out the groupings from the sheets and assembling the groupings into a plurality of three-dimensional forms.
  • In an even further form, the invention includes a method of teaching a student about the elements. The method comprises the steps of obtaining a plurality of planar sheets, each of which include a plurality of element representations printed thereon in one or more groupings and a plurality of tabs in communication with each of the groupings. A set of instructions is followed for creating a plurality of three-dimensional forms from the sheets. The groupings are cut out from the sheets according to the instructions and assembled into the three-dimensional forms. The student then observes the element representations of common and uncommon elements as well as the groupings of element representations, which display information about elements having similar properties.
  • An advantage of the present invention is that the three dimensional periodic table and method of learning about the elements engage students to learn about the elements, including the most unusual of them, and helps students see the groupings of the elements within the table. The instant periodic table also displays information about the elements on several three dimensional forms without concealing any of the information. In addition to learning about chemistry, students learn about working in groups and other important life skills.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • The above-mentioned and other features and advantages of this invention, and the manner of attaining them, will become apparent and be better understood by reference to the following description of one embodiment of the invention in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, wherein:
  • FIG. 1 is an isometric view of the three dimensional periodic table of the chemical elements of the present invention;
  • FIGS. 2-5 are plan views of several planar sheet of the present invention;
  • FIG. 6 is a plan view of a planar map of FIG. 1;
  • FIGS. 7-16 are isometric views of the groupings of element representations in various stages of assembly.
  • Corresponding reference characters indicate corresponding parts throughout the several views. The example set out herein illustrates one embodiment of the invention but should not be construed as limiting the scope of the invention in any manner.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • Referring to FIG. 1, there is shown the three dimensional periodic table of the chemical elements of the present invention. The three dimensional periodic table 10 includes a plurality of element representations 12, arranged in a plurality of groupings 14, which are shown in assembled three dimensional forms in FIG. 1, and a substantially planar map 16.
  • The element representations 12 are substantially rectangular in shape and include information about the element, such as the atomic number, the chemical symbol, the atomic mass, the element name, the natural state of the element at room temperature and atmospheric pressure, and the number of valence electrons. The element representations 12 may also be color-coded to indicate properties of the element. For example, the element representations 12 may be colored according to whether they are metals, metalloids, or non-metals. Alternatively, the element representations 12 may be colored according to the state of matter of the element for a particular temperature and pressure. In a further alternative, the element representations 12 are colored according to the color of the element, the compound, or the flame colors. Even further, the element representations 12 may be colored according to a particular design that is pleasing to the eye or attention grabbing. Certain element representations 12 on the edges of the three dimensional groupings 14, such as those for Carbon (C) and Nitrogen (N), have multiple faces that are angled at about 90° from each other in order to promote the idea that the element representations 12 are three dimensional blocks.
  • The groupings 14 are shown in substantially two dimensional nets in FIGS. 2-5. The planar nets are printed on sheets of paper with one or more groupings 14 on each sheet. In the present embodiment, the paper is a card-type paper of a weight that may be cut with scissors yet requires score lines for folding. Alternatively, paper having more or less flexibility may be used. Further, alternative materials such as certain plastics may be used in place of paper. Each of the groupings 14 includes a plurality of tabs 18 that may be glued to the underside of certain element representations 12 or to other tabs 18 for assembly of the three dimensional forms. The groupings 14 may include blank portions to fill in the three dimensional forms. Additional element representations 12 corresponding to newly discovered elements may be added to the blank portions at a later date. The layout of the element representations 12 and tabs 18 in the nets shown in the figures are by way of example and myriad alternative layouts may be imagined. Also, element names and positions may need to be changed in the future according to changes in standards, such as those set by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC).
  • The grouping 114 in FIG. 2 includes the element representations 12 for hydrogen and the elements in groups 1 and 2, respectfully known as the Alkali metals and the Alkaline earth metals. The grouping 214 in FIG. 3 includes the element representations 12 for the transition metals. The grouping 314 in FIG. 4 includes the element representations 12 for groups 3-8, wherein groups 7 and 8 are also known as the Halogens and Noble gases, respectively. Groups 3-6 include some non metals, the metalloids, and some metals. The grouping 414 in FIG. 5 includes the element representations 12 for the transition elements known as the Lanthanides and the Actinides or the Rare Earth/Actinide Groups.
  • The substantially planar map 16, shown in FIG. 6, includes a plurality of grids 20, each of which are in the shape of the footprint of one of the groupings 114, 214, 314, or 414 to indicate the placement of the groupings 14 when in the three dimensional form. Several pathways 22 between each of the grids 20 indicate that the periods are viewed by following the horizontal rows between the groupings 14. For example, period 2 starts with lithium (Li) and beryllium (Be) in grouping 114 and continues to the grouping 314 with boron (B), carbon (C), etc. The viewer knows to skip the grouping 214 because there are no element representations 12 that extend vertically off the planar map 16 to period 2 in the grouping 214. In another example, period 6 starts with cesium (Cs) and barium (Ba) in grouping 114, continues to lanthanum (La) in grouping 214, then to cerium (Ce) through lutetium (Lu) in grouping 414, continues back to grouping 214 with hafnium (Hf) through mercury (Hg), and ends with thallium (Tl) through radon (Rn) in grouping 314. The atomic number included with the element representations aids the viewer in following the periods as well.
  • In use, a kit containing sheets of the groupings 14 in substantially planar form, the map 16, and a set of instructions are supplied to a student or a group of students. The instructions guide the student through the assembly of the three dimensional periodic table 10. The instructions also include several diagrams, illustrated in FIGS. 7-16, to aid in the assembly. A particular example of such instructions is as follows. It should be noted, however, that the set of instructions included in the kit may vary in detail from the following example.
  • EXAMPLE 1
  • Identify each of the blocks of elements from the four printed.
  • The two nets which comprise:
  • a) The Transition Metals (grouping 214) (FIGS. 7 and 8)
  • b) The Rare Earth/Actinide Groups (grouping 414) (FIGS. 9, 10 and 11)
  • will form rectangular blocks when assembled so begin with these two.
  • Alter carefully cutting out the net for the Transition Metals (grouping 214), score all the fold lines on the back of the card and then generate sharp folds along each score line, especially adjacent to the tabs 18, as shown in FIG. 7.
  • Practice the assembly into a rectangular block before placing any glue on any of the tabs 18, as shown in FIG. 8.
  • When sure of the final outcome, add a small amount of quick drying glue to each tab 18 and assemble the rectangular block, as shown in FIG. 8.
  • Next, carefully cut out the net for the elements in the Rare Earth/Actinide Groups (grouping 414) shown in FIG. 9.
  • Score all the fold lines on the back of the card and then generate sharp folds along each score line, especially adjacent to the tabs 18, as shown in FIG. 10.
  • When sure of the final outcome, add a small amount of quick drying glue to each tab 18 and assemble the rectangular block, as shown in FIG. 11.
  • Next, carefully cut out the net for the elements in Groups 1 and 2, together with hydrogen (grouping 114), as shown in FIG. 12. At this stage, do not cut off any tabs 18 in the vicinity of hydrogen.
  • Score all the fold lines on the back of the card and then generate sharp folds along each score line, especially adjacent to the tabs 18, as shown in FIG. 12.
  • Practice the assembly into a rectangular block with hydrogen perched on top of lithium. Check where each tab 18 will be glued and positioned and then remove any superfluous tabs 18; double check before cutting.
  • When sure of the final outcome, add a small amount of quick drying glue to each tab 18 and assemble the block for Groups 1 and 2 (grouping 214), as shown in FIG. 13.
  • Next, carefully cut out the net for the elements in Groups 3 to 8 (grouping 314) as shown in FIG. 14. At this stage, do not cut off any tabs 18 in the vicinity of helium.
  • Score all the fold lines on the back of the card and then generate sharp folds along each score line, especially adjacent to the tabs 18, as shown in FIG. 14.
  • Practice the assembly of the block with the Noble Gases, e.g. helium, slanting downwards to the next Period as shown in FIG. 15. Check where each tab 18 will be glued and positioned and then remove any superfluous tabs 18; double check before cutting.
  • When sure of the final outcome, add a small amount of quick drying glue to each tab 18 and assemble the block as shown in FIG. 15.
  • Now that all four blocks of elements have been constructed, position them on the map 16 so that their relative position follows an increasing of atomic number as shown in FIG. 16 and FIG. 1.
  • The set of instructions may also include several questions to encourage a student to think about the periodic table and the chemical elements. Such questions may include those in the following example. Hints and answers to the questions may also be provided to aid the students.
  • EXAMPLE 2
  • Questions: (A few suggestions) (Various Grades, no particular order)
  • 1. Name all the elements in each of Groups 1 to 4.
  • 2. Why do the blocks contain the number of elements per period that they do? (Hint: consider the number of electrons ins, p, d, f-energy levels)
  • 3. Why do the blocks “double back” on themselves? (Hint: Hundt's Rule)
  • 4. Look carefully at some of the coloring of the elements and comment on the colors you find.
  • 5. Look carefully for elements that are found in the molecules of life (fats, proteins, carbohydrates, DNA, RNA, etc) and comment on their relative position considering the large number of elements that exist.
  • 6. List and then find the elements that are present in
  • a. an electric cable
  • b. a Teflon coated frying pan
  • c. a nuclear fuel rod
  • 7. Why aluminium and sulphur rather than aluminum and sulfur?
  • While the invention has been described with reference to particular embodiments, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that various changes may be made and equivalents may be substituted for elements thereof without departing from the scope of the invention. In addition, many modifications may be made to adapt a particular situation or material to the teachings of the invention without departing from the scope of the invention.
  • Therefore, it is intended that the invention not be limited to the particular embodiments disclosed as the best mode contemplated for carrying out this invention, but that the invention will include all embodiments falling within the scope and spirit of the appended claims.

Claims (22)

1. A periodic representation of the chemical elements, comprising:
a plurality of three-dimensional forms;
a plurality of element representations displayed on each of said forms;
wherein each of said element representations displays information about a particular element; and
wherein said three dimensional forms are displayed in proximity to each other on a substantially planar map such that all of said forms may be viewed together.
2. The periodic representation of the chemical elements of claim 1, wherein said map indicates a particular arrangement for said three-dimensional forms.
3. The periodic representation of the chemical elements of claim 2, wherein said element representations are configured such that the periodic nature of the elements is apparent due to the arrangement of said three-dimensional forms indicated by said map.
4. The periodic representation of the chemical elements of claim 1, wherein the information displayed by said element representations is selected from the group consisting of atomic symbol, atomic number, atomic mass, the name of the element, the natural state of the element at room temperature and atmospheric pressure, and the number of valence electrons.
5. The periodic representation of the chemical elements of claim 4, wherein each of said element representations located on a particular three-dimensional form includes information about elements in a particular category.
6. A periodic representation of the chemical elements, comprising;
a plurality of sheets;
a plurality of element representations printed on each of said sheets in one or more groupings; and
a plurality of tabs in communication with each of the groupings.
7. The periodic representation of the chemical elements of claim 6, wherein each grouping of said element representations is cut out of said sheets along an outer boundary, which also encompasses said tabs.
8. The periodic representation of the chemical elements of claim 7, wherein each of the groupings is folded into a three-dimensional form by folding between certain element representations and affixing each of said tabs to certain other tabs.
9. The periodic representation of the chemical elements of claim 6, wherein each of said element representations comprises information about a particular element, said information being selected from the group consisting of atomic symbol, atomic number, atomic mass, the name of the element, the natural state of the element at room temperature and atmospheric pressure, and the number of valence electrons.
10. The periodic representation of the chemical elements of claim 9, wherein each of the groupings of element representations includes information about elements having similar properties.
11. The periodic representation of the chemical elements of claim 9, wherein a first grouping comprises element representations of elements in the Alkali metals and the Alkaline earth metals groups, a second grouping comprises element representations of elements in the transition metals groups, a third grouping comprises element representations of elements in the metalloids, halogens, and Noble gases groups, and a fourth grouping comprises element representations of elements in the Lanthanides and the Actinides groups.
12. The periodic representation of the chemical elements of claim 9, wherein said element representations are arranged on each of the groupings such that said element representations form a plurality of periodic rows when the groupings are viewed together.
13. A kit for assembling a three-dimensional periodic representation of the chemical elements, comprising:
a plurality of sheets;
a plurality of element representations printed on each of said sheets in one or more groupings;
a plurality of tabs in communication with each of the groupings; and
a set of instructions for cutting out the groupings from said sheets and assembling the groupings into a plurality of three-dimensional forms.
14. The kit of claim 13, further comprising a map sheet having graphics that indicate the placement of the three-dimensional forms.
15. The kit of claim 14, wherein said element representations are arranged in each of said groupings such that said element representations form periods when the three-dimensional forms are viewed together in a particular order.
16. The kit of claim 15, wherein said map sheet includes pathways that aide in the viewing of the periods formed by the arrangement of said element representations.
17. The kit of claim 13, wherein said set of instructions includes a plurality of diagrams that depict the three-dimensional forms in various stages of assembly.
18. The kit of claim 13, wherein said set of instructions comprises a plurality of questions about the elements.
19. A method of teaching a student about the chemical elements, comprising the steps of:
a) obtaining a plurality of sheets, each of said sheets having a plurality of element representations printed thereon in one or more groupings and a plurality of tabs in communication with each of the groupings; and
b) providing a set of instructions for creating a plurality of three-dimensional forms from said sheets.
20. The method of teaching a student about the chemical elements of claim 19, further comprising the step of cutting out the groupings from said sheets according to said instructions.
21. The method of teaching a student about the chemical elements of claim 19, further comprising the step of assembling the groupings into the three-dimensional forms.
22. The method of teaching a student about the chemical elements of claim 21, further comprising the step of observing the element representations of common and uncommon elements as well as the groupings of element representations, which display information about elements having similar properties.
US11/199,031 2005-08-08 2005-08-08 Three-dimensional periodic table Abandoned US20070031799A1 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US11/199,031 US20070031799A1 (en) 2005-08-08 2005-08-08 Three-dimensional periodic table

Applications Claiming Priority (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US11/199,031 US20070031799A1 (en) 2005-08-08 2005-08-08 Three-dimensional periodic table
PCT/US2006/030690 WO2007019429A2 (en) 2005-08-08 2006-08-07 Three dimensional periodic table
US12/272,212 US7938646B2 (en) 2005-08-08 2008-11-17 Three-dimensional periodic table

Related Child Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US12/272,212 Continuation US7938646B2 (en) 2005-08-08 2008-11-17 Three-dimensional periodic table

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20070031799A1 true US20070031799A1 (en) 2007-02-08

Family

ID=37718025

Family Applications (2)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US11/199,031 Abandoned US20070031799A1 (en) 2005-08-08 2005-08-08 Three-dimensional periodic table
US12/272,212 Active 2025-11-28 US7938646B2 (en) 2005-08-08 2008-11-17 Three-dimensional periodic table

Family Applications After (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US12/272,212 Active 2025-11-28 US7938646B2 (en) 2005-08-08 2008-11-17 Three-dimensional periodic table

Country Status (2)

Country Link
US (2) US20070031799A1 (en)
WO (1) WO2007019429A2 (en)

Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3581409A (en) * 1969-04-25 1971-06-01 Roy H Alexander Three dimensional symbolic arrangement of the elements
US6533585B2 (en) * 2000-12-13 2003-03-18 William Possidento Periodic pyramid: chemistry puzzle and teaching device
US6581822B1 (en) * 2000-01-28 2003-06-24 Vanguard Marketing Group, Inc. Gift receptacle and kit for assembling same

Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3581409A (en) * 1969-04-25 1971-06-01 Roy H Alexander Three dimensional symbolic arrangement of the elements
US6581822B1 (en) * 2000-01-28 2003-06-24 Vanguard Marketing Group, Inc. Gift receptacle and kit for assembling same
US6533585B2 (en) * 2000-12-13 2003-03-18 William Possidento Periodic pyramid: chemistry puzzle and teaching device

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
US20090181351A1 (en) 2009-07-16
WO2007019429A3 (en) 2009-04-23
US7938646B2 (en) 2011-05-10
WO2007019429A2 (en) 2007-02-15

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
Arntson Graphic design basics
Verschaffel et al. Learning to solve mathematical application problems: A design experiment with fifth graders
Dahlgren et al. Questioning to learn and learning to question: Structure and function of problem-based learning scenarios in environmental science education
Baumann et al. Where are teachers' voices in the phonics/whole language debate? Results from a survey of US elementary classroom teachers
US3263347A (en) Educational and recreational lessonaids and games with easel
Bretz Novak's theory of education: Human constructivism and meaningful learning
Bright et al. Graphical representations: Helping students interpret data
Mayer et al. When less is more: Meaningful learning from visual and verbal summaries of science textbook lessons.
Guo Multimodality in a biology textbook
Hallinger et al. Can leadership enhance school effectiveness
Kiboss et al. Effectiveness of a computer-mediated simulations program in school biology on pupils' learning outcomes in cell theory
Gowin et al. Learning how to learn
She DSLM instructional approach to conceptual change involving thermal expansion
Tversky Prolegomenon to scientific visualizations
Biggs Modes of learning, forms of knowing, and ways of schooling
Moore et al. Using Gestalt theory to teach document design and graphics
Nelson-Herber Expanding and refining vocabulary in content areas
Burns Math manipulatives
Reehm et al. Reading in the mathematics classroom
Smith et al. Structured notetaking: A new strategy for content area readers
Tebeaux Redesigning professional writing courses to meet the communication needs of writers in business and industry
US20080131852A1 (en) Systems and methods for teaching proper letter and character formation
Marcarelli Teaching science with interactive notebooks
Bannan‐Ritland et al. A General Framework for the Development of Web‐Based Instruction
Bourne Inside a multilingual primary classroom: A teacher, children and theories at work.