US20060266209A1 - Reactive mechanism for firearms - Google Patents

Reactive mechanism for firearms Download PDF

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US20060266209A1
US20060266209A1 US11307465 US30746506A US2006266209A1 US 20060266209 A1 US20060266209 A1 US 20060266209A1 US 11307465 US11307465 US 11307465 US 30746506 A US30746506 A US 30746506A US 2006266209 A1 US2006266209 A1 US 2006266209A1
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Prior art keywords
reactivator
barrel
mechanism
cam
bolt
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US11307465
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Piotr Grabowski
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Piotr Grabowski
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F41WEAPONS
    • F41AFUNCTIONAL FEATURES OR DETAILS COMMON TO BOTH SMALLARMS AND ORDNANCE, e.g. CANNONS; MOUNTINGS FOR SMALLARMS OR ORDNANCE
    • F41A5/00Mechanisms or systems operated by propellant charge energy for automatically opening the lock
    • F41A5/02Mechanisms or systems operated by propellant charge energy for automatically opening the lock recoil-operated
    • F41A5/10Mechanisms or systems operated by propellant charge energy for automatically opening the lock recoil-operated having a movable inertia weight, e.g. for storing energy
    • F41A5/12Mechanisms or systems operated by propellant charge energy for automatically opening the lock recoil-operated having a movable inertia weight, e.g. for storing energy mounted in a gun having a fixed barrel
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F41WEAPONS
    • F41AFUNCTIONAL FEATURES OR DETAILS COMMON TO BOTH SMALLARMS AND ORDNANCE, e.g. CANNONS; MOUNTINGS FOR SMALLARMS OR ORDNANCE
    • F41A3/00Breech mechanisms, e.g. locks
    • F41A3/64Mounting of breech-blocks; Accessories for breech-blocks or breech-block mountings
    • F41A3/78Bolt buffer or recuperator means
    • F41A3/82Coil spring buffers
    • F41A3/86Coil spring buffers mounted under or above the barrel
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F41WEAPONS
    • F41AFUNCTIONAL FEATURES OR DETAILS COMMON TO BOTH SMALLARMS AND ORDNANCE, e.g. CANNONS; MOUNTINGS FOR SMALLARMS OR ORDNANCE
    • F41A5/00Mechanisms or systems operated by propellant charge energy for automatically opening the lock
    • F41A5/02Mechanisms or systems operated by propellant charge energy for automatically opening the lock recoil-operated
    • F41A5/08Mechanisms or systems operated by propellant charge energy for automatically opening the lock recoil-operated having an accelerator lever acting on the breech-block or bolt during the opening movement

Abstract

The subject of the invention is the reactive mechanism, which forms a base for a new, universal, automatic firearm system.

Description

    MECHANISM DESCRIPTION
  • The subject of the invention is the reactive mechanism, which forms a base for a new, universal, automatic firearm system. It can be used in many configurations, and in many types of weapons with various calibers.
  • Its functions are:
  • a) to take part in automatic reloading of a weapon after firing;
  • b) to counter adverse influence of automatic construction on weapon stability during firing;
  • and additionally, depending on configuration:
  • c) slows down bolt release
  • d) reduces firing rate during sustained fire;
  • e) ensures possibility of firing a short burst during a single barrel recoil cycle, i.e. while sustaining a very similar trajectory for all bullets fired.
  • The reactivator (1) is the key component of the mechanism. It is a mass with a specifically set momentum, which slows down and balances the recoiling elements of the weapon's automatic machinery after a shot has been fired, eliminating their adverse effect on weapon stability during firing.
  • Modern systems try to solve, among other things, two main problems influencing the efficiency and precision of automatic firearms by trying to:
  • 1) achieve as high exit velocity of the bullet as possible and
  • 2) achieve weapon stability during firing while keeping the weapon mass as small as possible.
  • The problem of bullet energy had been tackled by various methods of bolt locking, or by delaying the moment of bolt recoil (release). However, the problem of instability still exists. The reactive mechanism solves both problems in a simple way, while keeping the number of elements relatively small and the mechanism itself very reliable.
  • The current technology state shall be presented on the examples of the following designs:
  • PM-63 machine pistol; The principle of operation of the Polish PM-63 pistol relies on the use of loose bolt recoil energy with the bolt sliding over the barrel and covering it in a forward position.
  • Heckler & Koch MP-5 machine pistol; The principle of operation of the machine pistol relies on the use of a two-part roller bolt recoil, opened with delay thanks to the operation of two symmetrical braking rollers, displacing to the sides. The mechanism has been designed in such a manner, that the speed ratio of the rear part of the bolt to the front part equals 4:1; this means that if the bolt shaft moves backwards by 4 mm, the blocking piston will move only by 1 mm in the same time.
  • Colt M1911 A1 Pistol; The pistol operates on the principle of using the energy of short barrel recoil. It is locked thanks to the cooperation between the protrusions on the barrel with suitable recesses on the bolt, and the unlocking is performed as a result of barrel lowering though a movable link, mounted under its rear segment.
  • Steyr AUG-77 rifle; the rifle's principle of operation consists in the usage of energy of the gasses diverted from the barrel conduit. The bolt is locked through a turn forced by the cam surface of the bolt carrier. A solution typical for modern 5.56 mm caliber weapons has been used here.
  • Barrett M-82 heavy anti-armour rifle; The rifle operates on the principle of using the energy of massive barrel's short recoil. The bolt is locked through a turn.
  • The current technology state has been prepared on the basis of the following items:
  • Stanisl/aw Kochański: “Automatyczna broń strzelecka”; SIGMA NOT Spól/ka z o. o. Warszawa 1991
  • Peter Brookesmith “Strzelec Wyborowy” Dom Wydawniczy Bellona 2001
  • Ian V. Hogg “Karabiny Wyborowe” Dom Wydawniczy Bellona 1999
  • Czasopismo STRZAl/ 3/2003
  • Leszek Erenfeicht, Craig Philip “Broń Strzelecka XX wieku” ESPADON 1995
  • In the most of designs to date, automatic weapon elements, moving during the reloading cycle, influenced the frame in a way which made the weapon hard to control by the shooter. Worse weapon stability influenced bullet spread, especially during sustained fire. The reactive mechanism solves this problem by the work of the reactivator (1), which slows down these elements, gives them a set return momentum, and reduces their influence on the frame during the return phase. This ensures firing stability comparable to cylinder-feed weapon, with all the advantages of standard automatic weapons.
  • Variants of the Reactive Mechanism
  • We distinguish two groups of reactive mechanisms. All the reactive mechanisms share the principle of reactivator's (1) operation, and the placement of the return spring (2) between the reactivator and the amortized elements. Differences are mainly in the method of inducing the reactivator's movement;
  • 1. Camless mechanisms:
  • a) Inertia—where the reactivator (1) with a properly chosen mass is not additionally induced into motion and the recoiled elements are being braked only by the force of inertia. This is an intermediary solution which requires the use of additional locking or bolt opening delaying systems.
  • b) Gas—where the pressure of gasses diverted from the barrel conduit is used to induce the reactivator's motion. The reactivator then takes the form of a gas piston and partially moves within the gas cylinder (FIG. 10). In the standard variation, the gas-powered reactivator is equalizing the loose bolt, recoiling after the shot. In the combined variation, the bolt has additional, independent bolt opening delaying or locking systems, adapted from existing and known solution. Thanks to the use of additional opening or locking delaying systems, it is possible to use a reactivator of a smaller mass.
  • 2. Cam mechanisms:
  • in which the reactivator's movements are achieved through the work of the locking cam (3). This movement is forced as a result of a partial locking cam turn (FIG. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 11, 12) or as a result of its displacement in relation to the reactivator (FIG. 13).
  • Cam mechanisms can be grouped into standard, working on the basic principle of cooperation between the activator, locking cam and the reactivator, and combined, where an additional locking system is used in addition to a reactive cam mechanism (FIGS. 8, 9, 14).
  • In turn, the following mechanisms can be distinguished in dependence on the locking cam's mounting place:
  • a) with the cam placed in the weapon's frame (FIGS. 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 14);
  • b) with the cam placed on the loose barrel, forcing its backward motion after a fired shot (FIGS. 4, 5);
  • b) with the cam placed on the activator and moving along with it (FIG. 11);
  • d) with the cam placed on the reactivator and moving along with it (FIG. 12);
  • e) with a loose cam or partially loose cam with a shape of an e.g.: roller or bearing forcing the reactivator's motion with the change of its own position (FIG. 13);
  • Definitions of Terms Used in the Description
  • Reactivator (1): The basic element or complex of elements of the reactive mechanism with a set mass, moving with a to-and-fro motion, which is induced by the work of the locking cam (in cam mechanisms), by gas pressure (gas mechanisms), or as a loose inertial mass, thanks to inertia (in inertia mechanisms). In every cases, it is possible to indirectly utilize all or part of recoil's energy. A return spring (2) is responsible for return movement. Reactivator's main task is to dampen the retract movement of one or a number of weapon elements that recoil after firing. The direction of the reactivator's motion is parallel to the motion direction of these elements. The momentum of the reactivator is opposite to the momentum of these recoiled elements. The effect of braking is achieved on the basis of momentum conservation principle. The moment just before braking is presented by, among others, FIG. 3.
  • The reactivator's (1) movement is induced in the following manner:
  • a) direct—in camless mechanisms, thanks to the diverting of part of the gasses from the barrel conduit from the opening in the barrel wall (21) (FIG. 10). The reactivator then takes the form of a gas piston with a suitably chosen mass;
  • b) indirect—in cam mechanisms, the reactivator (1) is put into motion in an indirect way, with the use of movement energies of the weapons elements recoiled after firing, and relaying such, through the use of a locking cam (3) to the reactivator (1);
  • A mass added to the design can fulfill the role of a reactivator, and so can one of the properly-designed elements of weapon design, such as: barrel, return spring rod, part of the frame etc. Additionally, the reactivator can also fulfill additional tasks, for example taking part in bolt releasing or working in conjunction with the safety.
  • Locking cam (3): Synchronizer. Is a component of the cam reactive mechanism. Cooperates with the activator (4) and the reactivator (1). The task of the locking cam is to relay part of the energy formed during the process of firing to the reactivator, inducing its forward motion and give it a set momentum (synchronization of activator and reactivator).
  • The locking cam (3) forces the reactivator to move
  • a) by partially turning around an axle perpendicular to the reactivator's direction of movement, on which it is suspended (FIG. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 11, 12) or
  • b) by performing displacement in relation to the reactivator (FIG. 13);
  • Two extreme placements of the cam can be distinguished: the locked position and the working position. The momentum induced in the reactivator is forced by the locking cam's work and depends on the cam's shape and applied force. Various cam shapes allow for achieving various movement characteristics in relation to the activator and guarantee versatility of the system.
  • Locking cam (3): can be either single (FIG. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5) or constitute a complex of cams (FIG. 6, 7). A complex of locking cams is formed by separately mounted cams, or cams mounted jointly on one axle. As the locking cam (3) and the locking cam axle (13) are subject to severe loads, which are transferred by them to the frame, it is recommended especially for high-power systems to use a complex of symmetrical placed cams to better distribute these loads.
  • Additionally, the locking cam can also fulfill additional tasks, for example: cooperate with the safety, blocking the possibility of firing when the bolt and reactivator are not properly locked, etc.
  • Caution: In some variants (FIG. 8, 9, 14) the locking cams do not take direct part in bolt locking, but delay its opening indirectly by braking the activator.
  • Activator (4)—a term regarding cam reactive mechanisms. This is a name for an element, or a complex of weapon machinery elements, which after recoiling as a result of firing induces the locking cam's (3) movement, and in consequence, moves the reactivator (1). Many parts can fulfill the role of an activator, e.g.: the bolt, bolt carrier, gas piston, barrel (if it is recoiled after a shot), etc. In a standard design with a fixed barrel (FIG. 1, 2, 3) the role of the activator is filled by the bolt which, apart from cooperation with the locking cam, reloads the weapon and readies the hammer mechanism. Its functions, apart from its role as an activator, are therefore analogous to the systems currently in use. In this case, the activator is at the same time an element amortized by the reactivator.
  • Caution: Both the activator and the reactivator can have completely different masses, velocities, movement characteristics and travel distance. Their work cycle times will be identical.
  • Application Variants
  • The reactive mechanism can be used in firearms as:
  • a) standard mechanism—applied on the basic principle of reactive mechanism's operation. Its components include standard mechanism with a locking cam (FIGS. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 11, 12, 13);
  • b) combined—where the cam mechanism or camless mechanism is joined with solutions known from other types of weapons, e.g. additional locking or bolt opening delaying mechanisms, both independent or integrated with the reactive mechanism. These mechanisms, when built in the reactive mechanism or cooperating with such, reduce the recoil force of the machinery elements, and thus allow for reducing the reactivator's mass or velocity (FIGS. 8, 9). The momentum of returning elements is smaller, and as a consequence requires less compensatory momentum.
  • Work Cycle Phase on the Examples of Chosen Design Variants
  • Work Cycle Phases (Variant 1)
  • On the example of a short weapon (pistol) with a fixed, self-supporting barrel, working on the basis of a standard integrated cam reactive mechanism with a single locking cam mounted in the weapon frame, where the bolt(slide) is fulfilling the role of the activator. The reactivator is an independent mass added to the design, and is also fulfilling the role of an anti-buckling rod for the return spring. The bolt, which is an activator at the same time, is an amortized element. There are no additional bolt release delay mechanisms;
  • Phase 0: The round (10) is inserted into the cartridge chamber, the locking cam (3) is set in a locking position, the activator (4) in an extreme forward position, the reactivator (1) in an extreme backward position, the weapon is ready to fire (FIG. 1);
  • Phase 1: Firing;
  • Phase 2: The rearward motion of the activator=bolt forcing the locking cam's turning motion, forward movement of the reactivator forced by the locking cam's turning motion. In this phase, both the mass of the bolt and the mass of the reactivator take part in delaying the opening of the bolt. Please notice the example on FIG. 2, where the relative distance covered by masses of the bolt and the reactivator is equal to, in the moment of unlocking, over 275% of the distance traveled by the bolt in its rearward travel. This value depends on the shape of the used locking cam. This effect is quite similar to the effect achieved by the roller-delayed blowback system in the H&K MP-5 submachine gun or FAMAS lever-delayed blowback system;
  • Phase 3: Unlocking, further rearward motion of the activator=bolt, stoppage of the locking cam's movement in its working position by a limiter, forward motion of the accelerated reactivator, tightening of the hammer mechanism by the retracting bolt, removal and ejection of the empty case (FIG. 3);
  • Phase 4: The return spring (2), which was constricted between the activator and reactivator during the phases 2 and 3 dampens their momentum;
  • Phase 5: The activator=bolt and the reactivator, pushed by the return spring, begin their return motion: the activator—by engaging in forward motion, and the reactivator—by engaging in rearward motion. The activator=bolt collects another round from the clip;
  • Phase 6: Return of both the activator=bolt and the reactivator to their initial position (phase 0), insertion of a new round to the chamber and locking of the locking cam (FIG. 1);
  • Work Cycle Phases (Variant 2)
  • On the example of long weapons operating on the basis of a standard, integrated cam reactive mechanism with a locking cam placed on the massive barrel and forcing the barrel's rearward motion after firing a shot, which causes the retarding barrel to absorb part of recoil's energy. The barrel is amortized by an independent spring, the bolt is the activator, and the reactivator is fulfilling the role of an anti-buckling rod for the return spring. The bolt is an amortized element.
  • Phase 0: The round (10) is inserted into the chamber, the barrel (5) is set in an extreme forward position, the activator (4) in an extreme forward position, the reactivator in an extreme backward position, the locking cam (3) is set in a locked position, the weapon is ready to fire (FIG. 4);
  • Phase 1: Firing;
  • Phase 2: The rearward motion of the activator=bolt forcing the locking cam's turning motion, forward movement of the reactivator forced by the locking cam's turning motion. Both the mass of the bolt and the mass of the reactivator take part in delaying the opening of the bolt. Part of the recoil energy is transferred to the barrel, which enters into rearward motion, thanks to the locking cam mounting.
  • Phase 3: Unlocking, further rearward motion of the activator=bolt, stoppage of the locking cam's movement in its working position by a limiter, forward motion of the accelerated reactivator, tightening of the hammer mechanism by the retracting bolt, removal and ejection of the empty case, amortizing of the barrel's rearward motion by an independent spring (FIG. 5);
  • Phase 4: The return spring (2), which was constricted between the activator and reactivator during phases 2 and 3 dampens their momentum, the barrel stops in an extreme backward position;
  • Phase 5: The activator and the reactivator, pushed by the return spring, begin their return motion: the activator—by engaging in forward motion, and the reactivator—by engaging in rearward motion. The activator=bolt collects another round from the clip, the barrel starts a return motion, pushed by the contracted amortizing spring;
  • Phase 6: Return of both the activator=bolt and the reactivator to their initial position (phase 0), return of the barrel to an extreme forward position, insertion of a new round to the chamber and locking of the locking cam;
  • Caution: The mechanism can be adapted for the so-called “multiple cycle”, i.e. for firing multiple-shot bursts during one barrel recoil cycle. In such situations, the operation of the mechanism consists of one barrel cycle, on which the subsequent bolt and reactivator cycles overlap. During one barrel recoil between an extreme forward and extreme backward position cycle, approx. 2-3 bolt and reactivator cycles are performed. A series of 2-3 shots can be fired during this time. As the shots are fired before the barrel reaches its extreme backward position, and before the force impulse is transferred to the frame (and though it, to the shooter), the influence of rapid firing on the firing precision and scattering is minimal. After the barrel has returned to an extreme backward position, its movement is dampened by an amortizing spring which causes it to return to an extreme forward position. When firing longer bursts, the first 2-3 shots are made in the way described above and do not destabilize the frame, and the next shots are made with the barrel in the extreme backward position while the amortizing spring is contracted, and do have an influence on the frame. Sustained fire can be also conducted in full cycles of barrel recoil. However, the fire rate shall be lower due to considerably larger mass, and in consequence, larger inertia of the recoiled complex. The weapon operation mode relies on the chosen trigger-hammer mechanism. In this operation cycle variant one should differently consider the extreme positions of the reactivator and the bolt(activator). These change along with the barrel's position. The reactivator's backward position limiter cannot therefore be put on the weapon's frame, but on the barrel—and in this case, its role can be fulfilled by the locking cam mounting or the cam itself, as it moves with the barrel. In order to use the weapon in a multiple cycle, a barrel with sufficient mass has to be used, and its travel distance has to be increased. The trigger and hammer mechanisms also require adaptation.
  • The cam reactive mechanism along with a locking cam placed on the barrel, and forcing the barrel's rearward motion after a shot has been fired, is not the only mechanism that can be adapted for quick-burst, multiple-cycle firing. Reactive mechanisms with a fixed barrel and a locking cam placed in a shared moving bed can also be adapted for such operating cycle. The independent spring-amortized bed engages in rearward motion, and fires a quick burst before reaching an extreme backward position. Such bed could also contain hammer mechanism elements and constitute a complex along with the clip.
  • Work Cycle Phases (Variant 3)
  • On the example of a standard integrated cam mechanism with a locking cam complex placed in the weapon frame. The bolt is an activator. The barrel fulfills the role of a reactivator and an anti-buckling rod for the return spring. The bolt is an amortized element. This design is very compact.
  • Phase 0: The round (10) is inserted into the chamber, the locking cams (3) are set in a locked position, the reactivator (1) in an extreme backward position, the activator (4) in an extreme forward position, the weapon is ready to fire (FIG. 6);
  • Phase 1: Firing;
  • Phase 2: The rearward motion of the activator=bolt forcing the locking cams' turning motion, ejection and a forward movement of the reactivator=barrel forced by the locking cams' turning motion. In this phase, both the mass of the bolt and the mass of the barrel take part in delaying the opening of the bolt.
  • Phase 3: Unlocking, further rearward motion of the activator=bolt, stoppage of the locking cams' movement in their working position by limiters, forward motion of the accelerated barrel=reactivator, tightening of the hammer mechanism, removal and ejection of the empty case (FIG. 7);
  • Phase 4: The return spring (2), which was constricted between the bolt and the barrel during the phases 2 and 3 dampens their momentum;
  • Phase 5: The bolt=activator and the barrel=reactivator, pushed by the return spring, begin their return motion: the bolt—by engaging in forward motion, and the barrel—by engaging in rearward motion. The activator=bolt collects another round from the clip;
  • Phase 6: Return of both the activator=bolt and the reactivator=barrel to their initial position, insertion of a round to the chamber and locking of the locking cam. It should be noted, that when the next round is collected from the clip, the barrel is slightly moved towards the front. It is held in this position by the locking cams, which are in a working position until the bolt has been locked. Locking is equivalent to transferring the cams in a locked position, and retracting the barrel to an extreme backward position. Moving the barrel to the front in relation to the front edge of the clip facilitates insertion of a new round into this barrel.
  • Work Cycle Phases (Variant 4)
  • On the example of an integrated, combined cam mechanism, in which additional locking though barrel crossing in a horizontal plane is used. In its locked position, the bolt is supported against a lug in the front part of the cartridge chamber. Analogically to the Colt M1911 A1, the bolt control is done via a moving cell (tilting link), which lowers the lower part of the barrel(breech) after firing. An adequately shaped and lengthened cell acts as a locking cam, and a barrel movement limiter. The barrel, hinged with the cell=locking cam is an activator. The reactivator is an independent mass added to the design, and is also fulfilling the role of an anti-buckling rod for the return spring. The bolt is an element amortized by the reactivator.
  • Phase 0: The round (10) is inserted into the chamber, the locking cam (3) is set in a locked position, the barrel=activator in an extreme forward position, the locked bolt (11) in an extreme forward position, the reactivator (1) in an extreme backward position, the weapon is ready to fire (FIG. 8);
  • Phase 1: Firing;
  • Phase 2: The rearward motion of the bolt-barrel complex forcing the locking cam's turning motion, forward movement of the reactivator forced by the locking cam's turning motion. In this phase, both the mass of the barrel and the mass of the reactivator take part in delaying the unlocking of the bolt.
  • Phase 3: The activator=barrel recoiling after the shot and cooperating with the cell=locking cam lowers itself in the lower part, the locking lug lowers and the bolt is unlocked, further rearward motion of the bolt, the barrel=activator rearward motion is stopped, the cell=locking cam is in the working position, forward motion of the accelerated reactivator, tightening of the hammer mechanism by the retracting bolt, removal and ejection of the empty case (FIG. 9);
  • Phase 4: The return spring (2), which was constricted between the bolt and the reactivator during the phases 2 and 3, dampens their momentum;
  • Phase 5: The bolt and the reactivator, pushed by the return spring, begin their return motion: the bolt—by engaging in forward motion, and the reactivator—by engaging in rearward motion. The bolt collects another round from the clip;
  • Phase 6: Return of both the bolt and the reactivator to their initial positions (phase 0), insertion of a round to the chamber and locking of the locking cam. The retracting bolt places the barrel in its initial position. The turn of the cell=locking cam in the locked position forces the rear end of the barrel to raise and lock the bolt;
  • Work Cycle Phases (Variant 5)
  • On the example of an integrated, combined cam mechanism, in which additional locking though bolt turning is used. Analogically to already known solutions, the bolt turn is performed after short barrel recoil. It is a result of the bolt carrier-bolt-barrel complex recoil and cooperation of post on the bolt with grooves (curved cam track) in the receiver during rearward movement. A slightly similar mechanism was used in the Barrett M-82 rifle. The barrel is an activator. The reactivator is an independent mass added to the design, and is also fulfilling the role of an anti-buckling rod for the return spring. The bolt carrier, where the bolt shaft is mounted, is an amortized element.
  • Phase 0: The round (10) is inserted into the chamber, the locking cam (3) is set in a locked position, the barrel=activator in an extreme forward position, the locked bolt in an extreme forward position, the reactivator (1) in an extreme backward position, the weapon is ready to fire (FIG. 14, subfig. 2);
  • Phase 1: Firing;
  • Phase 2: The rearward motion of bolt carrier-bolt-barrel complex forcing the locking cam's and the bolt's turning motion, forward movement of the reactivator forced by the locking cam's turning motion. In this phase, the masses of the bolt carrier, the bolt and the barrel as well as the reactivator take part in delaying the opening of the bolt. (FIG. 14, subfig. 1);
  • Phase 3: Unlocking and further rearward motion of the bolt carrier-bolt complex, dampening of the barrel's=activator's rearward motion, stoppage of the locking cam's movement in its working position by a limiter, forward motion of the accelerated reactivator, tightening of the hammer mechanism by the retracting bolt carrier-bolt complex, removal and ejection of the empty case;
  • Phase 4: The return spring (2), which was constricted between the bolt carrier-bolt complex and the reactivator during the phases 2 and 3, dampens their momentum;
  • Phase 5: The bolt carrier-bolt complex and the reactivator, pushed by the return spring, begin their return motion: the bolt carrier-bolt complex—by engaging in forward motion, and the reactivator—by engaging in rearward motion. The bolt collects another round from the clip;
  • Phase 6: Return of both the bolt carrier-bolt complex and the reactivator to their initial positions (phase 0), insertion of a round to the chamber. The returning bolt carrier-bolt complex places the barrel in its initial position. The locking cam returns to its locked position. The turning of the bolt shaft locks the bolt;
  • Work Cycle Phases (Variant 6)
  • On the example on a standard integrated camless reactive mechanism. A loose bolt amortized via a reactivator. The reactivator positioned in the gas cylinder is induced into motion thanks to the usage of gas energy, diverted via an opening in the barrel.
  • Phase 0: The round (10) is inserted into the bullet chamber, the locking cam is set in an extreme forward position, the reactivator in an extreme backward position, the weapon is ready to fire;
  • Phase 1: Firing;
  • Phase 2: The backward movement of the recoiled closed bolt begins, the forward motion of the reactivator caused by the pressure of the gasses diverted from the opening in the barrel wall (21) to the gas cylinder. In this variation, just as in classic designs with an a blowback system such as the PM-63, the opening of the bolt is delayed mainly by the mass of the bolt and slightly by the resistance of the return spring. The projectile leaves the barrel;
  • Phase 3: Unlocking and further backwards motion of the open bolt, decrease of pressure in the barrel conduit and in the reactivator's gas cylinder, forward motion of the accelerated reactivator, tightening of the trigger mechanism by the returning bolt, removal of the empty case;
  • Phase 4: The return spring (2), which was constricted between the bolt and reactivator during the phases 2 and 3 dampens their momentum, decrease in gas pressure in the barrel conduit and in the reactivator cylinder;
  • Phase 5: The bolt and the reactivator, pushed by the return spring, begin their return motion: the bolt—by engaging in forward motion, and the reactivator—by engaging in a backwards motion. The bolt collects another bullet from the clip;
  • Phase 6: Return of both the bolt and the reactivator to their initial position (phase 0), insertion of a bullet to the bullet chamber and locking of the locking cam;
  • Work Cycle Phases (Variant 7)
  • On the example on a standard integrated camless combined reactive mechanism (FIG. 10, FIG. 2). The bolt is locked through turning. Unlocking is done thanks to the backwards motion of the bolt carrier (23) with the cooperation of the protrusions from the breech-block (24) with recesses in the bolt carrier (26). The bolt carrier is induced in a backwards motion by using part of the gasses diverted by the opening in the barrel wall (21). This is a solution analogous to the one used in the Steyr AUG-77. Energy of the gasses is also used to induce the reactivator's motion, similarly to variation 6. The bolt carrier is an amortized element;
  • Phase 0: The bullet is inserted into the bullet chamber, the bolt carrier (23) is set in an extreme forward position, the breech-block (24) is in locked position, the reactivator (1) in an extreme backward position, the weapon is ready to fire;
  • Phase 1: Firing;
  • Phase 2: The gasses created after a shot, carried away by an opening in the barrel wall (21) are entering the reactivator's cylinder and the gas conduit. Pressure increases in the gas conduit and in the reactivator's cylinder. The forward motion of the reactivator and the bolt carrier's backwards motion begin, forcing the turning motion of the breech-bolt. The projectile leaves the barrel;
  • Phase 3: Unlocking and opening of the bolt. Backwards motion of the bolt carrier—bolt complex. Decrease of pressure in the barrel conduit and in the reactivator's gas cylinder, forward motion of the accelerated reactivator, tightening of the trigger mechanism by the returning bolt carrier—bolt complex, removal of the empty case;
  • Phase 4: The return spring (2), which was constricted between the bolt carrier and the reactivator during the phases 2 and 3 dampens their momentum,
  • further decrease of pressure in the barrel conduit and in the reactivator's gas cylinder, the displaced reactivator opens additional openings in the front part of the reactivator's cylinder, accelerating pressure decrease;
  • Phase 5: The bolt carrier and the reactivator, pushed by the return spring, begin their return motion: the bolt carrier—bolt complex—by engaging in forward motion, and the reactivator—by engaging in a backwards motion. Another bullet is collected from the clip;
  • Phase 6: Introduction of a round to the bullet chamber; Return of the bolt carrier-bolt complex to its initial position (phase 0), connected with the turn of the breech-block and its locking. Return of the reactivator to its original position;
  • A note for all variants: The moment of hammer mechanism's tightening depends on the mechanism type and does not necessarily have to occur in phase 3;
  • Momentum Conservation Principle and the Reactive Mechanism
  • The principle of momentum conservation states that for every complex of material point, regardless of their influence on each other, the vector sum of all momentums stays constant.
  • We will consider the momentum conservation principle in the operation of the reactive mechanism on the example of an integrated cam mechanism with a fixed barrel (variant 1), shown of FIG. 1, 2, 3.
  • If the activator and the amortized element (here: the bolt, which is also the activator) have momentums identical to the absolute value, but their momentum vector directions are opposite, and with the assumption that the weapon frame stays in place in relation to the reference complex, both of them will stop traveling after collision. The contracted return spring placed between them will again force them into return motion, and the momentums of the reactivator and the amortized bolt will be equal to the absolute value, the momentum vector being opposite. Return of both the bolt and the reactivator to their initial positions also influences the frame. However, due to the above, the vector sum of the momentums influencing the frame will also equal zero, and will not destabilize it. The only phase in which the firing influences the frame through the locking cam is phase 2 (FIG. 2). In case of a standard camless gas mechanism, the influence of reactivator-powering gasses on the frame is also made in phase 2.
  • In case of weapons firing continuously, such operation of the mechanism causes a series of force impulses for the frame to take. After taking into account the inertia of the frame, the influence on the shooter is reduced to a constant and directed push, which is much easier to control than oscillation of a weapon fitted with one of currently used, standard solutions. To better understand this, the effect can be only compared to an imaginary, cylinder-fed design firing continuously, or a Gatling-system weapon.
  • An analogous situation, although quite more complex, takes place in case of a system shown in FIG. 4 (variant 2 of the mechanism working cycle), but adapted for firing 2-3 shot burst during one barrel recoil cycle. One should then assume that the retracting barrel (and not the frame) stays in place in relation to the reference complex. At this time, the barrel receives a series of force impulses through the locking cam, which are directed opposite to bullet travel and are responsible for its recoil. A single force impulse will also be transferred to the frame, from the retracting barrel amortized with an independent spring.
  • In case of combined mechanisms, the force impulse will be transferred on the frame with the additional participation of the additional mechanism's bolt resistances, but also during phase 2.
  • Caution: The mechanism provides complete freedom in choosing the mass and movement characteristics of the recoiled elements and the reactivator. One should aim for fulfilling proper, above-mentioned dependencies between their momentums. Proper momentum values for given elements can be achieved by:
  • a) selecting proper mass for the recoiled complex;
  • b) projecting suitable mass of the reactivator;
  • c) establishing proper velocity value for the reactivator,
  • for this, the critical issues are: shape of the locking cam and locking cam regulator setting (if such was used in the design);
  • d) taking the influence of additional design solutions, delaying the bolt opening, into account, e.g.: locking by bolt turning (FIG. 14) or barrel threading in a horizontal plane (FIGS. 8 and 9). Their usage influences the momentum value of the complex recoiled after firing, and thus reduces the energy required for braking a recoiled element.
  • Cam Regulators
  • Proper choice of mass for particular elements and fulfilling of the criteria given below ensure total reliability of the system, even in extreme conditions. It is possible to have an additional influence on the mechanism parameters thanks to the usage of cam regulators (28). They modify the bolt opening delay level and the force necessary to start the machinery and reloading of the gun. Such eventuality may prove necessary when the weapon is used in a severely contaminated state while fed bad-quality (e.g.: wet) ammunition. They can also be used when the weapon is made for many types of ammo with drastically different parameters (e.g.: automatic shotguns used in the police force—automatic smoothbore-barrel weapons, firing ammunition of a different force and destination), and it is necessary to quickly adapt the system and guarantee proper reloading. When using a regulator, we can influence the operation of the locking cam by modifying the suspension height of the cam axle in relation to the activator. Schematics of such solution can be found of FIG. 14. Place of contact between the cam and the groove (19) or lug on the activator (cooperating with the locking cam) change—and so does the force application point. A similar effect can be achieved by adjusting the activator's lug length. In both cases, the regulator has the shape of a single bolt or a slider. Of course, the adjustment has to be made at the cost of the mechanism's synchronized operation, as the momentum given to the reactivator will have a small value in relation to the momentum of the bolt. In the above-mentioned extreme circumstances however, the synchronized operation of the mechanism will not be a primary concern. The energy value for the bullet will also decrease, as the bolt receives more blowback loose. In regulator's extreme setting the bolt (activator) completely loses contact with the cam and becomes a standard blowback system (without of any delay).
  • In its simplest version, the bolt with a regulator can operate in two set modes: a) a delayed blowback system with a normal, synchronized operation of the locking cam b) a blowback system with the locking cam detached. A possible third setting, c) intermediate, could regard a desynchronized delayed blowback system with an increased bolt blowback-loose level.
  • Examples of cam regulators and their application are shown in FIGS. 11,12 and 14.
  • Gas Regulators
  • In case of camless systems, additional regulation is made through the influence on the pressure value in the reactivator's cylinder and consists in the change of the surface cross-section of the opening or gas conduit. In camless systems, the reactivator does not influence the bolt opening delay, and as such, the regulation aims only to regulate the mechanism.
  • Advantages of the Reactive Mechanism
  • Reactive mechanisms have a plethora of advantages when compared to solutions used nowadays. The system opens new design possibilities, and thanks to its versatility it can be used in all firearm types. The most important advantages of the mechanism are as follows:
  • 1) Reduction of oscillation influence, caused by operation of the gun machinery, on gun stability during firing. This means that the negative effect of “bolt jumping” is eliminated, and the shooter can control gun recoil better. This was one of the biggest problems with modern automatic weapons. It is this flaw, among other things, that causes the popularity of revolvers in comparison to pistols, which keeps on a constant (but small) level. In case of assault weapons, attempts to dampen the results of this effect by various (more or less successful) methods were made, and allow the rifle to fire a short burst during one recoil cycle (e.g.: the Heckler und Koch G-11 caseless system or the Nikonov AN-94);
  • 2) The possibility to easily adapt the mechanism for multiple-shot burst firing during one barrel recoil cycle. The design in variant 2 (FIG. 4, 5) is the answer to the rule, which states that any weapon influence on the shooter influences, in a smaller or larger way, the precision of the shot. In the mechanism a loose barrel, recoiling aster a shot and fitted with an amortizing-return spring was used (not shown in FIG. 4, 5). The trigger and hammer mechanisms require adaptation. The weapon assures much larger hit probability when firing a short burst, as the bullets retain an almost identical trajectory;
  • 3) Freedom in bolt mass choice, given that all the criteria mentioned in this text are met (the bolt does not influence the frame);
  • 4) Freedom in locking cam shape choice. The activator and the reactivator can have completely different masses, and movement characteristics. It is possible to use reactivator with a freely chosen travel, which may be much shorter than the activator's (bolt's) travel;
  • 5) The design of the locking cam causes most of the recoil energy to be transferred on the weapon only in the first stage of firing, when the frame is not in motion and very hard to destabilize. The value of the transferred energy then reduces quickly as a result of gradual cam turn. This solution ensures more effective use of mass and inertia of the whole weapon in absorbing the recoil energy. It also provides exceptional reloading smoothness and causes the weapon recoil to be much less felt in comparison to mechanisms used up to now, in which the recoil force was transferred to the frame uniformly through the whole locking phase;
  • 6) It is possible to use fixed, self-supporting and interchangeable barrels, and as a result—create fully modular weapons;
  • 7) The reactivator, placed along the barrel and ejected forward as an additional mass actively influences the kick reduction (FIG. 3):
  • a) by momentarily moving the weapon weight center considerably to the front
  • b) (optionally) the reactivator, projected before the barrel, directs a considerable amount of gasses to the top, acting as an exhaust device;
  • 8) It is possible to compose this system with known locking or bolt delaying mechanisms;
  • 9) The system's design allows for easy adaptation of existing and tested mechanisms already working in today's designs, such as trigger mechanisms, hammer mechanisms, clips, etc;
  • 10) This design is very compact;
  • 11) Small production costs: Design simplicity and a small amount of elements ensures low manufacturing costs, as well as reliability in extreme conditions;
  • 12) Manufacturing does not require modern technologies and allows for free choice of standard materials;
  • 13) Versatility. The mechanism can be successfully adapted in machine guns, assault carbines, submachine guns, handguns and PDW-type weapons. Its application also covers automatic sniper weapons (fixed, self-supporting barrel variants), and sporting or hunting weapons. It is therefore possible to create a whole weapon system based on one, tested technology;
  • 14) There's no obstacle to using one reactivator for two different but integral weapon systems (not shown in the description!). Two integral systems (conception similar to AT/H&K XM-29 SABR/OICW assault rifle) use the same common reactivator but only different locking cams (3), return springs (2) and bolts/activators (4). Different shape of each locking cam depends on parameters of each weapon. Both weapons can act independently and regardless of any malfunction of the other one (except the reactivator damage of course). But they cannot act at the same time (there's no necessity anyway). Travel of reactivator is different for both weapons and depends on shape of different locking cams. After disconnection of components the single weapon (component with reactivator) acts absolutely properly too. It's easily to predict that such weapon will be much smaller and simpler then conception of OICW. It will lower the mass of the complete system with no doubt. And the most important reason(!): smaller production costs will cause the integral double-weapon conception possible at last. Today vision of such weapon is still controversial and its scheduled price is unacceptable for most armies; 15) Inertia mechanism is the simplest variant of reactive mechanism and works on a quite similar principle to the Benelli “Inertia Recoil System” (although the force of inertia is used no to unlock the bolt, but to dampen its movement before it hits the frame). Reactive Inertia Mechanism is the simplest (only one or, alternatively two parts: reactivator with return spring) but not as effective as Reactive Cam-Locked Mechanism and furthermore requires additional locking mechanism. So it can work only as combined application variant of the reactive mechanism, and the best purpose is to adapt inertia mechanism for existing weapon systems. Most of existing constructions is able to be easy upgraded for such innovation. Installation an additional loose mass(reactivator) at the anti-buckling rod of the return spring placed between the return spring and the frame is an example of such upgrade. Other example is to use a loose (not fixed with frame) anti-buckling rod which can act as the reactivator, too. In both cases the weapon's return spring is used. Alternatively—the additional mass (with it's own independent spring) could be placed between the frame and recoiled elements. In every example after shot is fired such inertial mass (reactivator) engages in forward motion dumping recoiled elements (bolt/slide, barrel or bolt carrier etc.). Progress of the reactivator is only relative to the frame. In reality the frame is moving back (as a result of recoil of whole weapon or hit of the short-recoiled barrel to the frame). There's no activator and no locking cam in this mechanism!
  • 16) In case of cam regulator usage, it is possible to modify the bolt's blowback-loose level, which allows to ensure proper machinery operation when using ammunition with different parameters, during operation in extreme conditions and during operation while the weapon is highly contaminated. Cam regulators make quick switching to a blowback system possible;
  • Schematics Descriptions
  • Caution: The presented mechanisms are presented simplified. To ensure readability, non-essential elements for the understanding of the mechanisms operating principle not included. To improve readability and the presentation of the mechanism's idea, the figures show, in most cases, solutions equipped with a single, vertical locking cam with a horizontal turning axle. Usage of e.g. cam/cams mounted at an angle or a single cam mounted horizontally (with a vertical turning axle), or a complex of horizontal cams (analogous to the solution presented on FIG. 6 and FIG. 7) allows for a more compact design. Furthermore, the reactivator travel was overexposed on purpose. In reality, the travel is small in comparison to the activator's travel (e.g. the bolt). The mechanism allows for free choice of mass and movement characteristics of both.
  • FIGS. 1, 2 and 3: Illustration of variant 1 of the reactive mechanism's operation;
  • FIG. 1) Phase 0; FIG. 2) Phase 2; FIG. 3) Phase 3;
  • FIGS. 4 and 5: Illustration of variant 2 of the reactive mechanism's operation;
  • FIG. 4) Phase 0; FIG. 5) Phase 3;
  • FIGS. 6 and 7: Illustration of variant 3 of the reactive mechanism's operation;
  • FIG. 6) Subfig. 1: Sectional view from the left side. Mechanism in phase 0;
  • Subfig. 2: Sectional view from the bottom, from the frame side. Sectional view made on cam axle height. The locking cams shown partially in sectional view. Mechanism in phase 0;
  • FIG. 7) Subfig. 1: Sectional view from the left side. Mechanism in phase 0;
  • Subfig. 2: Sectional view from the bottom, from the frame side. Sectional view made on cam axle height. The locking cams shown partially in sectional view. Mechanism in phase 3;
  • FIG. 10: The elements of the combined integrated camless reactive mechanism presented on the two figures. The bolt is locked through turning. Unlocking is done thanks to the backwards motion of the bolt carrier with the cooperation of the protrusions from the breech-block with recesses in the bolt carrier. The bolt carrier is induced in a backwards motion by using part of the gasses diverted by the opening in the barrel wall. The energy of the gasses is also used to include the motion of the reactivator. The reactivator has a form of a gas piston and is partially located in the gas cylinder. The bolt carrier is an amortized element.
  • Subfig. 2. An outline of a mechanism working on the basis of the variation 7 of the reactive mechanism's operation has been presented. There is a possibility to use a gas regulator positioned between the barrel conduit and the cylinder. The outline of the breech-block has been presented by a broken line. The reactivator is placed under the barrel, partly in the gas conduit.
  • In the front part, covered by the front part of the bolt carrier; the gas-powered bolt carrier has a lengthening in a form of a piston placed in the gas conduit.
  • Subfig. 1. Presents the details of the solution, where the mass of the reactivator was additionally used to delay the opening of the bolt. In its initial position (phase 0), the gas conduit inducing the movement of the bolt carrier is closed by the reactivator. After firing, the increasing pressure in the barrel conduit and in the gas cylinder displaces the reactivator. The displacement uncovers the gas conduit, which is connected to the cylinder, and induction of the bolt carrier is performed with a set delay, when the projectile had left the barrel conduit, and the pressure in the conduit is lower.
  • FIG. 11: The operation schematic of the standard reactive mechanisms with a cam placed on the activator and displacing along with it.
      • Subfig. 1: Phase 0;
      • Subfig. 2: Phase 2;
  • FIG. 12: The operation schematic of the standard reactive mechanism with a cam placed on the reactivator and displacing along with it;
      • Subfig. 1: Phase 0;
      • Subfig. 2: Phase 3;
  • FIG. 13: The operation schematic of the standard reactive mechanism with a loose cam or partially loose cam (in the shape of e.g.: roller or bearing) forcing the reactivator's motion with the change of its own position;
  • Subfig. 1: Phase 0;
  • Subfig. 2: Phase 3;
  • FIGS. 8 and 9: Illustration of variant 4 of the reactive mechanism's operation;
  • FIG. 8) Phase 0; FIG. 9) Phase 3;
  • FIG. 14: Illustration of variant 5 of the reactive mechanism's operation; The schematic shows only the barrel acting as an activator, and the locking cam with part of the frame. The locking cam is fitted with an axle position regulator.
  • Subfig. 1) Phase 2;
  • Subfig. 2) Phase 0;
  • Marking index: 1—reactivator; 2—return spring; 3—locking cam;
  • 4—activator; 5—barrel; 6—frame; 7—clip; 8—clip spring;
  • 9—trigger lever; 10—cartridge(round); 11—bolt/slide; 12—reactivator placement outline; 13—locking cam axle; 14—casing ejector window; 15—fired bullet; 16—casing; 17—muzzle of a barrel acting as an activator in cooperation with the locking cam; 18—trigger guard; 19—opening or groove on the activator cooperating with the locking cam; 20—gas conduit; 21—gas opening in the barrel; 22—bolt carrier gas piston; 23—bolt carrier; 24—breech-block; 25—breech-block outline; 26—a recess on the bolt carrier cooperating with the protrusion on the breech-block, forcing its turn; 28—cam regulator;
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  • The reactive mechanism characterises itself with the manner of reverse braking of the elements recoiled after the shot, on the basis of the momentum conservation principle and the use of for this purpose, i.e. the inertial mass with a specific momentum directed in opposite to the momentum of the elements recoiled after a shot, where the task of the reactivator is to equalize the momentum of such elements in order to cause their braking, and then to give a set return momentum to these elements, which is opposite to the return momentum of the reactivator, and afterwards to equalize their influence on the weapon frame in the return phase, eliminating weapon destabilisation during the reloading cycle.
  • The mechanism also charaterises itself with the use of the reactivator as an anti-buckling rod for the return spring,
  • The mechanism also charaterises itself with the adaptation of a loose barrel for the role of the reactivator, in the manner shown on FIGS. 6 and 7, or the adaptation of a frame fragment—or a mass additionaly added to the design—for such role.
  • The mechanism also characterises itself with the placement of the or return springs between the and the amortized elements, which cause the braking not to be a result of a direct impact, but a gradual process with the use of the return spring's elasticity, and force a return momentum of these elements after braking, and furthermore, for the constant push of the spring in the phase 0 of the mechanism working cycle to keep the reactivator in the extreme backward position, and keep the amortized elements in the extreme forward position.
  • A characteristic feature of the mechanism is the manner in which the is additionally set in motion and a set momentum is given to it, which in case of a cam mechanism consists in the work of the or a complex of locking cams, which by making an incomplete turn or moving, cause the to move and its further forward motion,
  • and in case of a gas mechanism, consists in the use of the pressure of the gasses carried away by to a gas cylinder containing the, so as to force its forward motion in the direction of the amortized element.
  • A characteristic feature is the placement of the or a complex of locking cams, in depenence on the variants, in the weapon frame or on a fixed barrel, or on a loose barrel moving backwards after a shot, or on the activator, or on the reactivator, or the usage of a loose cam which enforces the movement of the reactivator by its movement.
  • A characteristic feature is the usage of a or a series of locking cams placed on a loose barrel in order to transfer part of the recoil energy to the barrel through the suspension of the locking cam, and therefore enforcement of the barrel's backward motion in the manner shown on FIGS. 4 and 5.
  • A characteristic feature is also the usage of the as a link, lowering the lower part of the barrel and controlling the locking in case of combined variants with additional locking through the barrel crossing in a manner analogous to the Colt M1911 system, shown on FIGS. 8 and 9.
  • A characteristic feature is also the usage of the or a complex of locking cams for direct lock bolting if bolt fulfills the role of an.
  • In case of cam mechanism variants, in which the role of the reactivator is being filled by a loose barrel, a charasteristic feature is the fitting of such in proper areas coopearting with locking cams or a latch or flange, on which the return spring rests, which allows to use the barrel as an anti-buckling rod, and the flange's lateral surface, by cooperating with the interal surcafe of the lock and the frame is also responsible for guiding the barrel in a to-and-fro motion, in a manner shown on FIGS. 6 and 7,
  • A characteristic feature is the usage of the reactivator's mass to delay the movement of the in phase 2, and therefore to delay the backward motion of the activator cooperating with it, which in turn causes the delay in the lock's backward motion, the latter constituting a complex along with the activator, or cooperating with the activator, or a lock which is directly performing the role of an activator.
  • A charasteristic feature is also the use of the reactivator's mass to delay the opening of the gas conduit starting the lock unbolting process in the gas combined reactive mechanisms, in a manner shown on FIG. 10, subfig. 1;
  • A characteristic feature is the adaptation, for the role of an, any of the weapon elements recoiled after a shot, such as the lock or bolt carrier, or the barrel, or the gas piston.
  • A characteristic feature is the preparation of the for cooperation with the by fitting the former with a suitable protrusion, opening or, and in variants where the role of the activator is filled by the barrel, the usage of the locking cam as a barrel travel limiter, and in variants where the activator is at the same time an amortized element, a characteristic feature is its preparation for cooperation with the and the reactivator through equipping such with suitable surfaces and latches.
  • In variants with a cam placed on the loose barrel which undergoes recoil, the characteristic feature is the equipping of the barrel with an additional amortizing spring, so that it forces the barrel return in its extreme forward position after each lock and reactivator working cycle, or after the performance of several cycles, i.e. work in a multiple cycle.
  • A characteristic feature is also the adaptation of the weapon with a reactive mechanism to a multiple cycle, i.e. the possiblity of firing a short burst consisting of the performance of several lock and reactivator cycles during one barrel recoil cycle, in a manner presented on variant 2 description.
  • A characteristic feature is also the proper shape, which will make its forward-backward motion possible in the area of the frame, as well as its cooperation with the and the amortized elements, the shape consisting in fitting the reactivator with areas cooperating with the frame, areas cooperating with the amortised element and a latch or a area on which the rests, in a manner shown in the figures. Additionaly, in case of cam mechanisms, a chararestic feature is the equpping of the in an area cooperating with the or a complex of locking cams, and in case of gas mechanisms, a characteristic feature is the setting, on a set section, the reactivator in the form of a gas piston moving partially in the boundaries of the gas cylinder.
  • A characteristic feature is also the application of cam regulators in a manner shown on FIGS. 11, 12 and 14 which, by modyfing the force application point and changing the cam ratio through a change in the suspension height in the locking cam or the protrusion lenghts on the activator, influence the movement paramteres of the reactivator in relation to the activator.
  • A characteristic feature is the equipping of the locking cam in a movement limiter determining its to extreme positions: the locked position and the working position.

Claims (19)

  1. 1. The reactive mechanism characterises itself with the manner of reverse braking of the elements recoiled after the shot, on the basis of the momentum conservation principle and the use of the reactivator (1) for this purpose, i.e. the inertial mass with a specific momentum directed in opposite to the momentum of the elements recoiled after a shot, where the task of the reactivator is to equalize the momentum of such elements in order to cause their braking, and then to give a set return momentum to these elements, which is opposite to the return momentum of the reactivator, and afterwards to equalize their influence on the weapon frame in the return phase, eliminating weapon destabilisation during the reloading cycle.
  2. 2. The mechanism of claim 1 also charaterises itself with the use of the reactivator as an anti-buckling rod for the return spring.
  3. 3. The mechanism of claim 1 also charaterises itself with the adaptation of a loose barrel for the role of the reactivator, in the manner shown on FIGS. 6 and 7, or the adaptation of a frame fragment—or a mass additionaly added to the design—for such role.
  4. 4. The mechanism of claim 1 also characterises itself with the placement of the return spring (2) or return springs between the reactivator (1) and the amortized elements, which cause the braking not to be a result of a direct impact, but a gradual process with the use of the return spring's elasticity, and force a return momentum of these elements after braking, and furthermore, for the constant push of the spring in the phase 0 of the mechanism working cycle to keep the reactivator in the extreme backward position, and keep the amortized elements in the extreme forward position.
  5. 5. A characteristic feature of the mechanism of claim 1 is the manner in which the reactivator (1) is additionally set in motion and a set momentum is given to it, which in case of a cam mechanism consists in the work of the locking cam (3) or a complex of locking cams, which by making an incomplete turn or moving, cause the reactivator (1) to move and its further forward motion, and in case of a gas mechanism, consists in the use of the pressure of the gasses carried away by an opening in the barrel's wall (21) to a gas cylinder containing the reactivator (1), so as to force its forward motion in the direction of the amortized element.
  6. 6. A characteristic feature of the mechanism of claim 1 is the placement of the locking cam (3) or a complex of locking cams, in depenence on the variants, in the weapon frame or on a fixed barrel, or on a loose barrel moving backwards after a shot, or on the activator, or on the reactivator, or the usage of a loose cam which enforces the movement of the reactivator by its movement.
  7. 7. A characteristic feature of the mechanism of claim 1 is the usage of a locking cam (3) or a series of locking cams placed on a loose barrel in order to transfer part of the recoil energy to the barrel through the suspension of the locking cam, and therefore enforcement of the barrel's backward motion in the manner shown on FIGS. 4 and 5.
  8. 8. A characteristic feature of the mechanism of claim 1 is also the usage of the locking cam (3) as a link, lowering the lower part of the barrel and controlling the locking in case of combined variants with additional locking through the barrel crossing in a manner analogous to the Colt M1911 system, shown on FIGS. 8 and 9.
  9. 9. A characteristic feature of the mechanism of claim 1 is also the usage of the locknig cam (3) or a complex of locking cams for direct lock bolting if bolt fulfills the role of an activator (4).
  10. 10. In case of cam mechanism variants, in which the role of the reactivator is being filled by a loose barrel, a charasteristic feature is the fitting of such in proper areas coopearting with locking cams or a latch or flange, on which the return spring rests, which allows to use the barrel as an anti-buckling rod, and the flange's lateral surface, by cooperating with the interal surcafe of the lock and the frame is also responsible for guiding the barrel in a to-and-fro motion, in a manner shown on FIGS. 6 and 7.
  11. 11. A characteristic feature of the mechanism of claim 1 is the usage of the reactivator's mass to delay the movement of the locking cam (3) in phase 2, and therefore to delay the backward motion of the activator cooperating with it, which in turn causes the delay in the lock's backward motion, the latter constituting a complex along with the activator, or cooperating with the activator, or a lock which is directly performing the role of an activator.
  12. 12. A charasteristic feature of the mechanism of claim 1 is also the use of the reactivator's mass to delay the opening of the gas conduit starting the lock unbolting process in the gas combined reactive mechanisms, in a manner shown on FIG. 10, subfig. 1.
  13. 13. A characteristic feature of the mechanism of claim 1 is the adaptation, for the role of an activator (4), any of the weapon elements recoiled after a shot, such as the lock or bolt carrier, or the barrel, or the gas piston.
  14. 14. A characteristic feature of the mechanism of claim 1 is the preparation of the activator (4) for cooperation with the locking cam (3) by fitting the former with a suitable protrusion, opening or recess (19), and in variants where the role of the activator is filled by the barrel, the usage of the locking cam as a barrel travel limiter, and in variants where the activator is at the same time an amortized element, a characteristic feature is its preparation for cooperation with the return spring (2) and the reactivator through equipping such with suitable surfaces and latches.
  15. 15. In variants with a cam placed on the loose barrel which undergoes recoil, the characteristic feature is the equipping of the barrel with an additional amortizing spring, so that it forces the barrel return in its extreme forward position after each lock and reactivator working cycle, or after the performance of several cycles, i.e. work in a multiple cycle.
  16. 16. A characteristic feature of the mechanism of claim 1 is also the adaptation of the weapon with a reactive mechanism to a multiple cycle, i.e. the possiblity of firing a short burst consisting of the performance of several lock and reactivator cycles during one barrel recoil cycle, in a manner presented on variant 2 description.
  17. 17. A characteristic feature of the mechanism of claim 1 is also the reactivator's (1) proper shape, which will make its forward-backward motion possible in the area of the frame, as well as its cooperation with the return spring (2) and the amortized elements, the shape consisting in fitting the reactivator with areas cooperating with the frame, areas cooperating with the amortised element and a latch or a area on which the return spring (2) rests, in a manner shown in the figures. Additionaly, in case of cam mechanisms, a chararestic feature is the equpping of the reactivator (1) in an area cooperating with the locking cam (3) or a complex of locking cams, and in case of gas mechanisms, a characteristic feature is the setting, on a set section, the reactivator in the form of a gas piston moving partially in the boundaries of the gas cylinder.
  18. 18. A characteristic feature of the mechanism of claim 1 is also the application of cam regulators in a manner shown on FIGS. 11, 12 and 14 which, by modyfing the force application point and changing the cam ratio through a change in the suspension height in the locking cam or the protrusion lenghts on the activator, influence the movement paramteres of the reactivator in relation to the activator.
  19. 19. A characteristic feature of the mechanism of claim 1 is the equipping of the locking cam in a movement limiter determining its to extreme positions: the locked position and the working position.
US11307465 2005-02-09 2006-02-08 Reactive mechanism for firearms Abandoned US20060266209A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
PL37268605 2005-02-09
PLP-372686 2005-02-09

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Cited By (6)

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WO2009067412A1 (en) * 2007-11-19 2009-05-28 Taser International, Inc. Apparatus and methods for conditional activation of a cartridge
WO2009087427A1 (en) * 2008-01-09 2009-07-16 Marko Vukovic Vhs assault rifle
US20100269682A1 (en) * 2009-03-24 2010-10-28 Sturm, Ruger & Company, Inc. Bolt carrier for gas operated rifle
US8161864B1 (en) 2009-03-24 2012-04-24 Sturm, Ruger & Company, Inc. Firearm gas piston operating system
EP2443409A4 (en) * 2009-06-17 2016-01-13 Sylvio Richard Lorenzut Firearm with enhanced handling by dissipating the effects of recoil and muzzle climb
US20160061544A1 (en) * 2014-06-26 2016-03-03 Henning Conle Automatic handgun

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Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2009067412A1 (en) * 2007-11-19 2009-05-28 Taser International, Inc. Apparatus and methods for conditional activation of a cartridge
WO2009087427A1 (en) * 2008-01-09 2009-07-16 Marko Vukovic Vhs assault rifle
US20100269682A1 (en) * 2009-03-24 2010-10-28 Sturm, Ruger & Company, Inc. Bolt carrier for gas operated rifle
US8161864B1 (en) 2009-03-24 2012-04-24 Sturm, Ruger & Company, Inc. Firearm gas piston operating system
US8307750B2 (en) 2009-03-24 2012-11-13 Sturm, Ruger & Company, Inc Gas operated rifle with bolt carrier and receiver assembly
EP2443409A4 (en) * 2009-06-17 2016-01-13 Sylvio Richard Lorenzut Firearm with enhanced handling by dissipating the effects of recoil and muzzle climb
US20160061544A1 (en) * 2014-06-26 2016-03-03 Henning Conle Automatic handgun
US9714801B2 (en) * 2014-06-26 2017-07-25 Henning Conle Automatic handgun

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