US20060275034A9 - Fully protected broadcast and select all optical network - Google Patents

Fully protected broadcast and select all optical network Download PDF

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Publication number
US20060275034A9
US20060275034A9 US10/338,088 US33808803A US2006275034A9 US 20060275034 A9 US20060275034 A9 US 20060275034A9 US 33808803 A US33808803 A US 33808803A US 2006275034 A9 US2006275034 A9 US 2006275034A9
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coupled
clockwise
fiber
network
wdm
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US20030180047A1 (en
US7499647B2 (en
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Winston Way
Chao Shi
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Snell Holdings LLC
OpVista Inc
VELLO SYSTEMS Inc
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OpVista Inc
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Priority to US09/575,811 priority Critical patent/US6525857B1/en
Priority to US09/990,196 priority patent/US6895184B2/en
Priority to US34678602P priority
Application filed by OpVista Inc filed Critical OpVista Inc
Priority to US10/338,088 priority patent/US7499647B2/en
Publication of US20030180047A1 publication Critical patent/US20030180047A1/en
Assigned to SILICON VALLEY BANK reassignment SILICON VALLEY BANK SECURITY AGREEMENT Assignors: OPVISTA, INC.
Publication of US20060275034A9 publication Critical patent/US20060275034A9/en
Assigned to OPVISTA, INC. reassignment OPVISTA, INC. RELEASE Assignors: SILICON VALLEY BANK
Assigned to COMERICA BANK reassignment COMERICA BANK SECURITY AGREEMENT Assignors: OPVISTA, INC.
Assigned to OPVISTA INCORPORATED reassignment OPVISTA INCORPORATED ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: SHI, CHAO XIANG, WAY, WINSTON I.
Assigned to VENTURE LENDING & LEASING IV, INC AND reassignment VENTURE LENDING & LEASING IV, INC AND SECURITY AGREEMENT Assignors: OPVISTA
Publication of US7499647B2 publication Critical patent/US7499647B2/en
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Assigned to VELLO SYSTEMS, INC. reassignment VELLO SYSTEMS, INC. ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: VENTURE LENDING & LEASING IV, INC., VENTURE LENDING & LEASING V, INC.
Assigned to OPVISTA, INC. reassignment OPVISTA, INC. RELEASE BY SECURED PARTY (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: COMERICA BANK
Assigned to VELLO SYSTEMS, INC. reassignment VELLO SYSTEMS, INC. RELEASE BY SECURED PARTY (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: VENTURE LENDING & LEASING V, INC., VENTURE LENDING AND LEASING IV, INC.
Assigned to OPVISTA, INC. reassignment OPVISTA, INC. RELEASE BY SECURED PARTY (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: COMERICA BANK
Assigned to VENTURE LENDING & LEASING VI, INC., VENTURE LENDING & LEASING VII, INC. reassignment VENTURE LENDING & LEASING VI, INC. SECURITY AGREEMENT Assignors: VELLO SYSTEMS, INC.
Assigned to TREQ LABS, INC. reassignment TREQ LABS, INC. ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: TREQ LABS, INC., VENTURE LENDING & LEASING
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04JMULTIPLEX COMMUNICATION
    • H04J14/00Optical multiplex systems
    • H04J14/02Wavelength-division multiplex systems
    • H04J14/0287Protection in WDM systems
    • H04J14/0297Optical equipment protection
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04BTRANSMISSION
    • H04B10/00Transmission systems employing electromagnetic waves other than radio-waves, e.g. infrared, visible or ultraviolet light, or employing corpuscular radiation, e.g. quantum communication
    • H04B10/50Transmitters
    • H04B10/501Structural aspects
    • H04B10/503Laser transmitters
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04BTRANSMISSION
    • H04B10/00Transmission systems employing electromagnetic waves other than radio-waves, e.g. infrared, visible or ultraviolet light, or employing corpuscular radiation, e.g. quantum communication
    • H04B10/50Transmitters
    • H04B10/501Structural aspects
    • H04B10/506Multi-wavelength transmitters
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04BTRANSMISSION
    • H04B10/00Transmission systems employing electromagnetic waves other than radio-waves, e.g. infrared, visible or ultraviolet light, or employing corpuscular radiation, e.g. quantum communication
    • H04B10/50Transmitters
    • H04B10/564Power control
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04JMULTIPLEX COMMUNICATION
    • H04J14/00Optical multiplex systems
    • H04J14/02Wavelength-division multiplex systems
    • H04J14/0278WDM optical network architectures
    • H04J14/0283WDM ring architectures
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04JMULTIPLEX COMMUNICATION
    • H04J14/00Optical multiplex systems
    • H04J14/02Wavelength-division multiplex systems
    • H04J14/0287Protection in WDM systems
    • H04J14/0293Optical channel protection
    • H04J14/0294Dedicated protection at the optical channel (1+1)
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04JMULTIPLEX COMMUNICATION
    • H04J14/00Optical multiplex systems
    • H04J14/02Wavelength-division multiplex systems
    • H04J14/0287Protection in WDM systems
    • H04J14/0293Optical channel protection
    • H04J14/0295Shared protection at the optical channel (1:1, n:m)
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L12/00Data switching networks
    • H04L12/28Data switching networks characterised by path configuration, e.g. local area networks [LAN], wide area networks [WAN]
    • H04L12/42Loop networks
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L12/00Data switching networks
    • H04L12/28Data switching networks characterised by path configuration, e.g. local area networks [LAN], wide area networks [WAN]
    • H04L12/42Loop networks
    • H04L12/437Ring fault isolation or reconfiguration
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04JMULTIPLEX COMMUNICATION
    • H04J14/00Optical multiplex systems
    • H04J14/02Wavelength-division multiplex systems
    • H04J14/0221Power control, e.g. to keep the total optical power constant

Abstract

An all optical network for optical signal traffic provides at least a first ring with at least a first clockwise fiber, a second counter-clockwise fiber and a plurality of network nodes. Each node has at least a WDM transponder that with a line-side transmitter and a client-side receiver in a first direction, and a line-side receiver and a client-side transmitter in an opposing second direction. The line-side receiver includes a fixed or a tunable optical wavelength filter. At least a first add and a first drop broadband couplers are positioned on each fiber. Each coupler has first and second ports for through traffic and a third port for adding or dropping local traffic. The first add and first drop broadband couplers are configured to minimize a pass-through loss in each fiber. If there are multiple WDM transponders, their wavelengths are added to the ring either in series or in parallel. All wavelengths dropped from the ring are selected by each individual WDM transponder in a parallel or serial manner.

Description

    CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • This application claims the benefit of U.S. Ser. Nos. 60/229,784 filed Jun. 20/2001, 60/301,564 filed Jun. 28, 2001, and 60/309,220 filed Jul. 31, 2001 and is also a continuation-in-part of U.S. Ser. No. 09/990,196 filed Nov. 21, 2001, and of 09/575,811 filed May 22, 2000, all of which applications are fully incorporated herein by reference.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • 1. Field of the Invention
  • The present invention relates generally to all optical networks, and more particularly to an all optical network that uses broadcast and select ring architecture with various configurations to protect ring fibers, WDM equipment and client equipment.
  • 2. Description of the Related Art
  • Broadcast-and-select technique has been used in linear, star, and ring optical networks. In a broadcast-and-select optical network, multiple wavelengths in a fiber are simultaneously broadcast to multiple destinations via one or more optical couplers. At each destination, there is either a tunable filter or a fixed filter/demultiplexer to perform the “select” function.
  • However, optical ring networks usually require protection on one or all of the following facilities: (i) optical fibers on the ring; (ii) WDM equipment; and (iii) client equipment, including but not limited to SONET/SDH, Gigabit Ethernet, Fiber Channel and the like. There is no method to achieve any of these protections in a broadcast and select optical network.
  • There is a need for a fully-protected broadcast and select architecture in an all optical fiber ring network. There is a further need for a passive fiber ring network that does not have active elements. When there are in-line optical amplifiers on a ring network, there is a further need for an all optical fiber ring network that has minimal fiber ring lasing or coherent cross-talk on the ring. There is still a further need for an all optical fiber ring network that eliminates in-line amplifier gain saturation on the ring by equalizing all wavelength powers at the input of each in-line amplifier.
  • SUMMARY
  • Accordingly, an object of the present invention is to provide a broadcast and select architecture in an all optical fiber ring network.
  • Another object of the present invention is to provide a broadcast and select optical ring network with fiber protection, and/or WDM equipment, protection, and/or client equipment protection.
  • Another object of the present invention is to provide a passive fiber ring network that does not have active elements.
  • Yet another object of the present invention is to provide an all optical fiber ring network, which uses inline optical amplifiers, that has minimal fiber ring lasing or coherent cross-talk on the ring.
  • A further object of the present invention is to provide an all optical fiber ring network that eliminates in-line amplifier gain saturation on the ring, by equalizing the power levels of all wavelengths on the ring at the input of each in-line amplifier.
  • These and other objects of the present invention are achieved in an all optical network for optical signal traffic that provides at least a first ring with at least a first clockwise fiber, a second counter-clockwise fiber and a plurality of network nodes. Each node has at least a WDM transponder that with a line-side transmitter and a client-side receiver in a first direction, and a line-side receiver and a client-side transmitter in an opposing second direction. The line-side receiver includes a fixed or a tunable optical wavelength filter. At least a first add and a first drop broadband couplers are positioned on each fiber. Each coupler has first and second ports for through traffic and a third port for adding or dropping local traffic. The first add and first drop broadband couplers are configured to minimize a pass-through loss in each fiber.
  • In another embodiment of the present invention, an all optical network for optical signal traffic provides at least a first ring with at least a first clockwise fiber, a second counter-clockwise fiber and a plurality of network nodes. Each node has at least a WDM transponder that with a line-side transmitter and a client-side receiver in a first direction, and a line-side receiver and a client-side transmitter in an opposing second direction. The line-side receiver includes a fixed or a tunable optical wavelength filter. At least a first add and a first drop broadband couplers are positioned on each fiber. Each coupler has first and second ports for through traffic and a third port for adding or dropping local traffic. The first add and first drop broadband couplers are configured to minimize a pass-through loss in each fiber. A first coupler pair includes first and second couplers in each network node. The first coupler has first and second output ports and a first input port coupled to a line-side transmitter. The first output port is coupled to the clockwise fiber and the second output port is coupled to the counter-clockwise fiber. The first coupler enables the line-side transmitter to launch signals to both the clockwise and counter-clockwise fibers. The second coupler has first and second input ports and a first output port coupled to a line-side receiver. The first input port is coupled to the clockwise fiber and the second input port coupled to the counter-clockwise fiber. The second coupler enables the line-side receiver to receive signals from both the clockwise and counter-clockwise fibers.
  • In another embodiment of the present invention, an all optical network for optical signal traffic has a first ring with at least a clockwise and a counter-clockwise fiber and a plurality of network nodes. Each node has at least a WDM transponder that includes a line-side transmitter and a client-side receiver in a first direction, and a line-side receiver and a client-side transmitter in an opposing second direction. The line-side receiver includes a fixed or a tunable optical wavelength filter. At least a first add and a first drop broadband couplers are positioned on the first ring. Each coupler has first and second ports for through traffic and a third port for adding or dropping local traffic. The first add and first drop broadband couplers are configured to minimize a pass-through loss in each fiber. A first switch pair includes first and second switches. The first switch has first and second output ports and a first input port coupled to the line-side transmitter. The first output port is coupled to the clockwise fiber and the second output port is coupled to the counter-clockwise fiber. The first switch enables the line-side transmitter to launch signals to either the clockwise or counter-clockwise fibers. The second switch has first and second input ports and a first output port coupled to the line-side receiver. The first input port is coupled to the clockwise fiber and the second input port is coupled to the counter-clockwise fiber. The second switch enables the line-side receiver to receive signals from either the clockwise or counter-clockwise fiber.
  • In another embodiment of the present invention, an all optical network for optical signal traffic has a first ring with at least a clockwise and a counter-clockwise fibers and a plurality of network nodes. At least a first add and a first drop broadband couplers are positioned on each fiber. Each coupler has first and second ports for through traffic and a third port for adding or dropping local traffic. The first add and first drop broadband couplers are configured to minimize a pass-through loss in each fiber. First and second coupler pairs are provided and each include first and second couplers. A working WDM transponder is coupled to the first ring. The working WDM transponder includes a line-side transmitter and a client-side receiver in a first direction, and a line-side receiver and a client-side transmitter in an opposing second direction. The client side transmitter and the client side receiver of the working WDM transponder are coupled to a receiver and a transmitter of the working client side equipment respectively. A protection WDM transponder is coupled to the first ring. The working WDM transponder includes a line-side transmitter and a client-side receiver in a first direction, and a line-side receiver and a client-side transmitter in an opposing second direction. The client side transmitter and the client side receiver of the protection WDM transponder are coupled to a receiver and a transmitter of the protection client side equipment respectively.
  • In another embodiment of the present invention, an all optical network for optical signal traffic has a first ring with at least a clockwise and a counter-clockwise fibers and a plurality of network nodes. At least a first add and a first drop broadband couplers are positioned on each fiber. Each coupler has first and second ports for through traffic and a third port for adding or dropping local traffic. The first add and first drop broadband couplers are configured to minimize a pass-through loss in each fiber. A working WDM transponder is coupled to the first ring. The working WDM transponder includes a line-side transmitter and a client-side receiver in a first direction, and a line-side receiver and a client-side transmitter in an opposing second direction. The client side transmitter and the client side receiver of the working WDM transponder are coupled to a receiver and a transmitter of the working client side equipment respectively. A protection WDM transponder is coupled to the first ring. The working WDM transponder includes a line-side transmitter and a client-side receiver in a first direction, and a line-side receiver and a client-side transmitter in an opposing second direction. The client side transmitter and the client side receiver of the protection WDM transponder are coupled to a receiver and a transmitter of the protection client side equipment respectively. At least a first add and a first drop broadband couplers are positioned on each fiber. Each coupler has first and second ports for through traffic and a third port for adding or dropping local traffic. The first add and first drop broadband couplers are configured to minimize a pass-through loss in each fiber. First and second coupler pairs are provided and each include first and second couplers. The first coupler pair is coupled to the working WDM transponder and the second coupler pair is coupled to the protection WDM transponder. The first coupler has first and second output ports and a first input port coupled to the WDM transponder line-side transmitter. The first output port is coupled to the clockwise fiber and the second output port is coupled to the counter-clockwise fiber. The first coupler enables the WDM transponder line-side transmitter to launch signals to both the clockwise and counter-clockwise fibers. The second coupler has first and second input ports and a first output port coupled to the WDM transponder line-side receiver. The first input port is coupled to the clockwise fiber and the second input port is coupled to the counter-clockwise fiber. The second coupler enables the WDM transponder line-side receiver to receive signals from both the clockwise and counter-clockwise fibers.
  • In another embodiment of the present invention, an all optical network for optical signal traffic includes a first ring with at least a first clockwise and a second counter-clockwise fibers and a plurality of network nodes. At least a first add and a first drop broadband couplers are positioned on each fiber. Each coupler has first and second ports for through traffic and a third port for adding or dropping local traffic. The first add and first drop broadband couplers are configured to minimize a pass-through loss in each fiber. A working WDM transponder is coupled to the first ring. The working WDM transponder includes a line-side transmitter and a client-side receiver in a first direction, and a line-side receiver and a client-side transmitter in an opposing second direction. The client side transmitter and the client side receiver of the working WDM transponder are connected back to back to a receiver and a transmitter of working client equipment respectively. A protection WDM transponder is coupled to the first ring. The protection WDM transponder includes a line-side transmitter and a client-side receiver in a first direction, and a line-side receiver and a client-side transmitter in an opposing second direction. The client side transmitter and the client side receiver of the protection WDM transponder are coupled to a receiver and a transmitter of the protection client side equipment respectively. First and second coupler pairs are provided, each with first and second couplers. A 1×2 coupler is configured to launch client optical signals to the WDM working transponder and the WDM protection transponder. A 1×2 coupler is configured to permit client equipment to receive signals from either the working WDM transponder or the protection WDM transponder. A client-side transmitter on the WDM equipment is turned off to reduce coherent cross talk and interference.
  • In another embodiment of the present invention, an all optical network for optical signal traffic includes a first ring with at least a first clockwise and a second counter-clockwise fibers and a plurality of network nodes. At least a first add and a first drop broadband couplers are positioned on each fiber. Each coupler has first and second ports for through traffic and a third port for adding or dropping local traffic. The first add and first drop broadband couplers are configured to minimize a pass-through loss in each fiber. A working WDM transponder is coupled to the first ring. The working WDM transponder includes a line-side transmitter and a client-side receiver in a first direction, and a line-side receiver and a client-side transmitter in an opposing second direction. The client side transmitter and the client side receiver of the working WDM transponder are connected back to back to a receiver and a transmitter of working client equipment respectively. A protection WDM transponder is coupled to the first ring. The protection WDM transponder includes a line-side transmitter and a client-side receiver in a first direction, and a line-side receiver and a client-side transmitter in an opposing second direction. The client side transmitter and the client side receiver of the protection WDM transponder are coupled to a receiver and a transmitter of the protection client side equipment respectively. First and second coupler pairs are provided, each with first and second couplers. The first coupler pair is coupled to the working WDM transponder and the second coupler pair is coupled to the protection WDM transponder. The first coupler has first and second output ports and a first input port coupled to the WDM transponder line-side transmitter. The first output port is coupled to the clockwise fiber and the second output port is coupled to the counter-clockwise fiber. The first coupler enables the WDM transponder line-side transmitter to launch signals to both the clockwise and counter-clockwise fibers. The second coupler has first and second input ports and a first output port coupled to the WDM transponder line-side receiver. The first input port is coupled to the clockwise fiber and the second input port is coupled to the counter-clockwise fiber. The second coupler enables the WDM transponder line-side receiver to receive signals from both the clockwise and counter-clockwise fibers. A 1×2 coupler is configured to launch client optical signals to the WDM working transponder and the WDM protection transponder. A 1×2 coupler is configured to permit client equipment to receive signals from either the working WDM transponder or the protection WDM transponder. A client-side transmitter on the WDM equipment is turned off to reduce coherent crosstalk and interference.
  • In another embodiment of the present invention, an all optical network for optical signal traffic has a first ring with at least a first clockwise and a second counter-clockwise fibers and a plurality of network nodes. At least a first add and a first drop broadband couplers are coupled to each fiber. Each coupler has first and second ports for through traffic and a third port for adding traffic to or from each ring fiber. The first add and first drop broadband couplers are positioned on the first ring and configured to minimize a pass-through loss in the first ring. A working WDM transponder is coupled to the first ring. The working WDM transponder includes a line-side transmitter and a client-side receiver in a first direction, and a line-side receiver and a client-side transmitter in an opposing second direction. The client side transmitter and the client side receiver of the working WDM transponder are connected back to back to a receiver and a transmitter of working client equipment respectively. A protection WDM transponder is coupled to the first ring. The protection WDM transponder includes a line-side transmitter and a client-side receiver in a first direction, and a line-side receiver and a client-side transmitter in an opposing second direction. The client side transmitter and the client side receiver of the protection WDM transponder are coupled to a receiver and a transmitter of the protection client side equipment respectively. First and second switch pairs are provided, each with first and second switches.
  • In another embodiment of the present invention, an all optical network for optical signal traffic has a first ring with at least a first clockwise and a second counter-clockwise fibers and a plurality of network nodes. At least a first add and a first drop broadband couplers are coupled to each fiber. Each coupler has first and second ports for through traffic and a third port for adding traffic to or from each ring fiber. The first add and first drop broadband couplers are positioned on each fiber, and configured to minimize a pass-through loss in each fiber. A working WDM transponder is coupled to the first ring. The working WDM transponder includes a line-side transmitter and a client-side receiver in a first direction, and a line-side receiver and a client-side transmitter in an opposing second direction. The client side transmitter and the client side receiver of the working WDM transponder are connected back to back to a receiver and a transmitter of working client equipment respectively. A protection WDM transponder is coupled to the first ring. The protection WDM transponder includes a line-side transmitter and a client-side receiver in a first direction, and a line-side receiver and a client-side transmitter in an opposing second direction. The client side transmitter and the client side receiver of the protection WDM transponder are coupled to a receiver and a transmitter of the protection client side equipment respectively. First and second switch pairs are provided, each with first and second switches. The first switch pair is coupled to the working WDM transponder and the second switch pair is coupled to the protection WDM transponder. The first switch has first and second output ports and a first input port coupled to the WDM transponder line-side transmitter. The first output port is coupled to the clockwise fiber and the second output port is coupled to the counter-clockwise fiber. The first switch enables the WDM transponder line-side transmitter to launch signals to either the clockwise or counter-clockwise fibers. The second switch has first and second input ports and a first output port coupled to the WDM transponder line-side receiver. The first input port is coupled to the clockwise fiber and the second input port is coupled to the counter-clockwise fiber. The second switch enables the WDM transponder line-side receiver to receive signals from either the clockwise or counter-clockwise fibers.
  • In another embodiment of the present invention, an all optical network for optical signal traffic has a first ring with at least a first clockwise and a second counter-clockwise fibers and a plurality of network nodes. At least a first add and a first drop broadband couplers are coupled to each fiber. Each coupler has first and second ports for through traffic and a third port for adding traffic to or from each ring fiber. The first add and first drop broadband couplers are positioned on each fiber and configured to minimize a pass-through loss in each fiber. A working WDM transponder is coupled to the first ring. The working WDM transponder includes a line-side transmitter and a client-side receiver in a first direction, and a line-side receiver and a client-side transmitter in an opposing second direction. The client side transmitter and the client side receiver of the working WDM transponder are connected back to back to a receiver and a transmitter of working client equipment respectively. A protection WDM transponder is coupled to the first ring. The protection WDM transponder includes a line-side transmitter and a client-side receiver in a first direction, and a line-side receiver and a client-side transmitter in an opposing second direction. The client side transmitter and the client side receiver of the protection WDM transponder are coupled to a receiver and a transmitter of the protection client side equipment respectively. First and second switch pairs are provided, each including first and second switches. A 1×2 coupler is configured to launch client optical signals to the WDM working transponder and the WDM protection transponder. A 1×2 coupler is configured to permit client equipment to receive signals from either the working WDM transponder or the protection WDM transponder. A client-side transmitter on the WDM equipment is turned off to reduce coherent crosstalk and interference.
  • In another embodiment of the present invention, an all optical network for optical signal traffic has a first ring with at least a first clockwise and a second counter-clockwise fibers and a plurality of network nodes. At least a first add and a first drop broadband couplers are coupled to each fiber. Each coupler has first and second ports for through traffic and a third port for adding traffic to or from each fiber. The first add and first drop broadband couplers are positioned on each fiber and configured to minimize a pass-through loss in each fiber. A working WDM transponder is coupled to the first ring. The working WDM transponder includes a line-side transmitter and a client-side receiver in a first direction, and a line-side receiver and a client-side transmitter in an opposing second direction. The client side transmitter and the client side receiver of the working WDM transponder are connected back to back to a receiver and a transmitter of working client equipment respectively. A protection WDM transponder is coupled to the first ring. The protection WDM transponder includes a line-side transmitter and a client-side receiver in a first direction, and a line-side receiver and a client-side transmitter in an opposing second direction. The client side transmitter and the client side receiver of the protection WDM transponder are coupled to a receiver and a transmitter of the protection client side equipment respectively. First and second switch pairs are provided, each including first and second switches. The first switch pair is coupled to the working WDM transponder and the second switch pair is coupled to the protection WDM transponder. The first switch has first and second output ports and a first input port coupled to the WDM transponder line-side transmitter. The first output port is coupled to the clockwise fiber and the second output port being is coupled to the counter-clockwise fiber. The first switch enables the WDM transponder line-side transmitter to launch signals to either the clockwise or counter-clockwise fibers. The second switch has first and second input ports and a first output port coupled to the WDM transponder line-side receiver. The first input port is coupled to the clockwise fiber and the second input port is coupled to the counter-clockwise fiber. The second switch enables the WDM transponder line-side receiver to receive signals from either the clockwise or counter-clockwise fibers. A 1×2 coupler is configured to launch client optical signals to the WDM working transponder and the WDM protection transponder. A 1×2 coupler is configured to permit client equipment to receive signals from either the working WDM transponder or the protection WDM transponder. A client-side transmitter on the WDM equipment is turned off to reduce coherent crosstalk and interference.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • FIG. 1(a) illustrates one embodiment of an all optical network of the present invention that uses couplers in each node to protect fibers in a ring.
  • FIG. 1(b) illustrates recovery of the FIG. 1(a) all optical network after a fiber breaks.
  • FIG. 2(a) illustrates one embodiment of an all optical network of the present invention that uses 1×2 switches in each node to protect fibers in a ring.
  • FIG. 2(b) illustrates recovery of the FIG. 2(a) all optical network after a fiber breaks.
  • FIG. 3(a) illustrates one embodiment of an all optical network of the present invention that uses couplers in each node to protect client equipment, WDM equipment and fibers in a ring.
  • FIG. 3(b) illustrates recovery of the FIG. 3(a) all optical network after both a fiber break and WDM equipment failure.
  • FIG. 4(a) illustrates one embodiment of an all optical network of the present invention that uses couplers in each node to protect WDM equipment and fibers in a ring.
  • FIG. 4(b) illustrates recovery of the FIG. 4(a) all optical network after a fiber breaks.
  • FIG. 4(c) illustrates recovery of the FIG. 4(a) all optical network after both a fiber break and WDM equipment failure.
  • FIG. 5(a) illustrates one embodiment of an all optical network of the present invention that uses switches in each node to protect client side equipment, WDM equipment and fibers in a ring.
  • FIG. 5(b) illustrates recovery of the FIG. 5(a) all optical network of SONET equipment when WDM equipment fails.
  • FIG. 5(c) illustrates recovery of the FIG. 5(a) all optical network after a fiber break.
  • FIG. 6(a) illustrates one embodiment of an all optical network of the present invention that uses switches in each node to protect WDM equipment and fibers in a ring.
  • FIG. 6(b) illustrates recovery of the FIG. 6(a) all optical network when WDM equipment fails.
  • FIG. 6(c) illustrates recovery of the FIG. 6(a) all optical network when there is both a fiber break and a failure of WDM equipment.
  • FIG. 7(a) illustrates another embodiment of a broadcast and select metro-optical network architecture with a Hub that contains WDM Muxes, demuxes, transceivers or OEO regenerators and the like.
  • FIG. 7(b) illustrates a break in the FIG. 7(a) network.
  • FIG. 8(a) illustrates one embodiment of an all-passive optical ring network with broadband/band optical couplers on a ring as add-drop units, and narrowband OAD off the ring.
  • FIG. 8(b) illustrates another embodiment of the FIG. 8(a) network with linecards added in series.
  • FIG. 8(c) illustrates another embodiment of the FIG. 8(a) network with linecards added in parallel.
  • FIG. 9(a) is similar to the FIG. 2(a) embodiment except that four WDM transponders per node are provided, and protections switches are triggered by the bit-error-rate of each transponder.
  • FIG. 9(b) is similar to the FIG. 9(b) embodiment except that protection switches are triggered by the locally received optical power from the ring.
  • FIG. 9(c) is the same as FIG. 9(b) except that WDM wavelengths are added in series rather than in parallel.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
  • Referring now to FIG. 1(a), an all optical network 10 for optical signal traffic provides at least a first ring 12 with at least a first clockwise fiber 14, a second counter-clockwise fiber 16 and a plurality of network nodes 18. Each node 18 has at least a WDM transponder 20 with a line-side transmitter 22 and a client-side receiver 24 in a first direction, and a line-side receiver 26 and a client-side transmitter 28 in an opposing second direction. Line-side receiver 26 can include a fixed or a tunable optical wavelength filter 30. At least first add and a first drop broadband couplers 32 and 34 are positioned on each fiber 14 or 16. Each coupler 32 and 34 has three ports for through traffic and for adding or dropping local traffic. First add and first drop broadband couplers 32 and 34 minimize a pass-through loss in fibers 12 or 14, and to ensure that he power levels of locally added wavelengths can be equalized to those of through-wavelengths.
  • A first coupler pair includes first and second couplers 36 and 38 in each network node 18. First coupler 36 has first and second output ports 40 and 42 respectively, and a first input port 44 coupled to a line-side transmitter 22. First output port 40 is coupled to clockwise fiber 14 and second output port 42 is coupled to counter-clockwise fiber 16. First coupler enables the line-side transmitter to launch signals to both clockwise and counter-clockwise fibers 14 and 16. Second coupler 38 has first and second input ports 46 and 48 and a first output port 50 coupled to a line-side receiver 26. First input port 48 is coupled to clockwise fiber 14 and second input port 46 is coupled to counter-clockwise fiber 16. Second coupler 38 enables the line-side receiver to receive signals from both clockwise and counter-clockwise fibers 14 and 16. Note that in each node, the transmitted wavelengths are always different from the selectively received wavelengths.
  • FIG. 1(b) illustrates recovery of all optical network 10 after fiber 14 or 16 breaks. In hub 52, an optical switch coupled to fiber 14 and an optical switch coupled to fiber 16 are now closed. These optical switches can be 1×1 or 1×2 switches.
  • In another embodiment of the present invention illustrated in FIG. 2(a), an all optical network 100 for optical signal traffic has a first ring 110 with at least a clockwise 112 and a counter-clockwise fiber 114 and a plurality of network nodes 116 . Each node 116 has at least a WDM transponder 118 that includes a line-side transmitter 120 and a client-side receiver 122 in a first direction, and a line-side receiver 124 and a client-side transmitter 126 in an opposing second direction.
  • Line-side receiver 124 includes a fixed or a tunable optical wavelength filter 128 . At least a first add and a first drop broadband couplers 130 and 132 are positioned on each fiber 112 or 114. Each coupler has three ports for through traffic and for adding or dropping local traffic. First add and first drop broadband couplers 130 and 132 are configured to minimize a pass-through loss in first ring 110, and to ensure that he power levels of locally added wavelengths can be equalized to those of through-wavelengths.
  • A first switch pair includes first and second switches 140 and 142. First switch 140 has first and second output ports 144 and 146 and a first input port 148 coupled to line-side transmitter 120. First output port 144 is coupled to clockwise fiber 112 and second output port 146 is coupled to counter-clockwise fiber 114. First switch 140 enables line-side transmitter 120 to launch signals to either clockwise 112 or counter-clockwise fiber 114. Second switch 142 has first and second input ports 150 and 152 and a first output port coupled 154 to line-side receiver 124. First input port 150 is coupled to clockwise fiber 112 and second input port 152 is coupled to counter-clockwise fiber 114. Second switch 142 enables line-side receiver 124 to receive signals from either clockwise or counter-clockwise fibers 112 and 114. In a hub, an optical switch coupled to fiber 112 and an optical switch coupled to fiber 114 are now open. These optical switches can be 1×1 or 1×2 switches.
  • FIG. 2(b) illustrates recovery of all optical network 100 after a break of fiber 112 or 114. In hub 160, an optical switch coupled to fiber 112 and an optical switch coupled to fiber 114 are now closed. Switches 140 and 142 are flipped to transmit and receive signals from a direction where there is no fiber break.
  • In another embodiment of the present invention illustrated in FIG. 3(a), an all optical network 200 for optical signal traffic has a first ring 210 with at least a clockwise and a counter-clockwise fibers 212 and 214 and a plurality of network nodes 216.
  • A working WDM transponder 228 is coupled to first ring 210. Working WDM transponder 228 includes a line-side transmitter 230 and a client-side receiver 232 in a first direction, and a line-side receiver 234 and a client-side transmitter 236 in an opposing second direction. Client side transmitter 236 and client side receiver 232 of working WDM transponder 228 are coupled to a receiver 238 and a transmitter 240 of the working client side equipment respectively.
  • A protection WDM transponder 242 is coupled to first ring 210. Protection WDM transponder 242 includes a line-side transmitter 244 and a client-side receiver 246 in a first direction, and a line-side receiver 248 and a client-side transmitter 250 in an opposing second direction. Client side transmitter 250 and the client side receiver 246 of protection WDM transponder 242 are coupled to a receiver 252 and a transmitter 254 of the protection client side equipment respectively.
  • At most two pairs of couplers are provided on each fiber 212 or 214. Each coupler pair includes a first add and a first drop broadband couplers 218 and 220 are positioned on each fiber. Each coupler 218 and 220 has three ports for through traffic and for adding or dropping local traffic. First add and first drop broadband couplers 218 and 220 are configured to minimize a pass-through loss in either 212 or 214, and to ensure that he power levels of locally added wavelengths can be equalized to those of through-wavelengths.
  • First coupler pair 211 and 213 is coupled to working WDM transponder 228 and second coupler pair 215 and 217 is coupled to protection WDM transponder 242. First coupler 213 of the first pair has first and second output ports 274 and 276 and a first input port 278 coupled to WDM transponder line-side transmitter 230. First output port 274 is coupled to clockwise fiber 212 and second output port 276 is coupled to counter-clockwise fiber 414.
  • First coupler 213 of the first pair enables WDM transponder line-side transmitter 230 to launch signals to both clockwise and counter-clockwise fibers 212 and 214. Second coupler 211 of the first pair has first and second input ports 280 and 282 and a first output port 284 coupled to WDM transponder line-side receiver 234. First input port 280 is coupled to counter-clockwise fiber 214 and second input port 282 is coupled to clockwise fiber 212. Second coupler 211 of the first pair enables WDM transponder line-side receiver 234 to receive signals from both clockwise and counter-clockwise fibers 212 and 214. Exactly the same arrangement is also installed for the protection WDM transponder, as shown in FIG. 3(a). Note that in each node, the transmitted wavelengths are always different from the selectively received wavelengths.
  • FIG. 3(b) illustrates recovery of all optical network 200 after both a break of fiber 212 (or 214) and WDM equipment failure. The two switches in the hub are flipped from open to close position. Now in each node, owing to the fact that signals are received and transmitted in both directions, the fiber break is completely bypassed.
  • In another embodiment of present invention, illustrated in FIG. 4(a), an all optical network 300 for optical signal traffic includes a first ring 310 with at least a first clockwise 312 and a second counter-clockwise fibers 314 and a plurality of network nodes 316. At most two pairs of add and drop broadband couplers 318 and 320 are positioned on each fiber 312 or 314. Each coupler 318 and 320 has first and second ports 322 and 324 for through traffic and a third port 326 for adding or dropping local traffic. First add and first drop broadband couplers 318 and 320 are configured to minimize a pass-through loss in first ring 310, and to ensure that he power levels of locally added wavelengths can be equalized to those of through-wavelengths.
  • A working WDM transponder 328 is coupled to first ring 310. Working WDM transponder 328 includes a line-side transmitter 330 and a client-side receiver 332 in a first direction, and a line-side receiver 334 and a client-side transmitter 336 in an opposing second direction. Client side transmitter 336 and client side receiver 332 of working WDM transponder 328 are connected back to back to a receiver 338 and a transmitter 340 of client equipment respectively.
  • A protection WDM transponder 342 is coupled to first ring 310. Protection WDM transponder 342 includes a line-side transmitter 344 and a client-side receiver 346 in a first direction, and a line-side receiver 348 and a client-side transmitter 350 in an opposing second direction. Client side transmitter 350 and client side receiver 346 of protection WDM transponder 342 are coupled to the receiver 338 and a transmitter 340 of client side equipment respectively.
  • First and second coupler pairs 356 and 358 are provided, each with first and second couplers 360 and 362. First coupler pair 356 is coupled to working WDM transponder 328 and second coupler pair 358 is coupled to protection WDM transponder 342. First coupler 360 has first and second output ports 364 and 366 and a first input port coupled 368 to WDM transponder line-side transmitter 330 (or 344). First output port 364 is coupled to clockwise fiber 312 and second output port 366 is coupled to counter-clockwise fiber 314. First coupler 360 enables WDM transponder line-side transmitter 330 (or 344) to launch signals to both clockwise and counter-clockwise fibers 312 and 314. Second coupler 362 has first and second input ports 370 and 372 and a first output port 374 coupled to WDM transponder line-side receiver 334 (or 348). First input port 364 is coupled to clockwise fiber 312 and second input port 366 is coupled to counter-clockwise fiber 314. Second coupler 362 enables WDM transponder line-side receiver 334 (or 348) receive signals from both clockwise and counter-clockwise fibers 312 and 314. Exactly the same arrangement is also installed for the working and protection WDM transponders, as shown in FIG. 4(a).
  • A 1×2 coupler 376 is configured to launch client optical signals to WDM working transponder 328 and WDM protection transponder 342. A 1×2 coupler 378 is configured to permit client equipment to receive signals from either working WDM transponder 328 or protection WDM transponder 342 because a client-side transmitter on WDM equipment is turned off to reduce coherent crosstalk and interference.
  • FIG. 4(b) illustrates recovery of all optical network 300 after a break of fiber 312 or 314. FIG. 4(c) illustrates recovery of all optical network 300 after both a fiber break 312 or 314 and WDM equipment failure. Again, the two switches in the hub are closed under those conditions. Now in each node, owing to the fact that signals are received and transmitted in both directions, the fiber break is completely bypassed.
  • In another embodiment of present invention, illustrated in FIG. 5(a), an all optical network 400 for optical signal traffic has a first ring 410 with at least a first clockwise 412 and a second counter-clockwise fibers 414 and a plurality of network nodes 416. At most two pairs of broadband couplers 418 and 420 are coupled to each fiber 412 or 414. Each coupler 418 and 420 has first and second ports 422 and 424 for through traffic and a third port 426 for adding traffic to or from first ring 410.
  • A working WDM transponder 434 is coupled to first ring 410. Working WDM transponder 434 includes a line-side transmitter 436 and a client-side receiver 438 in a first direction, and a line-side receiver 440 and a client-side transmitter 442 in an opposing second direction. Client side transmitter 442 and client side receiver 438 of working WDM transponder 434 are connected back to back to a receiver 444 and a transmitter 446 of working client equipment respectively. An exactly the same arrangement is installed for protection WDM and client equipment, as shown in FIG. 5(a).
  • First and second switch pairs 464 and 466 are provided, each with first and second switches 470 and 472. First switch pair 464 is coupled to working WDM transponder 434 and second switch pair 466 is coupled to protection WDM transponder 448. First switch 470 has first and second output-ports 474 and 476 and a first input port 478 coupled to WDM transponder line-side transmitter 436. First output port 474 is coupled to clockwise fiber 412 and second output port 476 is coupled to counter-clockwise fiber 414. First switch 470 enables WDM transponder line-side transmitter 436 to launch signals to either clockwise or counter-clockwise fibers 412 and 414. Second switch 472 has first and second input ports 480 and 482 and a first output port 484 coupled to WDM transponder line-side receiver 440. First input port 480 is coupled to clockwise fiber 414 and second input port 482 is coupled to counter-clockwise fiber 412. Second switch 472 enables WDM transponder line-side receiver 440 to receive signals from either clockwise or counter-clockwise fibers 412 and 414.
  • FIG. 5(b) illustrates recovery of all optical network 400 of SONET equipment when WDM equipment fails. No switches are activated in this case. FIG. 5(c) illustrates recovery of all optical network 400 after a break of fiber 412 or 414. In this case, the switches in the hub are closed, and the switches in each node are switched to a different port to receive/transmit signals from/to a different direction.
  • In another embodiment of present invention, illustrated in FIG. 6(a), an all optical network 500 for optical signal traffic has a first ring 510 with at least a first clockwise 512 and a second counter-clockwise fiber 514 and a plurality of network nodes 516. At most two pairs of broadband couplers 518 and 520 are coupled to each fiber. Each coupler 518 and 520 has first and second ports 522 and 524 for through traffic and a third port 526 for adding traffic to or from each fiber. First add and first drop broadband couplers 518 and 520 are positioned on each fiber and configured to minimize a pass-through loss in each fiber 512 and 514, and to ensure that power levels of locally added wavelengths can be equalized to those of through-wavelengths.
  • A working WDM transponder 528 is coupled to first ring 510. Working WDM transponder 528 includes a line-side transmitter 530 and a client-side receiver 532 in a first direction, and a line-side receiver 534 and a client-side transmitter 536 in an opposing second direction. Client side transmitter 536 and client side receiver 532 of working WDM transponder 528 are connected back to back to a receiver 538 and a transmitter 540 of client equipment. The same arrangement is installed at the protection WDM transponder 542, as shown in FIG. 6(a).
  • First and second switch pairs 556 and 558 are provided, each including first and second switches 560 and 562. A 1×2 coupler 564 is configured to launch client optical signals to WDM working transponder 528 and WDM protection transponder 542. A 1×2 coupler 568 is configured to permit client equipment to receive signals from either working WDM transponder 528 or protection WDM transponder 542, because a client-side transmitter on WDM equipment is turned off to reduce coherent crosstalk and interference.
  • First switch pair 556 is coupled to working WDM transponder 528 and second switch pair 558 is coupled to protection WDM transponder 542. First switch 560 has first and second output ports 570 and 572 and a first input port 574 coupled to WDM transponder line-side transmitter 530. First output port 570 is coupled to clockwise fiber 512 and second output port 572 is coupled to counter-clockwise fiber 514. First switch 560 enables WDM transponder line-side transmitter 530 to launch signals to either clockwise or counter-clockwise fibers 512 and 514. Second switch 562 has first and second input ports 576 and 578 and a first output 580 port coupled to WDM transponder line-side receiver 534. First input port 576 is coupled to counter-clockwise fiber 514 and second input port 578 is coupled to clockwise fiber 512. Second switch 562 enables WDM transponder line-side receiver 534 to receive signals from either clockwise or counter-clockwise fibers 512 and 514.
  • FIG. 6(b) illustrates recovery of all optical network 500 when WDM equipment fails and no switches are activated. FIG. 6(c) illustrates recovery of all optical network 500 when there is both a break of a fiber 512 or 514 and a failure of WDM equipment. In this embodiment, the switches in the hub are closed, and the switches in each node are switched to a different port.
  • Referring now to FIG. 7(a), ring 610 is provided. When the transmitted signal in the central location is sent simultaneously to fibers 612 and 614, ,a 1×2 switch 616 can be located at every node so that the receiver receives either fiber 612 or 614. In the event of a break in a fiber 612 or 614, a WDM transponder senses the loss of optical power or a high bit-error-rate, and sends a control signal to trigger the local 1×2 optical switch 616 to switch to a different port, as shown in FIG. 7(b). In network architecture of FIG. 7(a) and 7(b), there are no open switches, as distinguished from the embodiments of FIGS. 1(a)-6(c), on fibers 612 and 614, because the central location has electronic termination which breaks ring 610.
  • The embodiments of FIGS. 7(a) and 7(b) can also be configured such that the transmitter in the central hub is connected to a 1×2 switch rather than a 1×2 coupler, and the receiver in each node is connected to a 1×2 coupler rather than a 1×2 switch.
  • In another embodiment of the present invention, illustrated in FIGS. 8(a)-8(c), an all-passive broadcast and select ring network 710 is provided, with fibers 712 and 714, that is based generally on the same principle as that in FIGS. 1(a)-6(c) embodiments. In the FIGS. 8(a)-8(c) embodiment, all-passive ring 710 requires that a round-trip transmission loss must be kept at a certain level so that the recirculated signal does not cause a significant coherent cross-talk penalty. In this embodiment, open switches are not required, as distinguished from the embodiments of FIGS. 1(a)-6(c). However, the near-end/far-end adjacent cancel cross-talk is avoided by designing all optical add-drop filters with sharp enough roll-offs. This is a condition that can occur when a node receives signals from both a neighbor node, which sends a strong signal, and a remote node, which sends a weak signal. This condition also occurs where these two signals are adjacent to each other in terms of wavelength.
  • In FIG. 8(b), multiple WDM transponders 716 in each node are combined in series by using cascaded optical add-drop filters (OAD's) 718 in both the add and drop directions. In the FIG. 8(c) embodiment, multiple WDM transponders 716 in each node are combined by multi-port broadband power combiners in parallel.
  • The embodiment or ring 810 with fibers 812 and 814, illustrated in FIG. 9(a) and 9(b), is similar to FIGS. 2(a) and 2(b) except that four WDM transponders 816 per node are utilized. In this embodiment, each WDM transponder 816 has its own optical protection switch pair 818. Each switch pair 818 is triggered by the high bit-error-rate in the corresponding WDM transponder 816. Each WDM transponder 816 shares the same protection switch pair 818 in each node. Switch pairs 818 is triggered by the locally received optical power from ring 810. FIG. 9(c) is the same as FIG. 9(b), except that WDM wavelengths are added in series rather than in parallel.
  • FIGS. 9(a) through 9(c) also illustrate where and how all the wavelengths on ring 810 are equalized. At each node, there are four reference points AW, AE, DW, and DE at the input of fibers 812 and 814, in-line amplifiers. Reference points DW and DE are where all wavelengths arriving from a previous node must be adjusted to a fixed level by using the variable optical attenuator (VOA). This fixed level is to ensure that the drop in-line amplifier is operating in a linear region, and that the amplifier signal-spontaneous noise is not be a limiting factor. Reference points AW and AE are where the power levels of all through- and the locally added wavelengths must be equalized. Locally added wavelength power level can be adjusted by a VOA or a similar device.
  • If the inter-node distance is very short, the drop amplifier or both amplifiers in each node in each direction can be eliminated. If only the drop amplifier is eliminated, the only reference point needed in each direction then is at the input of the add amplifier. If both amplifiers in each node are eliminated, then the locally added wavelength power should be equalized at the next node where there is an inline amplifier.
  • While the invention has been described in connection with what is presently considered to be the most practical and preferred embodiment, it is to be understood that the invention is not limited to the disclosed embodiment, but on the contrary it is intended to cover various modifications and equivalent arrangement included within the spirit and scope of the claims which follow.

Claims (59)

1. An all optical network for optical signal traffic, comprising:
a first ring with at least a first clockwise fiber, a second counter-clockwise fiber and a plurality of network nodes; each node including at least a WDM transponder that includes a line-side transmitter and a client-side receiver in a first direction, and a line-side receiver and a client-side transmitter in an opposing second direction; the line-side receiver including a fixed or a tunable optical wavelength filter;
at least a first add and a first drop broadband or narrowband couplers positioned on each fiber, each coupler having first and second ports for through traffic and a third port for adding or dropping local traffic, the first add and first drop broadband couplers being configured to minimize a pass-through loss in each fiber; and
a first coupler pair including first and second couplers in each network node, the first coupler having first and second output ports and a first input port coupled to a line-side transmitter, the first output port being coupled to the clockwise fiber and the second output port being coupled to the counter-clockwise fiber; the first coupler enabling the line-side transmitter to launch signals to both the clockwise and counter-clockwise fibers; the second coupler having first and second input ports and a first output port coupled to a line-side receiver, the first input port being coupled to the clockwise fiber and the second input port coupled to the counter-clockwise fiber; the second coupler enabling the line-side receiver to receive signals from both the clockwise and counter-clockwise fibers.
2. The network of claim 1, wherein each of the broadband couplers on the ring is used in combination with one or more optical amplifiers configured to compensate for add/drop loss on the first ring.
3. The network of claim 2, wherein an input of each in-line amplifier is at a position where power levels of all wavelengths are equalized.
4. The network of claim 1, further comprising:
one or more WDM transponders at each node.
5. The network of claim 4, wherein the one or more WDM transponders in each node are combined by one or more multi-port broadband power combiners.
6. The network of claim 4, wherein the one or more WDM transponders in each node are cascaded in series through narrowband optical add-drop filters.
7. The network of claim 1, wherein the first ring includes a plurality of nodes.
8. The network of claim 1, wherein the network is a passive optical network without in-line optical amplifiers and optical switches.
9. The network of claim 1, wherein the network is a non-passive network with at least one in-line optical amplifier.
10. The all optical network of claim 9, wherein at least one of the clockwise fiber or the counter-clockwise fiber is a working fiber, and the other is a protection fiber, wherein optical signal traffic travels in a clockwise direction in the clockwise fiber and in a counter-clockwise direction in the counter-clockwise fiber.
11. The network of claim 10, further comprising:
a central hub node.
12. The network of claim 11, wherein the central hub node includes at least one 1×2 switch to couple transmitter power to at least one of the working fiber or the protection fiber.
13. The network of claim 12, further comprising:
a 1×2 coupler at a receiving end at each node to receive signals from the working and protection fibers.
14. The network of claim 11, wherein the central hub includes at least a 1×2 coupler to couple transmitter power to the working and protection fibers.
15. The network of claim 11, wherein each node at the receiving end includes a 1×2 to receive a transmitter signal from at least one of the working or protection fibers
16. The network of claim 11, wherein the central hub node includes at least one of a wavelength combining or a splitting device
17. The network of claim 16, wherein the wavelength combining or splitting device includes at least a pair of 1×N DWDM multiplexers, at least a pair of 1×N DWDM demultiplexers, and at least one transponder coupled to the first working fiber and the first protection fiber.
18. The network of claim 9, wherein a pair of open 1×1 switches are maintained on the working and protection fibers on the first ring to reduce a fiber ring lasing phenomenon in response to gain provided by in-line amplifiers coupled to the first ring.
19. The network of claim 8, further comprising:
a loss pad that maintains at least 25 dB total round-trip traveling loss around the first ring when the first ring is a closed loop without a break point.
20. The network of claim 19, wherein the loss pad is configured to minimize coherent crosstalk from re-circulated signals.
21. The network of claims 19, further comprising:
at least a first and a second wavelength-dependent three-port add-drop filter used in each network node to enable serial addition and dropping wavelengths of cascaded WDM transponders.
22. The network of claim 21, wherein the first wavelength-dependent three-port add-drop filter is configured to add signal traffic in an add direction; and the second wavelength-dependent three-port add-drop filter is configured to drop traffic in a drop direction.
23. The network of claim 22, wherein the first and second wavelength-dependent three-port add-drop filters are positioned off the first ring.
24. The network of claim 19, further comprising:
a plurality of wavelength-dependent three-port add-drop filters configured to be cascaded at each node for the drop direction to drop multiple wavelengths, and cascaded for the add direction to add multiple wavelengths.
25. The network of claim 24, wherein the plurality of wavelength-dependent three port add-drop filters are positioned off the first ring.
26. The network of claim 19, further comprising:
at least a first expansion module coupled to each fiber that adds or drops more than one wavelength.
27. The network of claim 26, wherein the first expansion module includes one or more cascaded three-port optical add/drop filters for adding and dropping wavelengths.
28. The network of claim 26, further comprising:
an optical amplifier in the first expansion module.
29. The network of claim 26, wherein wavelengths added are different from wavelengths that are dropped.
30. The network of claim 26, wherein the first expansion module includes an array of parallel filters for dropping wavelengths, and at least one of a 1×N coupler or a WDM multiplexer for adding wavelengths.
31. The network of claim 30, further comprising:
an optical amplifier in the first expansion module.
32. The network of claim 30, wherein the wavelengths added are different from wavelengths that are dropped.
33. The network of claims 1 and 30, wherein the drop port includes at least one of, a wavelength-dependent fixed filter or a tunable filter.
34. An all optical network for optical signal traffic, comprising:
a first ring with at least a clockwise and a counter-clockwise fiber and a plurality of network nodes; each node including at least a WDM transponder that includes a line-side transmitter and a client-side receiver in a first direction, and a line-side receiver and a client-side transmitter in an opposing second direction; the line-side receiver including a fixed or a tunable optical wavelength filter;
at least a first add and a first drop broadband or narrowband couplers positioned on each fiber, each coupler having first and second ports for through traffic and a third port for adding or dropping local traffic, the first add and first drop broadband couplers being configured to minimize a pass-through loss in each fiber; and
a first off-ring switch pair including first and second switches, the first switch having first and second output ports and a first input port coupled to the line-side transmitter, the first output port being coupled to the clockwise fiber and the second output port being coupled to the counter-clockwise fiber; the first switch enabling the line-side transmitter to launch signals to either the clockwise or counter-clockwise fibers, the second switch having first and second input ports and a first output port coupled to the line-side receiver, the first input port being coupled to the clockwise fiber and the second input port being coupled to the counter-clockwise fiber; the second switch enabling the line-side receiver to receive signals from either the clockwise or counter-clockwise fiber.
35. The network of claim 34, further comprising:
one or more WDM transponders positioned after the pair of switches.
36. The network of 35, wherein the one or more WDM transponders are combined in parallel or in series after the pair of switches.
37. The network of claim 35, wherein the pair of switches are triggered by at least one of a low locally received optical power from a ring fiber, or a high bit-error-rate of a corresponding WDM transponder.
38. An all optical network for optical signal traffic, comprising:
a first ring with at least a clockwise and a counter-clockwise fibers and a plurality of network nodes;
at least a first add and a first drop broadband couplers positioned on each fiber, each coupler having first and second ports for through traffic and a third port for adding or dropping local traffic, the first add and first drop broadband couplers being configured to minimize a pass-through loss in each fiber; and
a working WDM transponder coupled to the first ring, the working WDM transponder including a line-side transmitter and a client-side receiver in a first direction, and a line-side receiver and a client-side transmitter in an opposing second direction, the client side transmitter and the client side receiver of the working WDM transponder being coupled to a receiver and a transmitter of the working client side equipment respectively;
a protection WDM transponder coupled to the first ring, the protection WDM transponder including a line-side transmitter and a client-side receiver in a first direction, and a line-side receiver and a client-side transmitter in an opposing second direction, the client side transmitter and the client side receiver of the protection WDM transponder being coupled to a receiver and a transmitter of the protection client side equipment respectively.
at least a first add and a first drop broadband or narrowband couplers positioned on each fiber, each coupler having first and second ports for through traffic and a third port for adding or dropping local traffic, the first add and first drop broadband couplers being configured to minimize a pass-through loss in the counter-clockwise fiber; and
first and second coupler pairs, each pair including first and second couplers, the first coupler pair coupled to the working WDM transponder and the second coupler pair coupled to the protection WDM transponder, the first coupler having first and second output ports and a first input port coupled to the WDM transponder line-side transmitter, the first output port being coupled to the clockwise fiber and the second output port being coupled to the counter-clockwise fiber; the first coupler enabling the WDM transponder line-side transmitter to launch signals to both the clockwise and counter-clockwise fibers, the second coupler having first and second input ports and a first output port coupled to the WDM transponder line-side receiver, the first input port being coupled to the clockwise fiber and the second input port being coupled to the counter-clockwise fiber; the second coupler enabling the WDM transponder line-side receiver to receive signals from both the clockwise and counter-clockwise fibers.
39. The network of claim 38, further comprising:
one or more WDM transponders at each node.
40. The network of claim 39, wherein the one or more WDM transponders at each node are combined by one or more multi-port broadband power combiners
41. The network of claim 39, wherein the one or more WDM transponders at each node are cascaded in series through narrowband optical add-drop filters.
42. An all optical network for optical signal traffic, comprising:
a first ring with at least a first clockwise and a second counter-clockwise fibers and a plurality of network nodes;
at least a first add and a first drop broadband or narrowband couplers positioned on each fiber, each coupler having first and second ports for through traffic and a third port for adding or dropping local traffic, the first add and first drop broadband couplers being configured to minimize a pass-through loss in each fiber;
a working WDM transponder coupled to the first ring, the working WDM transponder including a line-side transmitter and a client-side receiver in a first direction, and a line-side receiver and a client-side transmitter in an opposing second direction, the client side transmitter and the client side receiver of the working WDM transponder connected back to back to a receiver and a transmitter of working client equipment respectively;
a protection WDM transponder coupled to the first ring, the protection WDM transponder including a line-side transmitter and a client-side receiver in a first direction, and a line-side receiver and a client-side transmitter in an opposing second direction, the client side transmitter and the client side receiver of the protection WDM transponder coupled to a receiver and a transmitter of the protection client side equipment respectively;
first and second coupler pairs, each pair including first and second couplers, the first coupler pair coupled to the working WDM transponder and the second coupler pair coupled to the protection WDM transponder, the first coupler having first and second output ports and a first input port coupled to the WDM transponder line-side transmitter, the first output port being coupled to the clockwise fiber and the second output port being coupled to the counter-clockwise fiber; the first coupler enabling the WDM transponder line-side transmitter to launch signals to both the clockwise and counter-clockwise fibers, the second coupler having first and second input ports and a first output port coupled to the WDM transponder line-side receiver, the first input port being coupled to the clockwise fiber and the second input port being coupled to the counter-clockwise fiber; the second coupler enabling the WDM transponder line-side receiver to receive signals from both the clockwise and counter-clockwise fibers;
a 1×2 coupler configured to launch client optical signals to the WDM working transponder and the WDM protection transponder; and
a 1×2 coupler configured to permit client equipment to receive signals from either the working WDM transponder or the protection WDM transponder, wherein a client-side transmitter on the WDM equipment is turned off to reduce coherent crosstalk and interference.
43. The network of claim 42, further comprising:
one or more WDM transponders at each node.
44. The network of claim 43, wherein the one or more WDM transponders at each node are combined by one or more multi-port broadband power combiners
45. The network of claim 43, wherein the one or more WDM transponders at each node are cascaded in series through narrowband optical add-drop filters.
46. An all optical network for optical signal traffic, comprising:
a first ring with at least a first clockwise and a second counter-clockwise fibers and a plurality of network nodes;
at least a first add and a first drop broadband or narrowband couplers coupled to each fiber, each coupler having first and second ports for through traffic and a third port for adding traffic to or from each fiber, the first add and first drop broadband couplers being positioned on each fiber and configured to minimize a pass-through loss in each fiber;
a working WDM transponder coupled to the first ring, the working WDM transponder including a line-side transmitter and a client-side receiver in a first direction, and a line-side receiver and a client-side transmitter in an opposing second direction, the client side transmitter and the client side receiver of the working WDM transponder connected back to back to a receiver and a transmitter of working client equipment;
a protection WDM transponder coupled to the first ring, the protection WDM transponder including a line-side transmitter and a client-side receiver in a first direction, and a line-side receiver and a client-side transmitter in an opposing second direction, the client side transmitter and the client side receiver of the protection WDM transponder coupled to a receiver and a transmitter of the protection client side equipment;
first and second switch pairs, each pair including first and second switches, the first switch pair coupled to the working WDM transponder and the second switch pair coupled to the protection WDM transponder, the first switch having first and second output ports and a first input port coupled to the WDM transponder line-side transmitter, the first output port being coupled to the clockwise fiber and the second output port being coupled to the counter-clockwise fiber; the first switch enabling the WDM transponder line-side transmitter to launch signals to either the clockwise or counter-clockwise fibers, the second switch having first and second input ports and a first output port coupled to the WDM transponder line-side receiver, the first input port being coupled to the clockwise fiber and the second input port being coupled to the counter-clockwise fiber; the second switch enabling the WDM transponder line-side receiver to receive signals from either the clockwise or counter-clockwise fibers;
47. The network of claim 46, further comprising:
one or more WDM transponders positioned after the pair of switches.
48. The network of claim 47, wherein the one or more WDM transponders are combined in parallel by one or more multiport broadband couplers, or combined in series by one or more cascaded narrowband add-drop filters.
49. The network of claim 48, wherein the one or more WDM transponders are positioned after the pair of switches.
50. The network of claim 46, wherein the switches are triggered by a low locally received optical power from a ring fiber when the switches are positioned before the broadband couplers.
51. The network of claim 46, wherein the switches are triggered by a high bit-error-rate of a corresponding WDM transponder when the switches are placed after the broadband couplers.
52. An all optical network for optical signal traffic, comprising:
a first ring with at least a first clockwise and a second counter-clockwise fibers and a plurality of network nodes;
at least a first add and a first drop broadband or narrowband couplers coupled to each fiber, each coupler having first and second ports for through traffic and a third port for adding traffic to or from each fiber, the first add and first drop broadband couplers being positioned on each fiber and configured to minimize a pass-through loss in each fiber;
a working WDM transponder coupled to the first ring, the working WDM transponder including a line-side transmitter and a client-side receiver in a first direction, and a line-side receiver and a client-side transmitter in an opposing second direction, the client side transmitter and the client side receiver of the working WDM transponder connected back to back to a receiver and a transmitter of working client equipment respectively;
a protection WDM transponder coupled to the first ring, the protection WDM transponder including a line-side transmitter and a client-side receiver in a first direction, and a line-side receiver and a client-side transmitter in an opposing second direction, the client side transmitter and the client side receiver of the protection WDM transponder coupled to a receiver and a transmitter of the protection client side equipment respectively;
first and second switch pairs, each pair including first and second switches, the first switch pair coupled to the working WDM transponder and the second switch pair coupled to the protection WDM transponder, the first switch having first and second output ports and a first input port coupled to the WDM transponder line-side transmitter, the first output port being coupled to the clockwise fiber and the second output port being coupled to the counter-clockwise fiber; the first switch enabling the WDM transponder line-side transmitter to launch signals to either the clockwise or counter-clockwise fibers, the second switch having first and second input ports and a first output port coupled to the WDM transponder line-side receiver, the first input port being coupled to the clockwise fiber and the second input port being coupled to the counter-clockwise fiber; the second switch enabling the WDM transponder line-side receiver to receive signals from either the clockwise or counter-clockwise fibers;
a 1×2 coupler configured to launch client optical signals to the WDM working transponder and the WDM protection transponder; and
a 1×2 coupler configured to permit client equipment to receive signals from either the working WDM transponder or the protection WDM transponder, wherein a client-side transmitter on the WDM equipment is turned off to reduce coherent crosstalk and interference.
53. The network of claim 52, further comprising:
one or more WDM transponders positioned after the pair of switches.
54. The network of claim 53, wherein the one or more WDM transponders are combined in parallel by one or more multiport broadband couplers, or combined in series by one or more cascaded narrowband add-drop filters.
55. The network of claim 54, wherein the one or more WDM transponders are positioned after the pair of switches.
56. The network of claim 52, wherein the switches are triggered by a low locally received optical power from a ring fiber when the switches are positioned before the broadband couplers.
57. The network of claim 52, wherein the switches are triggered by a high bit-error-rate of a corresponding WDM transponder when the switches are placed after the broadband couplers.
58. The system of claim 52, further comprising:
a plurality of first coupler pairs in each network node, each of a first coupler pair including first and second multiport couplers coupled to multiple WDM line-side transmitters and receivers, respectively.
59. The system of claim 58, further comprising:
a plurality of first switch pairs in each network node positioned after the multiport broadband couplers, each of a first switch pair including first and second switches coupled to a line-side transmitter and line-side receiver, respectively.
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US34678602P true 2002-01-07 2002-01-07
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