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US20070025869A1 - Fluid Delivery Device - Google Patents

Fluid Delivery Device Download PDF

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Publication number
US20070025869A1
US20070025869A1 US11457714 US45771406A US2007025869A1 US 20070025869 A1 US20070025869 A1 US 20070025869A1 US 11457714 US11457714 US 11457714 US 45771406 A US45771406 A US 45771406A US 2007025869 A1 US2007025869 A1 US 2007025869A1
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Prior art keywords
fluid
piston
chamber
delivery
device
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Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
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US11457714
Inventor
John Gordon
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GORDON JOHN H
Microlin LLC
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Microlin LLC
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M5/00Devices for bringing media into the body in a subcutaneous, intra-vascular or intramuscular way; Accessories therefor, e.g. filling or cleaning devices, arm-rests
    • A61M5/14Infusion devices, e.g. infusing by gravity; Blood infusion; Accessories therefor
    • A61M5/1407Infusion of two or more substances
    • A61M5/1408Infusion of two or more substances in parallel, e.g. manifolds, sequencing valves
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M5/00Devices for bringing media into the body in a subcutaneous, intra-vascular or intramuscular way; Accessories therefor, e.g. filling or cleaning devices, arm-rests
    • A61M5/14Infusion devices, e.g. infusing by gravity; Blood infusion; Accessories therefor
    • A61M5/142Pressure infusion, e.g. using pumps
    • A61M5/145Pressure infusion, e.g. using pumps using pressurised reservoirs, e.g. pressurised by means of pistons
    • A61M5/1452Pressure infusion, e.g. using pumps using pressurised reservoirs, e.g. pressurised by means of pistons pressurised by means of pistons
    • A61M5/14526Pressure infusion, e.g. using pumps using pressurised reservoirs, e.g. pressurised by means of pistons pressurised by means of pistons the piston being actuated by fluid pressure
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M5/00Devices for bringing media into the body in a subcutaneous, intra-vascular or intramuscular way; Accessories therefor, e.g. filling or cleaning devices, arm-rests
    • A61M5/14Infusion devices, e.g. infusing by gravity; Blood infusion; Accessories therefor
    • A61M5/142Pressure infusion, e.g. using pumps
    • A61M5/145Pressure infusion, e.g. using pumps using pressurised reservoirs, e.g. pressurised by means of pistons
    • A61M2005/14513Pressure infusion, e.g. using pumps using pressurised reservoirs, e.g. pressurised by means of pistons with secondary fluid driving or regulating the infusion

Abstract

Disclosed are embodiments of systems, apparatus, and methods for delivering a fluid. In one illustrative embodiment, a fluid delivery device includes a master piston coupled with at least one slave piston to move in unison with the master piston. A fluid power source, such as an electroosmotic plump, is also provided, which is configured to drive the master piston. The various pistons may be sized differently to provide for delivery rates that vary in proportion to the size difference between the pistons. In some embodiments, the fluid delivery device may provide both a driving force and a suction force such that a first fluid can be delivered out of a chamber while a second fluid is delivered into that chamber or a separate chamber.

Description

    RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • [0001]
    This application claims the benefit under 35 U.S.C. § 119(e) of U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 60/699,703, filed Jul. 15, 2005, and titled “Implantable Drug Delivery Device,” which is incorporated herein by specific reference.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • [0002]
    Understanding that drawings depict only certain preferred embodiments of the invention and are therefore not to be considered limiting of its scope, the preferred embodiments will be described and explained with additional specificity and detail through the use of the accompanying drawings in which:
  • [0003]
    FIG. 1 is a plan view of an embodiment of a fluid delivery device.
  • [0004]
    FIG. 2 is a plan view of another embodiment of a fluid delivery device having a master piston and a slave piston.
  • [0005]
    FIG. 3 is a top plan view of still another embodiment of a fluid delivery device having three pistons with varying cross-sectional areas.
  • [0006]
    FIG. 4 is a plan view of yet another embodiment of a fluid delivery device.
  • [0007]
    FIG. 5 is a plan view of yet another embodiment of a fluid delivery device having remote fluid delivery components.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
  • [0008]
    In the following description, numerous specific details are provided for a thorough understanding of specific preferred embodiments. However, those skilled in the art will recognize that embodiments can be practiced without one or more of the specific details, or with other methods, components, materials, etc. In some cases, well-known structures, materials, or operations are not shown or described in detail in order to avoid obscuring aspects of the preferred embodiments. Furthermore, the described features, structures, or characteristics may be combined in any suitable manner in a variety of alternative embodiments.
  • [0009]
    Disclosed are embodiments of systems, methods, and apparatus for delivery a fluid. In some embodiments, the fluid may include a medicament and may be delivered in an implantable device to a part of the human body of a patient, such as into a part of the human body or onto a part of the human body. Some embodiments may also, or alternatively, provide for suction of a fluid, such as from a part of the body to a reservoir or other chamber. In a particular subset of embodiments, the force to drive the fluid may be provided by an electroosmotic pump or gas generation pump. In some embodiments, the fluid delivery rate may be adjusted by varying the resistance of the pump circuit. Some embodiments of the invention may also facilitate suction of a fluid concurrently with the delivery of a medicament or other beneficial fluid. Various embodiments of the invention may therefore be useful for medical treatments where pressure must be relieved and/or toxins must be removed from a site in a gradual fashion. Alternatively, the device could pull a medicament or other material from a receptacle for dispensing and/or allow dispensing of multiple drugs or fluids using a single engine driver.
  • [0010]
    Further details of specific illustrative embodiments of the invention will now be described with reference to the accompanying drawings. FIG 1 depicts a fluid delivery device 10. Device 10 includes a fluid power source 20, which is configured to drive a piston 30. Piston 30 is slidably received in fluid chamber 35. It is intended that the term “piston” is used herein will encompass any structure capable of being driven by a fluid power source, such as an electroosmotic engine, to thereby deliver a fluid in a chamber. Examples of other structures intended to be encompassed by this term include a plunger and the like. Each of these structures can also be considered examples of means for driving a fluid. Fluid chamber 35 may contain a fluid having a medicament or other beneficial chemical or material. Port 38 is in fluid communication with fluid chamber 35 and is connected with catheter 40.
  • [0011]
    Fluid power source 40 may comprise, for example, an electroosmotic or osmotic engine, or a gas generation cell. In embodiments including an electroosmotic engine, that engine may include a first electrode, a second electrode, an ion exchange membrane positioned between the first and second electrodes, and a coupling between the first and second electrodes. The coupling between the electrodes may comprise a resistor or resistors. In some embodiments, the resistor(s) may be replaceable or adjustable so as to vary the rate at which the electroosmotic engine operates and thereby vary the power conveyed to the piston(s) by simply replacing the resistor with an alternative resistor with the desired properties, or otherwise adjusting the resistance between the electrodes.
  • [0012]
    Various fluid power sources that may be adapted for use in connection with embodiments of the systems, devices, and methods disclosed herein can be found in U.S. Pat. No. 5,744,014 titled “Storage Stable Electrolytic Gas Generator for Fluid Dispensing Applications,” U.S. Pat. No. 5,707,499 titled “Storage-stable, Fluid Dispensing Device Using a Hydrogen Gas Generator” and U.S. Patent Application Publication No. 2003/0205582 titled “Fluid Delivery Device Having an Electrochemical Pump with an Anionic Exchange Membrane and Associated Method.” One or more embodiments could alternatively be driven by an osmotic type device as discussed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,845,770 titled “Osmatic Dispensing Device for Releasing Beneficial Agent.” Each of the foregoing references are hereby incorporated by reference in their entireties. In addition, each of the various fluid power sources disclosed in the above references, and those disclosed elsewhere in this disclosure, can be considered examples of means for providing a fluid pressure against a driving means.
  • [0013]
    In FIG. 2, another embodiment of a fluid delivery device 100 is depicted. Fluid delivery device 100 also includes a fluid power source 110. Fluid power source may comprise any of the various devices or structures described above. In addition, fluid delivery device 100 includes a master piston 120 and a slave piston 130. It should be understood that, whereas a single slave piston is shown in the embodiment of FIG. 2, other embodiments are contemplated in which additional slave pistons are provided. In fact, virtually any number of slave pistons may be provided, limited in number only by logistical and/or practical considerations.
  • [0014]
    Slave piston 130 is coupled to master piston 120 to move in unison with master piston 120. In particular, coupling 125 is used to couple master piston 120 to slave piston 130. More specifically, coupling 125 connects piston rod 121 to piston rod 131. Fluid power source 110 is configured to drive the master piston 120, which may be used to deliver a fluid out of drive piston chamber 122, through port 123, and into catheter 140. As master piston 120 moves in response to the force provided by fluid power source 110, slave piston 130 also moves within slave piston chamber 132. Chambers 122 and 132 are also each sealed with a sealing gland—sealing glands 126 and 136, respectively, so as to allow the piston rod to exit the chambers as the pistons are forced upward (from the view of FIG. 2) while maintaining the chambers as sealed. Any of the chambers discussed herein can be considered examples of means for housing a fluid. Because chambers 122 and 132 are independently fluidly sealed, chamber 132 can deliver a second fluid concurrently with the delivery of the fluid delivered from chamber 122. For example, a second fluid stored in slave piston chamber 132 can be delivered through port 133 and into a second catheter 150. Of course, the fluids delivered from the two chambers may be identical or different, depending upon the application and desired outcome.
  • [0015]
    Moreover, as the slave piston(s) are driven by the master piston, a partial vacuum or vacuums are created, which can be used for the purpose of providing a suction force through another delivery device or component, such as a catheter. If desired, a medicament or other beneficial fluid may be driven by the driving piston and/or suctioned by another piston(s) concurrently. Alternatively, a medicament or other beneficial fluid may be driven by the driving piston and/or an undesirable fluid may suctioned from a site by another piston(s) concurrently. For example, the suction force may be used to relieve pressure and/or remove toxins from a body site.
  • [0016]
    To illustrate, fluid delivery device 100 includes a third catheter 160 positioned on the opposite side of chamber 132 relative to slave piston 130. With respect to chamber 132, device 100 is therefore configured to provide both a driving force to deliver a fluid out of chamber 132 through catheter 150, and a suction force to deliver another fluid into chamber 132 through catheter 160. The driving and suction forces in the embodiment of FIG. 2 are provided simultaneously by the fluid power source 110. Providing a suction feature as disclosed herein may be beneficial if, for example, a fluid needs to be removed from a portion of a patient's body over an extended period of time using, for example, an implanted device. In other embodiments, one or more of the slave piston chambers may have one or more vents used instead of a suction catheter(s). Such vents will allow fluids to be delivered from the slave piston chambers without generating a partial vacuum.
  • [0017]
    In some embodiments of the invention, different beneficial fluids may also be delivered at different rates as desired. More specifically, the rate of delivery may vary proportionally to one other by providing pistons and chambers with varying cross-sectional area. Each of the various fluids to be delivered may therefore be associated with a different-sized piston in accordance with the desired delivery rate for each particular fluid. As mentioned above, each of the various pistons may be driven from the same driver—i.e., a single fluid power source connected to a single master piston.
  • [0018]
    An example of an embodiment providing pistons with varying cross-sectional areas is depicted in FIG. 3. Fluid delivery device 200 includes three separate chambers, each of which corresponds with a separate piston. As can be seen from the figure, drive piston chamber 232 has a cross-sectional area in between that of slave piston chambers 222 and 242. The rate of fluid delivery from each of the chambers will therefore be greatest for chamber 242 through catheter 260, less for chamber 232 through catheter 250, and least for chamber 222 through catheter 240. Although not shown in the referenced figure, it should be understood that the drive piston within drive piston chamber 232 may be driven by a fluid power source, such as an electroosmotic pump, as previously disclosed.
  • [0019]
    It should also be understood that a wide variety of combinations and embodiments will be apparent to one of ordinary skill in art after having had the benefit of the disclosure provided herein. For example, with reference now to FIG. 4, still another embodiment of a fluid delivery device 300 is shown. Fluid delivery device 300 is again powered by a fluid power source 310. Fluid power source 310 is positioned and configured to drive master piston 320, which is positioned within chamber 322. Master piston 320 is connected with piston rod 321. Two slave pistons—slave piston 330 and slave piston 340—are coupled with master piston 320. Slave piston 330 is positioned within chamber 332 and slave piston 340 is positioned within chamber 342. Piston rods 331 and 341 are each coupled to a coupling bar 336 which is in turn, coupled to piston rod 321 to thereby couple master piston 320 with each of the respective slave pistons. Coupling bar 336, and coupling 125 in the embodiment shown in FIG. 2, are both examples of means for coupling a first driving means to a second driving means. As can be seen from the referenced figure, unlike the embodiments of the previous figures, fluid delivery device 300 operates by using the master piston 320 to push slave pistons 330 and 340 downstream of the master piston, rather than to pull them alongside the master piston, as in previously disclosed embodiments.
  • [0020]
    Like previous embodiments, each of the piston chambers in fluid delivery device 300 is configured to hold an deliver a fluid into a catheter. Specifically, catheter 350 is in fluid communication with chamber 322 and is configured to receive a fluid delivered from chamber 322. Likewise, catheters 360 and 370 are in fluid communication with, and are configured to receive a fluid delivered from, chambers 332 and 342, respectively. Each of the chambers are also independently fluidly sealed. In particular, piston rods 321, 331, and 341 are able to pass through their respective chambers—chambers 322, 332, and 342—due to sealing glands 326, 336, and 346, respectively.
  • [0021]
    As can be seen from FIG. 4, chamber 342 (and piston 340) has a greater cross-sectional area than that of chamber 332 (and piston 330). The fluid delivered from chamber 342 will therefore be delivered at a greater rate than that of the fluid from chamber 332. The delivery rates may be further adjusted without constructing a new device by, for example, adjusting the flow of electrons through a circuit associated with the fluid power source. As previously mentioned, one way of adjusting the flow of electrons through a circuit associated with the fluid power source would be to adjust the resistance between two electrodes in an electroosmotic pump.
  • [0022]
    Of course, although fluid delivery device 300 in FIG. 4 is not shown with accompanying suction catheters, any or all of the various slave chambers may also include suction catheters positioned and configured to provide a suction force into one or more of the chambers. Instead of suction catheters, fluid delivery device 300 has vents 380, which are provided to prevent the generation of a partial vacuum in the slave chambers 332 and 342 as they stroke.
  • [0023]
    Yet another embodiment is shown in FIG. 5. FIG 5 depicts a fluid delivery device 400. Fluid delivery device 400 has many of the same components as that of FIG. 2, which are labeled accordingly. However, fluid delivery device 400 also includes three remote fluid chambers, each of which is hydraulically coupled to one of chambers 122 and 132. Each of the remote chambers is accompanied by a displaceable member and each is also configured to deliver a fluid. Each of the various fluid delivery components is driven by master piston 120 via fluid power source 110.
  • [0024]
    To be more specific, the fluid from one or more of the proximate chambers, such as chambers 122 and 132, may be transmitted through tubing to one or more remote fluid containing chambers, such as chambers 442, 452, and 462. Each of chambers 442, 452, and 462 has an associated displaceable member—displaceable members 440, 450, and 460, respectively. These chamber/displaceable member configurations may comprise a cylinder and piston or may comprise a collapsible bag, flexible diaphragm, or the like. With reference again to the embodiment depicted in FIG. 5, displaceable members 440 and 450 both comprise pistons, whereas displaceable member 460 comprises a collapsible bag.
  • [0025]
    As fluid power source 110 forces piston 120, fluid from chamber 122 is forced into tube 140 via port 123. That fluid is then used to drive remote piston 440, which, in turn, drives another fluid out of chamber 442 and into catheter 448. As previously described, fluid power source 110 also simultaneously drives slave piston 130. Piston 130 may be used to drive a fluid into tube 160 via port 138 and simultaneously drives a fluid into tube 150 via port 133. As the fluid from chamber 132 enters chamber 462 from tube 160, it causes collapsible bag 460 to collapse and the fluid inside collapsible bag 460 to exit through catheter 468. As the fluid from chamber 132 enters chamber 452 from tube 150, it drives remote piston 450, which, in turn, drives another fluid out of chamber 452 and into catheter 458. Several fluid delivery components may thereby be provided with varying delivery rates and/or mechanism as desired. For example, the delivery rate of the fluid inside chamber 452 from piston 450 will be less than the delivery rate of the fluid inside chamber 442 from piston 440, due to the fact that there are two remote delivery components coupled with chamber 132 and only one with chamber 122.
  • [0026]
    The above description fully discloses the invention including preferred embodiments thereof. Without further elaboration, it is believed that one skilled in the art can use the preceding description to utilize the invention to its fullest extent. Therefore the examples and embodiments disclosed herein are to be construed as merely illustrative and not a limitation of the scope of the present invention in any way.
  • [0027]
    It will be obvious to those having skill in the art that many changes may be made to the details of the above-described embodiments without departing from the underlying principles of the invention. The scope of the present invention should, therefore, be determined only by the following claims.

Claims (37)

  1. 1. A fluid delivery device, comprising:
    a master piston;
    at least one slave piston coupled to the master piston to move in unison with the master piston, and
    a fluid power source configured to drive the master piston.
  2. 2. The fluid delivery device of claim 1, wherein the fluid delivery device is configured to be implanted in a human body.
  3. 3. The fluid delivery device of claim 1, wherein the fluid power source comprises an electrochemical pump.
  4. 4. The fluid delivery device of claim 1, wherein the fluid power source comprises an osmotic pump.
  5. 5. The fluid delivery device of claim 1, wherein the slave piston has a cross-sectional area that differs from that of the master piston.
  6. 6. The fluid delivery device of claim 1, wherein the master piston is configured to drive a first fluid out of a first fluid chamber.
  7. 7. The fluid delivery device of claim 6, wherein the slave piston is configured to drive a second fluid out of a second fluid chamber.
  8. 8. The fluid delivery device of claim 6, wherein the slave piston is configured to pull a second fluid into a second fluid chamber.
  9. 9. The fluid delivery device of claim 6, wherein the slave piston is configured to simultaneously drive a second fluid out of a second fluid chamber and pull a third fluid into the second fluid chamber.
  10. 10. The fluid delivery device of claim 1, further comprising a second slave piston coupled to the slave piston to move in unison with the slave piston.
  11. 11. The fluid delivery device of claim 10, wherein the master piston, the slave piston, and the second slave piston each have different cross-sectional areas.
  12. 12. An implantable fluid delivery device, comprising:
    a first chamber configured to store a fluid;
    a port in fluid communication with the first chamber;
    a master piston slidably received in the first chamber so as to be capable of pushing a fluid stored in the first chamber out of the port;
    a second chamber configured to store a fluid, wherein the second chamber is sealed apart from the first chamber;
    a port in fluid communication with the second chamber;
    a slave piston slidably positioned in the second chamber, wherein the slave piston is coupled with the master piston; and
    a fluid power source configured to drive the master piston.
  13. 13. The implantable fluid delivery device of claim 12, wherein the second chamber port is configured to provide a suction force into the second chamber.
  14. 14. The implantable fluid delivery device of claim 12, wherein the second chamber port is configured to provide a driving force directing fluid out of the second chamber.
  15. 15. The implantable fluid delivery device of claim 14, further comprising:
    a displaceable member positioned to drive a fluid from a third chamber, wherein the second chamber port is in fluid communication with the displaceable member such that the driving force from the fluid directed out of the second chamber is used to cause the displaceable member to drive the fluid in the third chamber out of the third chamber.
  16. 16. The implantable fluid delivery device of claim 15, wherein the displaceable member comprises a collapsible bag.
  17. 17. The implantable fluid delivery device of claim 15, wherein the displaceable member comprises a piston.
  18. 18. The implantable fluid delivery device of claim 14, wherein the second chamber further comprises a second port, and wherein the second port is configured to provide a suction force into the second chamber.
  19. 19. An implantable fluid delivery device, comprising:
    first means for housing a fluid;
    first means for driving the fluid;
    second means for housing a second fluid;
    second means for driving the second fluid;
    means for coupling the first driving means to the second driving means; and
    means for providing a fluid pressure against the first driving means.
  20. 20. The implantable fluid delivery device of claim 19, wherein the first and second means for driving a fluid each comprise a piston.
  21. 21. The implantable fluid delivery device of claim 19, wherein the first fluid is substantially identical to the second fluid.
  22. 22. The implantable fluid delivery device of claim 19, wherein the means for providing a fluid pressure comprises an electrochemical pump.
  23. 23. The implantable fluid delivery device of claim 19, wherein the means for providing a fluid pressure comprises an osmotic pump.
  24. 24. The implantable fluid delivery device of claim 19, wherein the means for providing a fluid pressure comprises a gas generation cell.
  25. 25. The implantable fluid delivery device of claim 19, further comprising:
    third means for housing a third fluid;
    third means for driving the third fluid; and
    means for coupling the second driving means to the third driving means.
  26. 26. The implantable fluid delivery device of claim 25, wherein each of the means for housing a fluid are sized differently.
  27. 27. The implantable fluid delivery device of claim 19, wherein the second means for driving the second fluid is configured to provide a suction force to draw a third fluid into the second means for housing a second fluid.
  28. 28. A method for delivering a fluid to a human body, the method comprising:
    driving a first fluid out of a first chamber to a part of the human body, wherein the force used to drive the first fluid out of the first chamber is generated by a fluid power source; and
    providing a driving force in a second chamber to deliver a second fluid, wherein the force used to provide the driving force is generated by the fluid power source.
  29. 29. The method of claim 28, wherein the second fluid is delivered out of the second chamber.
  30. 30. The method of claim 29, wherein a third fluid is delivered into the second chamber while the second fluid is delivered out of the second chamber.
  31. 31. The method of claim 28, wherein the second fluid is delivered into the second chamber.
  32. 32. The method of claim 28, wherein the first fluid comprises a medicament.
  33. 33. The method of claim 28, wherein the first fluid is substantially identical to the second fluid.
  34. 34. The method of claim 28, wherein the step of driving a first fluid out of a first chamber to a part of the human body comprises driving the first fluid into a part the human body.
  35. 35. The method of claim 28, wherein driving a first fluid out of a first chamber to a part of the human body comprises driving the first fluid onto a part of the human body.
  36. 36. The method of claim 28, wherein the driving force is provided by an electrochemical pump.
  37. 37. The method of claim 28, wherein the driving force is provided by an osmotic pump.
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US20080147186A1 (en) * 2006-12-14 2008-06-19 Joshi Ashok V Electrochemical Implant For Delivering Beneficial Agents
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US8939435B2 (en) 2011-06-03 2015-01-27 Microlin, Llc Device for delivery of volatile liquids to gaseous environment utilizing a gas generating cell

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US8753315B2 (en) * 2011-02-17 2014-06-17 Calibra Medical, Inc. Manual basal bolus drug delivery device

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