New! View global litigation for patent families

US20060200319A1 - System and method for identifying disease-influencing genes - Google Patents

System and method for identifying disease-influencing genes Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US20060200319A1
US20060200319A1 US11359437 US35943706A US2006200319A1 US 20060200319 A1 US20060200319 A1 US 20060200319A1 US 11359437 US11359437 US 11359437 US 35943706 A US35943706 A US 35943706A US 2006200319 A1 US2006200319 A1 US 2006200319A1
Authority
US
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
individuals
script
gene
server
disease
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US11359437
Inventor
Stephen Brown
Original Assignee
Brown Stephen J
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/0002Remote monitoring of patients using telemetry, e.g. transmission of vital signals via a communication network
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/48Other medical applications
    • A61B5/4836Diagnosis combined with treatment in closed-loop systems or methods
    • A61B5/4839Diagnosis combined with treatment in closed-loop systems or methods combined with drug delivery
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/68Arrangements of detecting, measuring or recording means, e.g. sensors, in relation to patient
    • A61B5/6887Arrangements of detecting, measuring or recording means, e.g. sensors, in relation to patient mounted on external non-worn devices, e.g. non-medical devices
    • A61B5/6896Toys
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRICAL DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F19/00Digital computing or data processing equipment or methods, specially adapted for specific applications
    • G06F19/10Bioinformatics, i.e. methods or systems for genetic or protein-related data processing in computational molecular biology
    • G06F19/18Bioinformatics, i.e. methods or systems for genetic or protein-related data processing in computational molecular biology for functional genomics or proteomics, e.g. genotype-phenotype associations, linkage disequilibrium, population genetics, binding site identification, mutagenesis, genotyping or genome annotation, protein-protein interactions or protein-nucleic acid interactions
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRICAL DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F19/00Digital computing or data processing equipment or methods, specially adapted for specific applications
    • G06F19/30Medical informatics, i.e. computer-based analysis or dissemination of patient or disease data
    • G06F19/34Computer-assisted medical diagnosis or treatment, e.g. computerised prescription or delivery of medication or diets, computerised local control of medical devices, medical expert systems or telemedicine
    • G06F19/3418Telemedicine, e.g. remote diagnosis, remote control of instruments or remote monitoring of patient carried devices
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06QDATA PROCESSING SYSTEMS OR METHODS, SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES; SYSTEMS OR METHODS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G06Q50/00Systems or methods specially adapted for a specific business sector, e.g. utilities or tourism
    • G06Q50/10Services
    • G06Q50/22Health care, e.g. hospitals; Social work
    • G06Q50/24Patient record management
    • G16H10/20
    • G16H40/40
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B2560/00Constructional details of operational features of apparatus; Accessories for medical measuring apparatus
    • A61B2560/04Constructional details of apparatus
    • A61B2560/0443Modular apparatus
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/02Detecting, measuring or recording pulse, heart rate, blood pressure or blood flow; Combined pulse/heart-rate/blood pressure determination; Evaluating a cardiovascular condition not otherwise provided for, e.g. using combinations of techniques provided for in this group with electrocardiography or electroauscultation; Heart catheters for measuring blood pressure
    • A61B5/0205Simultaneously evaluating both cardiovascular conditions and different types of body conditions, e.g. heart and respiratory condition
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/08Detecting, measuring or recording devices for evaluating the respiratory organs
    • A61B5/087Measuring breath flow
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/145Measuring characteristics of blood in vivo, e.g. gas concentration, pH value; Measuring characteristics of body fluids or tissues, e.g. interstitial fluid, cerebral tissue
    • A61B5/14532Measuring characteristics of blood in vivo, e.g. gas concentration, pH value; Measuring characteristics of body fluids or tissues, e.g. interstitial fluid, cerebral tissue for measuring glucose, e.g. by tissue impedance measurement
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRICAL DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F19/00Digital computing or data processing equipment or methods, specially adapted for specific applications
    • G06F19/10Bioinformatics, i.e. methods or systems for genetic or protein-related data processing in computational molecular biology
    • G06F19/28Bioinformatics, i.e. methods or systems for genetic or protein-related data processing in computational molecular biology for programming tools or database systems, e.g. ontologies, heterogeneous data integration, data warehousing or computing architectures
    • G16H10/60

Abstract

The present invention describes a system and method of using individuals' behavioral and physiologic information to identify disease-influencing genes.

Description

    RELATED APPLICATION INFORMATION
  • [0001]
    This is a divisional application of application Ser. No. 09/496,893, filed Feb. 2, 2000, which is a continuation application of application Ser. No. 09/041,809, filed Mar. 13, 1998, now abandoned, which is a continuation-in-part of application Ser. No. 08/946,341, filed Oct. 7, 1997, now U.S. Pat. No. 5,997,476, which is a continuation-in-part of application Ser. No. 08/847,009, filed Apr. 30, 1997, now U.S. Pat. No. 5,897,493, which claims priority to provisional application Ser. No. 60/041,746 filed on Mar. 28, 1997 and provisional application Ser. No. 60/041,751 filed Mar. 28, 1997.
  • [0002]
    This application is also a continuation-in-part of application Ser. No. 09/378,188, filed on Aug. 20, 1999, now abandoned, which is a continuation of application Ser. No. 08/850,840 filed on May 3, 1997 now U.S. Pat. No. 5,985,559, which is a continuation of application Ser. No. 08/847,009 filed Apr. 30, 1997, now U.S. Pat. No. 5,897,493, which claims priority to provisional application Ser. No. 60/041,746, filed on Mar. 28, 1997 and provisional application Ser. No. 60/041,751, filed on Mar. 28, 1997. All applications, except to the extent, if any, such incorporation would constitute new matter, are herein incorporated by reference in their entirety as if fully set forth herein.
  • FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • [0003]
    This invention relates generally to the fields of genomics, bioinformatics, and drug development. More specifically, it relates to a database containing phenotypic and environmental data on groups of individuals for use in conjunction with gene sequences to identify disease-influencing genes and substances.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • [0004]
    The physical makeup of an individual is determined by his or her genes. Genes are comprised of DNA, which in turn consists of four nucleotides known as adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C), and guanine (G). A particular series of nucleotides is known as a gene sequence. Each gene sequence codes for a protein. A defective or mutant gene sequence will not produce a working protein. The protein may not perform its purpose, the protein may carry out a different purpose than intended, too much protein may be made, too little protein may be made, or the protein may not be made at all. If the protein is essential to one or more functions of the body, disease will result.
  • [0005]
    Mutant gene sequences are either inherited or acquired. An inherited gene sequence is received from an individual's parents, while an acquired gene sequence results from an event in the individual's lifetime which changes the original gene sequence.
  • [0006]
    A classic example of an inherited mutant gene sequence is the sickle cell anemia gene. Sickle cell anemia is caused by the substitution of a single nucleotide (A to T) in the gene sequence of an individual. This single substitution results in the substitution of a single amino acid (glutamic acid to valine) in the resulting hemoglobin protein. The mutant hemoglobin protein produces crescent-shaped or sickled red blood cells in affected individuals, causing a decrease in the amount of oxygen that can be transported throughout the body. The lack of oxygen often results in kidney and heart failure, paralysis, and rheumatism, which are common symptoms of anemic individuals.
  • [0007]
    An example of an acquired mutant gene sequence is malignant melanoma, or skin cancer. Cancer results when normal cells in an individuals body either lose or gain certain functions, resulting in the unchecked growth of non-normal cells. These non-normal cells often form tumors and spread throughout the body, disrupting normal cell functions. A cancer such as malignant melanoma is caused when the original gene sequence in epidermal cells is changed or mutated by an environmental factor, such as UV radiation. Our cells contain repair mechanisms to fix such problems, but over time the gene sequences in epidermal cells acquire more and more mutations. Mutant proteins are then produced and cellular functions are disrupted. The individual then has skin cancer.
  • [0008]
    Although an individual's environment generally precipitates the development of cancer, many individuals have been found to have a predisposition to cancer. These individuals have gene sequences which are more likely to become mutated over a shorter period of time. Examples of such gene sequences are the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Women carrying these gene sequences have a higher probability of developing breast and ovarian cancer than women who carry normal gene sequences. Thus, although the affected women's original gene sequences may not be mutated, they are more likely to become mutated due to their sequence or location on a chromosome.
  • [0009]
    Another factor that should be considered when discussing genetic diseases is whether they are monogenic or polygenic in nature. Sickle cell anemia and cystic fibrosis are examples of monogenic diseases, as they are caused by a single gene sequence. Most types of cancer, asthma, and diabetes are examples of polygenic diseases, as they are caused by a variety of genes. Polygenic diseases are also more likely to be influenced by an individual's environment. Not surprisingly, polygenic diseases are more difficult to diagnose and treat. Thus, the use of gene sequences in developing new drugs is dependent the monogenic or polygenic nature of genetic diseases.
  • [0010]
    Typically, individuals with diseases caused by inherited or acquired gene sequences have only their symptoms, treated. Diabetes patients receive insulin shots to regulate their blood glucose levels, asthma patients use inhalers to allow normal respiratory functions, and cancer patients undergo chemotherapy and radiation therapy to remove cancerous tumors. Although these treatments are often able to alleviate or eliminate the symptoms, they are unable to remove the genetic bases of the diseases.
  • [0011]
    The genetic bases of many diseases were discovered in the 1940's by scientists such as Beadle and Tatum, who discovered that each gene codes for a protein. Researchers then rationalized that study of the relevant gene sequences could lead to effective drug treatments for genetic diseases. The technology was inadequate, however, until the 1970-80's, when Boyer and Cohen cloned DNA; Maxam, Gilbert, and Sanger figured out how to sequence DNA; and Mullis developed the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique to quickly amplify DNA sequences. Using genetics to find drug candidates soon became a practical option.
  • [0012]
    Before these techniques became available, the pharmaceutical industry's main method of finding new drugs was trial and error. Compounds that were found to mimic the body's natural compounds were tested in vitro, in animal models, and in clinical trials to see if they had a desirable effect in treating disease. This method is still used and has resulted in many well-known drugs, but it is expensive and time-consuming.
  • [0013]
    With the advent of improved genetic techniques, however, the pharmaceutical industry has begun concentrating on genetics as the most effective route to new drug discovery. Genomics companies can typically be classified into one of two groups.
  • [0014]
    The first group concentrates on gene sequencing in order to find both drug targets and drug candidates, usually in the form of proteins expressed by the gene sequences. Gene sequencing can either be in the form of random, discovery, whereby genes are sequenced without regard to their functions, or in the form of targeted discovery, whereby a certain region of the genome which is tentatively associated with a disease is sequenced. In random discovery gene sequencing, potentially useful gene sequences are identified and assayed to determine if they can be used in drug development. One problem with random discovery gene sequencing is that the majority of the human genome contains introns, or gene sequences which do not code for proteins. One way to circumvent this problem is to sequence complementary DNA (cDNA) instead. cDNA is produced from messenger RNA (mRNA). mRNA, in turn, is transcribed from DNA and processed by certain enzymes which remove the introns. cDNA sequences thus code for un-interrupted proteins.
  • [0015]
    Targeted discovery gene sequencing is typically used with positional cloning, comparative gene expression, and functional cloning techniques, which are described in the next group.
  • [0016]
    The second group of genomics companies takes a more epidemiological approach by first researching families or groups of individuals having a similar disease, and then isolating the relevant genes. In this method, also known as positional cloning, blood samples are taken from the individuals and analyzed. The blood samples contain DNA, which is studied to identify certain regions of the genome which appear to be associated with the disease. Linking a region of the genome with a disease is known as linkage analysis or genetic linkage mapping. Once a region of the genome has been identified, it is sequenced via targeted discovery gene sequencing.
  • [0017]
    The second group of genomics companies also uses comparative gene expression to discover disease gene sequences. In comparative gene expression, mRNA from both healthy and diseased tissue is isolated. The mRNA is then used to produce cDNA, which is sequenced using targeted discovery gene sequencing. The gene sequences from both the healthy and diseased tissue are then compared. In addition, the identification of genes associated with disease can be made by studying the level of expression of genes in both the healthy and diseased tissue.
  • [0018]
    Another similar technique is functional cloning. Mutant or non-functional proteins in metabolic pathways are studied and identified. The proteins are sequenced using targeted discovery gene sequencing and these sequences are used to figure out the corresponding DNA gene sequences. Once the disease gene sequences have been identified, they can be used in drug development.
  • [0019]
    Genomics companies in the first group include Incyte pharmaceuticals (Palo Alto, Calif.). Incyte uses random discovery gene sequencing to produce its LifeSeq™ and LifeSeq FL™ databases. These databases contain the sequences of hundreds of human genes. These databases are licensed to drug development companies who use the sequences to produce new drugs. Databases covering animals (ZooSeq™), plants (PhytoSeq™), and bacteria and fungi (PathoSeq™) are also available. Incyte has also developed bioinformatics software, which provides sequence analysis and data management for their databases. In addition, Incyte offers cDNA libraries of the gene sequences in their databases, which can be directly used in drug development.
  • [0020]
    Human Genome Sciences (Rockville, Md.) also concentrates on random discovery gene sequencing, and has sequenced an estimated 90% of the 100,000 genes in the human body. In addition to collaborating with drug development companies who use their gene sequences, HGS also has its own drug discovery and development division. A number of therapeutic proteins which appear effective in animal models are under study.
  • [0021]
    HySeq, Inc. (Sunnyvale, Calif.) has its HyX Platform which is capable of processing and sequencing millions of blood and DNA samples. The HyX Platform includes DNA arrays of samples and probes, software-driven modules, industrial robots for screening DNA probes against DNA samples, and bioinformatic software to analyze the genetic information. Through the use of its HyX Platform, HyX believes it can carry out a variety of techniques, such as gene identification, gene expression level determination, gene interaction studies (for polygenic diseases), and genetic mapping.
  • [0022]
    Affymetrix, Inc. (Santa Clara, Calif.) has a GeneChip system consisting of disposable DNA probe arrays containing gene sequences on a chip, instruments to process the probe arrays, and software to analyze and manage the genetic information in the probe. The GeneChip system thus allows pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies to collect gene sequences and apply them to drug development.
  • [0023]
    On the other hand, the pharmaceutical industry has a number of genomics companies who first identify the genes which are likely to cause disease. After the genes are identified, they are sequenced and the gene sequences are used in drug development. Likewise, proteins implicated in disease can be identified and sequenced. The sequences can be used to discover the gene sequences, which are then used in drug development.
  • [0024]
    Myriad Genetics, Inc. (Salt Lake City, Utah) targets families with a history of genetic disease and collects their genetic material in order to identify hereditary disease-causing genes. Myriad is able to identify these genes by using positional cloning and protein interaction studies in combination with targeted discovery gene sequencing. Using these techniques, Myriad has been able to locate and identify eight disease-related gene sequences, including BRCA1 and BRCA2. These gene sequences are used by Myriad's pharmaceutical partners to develop new therapeutics.
  • [0025]
    Another genomics company which uses disease inheritance patterns together with gene sequencing is Sequana (La Jolla, Calif.). Sequana uses DNA collection of individuals with inherited diseases, genotyping and linkage analysis, physical mapping, and gene sequencing to find disease gene sequences. Sequana also has a proprietary bioinformatics system which includes data mining tools to automatically sort and organize much of its data. Like Myriad, Sequana has a number of alliances with drug development companies which license Sequana's gene sequences.
  • [0026]
    Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Cambridge, Mass.) employs a broader range of technologies than Myriad and Sequana. In addition to positional cloning and targeted discovery gene sequencing, Millennium uses a number of other non-genetic techniques. cDNA libraries are prepared from mouse tissues and expressed using rapid expression of differential gene expression (RARE) technology. Different patterns of cDNA gene expression allow researchers to identify possible disease targets. Millennium also uses functional cloning techniques in order to identify the gene sequences of interesting proteins. Once a potentially useful gene sequence has been identified, biological assays and bioinformatics are used as additional analyses.
  • [0027]
    Genome Therapeutics Corporation (Waltham, Mass.) uses a combination of positional cloning techniques and targeted discovery gene sequencing, as well as random discovery gene sequencing to isolate and identify disease gene sequences. In addition, Genome Therapeutics also has pathogen programs, which sequence pathogen genomes. As many non-genetic human diseases result from infection by pathogens, Genome Therapeutics hopes to eliminate pathogens by developing drugs and vaccines using the pathogens' genomes.
  • [0028]
    Gene Logic, Inc. (Columbia, Md.) has an accelerated drug discovery system which emphasizes its restriction enzyme analysis of differentially expressed sequences (READS) technology. READS is similar in nature to comparative gene expression technology. In READS, normal and diseased tissues are compared in order to identify gene expression differences between the two. Genes which appear to be important in the diseased tissue are then analyzed. Restriction enzymes, which cut gene sequences at specific sites, are used to produce gene fragments. The gene fragments from the normal and diseased tissues will differ and can be compared. Gene Logic also has a Flow-thru Chip and genomic databases, which it licenses to drug development companies.
  • [0029]
    Progenitor (Columbus, Ohio) focuses on developmental biology. Growing cells and tissues are analyzed for their level of expression of certain genes. Study of growing cells and tissues may help discover treatments for diseases characterized by abnormal cell growth, such as cancer and osteoporosis. Progenitor also uses bioinformatics, gene mapping, and gene sequencing to isolate, identify, and sequence relevant gene sequences.
  • [0030]
    OncorMed, Inc. (Gaithersburg, Md.) has focused on the development of medical services using genetic information. Oncormed offers a number of tests for hereditary diseases such as breast and colon cancers and malignant melanoma. The medical services include measurements of replication error rates in tumors, molecular profiling of tumor suppresser genes, and gene sequencing. In addition, OncorMed has a genomics repository containing known cancer gene sequences.
  • [0031]
    U.S. Pat. No. 5,642,936 issued to Evans and assigned to OncorMed describes a method for identifying human hereditary disease patterns. According to the method data is collected on individuals hiving a history of disease within their families. Factors related to each disease are given weights, and the weights for each individual are summed. If the sum is above a certain predetermined threshold value, the individual is deemed to have a hereditary risk for the disease. Records from a number of individuals having a hereditary risk for a disease are collected to form a database.
  • [0032]
    The methods used by the above companies all focus on the genetic aspect of hereditary disease. Gene sequencing and positional cloning represent the two approaches generally taken. However, very little emphasis is put on the environmental aspect of hereditary disease. An individual's environment is defined as his or her physical surroundings, geographical location, diet, lifestyle, etc. For many diseases which are genetic in origin, such as most cancers, an individual's environment plays a large role in determining whether or not the individual eventually develops the disease. Some individuals who have disease gene sequences develop diseases, while others who carry the exact same disease gene sequences do not. One purpose of collecting environmental data about individuals whose gene sequences are studied is to effectively rule out any non-genetic causes of disease. Another purpose is to discover if any individuals who are carrying disease gene sequences but who do not develop the disease have other compensatory gene sequences or factors which enable them to live disease-free.
  • [0033]
    To a certain extent, the second group of genomics companies do take into account a small amount of environmental data when they select individuals whose DNA they use for positional cloning analyses. The environmental data is usually in the form of a questionnaire or survey. However, the data is typically limited in scope to lifestyle questions, and is used only to help narrow the search for the specific disease gene in question.
  • [0034]
    In addition, most genomics companies are reluctant to share their data on individuals with others, even those genomics companies which are studying the same gene sequences. As a result, each genomics company must gather its own data on individuals having a certain disease. For example, Sequana sent its own researcher to the island of Tristan de Cunha to study hereditary asthma, while Myriad is located in Salt Lake City to take advantage of the detailed family trees of the Mormons. For genomics companies searching for gene sequences, gathering environmental data on individuals is often an expensive, time-consuming, but necessary step. Genomics companies could potentially spend more of their time and money on actual disease gene isolation if they were able to obtain necessary environmental data from &other source.
  • [0035]
    Another problem lies in the fact that when genomics companies do gather environmental data on the individuals whose gene sequences are studied, the environmental data represents only a small time frame of an individual's life. Few genomics companies continually collect data over a long period of time, and as a result, are not able to definitively rule out certain environmental factors which may affect disease progression. In addition, such data collections are unlikely to provide leads for factors which may prohibit the formation of disease.
  • OBJECTS AND ADVANTAGES OF THE INVENTION
  • [0036]
    Accordingly, it is a primary object of the present invention to provide a system and method for creating a database of information about individuals' environments over a period of time. Another object of the present invention is to provide a database containing information about individuals' environments which can be used with existing genomics databases. A further object of the present invention is to provide a method of using environmental information about an individual in conjunction with the individual's genotype to find disease-influencing genes or substances. It is another object of the present invention to use the disease-influencing genes or substances to find drug candidates or drug targets.
  • SUMMARY OF INVENTION
  • [0037]
    These objects and advantages are attained by a system and method for identifying a disease-influencing gene or protein. The method includes the step of selecting individuals having d risk factor for a certain disease. Each of the individuals is provided with a remotely programmable apparatus having a user interface for communicating queries to the individuals and for receiving responses. Each apparatus also includes a communication device, such as a modem, for communicating with a server through a communication network.
  • [0038]
    Queries relating to the individuals' environment are entered into the server and transmitted from the server to each individual's remote apparatus. After the individuals have responded to the queries, the responses are sent back to the server and organized into a database. Data mining software is then used to distinguish the individuals into groups based on their environmental profiles. After a period of time, each group is then further divided into categories based on their disease progression. The genomes of all the individuals are then sequenced. Data mining techniques are used to find gene differences between the categories.
  • [0039]
    According to a second method of the invention, the individuals are first separated into groups according to their disease progressions. Data mining techniques are then used to further distinguish each group into categories based on the individuals' environmental profiles. The genomes of all the individuals are then sequenced, and data mining techniques are used to find gene differences between the categories.
  • [0040]
    A third embodiment of the invention provides a method for identifying disease-influencing substances. The method includes the step of selecting individuals having a risk factor for a certain disease. Each of the individuals is provided with a remotely programmable apparatus having a user interface for communicating queries to the individuals and for receiving responses. Each apparatus also includes a communication device, such as a modem, for communicating with a server through a communication network.
  • [0041]
    Queries relating to the individuals' environment are entered into the server and transmitted from the server to each individual's remote apparatus. After the individuals have responded to the queries, the responses are sent back to the server and organized into a database. The genomes of all the individuals are then sequences. The individuals are placed into groups based on their gene sequences. Each group is then separated into categories based on the individuals' disease progression. Data mining techniques are then used to find a disease-influencing substance between the categories of individuals by using the individuals environmental profiles.
  • [0042]
    The disease influencing gene or substance isolated using these methods is preferably, used to develop drug candidates or drug targets. Additionally, the isolation of the disease-influencing gene is preferably used to identify a corresponding disease-influencing protein, which can also be used to develop drug candidates or drug targets.
  • [0043]
    The present invention also provides a database and data processing system for storing and analyzing environmental information about individuals. The database and data processing system comprise a server for storing queries and the individuals' responses to the queries. The system also includes at least one remotely programmable apparatuses having a user interface for communicating queries to the individuals and for receiving the responses. Each apparatus also includes a communication device, such as a modem, for communicating with the server through a communication network.
  • [0044]
    The system also includes genotyping means in communication with the server for determining the individuals' gene sequences and a data mining software program accessible to the server for analyzing the individuals gene sequences and environmental profiles. In particular, the data mining program includes: means for analyzing the responses in order to group the individuals having a similar behavioral and environmental profile, a similar disease progression, and a similar genotype; means for analyzing the responses in order to group the individuals having a similar disease progression; means for analyzing the responses in order to group the individuals having a similar genotype; and means for identifying a disease-influencing gene or substance. Alternatively, the database can be used with other genomics or bioinformatics databases and systems if the information is to be manipulated in different ways.
  • DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES
  • [0045]
    FIG. 1 is a block diagram of a networked system according to a preferred embodiment of the invention.
  • [0046]
    FIG. 2 is a block diagram illustrating the interaction of the components of the system of FIG. 1.
  • [0047]
    FIG. 3 is a perspective view of a remotely programmable apparatus of the system of FIG. 1.
  • [0048]
    FIG. 4 is a block diagram illustrating the components of the apparatus of FIG. 3.
  • [0049]
    FIG. 5 is a script entry screen according to the preferred embodiment of the invention.
  • [0050]
    FIG. 6A is a listing of a sample script program according to the preferred embodiment of the invention.
  • [0051]
    FIG. 6B is a continuation of the listing of FIG. 6A.
  • [0052]
    FIG. 7 is a script assignment screen according to the preferred embodiment of the invention.
  • [0053]
    FIG. 8 is a sample query appearing on a display of the apparatus of FIG. 3.
  • [0054]
    FIG. 9 is a sample prompt appearing on the display of the apparatus of FIG. 3.
  • [0055]
    FIG. 10 is a sample report displayed on a workstation of the system of FIG. 1.
  • [0056]
    FIG. 11A is a flow chart illustrating the steps included in a monitoring application executed by the server of FIG. 1 according to the preferred embodiment of the invention.
  • [0057]
    FIG. 11A is a continuation of the flow chart of FIG. 11B.
  • [0058]
    FIG. 12A is a flow chart illustrating the steps included in the script program of FIGS. 6A-6B.
  • [0059]
    FIG. 12B is a continuation of the flow chart of FIG. 12A.
  • [0060]
    FIG. 13 is a sample data table of the present invention.
  • [0061]
    FIG. 14 is a sample completed data table of the present invention.
  • [0062]
    FIG. 15 is a flow chart illustrating a first method for identifying a gene according to the present invention.
  • [0063]
    FIG. 16 is a block diagram illustrating the method of FIG. 15.
  • [0064]
    FIG. 17 is a flow chart illustrating a second method for identifying a gene according to the present invention.
  • [0065]
    FIG. 18 is a block diagram illustrating the method of FIG. 17.
  • [0066]
    FIG. 19 is a flow chart illustrating a third method according to the present invention.
  • [0067]
    FIG. 20 is a block diagram illustrating the method of FIG. 19.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • [0068]
    The invention presents a system and method for creating a database containing environmental information about an individual to be used in conjunction with the individual's gene sequences to find new drug targets and drug candidates. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, remote monitors are used to collect the environmental information. It is to be understood that environmental information includes all non-genetic information about an individual, such as disease progression, diet, lifestyle, and geographical location.
  • [0069]
    A preferred embodiment of the invention is illustrated in FIGS. 1-16. Referring to FIG. 1, a networked system includes a server 50 and a workstation 52 connected to server 50 through a communication network 58. Server 50 is also connected to a patient profile database 54 which stores environmental information about the individuals. Server 50 is further connected to a genotyping system 56 which is capable of sequencing individuals' genomes. Patient profile database 54 and genotyping system 56 are connected to server 50 through communication network 58.
  • [0070]
    Server 50 and patient profile database 54 are preferably world wide web servers. Server 50 and database 54 may comprise single stand-alone computers or multiple computers distributed throughout a network. Workstation 52 is preferably a personal computer, remote terminal, or web TV unit. Workstation 52 functions as a remote interface for entering in server 50 messages and queries to be communicated to the individuals.
  • [0071]
    Genotyping system 56 can be a laboratory capable of sequencing individuals' genomes, a gene sequencing chip such as the Genechip by Affymetrix, or any other suitable genotyping system. Genotyping system 56 should be capable of transmitting information about the individuals' genomes to server 50. Communication network 58 connects workstation 52, patient profile database 54, and genotyping system 56 to server 50. Communication network 58 can be any suitable communication network, such as a telephone cable, the Internet, or cellular or wireless communication. Such communication networks are well known in the art.
  • [0072]
    The system also includes remotely programmable apparatuses 60 for monitoring individuals. Preferably, each remote apparatus 60 is used to monitor a respective one of the individuals. Alternatively a multi-user apparatus may be used to monitor a plurality of individuals. Each remote apparatus is designed to interact with an individual in accordance with script programs received from server 50.
  • [0073]
    Each remote apparatus is in communication with server 50 though communication network 58, which is preferably the Internet. Alternatively, each remote apparatus may be placed in communication with the server via telephone cable, cellular communication, wireless communication, etc. For clarity of illustration, only two remote apparatuses are shown in FIG. 1. It is to be understood that the system may include any number of remote apparatuses for monitoring any number of individuals.
  • [0074]
    In the preferred embodiment, each individual to be monitored is also provided with a monitoring device 64. Monitoring device 64 is designed to produce measurements of a physiological condition of the individual, record the measurements, and transmit the measurements to the individual's remote apparatus 60 through a standard connection cable 62. Examples of suitable monitoring devices include blood glucose meters, respiratory flow meters, blood pressure cuffs, electronic weight scales, and pulse rate monitors. Such monitoring devices are well known in the art.
  • [0075]
    The specific type of monitoring device provided to each individual is dependent upon the individual's disease. For example, diabetes patients are provided with blood glucose meters for measuring blood glucose concentrations, asthma patients are provided with respiratory flow meters for measuring peak flow rates, obesity patients are provided with weight scales, etc.
  • [0076]
    FIG. 2 shows server 50, workstation 52, and remote apparatus 60 in greater detail. Server 50 includes a database 66 for storing script programs 68. The script programs 68 are executed by each remote apparatus 60 to communicate queries and messages to an individual, receive responses 70 to the queries, collect monitoring device measurements 72, and transmit responses 70 and measurements 72 to server 50. Database 66 is designed to store the responses 70 and measurements 72. Database 66 further includes a look-up table 74. Table 74 contains a list of the individuals to be monitored, and for each individual, a unique-individual identification code and a respective pointer to script program 68 assigned to the individual. Each remote apparatus 60 is designed to execute the assigned script program which it receives from server 50.
  • [0077]
    FIGS. 3-4 show the structure of remote apparatus 60 according to the preferred embodiment. Referring to FIG. 3, remote apparatus 60 includes a housing 90. Housing 90 is preferably sufficiently compact to enable the remote apparatus to be handheld and carried by an individual. Remote apparatus 60 also includes a user interface for communicating queries to the individual and for receiving responses to the queries.
  • [0078]
    In the preferred embodiment, the user interface includes a display 92 and four user input buttons 98A, 98B, 98C, and 98D. Display 92 displays queries and prompts to the individual, and is preferably a liquid crystal display (LCD). The user input buttons 98A, 98B, 98C, and 98D are for entering responses to the queries and prompts. The user input buttons are preferably momentary contact push buttons. Although the user interface of the preferred embodiment includes a display and input buttons, it will be apparent to one skilled in the art of electronic devices that any suitable user interface may be used in remote apparatus 60. For example, the user input buttons may be replaced by switches, keys, a touch sensitive display screen, or any other data input device. Alternatively, the display and input buttons may be replaced by a speech synthesis/speech recognition interface.
  • [0079]
    Three monitoring device jacks 96A, 96B, and 96C are located on a surface of housing 90. Device jacks 96A, 96B, and 96C are for connecting remote apparatus 60 to a number of monitoring devices, such as blood glucose meters, respiratory flow meters, or blood pressure cuffs, through standard connection cables (not shown). The apparatus 60 also includes a modem jack 94 for connecting remote apparatus 60 to a telephone jack through a standard connection cord (not shown). Remote apparatus 60 further includes a visual indicator, such as a light emitting diode (LED) 100. LED 100 is for visually notifying the individual that he or she has unanswered queries stored in remote apparatus 60.
  • [0080]
    FIG. 4 is a schematic block diagram illustrating the components of remote apparatus 60 in greater detail. Remote apparatus 60 includes a microprocessor 102 and a memory 108 connected to microprocessor 102. Memory 108 is preferably a non-volatile memory, such as a serial EEPROM. Memory 108 stores script programs received from the server, measurements received from monitoring device 64, responses to queries, and the individual's unique identification code. Microprocessor 102 also includes built-in read-only memory (ROM) which, stores firmware for controlling the operation of remote apparatus 60. The firmware includes a script interpreter used by microprocessor 102 to execute the script programs. The script interpreter interprets script commands which are executed by microprocessor 102. Specific techniques for interpreting and executing script programs in this manner are well known in the art.
  • [0081]
    Microprocessor 102 is preferably connected to memory 108 using a standard two-wire I2C interface. Microprocessor 102 is also connected to user input buttons 98A, 98B, 98C, and 98D. LED 100, a clock 112, and a display driver 110. Clock 112 indicates the current date and time to microprocessor 102. For clarity of illustration, clock 112 is shown as a separate component, but is preferably built into microprocessor 102. Display driver 110 operates under the control of microprocessor 102 to display information on display 92. Microprocessor 102 is preferably a PIC 16C65 processor which includes a universal asynchronous receiver transmitter (UART) 104. UART 104 is for communicating with a modem 114 and a device interface 118. A CMOS switch 116 under the control of microprocessor 102 alternately connects modem 114 and interface 118 to UART 116.
  • [0082]
    Modem 114 is connected to a telephone jack 119 through modem jack 94. Modem 114 is for exchanging data with the server through the communication network. The data includes script programs which are received from the server as well as responses to queries, device measurements, script identification codes, and the individual's unique identification code which modem 114 transmits to server 50. Modem 114 is preferably a complete 28.8 K modem commercially available from Cermetek, although any suitable modem may be used.
  • [0083]
    Device interface 118 is connected to device jacks 96A, 96B, and 96C. Device interface 118 is for interfacing with a number of monitoring devices, such as blood glucose meters, respiratory flow meters, blood pressure cuffs, weight scales, or pulse rate monitors, through device jacks 96A, 96B, and 96C. Device interface 118 operates under the control of microprocessor 102 to collect measurements 72 from monitoring devices 64 and to output measurements 72 to microprocessor 102 for storage in memory 108. In the preferred embodiment, interface 118 is a standard RS232 interface. For simplicity of illustration, only one device interface 118 is shown in FIG. 4. However, in alternative embodiments, remote apparatus 60 may include multiple device interfaces to accommodate monitoring devices which have different connection standards.
  • [0084]
    Referring again to FIG. 2, server 50 includes a monitoring application 76. Monitoring application 76 is a controlling software application executed by server 50 to perform the various functions described below. Monitoring application 76 includes a script generator 78, a script assignor 80, and a report generator 82. Script generator 78 is designed to generate script programs 68 from script information entered through workstation 52. The script information is entered through a script entry screen 84. In the preferred embodiment, script entry screen 84 is implemented as a web page on the server 50. Workstation 52 includes a web browser for accessing the web page to enter the script information.
  • [0085]
    FIG. 5 illustrates script entry screen 84 as it appears on workstation 52. Script entry screen 84 includes a script name field 120 for specifying the name of script program to be generated. Screen 84 also includes entry fields 122 for entering a set of queries to be answered by an individual. Each entry field 122 has corresponding response choice fields 124 for entering response choices for the query. Screen 84 further includes check boxes 126 for selecting a desired monitoring device type from which to collect measurements, such as a blood glucose meter, respiratory flow meter, or blood pressure cuff.
  • [0086]
    Screen 84 additionally includes a connection time field 128 for specifying a prescribed connection time at which each remote apparatus executing the script program is to establish a subsequent communication link to the server. The connection time is preferably selected to be the time at which communication rates are the lowest, such as 3:00 AM. Screen 84 also includes a CREATE SCRIPT button 130 for instructing the script generator to generate a script program from the information entered in screen 84. Screen 84 further includes a CANCEL button 132 for canceling the information entered.
  • [0087]
    In the preferred embodiment, each script program created by the script generator 82 conforms to the standard file format used on UNIX systems. In the standard file format, each command is listed in the upper case and followed by a colon. Every line in the script program is terminated by a linefeed character {LF}, and only one command is placed on each line. The last character in the script program is a UNIX end of file character {EOF}. TABLE 1 shows an exemplary listing of script commands used in the preferred embodiment of the invention.
    Command Description
    CLS: {LF} Clear the display
    ZAP: {LF} Erase from memory the last set of query responses recorded.
    LED: b{LF} Turn the LED on or off, where b is a binary digit of 0 or 1. An argument
    of 1 turns on the LED, and an argument of 0 turns off the LED.
    DISPLAY: (chars) {LF} Display the text following the DISPLAY command
    INPUT: mmmm{LF} Record a button press. The m's represent a button mask pattern for each
    of the four input buttons. Each m contains an “X” for disallowed buttons
    or an “0” for allowed buttons., For example, INPUT:
    OXOX{LF) allows the user to press either button #1 or #3.
    WAIT {LF} Wait for any one button to be pressed, then continue executing the script
    program.
    COLLECT: device{LF1} Collect measurements from the monitoring device specified in the
    COLLECT command. The user is preferably prompted to connect the
    specified monitoring device to the apparatus and press a button to continue.
    NUMBER: aaaa{LF} Assign a script identification code to the script program. The script
    identification code ‘from the most recently executed NUMBER
    statement is subsequently transmitted to the server along with the query
    responses and device measurements. The script identification code
    identifies to the server which script program was most recently
    executed by the-remote apparatus.
    DELAY: t {LF} Wait until time t specified in the DELAY command, usually the
    prescribed connection time.
    CONNECT: {LF} Perform a connection routine to establish a communication link to the
    server, transmit the patient identification code, query responses, device
    measurements, and script identification code to the server, and receive
    and store a new script program, When the server instructs the apparatus
    to disconnect, the script interpreter is restarted, allowing the new script
    program to execute.
  • [0088]
    The script commands illustrated in TABLE 1 are representative of the preferred embodiment and are not intended to limit the scope of the invention. After consideration of the ensuing description, it will be apparent to one skilled in the art many other suitable scripting languages and sets of script commands may be used to implement the system and method of the invention.
  • [0089]
    Script generator 78 preferably stores a script program template which it uses to create each script program. To generate a script program, script generator 78 inserts into the template the script information entered in script entry screen 84. For example, FIGS. 6A-6B illustrate a sample script program created by the script generator from the script information shown in FIG. 5.
  • [0090]
    The script program includes display commands to display the queries and response choices entered in fields 122 and 124; respectively. The script program also includes input commands to receive responses to the queries. The script program further includes a collect command to collect device measurements from the monitoring device specified in check boxes 126. The script program also includes commands to establish a subsequent communication link to the server at the connection time specified in field 128. The steps included in the sample script program are also shown in the flow chart of FIGS. 12A-12B and will be discussed in the operation section below.
  • [0091]
    Referring again to FIG. 2, script assignor 80 is for assigning the script programs 68 to the individuals. The script programs are assigned in accordance with script assignment information entered through workstation 52. The script assignment information is entered through a script assignment screen 86, which is preferably implemented as a web page on server 50.
  • [0092]
    FIG. 7 shows a sample script assignment screen 86 as it appears on the workstation. Screen 86 includes check boxes 134 for selecting the script program to be assigned and check boxes 136 for selecting the individuals to whom the script program is to be assigned. Screen 86 also includes an ASSIGN SCRIPT button 140 for entering the assignments. When button 140 is pressed, the script assignor creates and stores for each individual selected in check boxes 136 a respective pointer to the script program selected in check boxes 134. Each pointer is stored in the look-up table 74 of database 66. Screen 86 further includes an ADD SCRIPT button 138 for accessing the script entry screen and a DELETE SCRIPT button 142 for a deleting script program.
  • [0093]
    Referring again to FIG. 2, report generator 82 is designed to generate a report 88 from the responses 70 and device measurements 72 received in server 50. Report 88 is displayed on workstation 52. FIG. 10 shows a sample patient report 88 produced by report generator 82 for a selected individual. Report 88 includes a graph 146 of the device measurements received from the individual, as well as a listing of the query responses received from the individual. Specific techniques for writing a report generator program to display data in this manner are well known in the software art.
  • [0094]
    The operation of the preferred embodiment is illustrated in FIGS. 1-12. FIG. 11A is a flow chart illustrating steps included in the monitoring application executed by server 50. FIG. 11B is a continuation of the flow chart of FIG. 11A. In step 202, the server determines if new script information has been entered through script entry screen 84. If new script information has not been entered, the server proceeds to step 206. If new script information has been entered, the server proceeds to step 204.
  • [0095]
    As shown in FIG. 5, the script information includes a set of queries, and for each of the queries, corresponding responses choices. The script information also includes a selected monitoring device type from which to collect measurements. The script information further includes a prescribed connection time for each remote apparatus to establish a subsequent communication link to the server. The script information is generally entered in the server by a healthcare provider, such as the individuals' physician or case manager. Of course, any person desiring to communicate with the individual may also be granted access to the server to create and assign script programs. Further, it is to be understood that the system may include any number of workstations for entering script generation and script assignment information into the server.
  • [0096]
    In step 204, script generator 78 generates a script program from the information entered in screen 84. The script program is stored in database 66. Steps 202 and 204 are preferably repeated to generate multiple script programs, e.g. a script program for diabetes patients, a script program for asthma patients, etc. Each script program corresponds to a respective one of the sets of queries entered through script entry screen 84. Following step 204, the server proceeds to step 206.
  • [0097]
    In step 206, the server determines if new script assignment information has been entered through script assignment screen 86. If new script assignment information has not been entered, the server proceeds to step 210. If new script assignment information has been entered, the server proceeds to step 208. As shown in FIG. 7, script programs are assigned to each individual by selecting a script program through check boxes 134, selecting the individuals to whom selected the script program is to be assigned through check boxes 136, and pressing the ASSIGN SCRIPT button 140. When button 140 is pressed, script assignor 86 creates for each individual selected in check boxes 136 a respective pointer to the script program selected in check boxes 134. In step 208, each pointer is stored in look-up table 74 of database 66. Following step 208, the server proceeds to step 210.
  • [0098]
    In step 210, the server determines if any of the remote apparatuses are remotely connected to the server. Each individual to be monitored is preferably provided with his or her own remote apparatus which has the individual's unique identification code stored therein. Each individual is thus uniquely associated with a respective one of the remote apparatuses. If none of remote apparatuses are connected, the server proceeds to step 220.
  • [0099]
    If a remote apparatus is connected, the server receives from the apparatus the individual's unique identification code in step 212. In step 214, the server receives from the apparatus the query responses, device measurements, and script identification code recorded during execution of a previously assigned script program. The script identification code identifies to the server which script program was executed by the remote apparatus to record the query responses and device measurements. The responses, device measurements, and script identification code are stored in database 66.
  • [0100]
    In step 216, the server uses the individual's unique identification code to retrieve from look-up table 74 the pointer to the script program assigned to the individual. The server then retrieves the assigned script program from the database 66. In step 218, the server transmits the assigned script program to the individual's remote apparatus through the communication network 58. Following step 218, the server proceeds to step 220.
  • [0101]
    In step 220, the server determines if a report request has been received from workstation 52. If no report request has been received, the server returns to step 202. If a report request has been received for a selected individual, the server retrieves from database 66 the query responses and measurements last received from the individual, step 222. In step 224, the server generates and displays the report 88 on workstation 52.
  • [0102]
    As shown in FIG. 10, the report includes the query responses and device measurements last received from the individual. Following step 224, the server returns to step 202.
  • [0103]
    FIGS. 12A-12B illustrate the steps included in a sample script program executed by the remote apparatus. Before the script program is received, the remote apparatus is initially programmed with the individual's unique identification code and the script interpreter used by microprocessor 102 to execute script programs. The initial programming may be achieved during manufacture or during an initial connection to the server. Following initial programming, the remote apparatus receives from the server the script program assigned to the individual associated with the apparatus. The script program is received by modem 114 through a first communication link to the server and stored in memory 108.
  • [0104]
    In step 302, microprocessor 102 assigns a script identification code to the script program and stores the script identification code in memory 108. The script identification code is subsequently transmitted to the server along with query responses and device measurements to identify to the server which script program was most recently executed by the remote apparatus. In step 304, microprocessor 102 lights LED 100 to notify the individual that he or she has unanswered queries stored in the remote apparatus. LED 100 preferably remains lit until the queries are answered by the individual. In step 306, microprocessor 102 erases from memory 108 the last set of query responses recorded.
  • [0105]
    In step 308, microprocessor 102 prompts the individual by displaying on display 92 “ANSWER QUERIES NOW? PRESS ANY BUTTON TO START”. In step 310, microprocessor 102 waits until a reply to the prompt is received from the individual. When a reply is received, microprocessor 102 proceeds to step 312. In step 312, microprocessor 102 executes successive display and input commands to display the queries and response choices on display 92 and to receive responses to the queries.
  • [0106]
    FIG. 8 illustrate a sample query and its corresponding response choices as they appear on display 92. The response choices are preferably positioned on display 92 such that each response choice is located proximate a respective one of the user input buttons 98A, 98B, 98C, and 98D. In the preferred embodiment, each response choice is displayed immediately above a respective user input button. The individual presses the button corresponding to his or her response, and microprocessor 102 stores the response in memory 108.
  • [0107]
    In steps 314 to 318, microprocessor 102 executes commands to collect device measurements from a selected monitoring device specified in the script program. In step 314, microprocessor 102 prompts the individual to connect the selected device to one of the device jacks 96A, 96B, or 96C. A sample prompt is shown in FIG. 9. In step 316, microprocessor 102 waits until a reply to the prompt is received from the individual. When a reply is received, microprocessor 102 proceeds to step. 318. Microprocessor 102 also connects UART 104 to device interface 118 through CMOS switch 116. In step 318, microprocessor 102 collects device measurements from the selected device through device interface 118. The device measurements are stored in memory 108.
  • [0108]
    In step 320, microprocessor 102 prompts the individual to connect remote apparatus 60 to telephone jack 119 so that the apparatus may connect to the server at the prescribed connection time. In step 322, microprocessor 102 waits until a reply to the prompt is received from the individual. When a reply is received, microprocessor 102 turns off LED 100 in step 324. In step 326, microprocessor 102 waits until it is time to connect to the server. Microprocessor 102 compares the connection time specified in the script program to the current time output by clock 112. When it is time to connect, microprocessor 102 connects UART 104 to modem 114 through CMOS switch 116.
  • [0109]
    In step 328, microprocessor 102 establishes a subsequent communication link between remote apparatus 60 and server 50 through modem 114 and communication network 58. If the connection fails for any reason, microprocessor 102 repeats step 328 to get a successful connection. In step 330, microprocessor 102 transmits the query responses, device measurements, script identification code, and the individual's unique identification code stored in memory 108 to the server. In step 332, microprocessor 102 receives through modem 114 a newly assigned script program from the server. The new script program is stored in memory 108 for subsequent execution by microprocessor 102. Following step 332, the script program ends.
  • [0110]
    After the individual's information has been collected via remote apparatus 60 and the script programs, the data is mined to distinguish patterns. Data mining programs are well known in the art and can be easily adapted to this system. In the preferred embodiment, the data mining program includes a data table 150, as shown in FIG. 13. Data table 150 is stored on the server and has an individual identification number field 151, name fields 152, value fields 154 corresponding to the name fields, and explanation fields 156 corresponding to the name fields and value fields. The data type is entered into name fields 152, the possible numerical values corresponding to the data type are entered into value fields 154, and brief explanations of the data types and corresponding values are entered into explanation fields 156.
  • [0111]
    The individuals' device measurements and responses to the queries are entered into data table 150 in the form of numerical values in value fields 154. The individual's identification number is entered into individual identification number field 151. An example of data table 150 in which the individuals' information has been entered is shown in FIG. 14. Once data table 150 contains all the necessary information, the data mining program then compares the information.
  • [0112]
    FIG. 15 is a flowchart illustrating a first method of the present invention carried out by the server using the data mining techniques described above. In step 400, individuals having a risk factor for a disease are selected. In step 402, these individuals are queried about their behavior and environment using the script programs and remote apparatuses previously described. The responses to the queries and any device measurements are received and stored by the server. Collection of the responses and device measurements can occur over any period of time, thus allowing for more accurate data.
  • [0113]
    After the server receives the responses and measurements, a database comprising the individuals' behavioral and environmental profiles is created in step 404. In step 406, data mining techniques are used to group individuals having similar behavioral and environmental profiles. In step 408, the server determines if it is necessary to further group the individuals in order to produce smaller groups. Steps 406 and 408 can be repeated as often as necessary.
  • [0114]
    In step 410, each group of individuals is categorized using data mining techniques. The individuals are categorized according to their disease progressions. For example, a group of individuals can be categorized into those that have a severe disease phenotype, those that have a moderate disease phenotype, and those that have a mild disease phenotype. In step 412, the server determines if it is necessary to further categorize the individuals. Steps 410 and 412 can be repeated as often as necessary.
  • [0115]
    In step 414, the genomes of all the individuals are sequenced by genotyping system 56. The genotypes of all the individuals are transmitted to server 50. In step 416, data mining techniques are used to compare the genotypes of the individuals between the categories. For example, if those individuals who have a severe disease phenotype and are overweight have a certain gene sequence, while those individuals who have a mild disease phenotype and are overweight do not, it is likely the gene sequence is responsible for the severe disease phenotype. If a gene sequence is found, it is further identified in step 418. Methods of isolating and identifying gene sequences are well known in the field.
  • [0116]
    FIG. 16 is a block diagram illustrating an example of the first method of the present invention as described in FIG. 15. First individuals having a risk factor for a certain disease, such as non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), are selected, as indicated at block 422. Behavioral and environmental information from each individual is collected using the script programs and remote apparatuses. Using data mining techniques, the individuals are then grouped into overweight individuals 424 and non-overweight individuals 426. Using data mining techniques, the individuals are then categorized into overweight individuals having severe NIDDM 428, overweight individuals having mild NIDDM 430, non-overweight individuals having mild NIDDM 432, and non-overweight individuals having severe NIDDM 434.
  • [0117]
    The individuals' genotype information is then taken, as indicated at block 436, to determine the individuals' gene sequences. For example, overweight individuals with severe NIDDM have gene sequence A, overweight individuals with mild NIDDM have gene sequence B, non-overweight individuals with mild NIDDM have gene sequence B, and non-overweight individuals with severe NIDDM have gene sequence A. Data mining techniques are then used to analyze the information and come to a conclusion. In this example, data mining would conclude that the severe NIDDM phenotype is likely related to gene sequence A, not the individual's weight.
  • [0118]
    FIG. 17 shows a flowchart illustrating a second method of the present invention carried out by the server using the data mining techniques described above. In step 500, individuals having a risk factor for a disease are selected. In step 502, these individuals are queried about their behavior and environment using the script programs and remote apparatuses previously described. The responses to the queries and any device measurements are received and stored by the server.
  • [0119]
    After the server receives the responses and measurements from the remote apparatuses, a database comprising the individuals' behavioral and environmental profiles is created in step 504. In step 506, data mining techniques are used to group together individuals having similar disease progressions. For example, a group of individuals can be grouped into those that have a severe disease phenotype, those that have a moderate, disease phenotype, and those that have a mild disease phenotype. In step 508, the server determines if it is necessary to further group the individuals in order to produce smaller groups. Steps 506 and 508 can be repeated as often as necessary.
  • [0120]
    In step 510, each group of individuals created in steps 506 and 508 is categorized using data mining techniques according to the behavioral and environmental profiles of the individuals. In step 512 the server determines if it is necessary to further group the individuals in order to produce smaller groups. Steps 510 and 512 can be repeated as often as necessary.
  • [0121]
    In step 514, the genomes of all the individuals are sequenced by genotyping system 56. The genotypes of all the individuals are transmitted to the server. In step 516, data mining techniques are used to compare the genotypes of the individuals between the categories. For example, if those individuals who have a severe disease phenotype and are overweight have a certain gene sequence, while those individuals who have a mild disease and are also overweight phenotype do not, it is likely the gene sequence, not weight; is responsible for the severe disease phenotype. If a gene sequence is found, it is further identified in step 518. Specific techniques of isolating and identifying gene sequences are well known in the field.
  • [0122]
    FIG. 18 is a block diagram illustrating an example of the second method of the present invention as described in FIG. 17. First individuals having a risk factor for a certain disease, such as NIDDM, are chosen, as indicated at block 522. Behavioral and environmental information from each individual is collected using the remote apparatuses and script programs. Using data mining techniques, the individuals are then grouped into those exhibiting severe NIDDM 524 and those exhibiting mild NIDDM 526. Using data mining techniques, the individuals are then categorized into overweight individuals having severe NIDDM 528, non-overweight individuals having severe NIDDM 530, non-overweight individuals having mild NIDDM 532, and overweight individuals having mild NIDDM 534.
  • [0123]
    The individuals' genotype information is then taken, as indicated at block 536, to determine the individuals' gene sequences. For example, individuals with severe NIDDM who are overweight have gene sequence A, individuals with severe NIDDM who are non-overweight have gene sequence A, individuals with mild NIDDM who are non-overweight have gene sequence B, and individuals with severe NIDDM who are overweight have gene sequence B. Data mining techniques are then used to analyze the information and come to a conclusion. In this example, data mining would conclude that the severe NIDDM phenotype is likely related to gene sequence A, not the individual's weight.
  • [0124]
    FIG. 19 shows a flowchart illustrating a preferred method carried out by server 50 to identify a disease-identifying substance. In step 600, individuals having a risk factor for a disease are selected. In step 602, these individuals are queried about their behavior and environment using the script programs and remote apparatuses previously described. The responses to the queries and any device measurements are received and stored by the server.
  • [0125]
    After the server receives the responses and measurements from the remote apparatuses, a database comprising the individuals' behavioral and environmental profiles is created in step 604. In step 606, the genomes of all the individuals are sequenced, and the genotypes of all the individuals are transmitted to the server. In step 608, individuals having the same or close genotypes are grouped together. In step 610, data mining techniques are used to categorize together individuals, having similar disease progressions. In step 612, the server determines if it is necessary to further categorize the individuals in order to produce smaller groups. Steps 610 and 612 can be repeated as often as necessary.
  • [0126]
    In step 614, data mining techniques are used to find a disease influencing substance between the categories of individuals by using the individuals behavioral and environmental profiles. For example, if those individuals who have a severe disease phenotype are overweight, while those individuals who have a mild disease phenotype are not, it is likely weight is responsible for the severe disease phenotype. If such a disease-influencing substance is found, it is identified in step 618. If no disease-influencing substance is found, the process is preferably repeated.
  • [0127]
    FIG. 20 is a block diagram illustrating an example of the method described in FIG. 19. First, individuals having a risk factor for a certain disease, such as NIDDM, are chosen, as indicated at block 620. Behavioral and environmental information from each individual is collected using the remote apparatuses and script programs. The individuals' genotype information is then taken, as indicated at block 622, to determine the individuals' gene sequences. The individuals are then grouped according to their gene sequences. For example, one group may have gene sequence A, as indicated at block 624, while another group may have gene sequence B, as indicated at block 626. Using data mining techniques, the individuals are then categorized into individuals with gene sequence A having severe NIDDM 628, individuals with gene sequence A having mild NIDDM 630, individuals with gene sequence B having mild NIDDM 632, and individuals with gene sequence B having severe NIDDM 634.
  • [0128]
    Data mining techniques are further used to analyze the categories of individuals and their behavioral and environmental profiles. For example, overweight individuals 638 with severe NIDDM have gene sequence A, non-overweight individuals 640 with mild NIDDM have gene sequence A, overweight individuals 642 with mild NIDDM have gene sequence B, and non-overweight individuals 644 with severe NIDDM have gene sequence B. Data mining techniques are then used to analyze the information and come to a conclusion. In this example, data mining would conclude that the severe NIDDM phenotype is likely related to gene sequence A, not the individual's weight.
  • SUMMARY, RAMIFICATIONS, AND SCOPE
  • [0129]
    Although the above description contains many specificities, these should not be construed as limitations on the scope of the invention but merely as illustrations of some of the presently preferred embodiments. Many other embodiments of the invention are possible. For example, the scripting language and script commands shown are representative of the preferred embodiment. It will be apparent to one skilled in the art that many other scripting languages and specific script commands may be used to implement the invention.
  • [0130]
    Moreover, the invention is not limited to the specific applications described. The system and method of the invention have many other applications. For example pharmaceutical manufacturers may apply the system in clinical trials to analyze new drug data.
  • [0131]
    Therefore, the scope of the invention should be determined by the appended claims and their legal equivalents.

Claims (31)

  1. 1-29. (canceled)
  2. 30. A method of correlating responses from a group of individuals comprising:
    a) selecting individuals having a risk factor for a disease;
    b) creating queries regarding the individuals symptoms, behaviors, or environments;
    c) storing the queries on a server;
    d) transmitting the queries from the server to a remotely programmable apparatus identified with each individual, said remotely programmable apparatus having a user interface for communicating queries and for receiving responses, and having a communications function for communicating with the server through a communications network;
    e) transmitting the responses of the individuals to the queries from the remotely programmable apparatuses to the server; and
    f) creating a database of the individuals' symptoms, behavior or environments.
  3. 31. The method of claim 30, wherein the queries are scripted and are adjustable to each individual.
  4. 32. The method of claim 30, further comprising adjusting the queries to the individual with a script generator based upon the responses received from an individual.
  5. 33. The method of claim 32, further comprising repeating the method with the adjusted queries.
  6. 34. The method of claim 30, wherein the queries comprise factors associated with genetic information.
  7. 35. The method of claim 30, wherein the responses from the individuals comprise phenotypic information.
  8. 36. The method of claim 35, wherein said phenotypic information indicates some expression of nucleic acid sequence.
  9. 37. The method of claim 30, wherein the communications apparatus is connectable with a monitoring device configured to acquire physiological data.
  10. 38. The method of claim 37, wherein the monitoring device is selected from the group consisting of a blood glucose meter, a respiratory flow meter, a blood pressure cuff, a weight scale and a pulse meter.
  11. 39. A method of monitoring a group of individuals, comprising:
    a) selecting individuals having a risk factor for a disease;
    b) creating queries regarding the individuals symptoms, behaviors, or environments;
    c) storing the queries on a server;
    d) transmitting the queries from the server to a remotely programmable apparatus identified with each individual, said remotely programmable apparatus having a user interface for communicating queries and for receiving responses, and having a communications function for communicating with the server through a communications network;
    e) transmitting the responses of the individuals to the queries from the remotely programmable apparatuses to the server;
    f) creating a database of the individuals symptoms, behavior, or environments;
    g) using data mining techniques to distinguish a group of individuals having similar symptoms, behavioral or environmental profiles; and
    h) using statistical methods to categorize the individuals into one or more subgroups of individuals with similar symptom, behavioral, or environmental profiles.
  12. 40. The method of claim 39, wherein the queries are scripted and are adjustable to each individual.
  13. 41. The method of claim 39, further comprising adjusting the queries to the individual with a script generator based upon the responses received from an individual.
  14. 42. The method of claim 41, further comprising repeating the method with the adjusted queries.
  15. 43. The method of claim 39, wherein the queries comprise factors associated with genetic information.
  16. 44. The method of claim 39, wherein the responses from the individuals comprise phenotypic information.
  17. 45. The method of claim 44, wherein said phenotypic information indicates some expression of a nucleic acid sequence.
  18. 46. The method of claim 39, wherein the communications apparatus is connectable with a monitoring device configured to acquire physiological data.
  19. 47. The method of claim 46, wherein the monitoring device is selected from the group consisting of a blood glucose meter, a respiratory flow meter, a blood pressure cuff, a weight scale and a pulse meter.
  20. 48. The method of claim 39, wherein the disease is selected from the group consisting of non-insulin dependent diabetes, sickle cell anemia, cystic fibrosis, asthma, malignant melanoma, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, colon cancer and obesity.
  21. 49. A method of determining the progression of a disease in an individual comprising:
    a) selecting individuals diagnosed with a disease;
    b) creating queries regarding the individuals symptoms, behaviors or environments;
    c) storing the queries on a server;
    d) transmitting the queries from the server to a remotely programmable apparatus identified with each individual, said remotely programmable apparatus having a user interface for communicating queries and for receiving responses, and having a communications function for communicating with the server through a communications network;
    e) transmitting the responses of the individuals to the queries from the remotely programmable apparatuses to the server; and
    f) creating a database of the individuals' symptoms, behavior or environments.
  22. 50. The method of claim 49, wherein the queries are scripted and are adjustable to each individual.
  23. 51. The method of claim 49, further comprising adjusting the queries to the individual with a script generator based upon the responses received from an individual.
  24. 52. The method of claim 49, further comprising repeating the method with the adjusted queries.
  25. 53. The method of claim 49, wherein the queries comprise factors associated with genetic information.
  26. 54. The method of claim 49, wherein the responses from the individuals comprise phenotypic information related to the condition.
  27. 55. The method of claim 54, wherein the phenotypic information is indicative of a genotypic condition.
  28. 56. The method of claim 55, wherein said phenotypic information indicates some expression of a nucleic acid sequence.
  29. 57. The method of claim 49, wherein the communications apparatus is connectable with a monitoring device configured to acquire physiological data.
  30. 58. The method of claim 57, wherein the monitoring device is selected from the group consisting of a blood glucose meter, a respiratory flow meter, a blood pressure cuff, a weight scale and a pulse meter.
  31. 59. The method of claim 49, wherein the disease is selected from the group consisting of non-insulin dependent diabetes, sickle cell anemia, cystic fibrosis, asthma, malignant melanoma, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, colon cancer and obesity.
US11359437 1997-03-28 2006-02-23 System and method for identifying disease-influencing genes Abandoned US20060200319A1 (en)

Priority Applications (9)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US4175197 true 1997-03-28 1997-03-28
US4174697 true 1997-03-28 1997-03-28
US08847009 US5897493A (en) 1997-03-28 1997-04-30 Monitoring system for remotely querying individuals
US08850840 US5985559A (en) 1997-04-30 1997-05-03 System and method for preventing, diagnosing, and treating genetic and pathogen-caused disease
US08946341 US5997476A (en) 1997-03-28 1997-10-07 Networked system for interactive communication and remote monitoring of individuals
US4180998 true 1998-03-13 1998-03-13
US37818899 true 1999-08-20 1999-08-20
US09496893 US8078407B1 (en) 1997-03-28 2000-02-02 System and method for identifying disease-influencing genes
US11359437 US20060200319A1 (en) 1997-03-28 2006-02-23 System and method for identifying disease-influencing genes

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US11359437 US20060200319A1 (en) 1997-03-28 2006-02-23 System and method for identifying disease-influencing genes

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20060200319A1 true true US20060200319A1 (en) 2006-09-07

Family

ID=46203797

Family Applications (2)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US09496893 Expired - Lifetime US8078407B1 (en) 1997-03-28 2000-02-02 System and method for identifying disease-influencing genes
US11359437 Abandoned US20060200319A1 (en) 1997-03-28 2006-02-23 System and method for identifying disease-influencing genes

Family Applications Before (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US09496893 Expired - Lifetime US8078407B1 (en) 1997-03-28 2000-02-02 System and method for identifying disease-influencing genes

Country Status (1)

Country Link
US (2) US8078407B1 (en)

Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20080228410A1 (en) * 2007-03-16 2008-09-18 Expanse Networks, Inc. Genetic attribute analysis
US20090043752A1 (en) * 2007-08-08 2009-02-12 Expanse Networks, Inc. Predicting Side Effect Attributes
CN102831097A (en) * 2011-05-27 2012-12-19 感芯科股份有限公司 Cloud server of compiling physiological state information and observation system thereof
USD694909S1 (en) 2011-10-12 2013-12-03 HealthSpot Inc. Medical kiosk
US8655915B2 (en) 2008-12-30 2014-02-18 Expanse Bioinformatics, Inc. Pangenetic web item recommendation system
US8996392B2 (en) 2011-03-31 2015-03-31 Healthspot, Inc. Medical kiosk and method of use
US9031870B2 (en) 2008-12-30 2015-05-12 Expanse Bioinformatics, Inc. Pangenetic web user behavior prediction system
US9043217B2 (en) 2011-03-31 2015-05-26 HealthSpot Inc. Medical kiosk and method of use

Families Citing this family (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US8972406B2 (en) * 2012-06-29 2015-03-03 International Business Machines Corporation Generating epigenetic cohorts through clustering of epigenetic surprisal data based on parameters
US9002888B2 (en) 2012-06-29 2015-04-07 International Business Machines Corporation Minimization of epigenetic surprisal data of epigenetic data within a time series

Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5660176A (en) * 1993-12-29 1997-08-26 First Opinion Corporation Computerized medical diagnostic and treatment advice system
US6329139B1 (en) * 1995-04-25 2001-12-11 Discovery Partners International Automated sorting system for matrices with memory

Family Cites Families (366)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3426150A (en) 1965-09-27 1969-02-04 Lockheed Aircraft Corp System for fm transmission of cardiological data over telephone lines
US3581072A (en) 1968-03-28 1971-05-25 Frederick Nymeyer Auction market computation system
US3566365A (en) 1968-09-12 1971-02-23 Searle Medidata Inc Multiphasic medical screening system
US3566370A (en) 1969-06-10 1971-02-23 Searle Medidata Inc Automated medical history taking system
US4130881A (en) 1971-07-21 1978-12-19 Searle Medidata, Inc. System and technique for automated medical history taking
US3883235A (en) 1971-09-17 1975-05-13 John R Lynn Automatic visual field examination including fixation monitoring compensation
US3768014A (en) 1972-01-28 1973-10-23 Gen Electric Cardiac pacemaker rate/interval computer system
US3920005A (en) 1972-03-16 1975-11-18 Medtronic Inc Evaluation system for cardiac stimulators
JPS4928038A (en) 1972-07-15 1974-03-13
US4004577A (en) 1972-12-04 1977-01-25 Survival Technology, Inc. Method of treating heart attack patients prior to the establishment of qualified direct contact personal care
US3910257A (en) 1973-04-25 1975-10-07 Nasa Medical subject monitoring systems
US4051522A (en) 1975-05-05 1977-09-27 Jonathan Systems Patient monitoring system
US3996928A (en) 1975-05-28 1976-12-14 Marx Alvin J Patient vital-signs automated measuring apparatus
US4412287A (en) 1975-05-29 1983-10-25 Braddock Iii Walter D Automated stock exchange
US4060915A (en) 1976-08-02 1977-12-06 Conway Malcolm J Mental image enhancement apparatus utilizing computer systems
US4151831A (en) 1976-11-15 1979-05-01 Safetime Monitors, Inc. Fertility indicator
US4151407A (en) 1977-04-28 1979-04-24 Texas Instruments Incorporated Low-power, infrared information transmission system
US4150284A (en) 1977-04-28 1979-04-17 Texas Instruments Incorporated Medical patient condition monitoring system
US4173971A (en) 1977-08-29 1979-11-13 Karz Allen E Continuous electrocardiogram monitoring method and system for cardiac patients
US4216462A (en) 1978-03-06 1980-08-05 General Electric Company Patient monitoring and data processing system
US4227526A (en) 1978-04-13 1980-10-14 Extracorporeal Medical Systems, Inc. Mechanism for aurally instructing a patient and method
US4958632A (en) 1978-07-20 1990-09-25 Medtronic, Inc. Adaptable, digital computer controlled cardiac pacemaker
US4270547A (en) 1978-10-03 1981-06-02 University Patents, Inc. Vital signs monitoring system
US4253521A (en) 1978-10-23 1981-03-03 Halliburton Company Setting tool
US4422081A (en) 1979-10-24 1983-12-20 Del Mar Avionics Validator for electrocardial data processing system
US4347568A (en) 1978-12-07 1982-08-31 Diamond Shamrock Corporation Occupational health/environmental surveillance
US4519398A (en) 1979-07-09 1985-05-28 Del Mar Avionics Method and apparatus for long-term monitoring of physiological activity to provide a compact portable record
US4296756A (en) 1979-07-26 1981-10-27 Cyber Diagnostics, Inc. Remote pulmonary function tester
US4259548A (en) 1979-11-14 1981-03-31 Gte Products Corporation Apparatus for monitoring and signalling system
US4417306A (en) 1980-01-23 1983-11-22 Medtronic, Inc. Apparatus for monitoring and storing utilizing a data processor
US4360345A (en) 1980-07-14 1982-11-23 American Heart Association, Inc. Health education system
US4347851A (en) 1980-10-21 1982-09-07 Norman S. Blodgett Vital signs monitor
US4449536A (en) 1980-10-31 1984-05-22 Sri International Method and apparatus for digital data compression
US4428733A (en) 1981-07-13 1984-01-31 Kumar Misir Victor Information gathering system
US4694490A (en) 1981-11-03 1987-09-15 Harvey John C Signal processing apparatus and methods
US4965825A (en) 1981-11-03 1990-10-23 The Personalized Mass Media Corporation Signal processing apparatus and methods
US4465077A (en) 1981-11-12 1984-08-14 Howard Schneider Apparatus and method of determining fertility status
US4473884A (en) 1982-01-08 1984-09-25 Sybron Corporation Electronic medication dispensing system
WO1983003744A1 (en) 1982-04-23 1983-11-10 Reinhold Herbert Edward Jr Ambulatory monitoring system with real time analysis and telephone transmission
US4518361A (en) 1982-08-05 1985-05-21 Conway Malcolm J Method and apparatus for effecting and evaluating action upon visual imaging
US4566461A (en) 1983-02-15 1986-01-28 Michael Lubell Health fitness monitor
US4576578A (en) 1983-03-31 1986-03-18 Bell & Howell Company Interactive training apparatus
FR2544525A1 (en) 1983-04-12 1984-10-19 Simatec Sarl portable input device and related information processing to the health of a person
JPS60501695A (en) 1983-06-29 1985-10-11
US4546436A (en) 1983-07-06 1985-10-08 The Johns Hopkins University Portable pH data collector
US4722349A (en) 1983-09-29 1988-02-02 Zvi Halperin Arrangement for and method of tele-examination of patients
US4903201A (en) 1983-11-03 1990-02-20 World Energy Exchange Corporation Automated futures trading exchange
US4592546A (en) 1984-04-26 1986-06-03 David B. Lockton Game of skill playable by remote participants in conjunction with a live event
JPS6125525A (en) 1984-07-13 1986-02-04 Sumitomo Electric Industries Patient monitor apparatus
US4695954A (en) 1984-10-31 1987-09-22 Rose Robert J Modular medication dispensing system and apparatus utilizing portable memory device
US4712562A (en) 1985-01-08 1987-12-15 Jacques J. Ohayon Outpatient monitoring systems
US4627445A (en) 1985-04-08 1986-12-09 Garid, Inc. Glucose medical monitoring system
US4674652A (en) 1985-04-11 1987-06-23 Aten Edward M Controlled dispensing device
US4846797A (en) 1985-05-14 1989-07-11 Intelligent Medicine, Inc. Syringe positioning device for enhancing fluid flow control
US4835372A (en) 1985-07-19 1989-05-30 Clincom Incorporated Patient care system
US5111818A (en) 1985-10-08 1992-05-12 Capintec, Inc. Ambulatory physiological evaluation system including cardiac monitoring
US4838275A (en) 1985-11-29 1989-06-13 Lee Arnold St J Home medical surveillance system
DE3783263T2 (en) 1986-02-04 1993-07-22 Colin Electronics Chart recorder for living beings.
JPH0743748B2 (en) 1986-02-17 1995-05-15 株式会社オークネット Information transmission processing method of auction information transmission processing system
US5057915A (en) 1986-03-10 1991-10-15 Kohorn H Von System and method for attracting shoppers to sales outlets
US4926255A (en) 1986-03-10 1990-05-15 Kohorn H Von System for evaluation of response to broadcast transmissions
US5227874A (en) 1986-03-10 1993-07-13 Kohorn H Von Method for measuring the effectiveness of stimuli on decisions of shoppers
US4731726A (en) 1986-05-19 1988-03-15 Healthware Corporation Patient-operated glucose monitor and diabetes management system
US4738451A (en) 1986-05-20 1988-04-19 Atari Games Corporation Multi-player, multi-character cooperative play video game with independent player entry and departure
US4803625A (en) 1986-06-30 1989-02-07 Buddy Systems, Inc. Personal health monitor
US4782511A (en) 1986-07-11 1988-11-01 Murex Corporation Interactive medical laboratory specimen apparatus system
US4768229A (en) 1986-07-21 1988-08-30 Zenith Electronics Corporation Restrictive access control system
JPS6332624A (en) 1986-07-28 1988-02-12 Canon Inc Information processor
US5059394A (en) 1986-08-13 1991-10-22 Lifescan, Inc. Analytical device for the automated determination of analytes in fluids
US4935346A (en) 1986-08-13 1990-06-19 Lifescan, Inc. Minimum procedure system for the determination of analytes
US5049487A (en) 1986-08-13 1991-09-17 Lifescan, Inc. Automated initiation of timing of reflectance readings
US4799199A (en) 1986-09-18 1989-01-17 Motorola, Inc. Bus master having burst transfer mode
US4799156A (en) 1986-10-01 1989-01-17 Strategic Processing Corporation Interactive market management system
US4858354A (en) 1987-03-09 1989-08-22 Gettler Lawrence H Organization system
US5356287A (en) 1987-03-16 1994-10-18 Mcintyre Kevin M Simulating presence
ES2007041A6 (en) 1987-04-08 1989-06-01 Takio Sa electronic apparatus for medical diagnosis
EP0290683A3 (en) 1987-05-01 1988-12-14 Diva Medical Systems B.V. Diabetes management system and apparatus
NL8701091A (en) 1987-05-08 1988-12-01 Spruyt Hillen Bv Injection.
US4858617A (en) 1987-09-10 1989-08-22 Ith, Inc. Cardiac probe enabling use of personal computer for monitoring heart activity or the like
US5007429A (en) 1987-09-21 1991-04-16 Pulsetrend, Inc. Interface using 12-digit keypad for programming parameters in ambulatory blood pressure monitor
DE3769994D1 (en) 1987-10-09 1991-06-13 Hewlett Packard Gmbh Input device.
US4796639A (en) 1987-11-05 1989-01-10 Medical Graphics Corporation Pulmonary diagnostic system
US5572421A (en) 1987-12-09 1996-11-05 Altman; Louis Portable medical questionnaire presentation device
US5025374A (en) 1987-12-09 1991-06-18 Arch Development Corp. Portable system for choosing pre-operative patient test
US4853521A (en) 1987-12-28 1989-08-01 Claeys Ronald W System for verifying and recording drug administration to a patient
US4890621A (en) 1988-01-19 1990-01-02 Northstar Research Institute, Ltd. Continuous glucose monitoring and a system utilized therefor
US4950264A (en) 1988-03-31 1990-08-21 The Procter & Gamble Company Thin, flexible sanitary napkin
GB8809115D0 (en) 1988-04-18 1988-05-18 Turner R C Syringes
US4933873A (en) 1988-05-12 1990-06-12 Healthtech Services Corp. Interactive patient assistance device
US5142484A (en) 1988-05-12 1992-08-25 Health Tech Services Corporation An interactive patient assistance device for storing and dispensing prescribed medication and physical device
JPH01290361A (en) 1988-05-17 1989-11-22 Canon Inc Facsimile equipment
GB8811591D0 (en) 1988-05-17 1988-06-22 Newland M Personal medication apparatus
US4967756A (en) 1988-06-15 1990-11-06 Instromedix, Inc. Blood pressure and heart rate monitoring method and apparatus
US4931934A (en) 1988-06-27 1990-06-05 Snyder Thomas E Method and system for measuring clarified intensity of emotion
US5204670A (en) 1988-08-29 1993-04-20 B. I. Incorporated Adaptable electric monitoring and identification system
US4916441A (en) 1988-09-19 1990-04-10 Clinicom Incorporated Portable handheld terminal
GB8825795D0 (en) 1988-11-03 1988-12-07 Royal Free Hosp School Med Apparatus for foetal monitoring
GB8825800D0 (en) 1988-11-04 1988-12-07 Baker J Cardiac device
US4907973A (en) 1988-11-14 1990-03-13 Hon David C Expert system simulator for modeling realistic internal environments and performance
US4933876A (en) 1988-12-28 1990-06-12 Vital Lasertype, Inc. System of operating an automatic plotter
US5111817A (en) 1988-12-29 1992-05-12 Medical Physics, Inc. Noninvasive system and method for enhanced arterial oxygen saturation determination and arterial blood pressure monitoring
FI111789B (en) 1989-01-10 2003-09-15 Nintendo Co Ltd The electronic game device, with the option of pseudostereofoniseen sound development
FI99250C (en) 1989-01-10 1997-12-29 Nintendo Co Ltd The system for preventing unauthorized use of the external memory,
US5068536A (en) 1989-01-19 1991-11-26 Futrex, Inc. Method for providing custom calibration for near infrared instruments for measurement of blood glucose
US5077476A (en) 1990-06-27 1991-12-31 Futrex, Inc. Instrument for non-invasive measurement of blood glucose
US4978303A (en) 1989-02-06 1990-12-18 Savalife, A California General Partnership Physical acuity test device
US4977899A (en) 1989-03-10 1990-12-18 Instromedix, Inc. Heart data monitoring method and apparatus
US4958641A (en) 1989-03-10 1990-09-25 Instromedix, Inc. Heart data monitoring method and apparatus
US5519058A (en) 1989-03-17 1996-05-21 Cedars-Sinai Medical Center Method for treatment with dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) of hypertension, diabetic neuphropathy and atherosclerosis
US5074317A (en) 1989-03-24 1991-12-24 Bondell James A System for treatment of enuresis
JP2572275B2 (en) 1989-04-18 1997-01-16 株式会社武田エンジニアリング・コンサルタント Blood pressure measuring device according to extraction of the extractor and hemodynamic hemodynamic
US4953552A (en) 1989-04-21 1990-09-04 Demarzo Arthur P Blood glucose monitoring system
US5649114A (en) 1989-05-01 1997-07-15 Credit Verification Corporation Method and system for selective incentive point-of-sale marketing in response to customer shopping histories
US5077665A (en) 1989-05-25 1991-12-31 Reuters Limited Distributed matching system
US5120230A (en) 1989-05-30 1992-06-09 Optical Data Corporation Interactive method for the effective conveyance of information in the form of visual images
US5226895A (en) 1989-06-05 1993-07-13 Eli Lilly And Company Multiple dose injection pen
RU2105776C1 (en) 1989-06-07 1998-02-27 Дипл. инж. Маркус Реттенбахер Method and apparatus for manufacturing building, structural, and packaging materials, and article manufactured by this method
US5009645A (en) 1989-06-12 1991-04-23 Jules Silver Syringe for dispensing measured quantities of a material
US4899839A (en) 1989-06-14 1990-02-13 Dessertine Albert L Compliance and patient status monitoring system and method
US5016172A (en) 1989-06-14 1991-05-14 Ramp Comsystems, Inc. Patient compliance and status monitoring system
US4979509A (en) 1989-07-19 1990-12-25 Northstar Research Institute, Ltd. Continuous glucose monitoring and a system utilized therefor
US5035625A (en) 1989-07-24 1991-07-30 Munson Electronics, Inc. Computer game teaching method and system
US5050612A (en) 1989-09-12 1991-09-24 Matsumura Kenneth N Device for computer-assisted monitoring of the body
CA1323922C (en) 1989-09-26 1993-11-02 William Fang Personal health monitor enclosure
US6024281A (en) 1989-09-27 2000-02-15 Shepley; Kenneth James Nutritional information system for shoppers
CA1317636C (en) 1989-09-29 1993-05-11 Buddy Systems, Inc. System and method for power supply preservation in a personal health monitor
US5084828A (en) 1989-09-29 1992-01-28 Healthtech Services Corp. Interactive medication delivery system
US4978335A (en) 1989-09-29 1990-12-18 Medex, Inc. Infusion pump with bar code input to computer
US5036462A (en) 1989-09-29 1991-07-30 Healthtech Services Corp. Interactive patient assistance and medication delivery systems responsive to the physical environment of the patient
US5065315A (en) 1989-10-24 1991-11-12 Garcia Angela M System and method for scheduling and reporting patient related services including prioritizing services
US5111396A (en) 1989-11-09 1992-05-05 Instromedix, Inc. Portable ecg data-storage apparatus
US5642731A (en) 1990-01-17 1997-07-01 Informedix, Inc. Method of and apparatus for monitoring the management of disease
US5176502A (en) 1990-04-25 1993-01-05 Becton, Dickinson And Company Syringe pump and the like for delivering medication
US5109974A (en) 1990-05-11 1992-05-05 Menziken Automation Mat Ag Assembly line system
US5171977A (en) 1990-05-14 1992-12-15 Sunquest Information Systems, Inc. Portable medical specimen data collection system
JP2627208B2 (en) 1990-06-14 1997-07-02 株式会社セガ・エンタープライゼス Television tuner cartridge for a game apparatus and a game apparatus
US5265888A (en) 1990-06-22 1993-11-30 Nintendo Co., Ltd. Game apparatus and memory cartridge used therefor
JP2921936B2 (en) 1990-07-13 1999-07-19 株式会社東芝 Image monitoring apparatus
JPH0820412B2 (en) 1990-07-20 1996-03-04 松下電器産業株式会社 Quantitative analysis method using the disposable sensor, and a device
US5182707A (en) 1990-07-23 1993-01-26 Healthdyne, Inc. Apparatus for recording reagent test strip data by comparison to color lights on a reference panel
US5822544A (en) 1990-07-27 1998-10-13 Executone Information Systems, Inc. Patient care and communication system
US5120421A (en) 1990-08-31 1992-06-09 The United States Of America As Represented By The United States Department Of Energy Electrochemical sensor/detector system and method
US5680590A (en) 1990-09-21 1997-10-21 Parti; Michael Simulation system and method of using same
US5251126A (en) 1990-10-29 1993-10-05 Miles Inc. Diabetes data analysis and interpretation method
US5243515A (en) 1990-10-30 1993-09-07 Lee Wayne M Secure teleprocessing bidding system
US5143378A (en) 1991-01-15 1992-09-01 Joel Deborah L Health game
US5142358A (en) 1991-02-11 1992-08-25 Jason Leonard A Earn per view television viewing regulation device
US5230629A (en) 1991-03-01 1993-07-27 Albert Einstein College Of Medicine Of Yeshiva University Device and method for assessing cognitive speed
US5431690A (en) 1991-03-18 1995-07-11 Biotronik Mess- Und Therapiegerate Gmbh & Co. Ingenieurburo Berlin Medical device for generating a therapeutic parameter
DE4138702A1 (en) 1991-03-22 1992-09-24 Madaus Medizin Elektronik Process and apparatus for diagnosis and quantitative analysis of apnea, and for simultaneous determination of other diseases
US5321009A (en) 1991-04-03 1994-06-14 American Home Products Corporation Method of treating diabetes
US5301105A (en) 1991-04-08 1994-04-05 Desmond D. Cummings All care health management system
US5228450A (en) 1991-05-03 1993-07-20 Diagnostic Medical Instruments, Inc. Methods and apparatus for ambulatory physiological monitoring
US5335338A (en) 1991-05-31 1994-08-02 Micro Solutions, Inc. General purpose parallel port interface
DE4123348A1 (en) 1991-07-15 1993-01-21 Boehringer Mannheim Gmbh Electrochemical analysis system
US6055487A (en) 1991-07-30 2000-04-25 Margery; Keith S. Interactive remote sample analysis system
US5366896A (en) 1991-07-30 1994-11-22 University Of Virginia Alumni Patents Foundation Robotically operated laboratory system
US5333981A (en) 1991-08-26 1994-08-02 Normand Pronovost Bale loading, transporting and unloading trailer
US5295491A (en) 1991-09-26 1994-03-22 Sam Technology, Inc. Non-invasive human neurocognitive performance capability testing method and system
US5504519A (en) 1991-10-03 1996-04-02 Viscorp Method and apparatus for printing coupons and the like
US5262943A (en) 1991-10-15 1993-11-16 National Computer Systems, Inc. System and process for information management and reporting
US5304112A (en) 1991-10-16 1994-04-19 Theresia A. Mrklas Stress reduction system and method
US5635532A (en) 1991-10-21 1997-06-03 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Department Of Health And Human Services Compositions and methods for therapy and prevention of pathologies including cancer, AIDS and anemia
US5343239A (en) 1991-11-20 1994-08-30 Zing Systems, L.P. Transaction based interactive television system
US5519433A (en) 1991-11-20 1996-05-21 Zing Systems, L.P. Interactive television security through transaction time stamping
US5734413A (en) 1991-11-20 1998-03-31 Thomson Multimedia S.A. Transaction based interactive television system
US5353793A (en) 1991-11-25 1994-10-11 Oishi-Kogyo Company Sensor apparatus
JPH05168013A (en) 1991-12-16 1993-07-02 Matsushita Electric Ind Co Ltd System for medical treatment at home
US5467269A (en) 1991-12-20 1995-11-14 J. B. Laughrey, Inc. Method and means for telephonically crediting customers with rebates and refunds
US5903454A (en) 1991-12-23 1999-05-11 Hoffberg; Linda Irene Human-factored interface corporating adaptive pattern recognition based controller apparatus
US5289824A (en) 1991-12-26 1994-03-01 Instromedix, Inc. Wrist-worn ECG monitor
US5502726A (en) 1992-01-31 1996-03-26 Nellcor Incorporated Serial layered medical network
US5502636A (en) 1992-01-31 1996-03-26 R.R. Donnelley & Sons Company Personalized coupon generating and processing system
JPH08275927A (en) 1992-02-13 1996-10-22 Nasa Corp:Kk Homestay medical care system and medical device used in this system
JP3144030B2 (en) 1992-02-24 2001-03-07 東陶機器株式会社 Health management network system
US5431691A (en) 1992-03-02 1995-07-11 Siemens Pacesetter, Inc. Method and system for recording and displaying a sequential series of pacing events
US5309919A (en) 1992-03-02 1994-05-10 Siemens Pacesetter, Inc. Method and system for recording, reporting, and displaying the distribution of pacing events over time and for using same to optimize programming
US5732696A (en) 1992-03-17 1998-03-31 New York University Polysomnograph scoring
US5441047A (en) 1992-03-25 1995-08-15 David; Daniel Ambulatory patient health monitoring techniques utilizing interactive visual communication
US5544649A (en) 1992-03-25 1996-08-13 Cardiomedix, Inc. Ambulatory patient health monitoring techniques utilizing interactive visual communication
US5692906A (en) 1992-04-01 1997-12-02 Corder; Paul R. Method of diagnosing and remediating a deficiency in communications skills
CA2088080C (en) 1992-04-02 1997-10-07 Enrico Luigi Bocchieri Automatic speech recognizer
WO1993020207A1 (en) 1992-04-02 1993-10-14 The United States Of America, As Represented By The Secretary Of Health And Human Services Use of restriction endonucleases against viruses, including hiv
US5249044A (en) 1992-05-05 1993-09-28 Kohorn H Von Product information storage, display, and coupon dispensing system
US5219322A (en) 1992-06-01 1993-06-15 Weathers Lawrence R Psychotherapy apparatus and method for treating undesirable emotional arousal of a patient
US5299121A (en) 1992-06-04 1994-03-29 Medscreen, Inc. Non-prescription drug medication screening system
US5390238A (en) 1992-06-15 1995-02-14 Motorola, Inc. Health support system
CA2121245A1 (en) 1992-06-22 1994-01-06 Gary Thomas Mcilroy Health care management system
US5231990A (en) 1992-07-09 1993-08-03 Spacelabs, Medical, Inc. Application specific integrated circuit for physiological monitoring
US5344324A (en) 1992-07-15 1994-09-06 Nova Scientific Corporation Apparatus and method for testing human performance
JPH0635505A (en) 1992-07-16 1994-02-10 Osayasu Sato Automatic controller
US5331549A (en) 1992-07-30 1994-07-19 Crawford Jr John M Medical monitor system
US5383858B1 (en) 1992-08-17 1996-10-29 Medrad Inc Front-loading medical injector and syringe for use therewith
US6168563B1 (en) 1992-11-17 2001-01-02 Health Hero Network, Inc. Remote health monitoring and maintenance system
US5899855A (en) 1992-11-17 1999-05-04 Health Hero Network, Inc. Modular microprocessor-based health monitoring system
US5307263A (en) 1992-11-17 1994-04-26 Raya Systems, Inc. Modular microprocessor-based health monitoring system
US5960403A (en) 1992-11-17 1999-09-28 Health Hero Network Health management process control system
US20010011224A1 (en) 1995-06-07 2001-08-02 Stephen James Brown Modular microprocessor-based health monitoring system
US5371687A (en) 1992-11-20 1994-12-06 Boehringer Mannheim Corporation Glucose test data acquisition and management system
US5438607A (en) 1992-11-25 1995-08-01 U.S. Monitors, Ltd. Programmable monitoring system and method
US5590648A (en) 1992-11-30 1997-01-07 Tremont Medical Personal health care system
US5640953A (en) 1995-03-09 1997-06-24 Siemens Medical Systems, Inc. Portable patient monitor reconfiguration system
DE69328011D1 (en) 1992-12-11 2000-04-13 Siemens Medical Systems Inc Portable modular patient monitoring device with data acquisition module
US5375604A (en) 1992-12-11 1994-12-27 Siemens Medical Electronics, Inc. Transportable modular patient monitor
EP0602459B1 (en) 1992-12-16 1999-11-03 Siemens Medical Systems, Inc. System for monitoring patient location and data
JPH06231186A (en) 1993-02-03 1994-08-19 Fujitsu Ltd Document processor
US5377100A (en) 1993-03-08 1994-12-27 The United States Of America As Represented By The Administrator Of The National Aeronautics And Space Administration Method of encouraging attention by correlating video game difficulty with attention level
US5576952A (en) 1993-03-09 1996-11-19 Metriplex, Inc. Medical alert distribution system with selective filtering of medical information
US5357427A (en) 1993-03-15 1994-10-18 Digital Equipment Corporation Remote monitoring of high-risk patients using artificial intelligence
US5799318A (en) 1993-04-13 1998-08-25 Firstfloor Software Method and apparatus for collecting and displaying information from diverse computer resources
US5558638A (en) 1993-04-30 1996-09-24 Healthdyne, Inc. Patient monitor and support system
WO1994025927A3 (en) 1993-04-30 1995-01-12 Arnold J Goldman Personalized method and system for storage, communication, analysis and processing of health-related data
US5882338A (en) 1993-05-04 1999-03-16 Zeneca Limited Syringes and syringe pumps
US5594637A (en) 1993-05-26 1997-01-14 Base Ten Systems, Inc. System and method for assessing medical risk
US5501231A (en) 1993-06-02 1996-03-26 Kaish; Norman Patient operated system for testing and recording a biological condition of the patient
US5429140A (en) 1993-06-04 1995-07-04 Greenleaf Medical Systems, Inc. Integrated virtual reality rehabilitation system
US5793969A (en) 1993-07-09 1998-08-11 Neopath, Inc. Network review and analysis of computer encoded slides
US5410474A (en) 1993-07-27 1995-04-25 Miles Inc. Buttonless memory system for an electronic measurement device
US5368562A (en) 1993-07-30 1994-11-29 Pharmacia Deltec, Inc. Systems and methods for operating ambulatory medical devices such as drug delivery devices
US5483276A (en) 1993-08-02 1996-01-09 The Arbitron Company Compliance incentives for audience monitoring/recording devices
US5572646A (en) 1993-08-25 1996-11-05 Casio Computer Co., Ltd. Apparatus for displaying images of living things to show growing and/or moving of the living things
US5377258A (en) 1993-08-30 1994-12-27 National Medical Research Council Method and apparatus for an automated and interactive behavioral guidance system
US5456692A (en) 1993-09-03 1995-10-10 Pacesetter, Inc. System and method for noninvasively altering the function of an implanted pacemaker
US5438983A (en) 1993-09-13 1995-08-08 Hewlett-Packard Company Patient alarm detection using trend vector analysis
US5659691A (en) 1993-09-23 1997-08-19 Virtual Universe Corporation Virtual reality network with selective distribution and updating of data to reduce bandwidth requirements
US5517405A (en) 1993-10-14 1996-05-14 Aetna Life And Casualty Company Expert system for providing interactive assistance in solving problems such as health care management
US5399821A (en) 1993-10-20 1995-03-21 Teikoku Tsushin Kogyo Co., Ltd. Keytop for push-button switches, and method of manufacturing same
US5454722A (en) 1993-11-12 1995-10-03 Project Orbis International, Inc. Interactive multimedia eye surgery training apparatus and method
DE4339188A1 (en) 1993-11-16 1995-05-18 Mueller & Sebastiani Elek Gmbh A portable device for detecting body-specific measurement data
WO1995016970A1 (en) 1993-12-14 1995-06-22 Mochida Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. Medical measuring apparatus
US5724968A (en) 1993-12-29 1998-03-10 First Opinion Corporation Computerized medical diagnostic system including meta function
US6022315A (en) 1993-12-29 2000-02-08 First Opinion Corporation Computerized medical diagnostic and treatment advice system including network access
US5454721A (en) 1993-12-30 1995-10-03 Kuch; Nina J. Application of multi-media technology to nutrition education and diet planning
US5471382A (en) 1994-01-10 1995-11-28 Informed Access Systems, Inc. Medical network management system and process
US5714319A (en) 1994-02-28 1998-02-03 Institut National De La Sante Et De La Recherche Medicale Method for the screening of familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM)
US5536249A (en) 1994-03-09 1996-07-16 Visionary Medical Products, Inc. Pen-type injector with a microprocessor and blood characteristic monitor
US5449334A (en) 1994-03-22 1995-09-12 Kingsbury; Doug Rotatable exercise apparatus
US5488412A (en) 1994-03-31 1996-01-30 At&T Corp. Customer premises equipment receives high-speed downstream data over a cable television system and transmits lower speed upstream signaling on a separate channel
US5940801A (en) 1994-04-26 1999-08-17 Health Hero Network, Inc. Modular microprocessor-based diagnostic measurement apparatus and method for psychological conditions
US6334778B1 (en) 1994-04-26 2002-01-01 Health Hero Network, Inc. Remote psychological diagnosis and monitoring system
EP0760138A4 (en) 1994-04-26 1998-04-01 Raya Systems Inc Modular microprocessor-based diagnostic measurement system for psychological conditions
US5574828A (en) 1994-04-28 1996-11-12 Tmrc Expert system for generating guideline-based information tools
US5550575A (en) 1994-05-04 1996-08-27 West; Brett Viewer discretion television program control system
US5918603A (en) 1994-05-23 1999-07-06 Health Hero Network, Inc. Method for treating medical conditions using a microprocessor-based video game
US6186145B1 (en) 1994-05-23 2001-02-13 Health Hero Network, Inc. Method for diagnosis and treatment of psychological and emotional conditions using a microprocessor-based virtual reality simulator
US5678571A (en) 1994-05-23 1997-10-21 Raya Systems, Inc. Method for treating medical conditions using a microprocessor-based video game
US5704366A (en) 1994-05-23 1998-01-06 Enact Health Management Systems System for monitoring and reporting medical measurements
US5913310A (en) 1994-05-23 1999-06-22 Health Hero Network, Inc. Method for diagnosis and treatment of psychological and emotional disorders using a microprocessor-based video game
US5794251A (en) 1994-06-06 1998-08-11 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Information file processing apparatus and method
US5518001A (en) 1994-06-17 1996-05-21 Pacesetter, Inc. Cardiac device with patient-triggered storage of physiological sensor data
US5471039A (en) 1994-06-22 1995-11-28 Panda Eng. Inc. Electronic validation machine for documents
US5624265A (en) 1994-07-01 1997-04-29 Tv Interactive Data Corporation Printed publication remote contol for accessing interactive media
JPH0877155A (en) 1994-07-07 1996-03-22 Sanyo Electric Co Ltd Information processor and information processing method
US5720733A (en) 1994-07-22 1998-02-24 Raya Systems, Inc. Apparatus for determining and recording injection doses in syringes using electrical capacitance measurements
US6068615A (en) 1994-07-22 2000-05-30 Health Hero Network, Inc. Inductance-based dose measurement in syringes
US5782814A (en) 1994-07-22 1998-07-21 Raya Systems, Inc. Apparatus for determining and recording injection doses in syringes using electrical inductance
US5569212A (en) 1994-07-22 1996-10-29 Raya Systems, Inc. Apparatus for electrically determining injection doses in syringes
US6110148A (en) 1994-07-22 2000-08-29 Health Hero Network, Inc. Capacitance-based dose measurements in syringes
US5792117A (en) 1994-07-22 1998-08-11 Raya Systems, Inc. Apparatus for optically determining and electronically recording injection doses in syringes
US5629981A (en) 1994-07-29 1997-05-13 Texas Instruments Incorporated Information management and security system
US5875432A (en) 1994-08-05 1999-02-23 Sehr; Richard Peter Computerized voting information system having predefined content and voting templates
JPH0883271A (en) 1994-09-09 1996-03-26 Fuji Xerox Co Ltd Document processing apparatus
US5593349A (en) 1994-09-09 1997-01-14 Valley Recreation Products Inc. Automated league and tournament system for electronic games
US5633910A (en) 1994-09-13 1997-05-27 Cohen; Kopel H. Outpatient monitoring system
WO1996008779A1 (en) 1994-09-14 1996-03-21 Dolphin Software Pty. Ltd. A method and apparatus for preparation of a database document in a local processing apparatus and loading of the database document with data from remote sources
US5687734A (en) 1994-10-20 1997-11-18 Hewlett-Packard Company Flexible patient monitoring system featuring a multiport transmitter
US5628004A (en) 1994-11-04 1997-05-06 Optima Direct, Inc. System for managing database of communication of recipients
US5601435A (en) 1994-11-04 1997-02-11 Intercare Method and apparatus for interactively monitoring a physiological condition and for interactively providing health related information
US5827180A (en) 1994-11-07 1998-10-27 Lifemasters Supported Selfcare Method and apparatus for a personal health network
JP2840923B2 (en) 1994-11-11 1998-12-24 富士通株式会社 Production system
US5488423A (en) 1994-11-17 1996-01-30 U.S. Narrow Networks, Inc. Home communication method and apparatus
US5546943A (en) 1994-12-09 1996-08-20 Gould; Duncan K. Stimulating a beneficial human response by using visualization of medical scan data to achieve psychoneuroimmunological virtual reality
US5717913A (en) 1995-01-03 1998-02-10 University Of Central Florida Method for detecting and extracting text data using database schemas
US5553609A (en) 1995-02-09 1996-09-10 Visiting Nurse Service, Inc. Intelligent remote visual monitoring system for home health care service
US5778882A (en) 1995-02-24 1998-07-14 Brigham And Women's Hospital Health monitoring system
US5619991A (en) 1995-04-26 1997-04-15 Lucent Technologies Inc. Delivery of medical services using electronic data communications
US5689652A (en) 1995-04-27 1997-11-18 Optimark Technologies, Inc. Crossing network utilizing optimal mutual satisfaction density profile
US5640569A (en) 1995-04-28 1997-06-17 Sun Microsystems, Inc. Diverse goods arbitration system and method for allocating resources in a distributed computer system
US5727153A (en) 1995-06-06 1998-03-10 Powell; Ken R. Retail store having a system of receiving electronic coupon information from a portable card and sending the received coupon information to other portable cards
US5710918A (en) 1995-06-07 1998-01-20 International Business Machines Corporation Method for distributed task fulfillment of web browser requests
US5666487A (en) 1995-06-28 1997-09-09 Bell Atlantic Network Services, Inc. Network providing signals of different formats to a user by multplexing compressed broadband data with data of a different format into MPEG encoded data stream
US5651775A (en) 1995-07-12 1997-07-29 Walker; Richard Bradley Medication delivery and monitoring system and methods
US5715451A (en) 1995-07-20 1998-02-03 Spacelabs Medical, Inc. Method and system for constructing formulae for processing medical data
US6001065A (en) 1995-08-02 1999-12-14 Ibva Technologies, Inc. Method and apparatus for measuring and analyzing physiological signals for active or passive control of physical and virtual spaces and the contents therein
JPH0947436A (en) 1995-08-09 1997-02-18 Koji Akai Home medical system
US5752234A (en) 1995-08-18 1998-05-12 Patient Solutions Method and apparatus for managing disposable medical supplies appropriate for a single patient visit
US5893077A (en) 1995-08-23 1999-04-06 Microsoft Corporation Method and apparatus for generating and collecting a billing event object within an on-line network
US5704902A (en) 1995-09-19 1998-01-06 Headwaters Research & Development Inc Handholdable massager having combination massaging and dual function two speed actuator pad
US6177940B1 (en) 1995-09-20 2001-01-23 Cedaron Medical, Inc. Outcomes profile management system for evaluating treatment effectiveness
US5961446A (en) 1995-10-06 1999-10-05 Tevital Incorporated Patient terminal for home health care system
US5717739A (en) 1995-10-13 1998-02-10 Dyer; Dwayne Methods and apparatus for enabling an operator to provide pre-recorded information to a customer
US6436036B1 (en) 1995-11-01 2002-08-20 Weight Watchers (Uk) Limited Process for controlling body weight
US5679075A (en) 1995-11-06 1997-10-21 Beanstalk Entertainment Enterprises Interactive multi-media game system and method
US5704364A (en) 1995-11-08 1998-01-06 Instromedix, Inc. Concurrent medical patient data and voice communication method and apparatus
US5678562A (en) 1995-11-09 1997-10-21 Burdick, Inc. Ambulatory physiological monitor with removable disk cartridge and wireless modem
JP3493847B2 (en) 1995-11-15 2004-02-03 株式会社日立製作所 Wide-area medical information system
US5730654A (en) 1995-12-18 1998-03-24 Raya Systems, Inc. Multi-player video game for health education
US5675635A (en) 1996-01-24 1997-10-07 Sprint Communications Company L.P. System and method for conducting poll at a processor associated with the originating switch
US5628309A (en) 1996-01-25 1997-05-13 Raya Systems, Inc. Meter for electrically measuring and recording injection syringe doses
US5704922A (en) 1996-01-25 1998-01-06 Raya Systems, Inc. Syringe having electrical contact points for metering doses
US5642936A (en) 1996-01-29 1997-07-01 Oncormed Methods for identifying human hereditary disease patterns
US6678669B2 (en) * 1996-02-09 2004-01-13 Adeza Biomedical Corporation Method for selecting medical and biochemical diagnostic tests using neural network-related applications
FI118509B (en) 1996-02-12 2007-12-14 Nokia Oyj A method and apparatus for predicting a patient's blood glucose concentration
US5651363A (en) 1996-02-16 1997-07-29 Orthologic Corporation Ultrasonic bone assessment method and apparatus
US6023686A (en) 1996-02-20 2000-02-08 Health Hero Network Method for conducting an on-line bidding session with bid pooling
US6240393B1 (en) 1998-06-05 2001-05-29 Health Pro Network, Inc. Aggregating and pooling weight loss information in a communication system with feedback
US6167386A (en) 1998-06-05 2000-12-26 Health Hero Network, Inc. Method for conducting an on-line bidding session with bid pooling
US5794219A (en) 1996-02-20 1998-08-11 Health Hero Network, Inc. Method of conducting an on-line auction with bid pooling
US5715823A (en) 1996-02-27 1998-02-10 Atlantis Diagnostics International, L.L.C. Ultrasonic diagnostic imaging system with universal access to diagnostic information and images
US5670711A (en) 1996-03-08 1997-09-23 Regents Of The University Of Minnesota Portable rock strength evaluation device
US6055314A (en) 1996-03-22 2000-04-25 Microsoft Corporation System and method for secure purchase and delivery of video content programs
US5835896A (en) 1996-03-29 1998-11-10 Onsale, Inc. Method and system for processing and transmitting electronic auction information
US5680866A (en) 1996-03-29 1997-10-28 Battelle Memorial Institute Artificial neural network cardiopulmonary modeling and diagnosis
US5801755A (en) 1996-04-09 1998-09-01 Echerer; Scott J. Interactive communciation system for medical treatment of remotely located patients
US5842976A (en) 1996-05-16 1998-12-01 Pyxis Corporation Dispensing, storage, control and inventory system with medication and treatment chart record
US6108635A (en) * 1996-05-22 2000-08-22 Interleukin Genetics, Inc. Integrated disease information system
US6050940A (en) 1996-06-17 2000-04-18 Cybernet Systems Corporation General-purpose medical instrumentation
US5879163A (en) 1996-06-24 1999-03-09 Health Hero Network, Inc. On-line health education and feedback system using motivational driver profile coding and automated content fulfillment
US5825283A (en) 1996-07-03 1998-10-20 Camhi; Elie System for the security and auditing of persons and property
US5935060A (en) 1996-07-12 1999-08-10 First Opinion Corporation Computerized medical diagnostic and treatment advice system including list based processing
US5760771A (en) 1996-07-17 1998-06-02 At & T Corp System and method for providing structured tours of hypertext files
US5687717A (en) 1996-08-06 1997-11-18 Tremont Medical, Inc. Patient monitoring system with chassis mounted or remotely operable modules and portable computer
US5819735A (en) 1996-08-15 1998-10-13 Mansfield; Elizabeth A. Device and method for monitoring dietary intake of calories and nutrients
US5810747A (en) 1996-08-21 1998-09-22 Interactive Remote Site Technology, Inc. Remote site medical intervention system
US5772585A (en) 1996-08-30 1998-06-30 Emc, Inc System and method for managing patient medical records
US5791342A (en) 1996-09-03 1998-08-11 Telediagnostics Systems, Inc. Medical data transmission system
US6189029B1 (en) 1996-09-20 2001-02-13 Silicon Graphics, Inc. Web survey tool builder and result compiler
US5800458A (en) 1996-09-30 1998-09-01 Rehabilicare, Inc. Compliance monitor for monitoring applied electrical stimulation
US5832448A (en) 1996-10-16 1998-11-03 Health Hero Network Multiple patient monitoring system for proactive health management
US5796393A (en) 1996-11-08 1998-08-18 Compuserve Incorporated System for intergrating an on-line service community with a foreign service
US5983003A (en) 1996-11-15 1999-11-09 International Business Machines Corp. Interactive station indicator and user qualifier for virtual worlds
US5950630A (en) * 1996-12-12 1999-09-14 Portwood; Michael T. System and method for improving compliance of a medical regimen
US6151586A (en) 1996-12-23 2000-11-21 Health Hero Network, Inc. Computerized reward system for encouraging participation in a health management program
US5933136A (en) 1996-12-23 1999-08-03 Health Hero Network, Inc. Network media access control system for encouraging patient compliance with a treatment plan
US5956501A (en) 1997-01-10 1999-09-21 Health Hero Network, Inc. Disease simulation system and method
US5887133A (en) 1997-01-15 1999-03-23 Health Hero Network System and method for modifying documents sent over a communications network
US6032119A (en) 1997-01-16 2000-02-29 Health Hero Network, Inc. Personalized display of health information
DE19707026B4 (en) 1997-02-21 2004-10-28 Siemens Ag Medical therapy and / or diagnosis system
US5951300A (en) 1997-03-10 1999-09-14 Health Hero Network Online system and method for providing composite entertainment and health information
JP3044116U (en) 1997-03-18 1997-12-16 株式会社ウイズ Virtual creature of the training simulation equipment
US5983217A (en) 1997-03-21 1999-11-09 At&T Corp Apparatus and method for querying replicated databases
US6101478A (en) 1997-04-30 2000-08-08 Health Hero Network Multi-user remote health monitoring system
US5897493A (en) 1997-03-28 1999-04-27 Health Hero Network, Inc. Monitoring system for remotely querying individuals
US6248065B1 (en) 1997-04-30 2001-06-19 Health Hero Network, Inc. Monitoring system for remotely querying individuals
US6270455B1 (en) 1997-03-28 2001-08-07 Health Hero Network, Inc. Networked system for interactive communications and remote monitoring of drug delivery
US5997476A (en) 1997-03-28 1999-12-07 Health Hero Network, Inc. Networked system for interactive communication and remote monitoring of individuals
US6055506A (en) 1997-04-25 2000-04-25 Unitron Medical Communications, Inc. Outpatient care data system
JP3012560B2 (en) 1997-06-25 2000-02-21 日本電気ソフトウェア株式会社 Computer readable recording medium recording the electronic interaction program between electronic interactive method, and a computer between electronic interactive device and computer between computers
US5945651A (en) 1997-07-17 1999-08-31 Chorosinski; Leonard Remotely programmable medication dispensing system
US6370513B1 (en) 1997-08-08 2002-04-09 Parasoft Corporation Method and apparatus for automated selection, organization, and recommendation of items
US6029138A (en) 1997-08-15 2000-02-22 Brigham And Women's Hospital Computer system for decision support in the selection of diagnostic and therapeutic tests and interventions for patients
US5954641A (en) 1997-09-08 1999-09-21 Informedix, Inc. Method, apparatus and operating system for managing the administration of medication and medical treatment regimens
US5971855A (en) 1997-09-30 1999-10-26 Tiger Electronics, Ltd. Apparatus and method of communicating between electronic games
KR100269258B1 (en) 1997-10-21 2000-10-16 정선종 Integrated case information repository for process meta-model methodologies and systems that support integrated way
US5868683A (en) 1997-10-24 1999-02-09 Scientific Learning Corporation Techniques for predicting reading deficit based on acoustical measurements
US5987471A (en) 1997-11-13 1999-11-16 Novell, Inc. Sub-foldering system in a directory-service-based launcher
US6049794A (en) 1997-12-09 2000-04-11 Jacobs; Charles M. System for screening of medical decision making incorporating a knowledge base
US6210272B1 (en) 1997-12-22 2001-04-03 Health Hero Network, Inc. Multi-player interactive electronic game for health education
JPH11296598A (en) 1998-04-07 1999-10-29 Seizaburo Arita System and method for predicting blood-sugar level and record medium where same method is recorded
US6057758A (en) 1998-05-20 2000-05-02 Hewlett-Packard Company Handheld clinical terminal
US6161095A (en) 1998-12-16 2000-12-12 Health Hero Network, Inc. Treatment regimen compliance and efficacy with feedback
US6513532B2 (en) 2000-01-19 2003-02-04 Healthetech, Inc. Diet and activity-monitoring device
USD439242S1 (en) 2000-03-24 2001-03-20 Health Hero Network, Inc. Information appliance
US20030068649A1 (en) * 2000-09-14 2003-04-10 Doberstein Stephen K. Methods and compositions for the construction and use of fusion libraries
US6766216B2 (en) 2001-08-27 2004-07-20 Flow International Corporation Method and system for automated software control of waterjet orientation parameters
JP5155024B2 (en) 2008-06-04 2013-02-27 モメンティブ・パフォーマンス・マテリアルズ・ジャパン合同会社 Room temperature curable silicone rubber composition

Patent Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5660176A (en) * 1993-12-29 1997-08-26 First Opinion Corporation Computerized medical diagnostic and treatment advice system
US6329139B1 (en) * 1995-04-25 2001-12-11 Discovery Partners International Automated sorting system for matrices with memory

Cited By (57)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20080228410A1 (en) * 2007-03-16 2008-09-18 Expanse Networks, Inc. Genetic attribute analysis
US20080228677A1 (en) * 2007-03-16 2008-09-18 Expanse Networks, Inc. Identifying Co-associating Bioattributes
US20080228704A1 (en) * 2007-03-16 2008-09-18 Expanse Networks, Inc. Expanding Bioattribute Profiles
US20080228730A1 (en) * 2007-03-16 2008-09-18 Expanse Networks, Inc. Compiling Co-associating Bioattributes Using Expanded Bioattribute Profiles
US20080228700A1 (en) * 2007-03-16 2008-09-18 Expanse Networks, Inc. Attribute Combination Discovery
US20080228702A1 (en) * 2007-03-16 2008-09-18 Expanse Networks, Inc. Predisposition Modification Using Attribute Combinations
US20080228751A1 (en) * 2007-03-16 2008-09-18 Expanse Networks, Inc. Attribute Combination Discovery
US20080228765A1 (en) * 2007-03-16 2008-09-18 Expanse Networks, Inc. Genetic Attribute Analysis
US20080228451A1 (en) * 2007-03-16 2008-09-18 Expanse Networks, Inc. Predisposition Prediction Using Co-associating Bioattributes
US20080228043A1 (en) * 2007-03-16 2008-09-18 Expanse Networks, Inc. Diagnosis Determination and Strength and Weakness Analysis
US20080228818A1 (en) * 2007-03-16 2008-09-18 Expanse Networks, Inc. Compiling Co-associating Bioattributes
US20080228722A1 (en) * 2007-03-16 2008-09-18 Expanse Networks, Inc. Attribute Prediction Using Attribute Combinations
US20080228756A1 (en) * 2007-03-16 2008-09-18 Expanse Networks, Inc. Compiling Co-associating Bioattributes
US20080228699A1 (en) * 2007-03-16 2008-09-18 Expanse Networks, Inc. Creation of Attribute Combination Databases
US20080228701A1 (en) * 2007-03-16 2008-09-18 Expanse Networks, Inc. Destiny Modification Using Attribute Combinations
US20080228708A1 (en) * 2007-03-16 2008-09-18 Expanse Networks, Inc. Goal Achievement and Outcome Prevention
US20080228703A1 (en) * 2007-03-16 2008-09-18 Expanse Networks, Inc. Expanding Attribute Profiles
US20080228753A1 (en) * 2007-03-16 2008-09-18 Expanse Networks, Inc. Determining Attribute Associations Using Expanded Attribute Profiles
US20080228820A1 (en) * 2007-03-16 2008-09-18 Expanse Networks, Inc. Efficiently Compiling Co-associating Bioattributes
US20080228824A1 (en) * 2007-03-16 2008-09-18 Expanse Networks, Inc. Treatment Determination and Impact Analysis
US20080228766A1 (en) * 2007-03-16 2008-09-18 Expanse Networks, Inc. Efficiently Compiling Co-associating Attributes
US20080228531A1 (en) * 2007-03-16 2008-09-18 Expanse Networks, Inc. Insurance Optimization and Longevity Analysis
US20080228757A1 (en) * 2007-03-16 2008-09-18 Expanse Networks, Inc. Identifying Co-associating Bioattributes
US20080228706A1 (en) * 2007-03-16 2008-09-18 Expanse Networks, Inc. Determining Bioattribute Associations Using Expanded Bioattribute Profiles
US20080228727A1 (en) * 2007-03-16 2008-09-18 Expanse Networks, Inc. Predisposition Modification
US20080228698A1 (en) * 2007-03-16 2008-09-18 Expanse Networks, Inc. Creation of Attribute Combination Databases
US20080227063A1 (en) * 2007-03-16 2008-09-18 Expanse Networks, Inc Career Selection and Psychological Profiling
US20080243843A1 (en) * 2007-03-16 2008-10-02 Expanse Networks, Inc. Predisposition Modification Using Co-associating Bioattributes
US8606761B2 (en) 2007-03-16 2013-12-10 Expanse Bioinformatics, Inc. Lifestyle optimization and behavior modification
US7797302B2 (en) 2007-03-16 2010-09-14 Expanse Networks, Inc. Compiling co-associating bioattributes
US7818310B2 (en) 2007-03-16 2010-10-19 Expanse Networks, Inc. Predisposition modification
US7844609B2 (en) 2007-03-16 2010-11-30 Expanse Networks, Inc. Attribute combination discovery
US7933912B2 (en) 2007-03-16 2011-04-26 Expanse Networks, Inc. Compiling co-associating bioattributes using expanded bioattribute profiles
US7941434B2 (en) 2007-03-16 2011-05-10 Expanse Networks, Inc. Efficiently compiling co-associating bioattributes
US7941329B2 (en) 2007-03-16 2011-05-10 Expanse Networks, Inc. Insurance optimization and longevity analysis
US9170992B2 (en) 2007-03-16 2015-10-27 Expanse Bioinformatics, Inc. Treatment determination and impact analysis
US8051033B2 (en) 2007-03-16 2011-11-01 Expanse Networks, Inc. Predisposition prediction using attribute combinations
US8055643B2 (en) 2007-03-16 2011-11-08 Expanse Networks, Inc. Predisposition modification
US8065324B2 (en) 2007-03-16 2011-11-22 Expanse Networks, Inc. Weight and diet attribute combination discovery
US8099424B2 (en) 2007-03-16 2012-01-17 Expanse Networks, Inc. Treatment determination and impact analysis
US8185461B2 (en) 2007-03-16 2012-05-22 Expanse Networks, Inc. Longevity analysis and modifiable attribute identification
US8209319B2 (en) 2007-03-16 2012-06-26 Expanse Networks, Inc. Compiling co-associating bioattributes
US8224835B2 (en) 2007-03-16 2012-07-17 Expanse Networks, Inc. Expanding attribute profiles
US8788283B2 (en) 2007-03-16 2014-07-22 Expanse Bioinformatics, Inc. Modifiable attribute identification
US8458121B2 (en) 2007-03-16 2013-06-04 Expanse Networks, Inc. Predisposition prediction using attribute combinations
US8655908B2 (en) 2007-03-16 2014-02-18 Expanse Bioinformatics, Inc. Predisposition modification
US8024348B2 (en) 2007-03-16 2011-09-20 Expanse Networks, Inc. Expanding attribute profiles
US8655899B2 (en) 2007-03-16 2014-02-18 Expanse Bioinformatics, Inc. Attribute method and system
US9582647B2 (en) 2007-03-16 2017-02-28 Expanse Bioinformatics, Inc. Attribute combination discovery for predisposition determination
US20090043752A1 (en) * 2007-08-08 2009-02-12 Expanse Networks, Inc. Predicting Side Effect Attributes
US8788286B2 (en) 2007-08-08 2014-07-22 Expanse Bioinformatics, Inc. Side effects prediction using co-associating bioattributes
US8655915B2 (en) 2008-12-30 2014-02-18 Expanse Bioinformatics, Inc. Pangenetic web item recommendation system
US9031870B2 (en) 2008-12-30 2015-05-12 Expanse Bioinformatics, Inc. Pangenetic web user behavior prediction system
US8996392B2 (en) 2011-03-31 2015-03-31 Healthspot, Inc. Medical kiosk and method of use
US9043217B2 (en) 2011-03-31 2015-05-26 HealthSpot Inc. Medical kiosk and method of use
CN102831097A (en) * 2011-05-27 2012-12-19 感芯科股份有限公司 Cloud server of compiling physiological state information and observation system thereof
USD694909S1 (en) 2011-10-12 2013-12-03 HealthSpot Inc. Medical kiosk

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
US8078407B1 (en) 2011-12-13 grant

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
Guttmacher et al. Genomic medicine—a primer
McLysaght et al. Extensive genomic duplication during early chordate evolution
Freimer et al. The human phenome project
Khan et al. Classification and diagnostic prediction of cancers using gene expression profiling and artificial neural networks
Perez-Iratxeta et al. Association of genes to genetically inherited diseases using data mining
US6775670B2 (en) Method and apparatus for the management of data files
Drǎghici et al. Global functional profiling of gene expression
US5970500A (en) Database and system for determining, storing and displaying gene locus information
US20030163351A1 (en) Public health surveillance system
Sabeti et al. Detecting recent positive selection in the human genome from haplotype structure
US20030113727A1 (en) Family history based genetic screening method and apparatus
Wheeler et al. Database resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information: 2002 update
Claustres et al. Time for a unified system of mutation description and reporting: a review of locus-specific mutation databases
DeLuca et al. Roundup: a multi-genome repository of orthologs and evolutionary distances
US20050044110A1 (en) System and method for internet-accessible tools and knowledge base for protocol design, metadata capture and laboratory experiment management
US7134995B2 (en) Animal genetic and health profile database management
Nelson et al. A combinatorial partitioning method to identify multilocus genotypic partitions that predict quantitative trait variation
Wingender et al. The TRANSFAC system on gene expression regulation
US20040030503A1 (en) Neural -network-based identification, and application, of genomic information practically relevant to diverse biological and sociological problems, including susceptibility to disease
Fickett The gene identification problem: an overview for developers
US7379885B1 (en) System and method for obtaining, processing and evaluating patient information for diagnosing disease and selecting treatment
Asher et al. First combined cladistic analysis of marsupial mammal interrelationships
Chan et al. Database-driven multi locus sequence typing (MLST) of bacterial pathogens
US20020128860A1 (en) Collecting and managing clinical information
US6742004B2 (en) Database and system for storing, comparing and displaying genomic information