US20060159720A1 - Bioresorbable sealants for porous vascular grafts - Google Patents

Bioresorbable sealants for porous vascular grafts Download PDF

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US20060159720A1
US20060159720A1 US11/366,700 US36670006A US2006159720A1 US 20060159720 A1 US20060159720 A1 US 20060159720A1 US 36670006 A US36670006 A US 36670006A US 2006159720 A1 US2006159720 A1 US 2006159720A1
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Prior art keywords
sealant
graft
device
hydrogel
locust bean
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US11/366,700
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David Lentz
Gary Loomis
Antonio Moroni
Jennifer DePreker
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Maquet Cardiovascular LLC
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Boston Scientific Wayne Corp
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Priority to US08/713,801 priority Critical patent/US5851229A/en
Priority to US10869298A priority
Application filed by Boston Scientific Wayne Corp filed Critical Boston Scientific Wayne Corp
Priority to US11/366,700 priority patent/US20060159720A1/en
Publication of US20060159720A1 publication Critical patent/US20060159720A1/en
Assigned to MEADOX TECHNOLOGY, INC. reassignment MEADOX TECHNOLOGY, INC. ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: MEADOX MEDICALS, INC.
Assigned to SCIMED LIFE SYSTEMS, INC. reassignment SCIMED LIFE SYSTEMS, INC. MERGER Assignors: MEADOX TECHNOLOGY, INC.
Assigned to BOSTON SCIENTIFIC SCIMED, INC. reassignment BOSTON SCIENTIFIC SCIMED, INC. CHANGE OF NAME Assignors: SCIMED LIFE SYSTEMS, INC.
Assigned to MAQUET CARDIOVASCULAR, LLC reassignment MAQUET CARDIOVASCULAR, LLC ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: BOSTON SCIENTIFIC LIMITED, BOSTON SCIENTIFIC SCIMED, CORVITA CORPORATION, GUIDANT CORPORATION, GUIDANT INVESTMENT CORPORATION
Application status is Abandoned legal-status Critical

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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61LMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR STERILISING MATERIALS OR OBJECTS IN GENERAL; DISINFECTION, STERILISATION, OR DEODORISATION OF AIR; CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES; MATERIALS FOR BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES
    • A61L27/00Materials for grafts or prostheses or for coating grafts or prostheses
    • A61L27/14Macromolecular materials
    • A61L27/26Mixtures of macromolecular compounds
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61LMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR STERILISING MATERIALS OR OBJECTS IN GENERAL; DISINFECTION, STERILISATION, OR DEODORISATION OF AIR; CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES; MATERIALS FOR BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES
    • A61L27/00Materials for grafts or prostheses or for coating grafts or prostheses
    • A61L27/14Macromolecular materials
    • A61L27/20Polysaccharides
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61LMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR STERILISING MATERIALS OR OBJECTS IN GENERAL; DISINFECTION, STERILISATION, OR DEODORISATION OF AIR; CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES; MATERIALS FOR BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES
    • A61L27/00Materials for grafts or prostheses or for coating grafts or prostheses
    • A61L27/28Materials for coating prostheses
    • A61L27/34Macromolecular materials
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61LMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR STERILISING MATERIALS OR OBJECTS IN GENERAL; DISINFECTION, STERILISATION, OR DEODORISATION OF AIR; CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES; MATERIALS FOR BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES
    • A61L27/00Materials for grafts or prostheses or for coating grafts or prostheses
    • A61L27/50Materials characterised by their function or physical properties, e.g. injectable or lubricating compositions, shape-memory materials, surface modified materials
    • A61L27/52Hydrogels or hydrocolloids
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61LMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR STERILISING MATERIALS OR OBJECTS IN GENERAL; DISINFECTION, STERILISATION, OR DEODORISATION OF AIR; CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES; MATERIALS FOR BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES
    • A61L33/00Antithrombogenic treatment of surgical articles, e.g. sutures, catheters, prostheses, or of articles for the manipulation or conditioning of blood; Materials for such treatment
    • A61L33/0005Use of materials characterised by their function or physical properties
    • A61L33/0064Hydrogels or hydrocolloids

Abstract

A bioresorbable sealant composition useful for impregnating implantable soft-tissue prostheses includes at least two polysaccharides in combination to form a hydrogel or sol-gel. The sealant compositions may optionally include a bioactive agent and/or be cross-linked subsequent to application of these compositions to the substrate surface.

Description

    CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • This application is a continuation of U.S. application Ser. No. 09/108,692, filed on Jul. 1, 1998, which is a divisional of U.S. Application No. 08/713,801, now U.S. Pat. No. 5,851,229, all of which are incorporated herein by reference.
  • FIELD OF INVENTION
  • The present invention generally relates to sealants for porous implantable devices. More particularly, the present invention is directed to porous implantable vascular grafts impregnated with hydrogel or sol-gel mixtures of polysaccharides that render such grafts blood-tight. Another aspect of the invention is directed toward providing timed-released delivery of therapeutic agents impregnated within the interstitial spaces of such grafts. Methods of providing these grafts are also provided.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • In general, it is important that implantable tubular devices designed to carry fluids be fluid-tight and nonthrombogenic while at the same time accommodating to tissue ingrowth. This is especially true for implantable vascular prostheses. In order to accommodate tissue ingrowth, such a prosthesis may be porous. Most textile porous endoprostheses and grafts, however, are not naturally blood-tight and, unless preclotted or coated with a biocompatible water-tight coating, substantial bleeding may occur through the walls of the graft. Accordingly, a balance must be struck between maintaining a blood-tight surface and promotion of tissue ingrowth into such vascular grafts. In particular, vascular grafts made of porous materials must be substantially blood-tight during the initial introduction of the vascular graft into the body of a patient in order to reduce blood loss to the patient. As the graft site heals, however, tissue ingrowth into the graft must be encouraged. Thus, it is desirable to have graft materials which are both blood-tight and yet encourage tissue ingrowth. Such characteristics, however, require the graft to have two different physical structures.
  • For example, vascular graft materials that promote tissue ingrowth and healing must be porous enough to allow cells and nutrients to migrate into the graft. Such cellular ingrowth is vital for the long term patency of the graft. Nylon, polyester, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polypropylene, polyurethane, polyacrylonitrile, etc. are known in the art as materials for making such vascular grafts. PTFE and polyester are widely used today because they are inert materials that have low thrombogenicity in the body. In particular, polyethyleneterephthalate is most commonly used in making textile vascular grafts and endoprostheses.
  • For the surgeon, the porosity of such graft materials is an essential factor to consider. In particular, the porosity of such materials contributes to the long-term patency and overall performance of a graft. In addition, ease of handling, anastomosis and flexibility usually increase as the porosity of a graft material increases. Also, the healing process, i.e., the ability of connective tissue cells to infiltrate the graft increases as the porosity of the graft material increases.
  • The ability of such porous graft materials to promote tissue ingrowth etc., however, comes at a price. Untreated, such a graft is not blood-tight. Thus, when the graft is implanted, bleeding through the pores in the surface of the graft is a significant problem. Alternative methods have been developed for reducing blood loss through leakage of the vascular graft. For example, less porous materials have been used as vascular grafts. Such materials, however, suffer from their inability to support endothelialization of the lumen and tissue ingrowth into the graft. Accordingly, such textile graft materials are not practical because their patency is short-lived.
  • Alternatively, porous vascular graft materials have been pretreated with blood prior to introduction of the graft into the body. Such a pretreatment introduces clotting factors throughout the graft that help to reduce bleeding during surgery by causing blood to become clotted before significant loss of blood to the patient occurs. Generally, these grafts are immersed in, or flushed with, fresh blood of the patient in order to preclot the surfaces of the graft. These methods are limited because they are time consuming, require blood transfusions from the patient, and increase the amount of blood loss from the patient. Thus, such methods are not available in emergency medical situations where the patient has lost a large amount of blood or where time is a critical factor. In addition, such methods cannot be used effectively with patients who are taking anticoagulants, such as heparin or warfarin.
  • A considerable amount of research has centered around developing materials that are initially blood-tight and then gradually become more porous in order to facilitate healing and tissue ingrowth into the implanted graft. Much of this research has focused on coating the surfaces of porous graft materials with extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in order to render such graft materials blood-tight, but which, over time biodegrade and promote tissue ingrowth into the graft. For example, collagen, albumin, gelatin, elastin, and fibrin have all been used as bioresorbable sealants for porous vascular grafts.
  • In addition, gels, hydrogels and sol-gels have also been described as biocompatible, biodegradable materials. A gel is a substance with properties intermediate between the liquid and solid states. Gels deform elastically and recover, yet will often flow at higher stresses. They have extended three-dimensional network structures and are highly porous. Accordingly, many gels contain a very high proportion of liquid to solid. The network structures can be permanent or temporary and are based on polymeric molecules, basically formed from a colloidal solution on standing. Thus, a hydrogel may be described as a gel, the liquid constituent of which is water. By way of contrast, a sol is a colloidal solution, i.e., a suspension of solid particles of colloidal dimensions in a liquid. See, Larouse Directory of Science and Technology 470, 543 (1995).
  • By way of example, U.S. Pat. No. 5,209,776 (′776 patent) issued to Bass et al. discloses a composition for bonding separated tissues together or for coating the surface of tissues or prosthetic materials in order to form a water-tight seal thereon. The composition of the ′776 patent includes a first protein component that is preferably a collagen and a second protein-supporting component that can be a proteoglycan, a saccharide or a polyalcohol. In this composition, the second component is adapted to support the first component by forming a matrix, sol or gel with the first component. Thus, the matrix, sol or gel formed is a hybrid composition that includes a protein component and a protein-supporting component that can be a protein, a saccharide or a polyalcohol. The protein component provides the sealing or bonding function, while the protein-supporting component forms a supporting matrix for the protein.
  • In another example, U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,135,755 and 5,336,501 both issued to Czech et al. disclose hydrogels that may be used as wound secretion absorbers or incorporated into wound dressings for absorbing wound secretions. The hydrogel composition of these inventions include 20-70% of at least one multivalent alcohol, for example glycerol, 10-35% of at least one natural biopolymer thickener agent, 0.05-10% of a cross-linking agent and 0-50% of water or physiological saline.
  • The gel or hydrogel described in these patents can be gelatin alone or gelatin in combination with a polysaccharide, particularly an alginate. Thus, the hydrogel of these patents is a protein hydrogel or a protein-polysaccharide hybrid hydrogel. In addition to gelatin, collagens and pectins are also preferred protein components in the hydrogel materials of these patents. These patents all require conventional protein materials to provide the sealing function and the hydrogels are used as carriers for the proteins.
  • Such hybrid coating compositions described in the Bass and Czech patents however, are not easily manufactured. For example, the protein components of the hybrid coating compositions can become denatured during the manufacturing, sterilizing or storing of the hydrogel coated material (wound dressing as in Czech or an implantable device as in Bass). Once denatured, these hybrid coating compositions can lose their ability to function. Another problem with such hybrid coating compositions is that the surface of the substrate material, e.g., wound dressing or implantable device, must be pretreated with, for example, plasma, in order to effectively bind such compositions to the surface of, for example, a vascular graft. In addition, such hybrid compositions are deposited as coatings on the surface of a substrate material. Such surface coatings are limited in that they are readily accessible to the body's degradative enzymes and thus are swiftly degraded.
  • In an attempt to alleviate the problems incident with such protein or protein hybrid coatings, U.S. Pat. No. 5,415,619 issued to Lee et al. (′619 patent) describes a method of rendering a porous vascular graft blood-tight by impregnating the surface thereof with a polysaccharide or polysaccharide derivative. Accordingly, the ′619 patent uses the word “impregnate” to mean physically adsorbing or chemically binding the polysaccharides to the surface of a graft. Although this method alleviates the problem of protein denaturation during the manufacturing, sterilizing and storing of, for example, a vascular graft, the surface of such a graft must be chemically or physically altered in order to bind the polysaccharide coating to the surface thereof. For example, the ′619 patent describes chemically oxidizing the surface of a porous vascular graft with a solution of sulfuric or perchloric acid prior to impregnating the surface of the graft with a polysaccharide solution. Alternatively, the '619 patent describes physically altering the surface of such a graft by pretreatment with plasma or corona discharge. In either case, the methods described in the '619 patent add additional unnecessary steps to such a process by chemically or physically pretreating the surface of such vascular grafts. [0015] Accordingly, it would be desirable to provide an improved bioresorbable sealant for porous implantable prostheses, such as vascular grafts, that renders the porous prosthesis blood-tight upon introduction into the body and that is bioresorbable over time such that tissue ingrowth is promoted. In particular, it would be desirable to provide an improved bioresorbable sealant for a porous vascular graft that renders such a graft blood-tight and that does not require physical or chemical modification of the surface of such a graft prior to incorporation of the sealant.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • In accordance with the present invention, an improved bioresorbable sealant composition for implantable prostheses is provided. In particular, the bioresorbable sealant composition includes the combination of at least two polysaccharides which form a hydrogel that imparts a substantially blood-tight barrier to the implantable prostheses. Preferably the prosthesis is a soft tissue prostheses used in the vascular system, such as a vascular graft or endoprosthesis. Other tubular prostheses or soft-tissue prostheses such as surgical mesh or hernia plugs are also contemplated.
  • The implantable prosthesis is preferably made from a synthetic textile material that is woven or knitted into a tubular prosthesis. Useful materials include for example, polyester, poly(tetrafluoroethylene), nylon, polypropylene, polyurethane and polyacrylonitrile, among others. In addition to knitted or woven textile fabrics, the prosthesis may be formed from extrusion and expansion techniques, such as with expanded poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (ePFTE). Composites of these materials, as well as others, are also contemplated.
  • In the present invention, useful polysaccharides include algin, carboxymethyl cellulose, carrageenan, including carrageenan type I, carrageenan type II, carrageenan type III, and carrageenan type IV, furcellaran, agarose, guar, locust bean gum, gum arabic, hydroxyethyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose, methyl cellulose, hydroxyalkylmethyl cellulose, pectin, partially de-acetylated chitosan, starch and starch derivatives including, amylose and amylopectin, xanthan, casein, polylysine, hyaluronic acid and its derivatives, heparin, their salts, and mixtures thereof.
  • As previously mentioned, the present invention requires the combination of at least two polysaccharides, or a polysaccharide and a protein to form a hydrogel. Numerous combinations of polysaccharides may be used in this invention, such as, for example: alginic acid/pectin, alginic acid/chitosan, carrageenan type I/ locust bean gum, carrageenan type I/pectin, carrageenan type II/locust bean gum, carrageenan type II/pectin, carrageenan type II/guar gum, carrageenan type IV/locust bean gum, locust bean gum/xanthan, guar gum/locust bean gum, guar gum/xanthan, and agar/guar gum. Preferred combinations of polysaccharides which form a hydrogel include carrageenan type II with Ca+2 ion and/or locust bean gum, or carrageenan type IV, Ca+2 with or without locust bean gum. Other preferred combinations include purified agarose/guar gum, as well as chitosan/guar gum. Because natural polysaccharides are constantly being isolated and characterized, and new polysaccharides may be produced by molecular biology techniques, other such polysaccharides are useful in the present invention.
  • The present invention also contemplates incorporating a therapeutic or bioactive agent into the hydrogel. In this way, the hydrogel controllably releases the therapeutic agent while the hydrogel is biodegraded or bioresorbed. One particularly useful class of therapeutic agents is the anticoagulants. As used herein, the anticoagulant agent may include any agent useful for such purposes, but among those currently known as being useful are heparin, sulfated polysaccharides, prostaglandin, urokinase, hirudin streptokinase, their pharmaceutical salts and mixtures thereof. Heparin is preferred because it is a polysaccharide and is easily incorporated into a hydrogel. Furthermore, combinations of heparin/chitosan are also known to form gels when combined as shown in Table 2.
  • In the present invention, the hydrogel formed from combinations of polysaccharides may be cross-linked in order to form a tighter barrier and seal around, e.g., throughout the interstitial spaces of, the porous device.
  • In another embodiment of the invention, a controlled release material is provided that includes a hydrogel matrix formed from at least two polysaccharides and an anticoagulant agent incorporated within the matrix thereof. This material is impregnated within the interstitial space between the inner and outer surfaces of a porous implantable device.
  • In yet another embodiment of the present invention, there is provided a sealant for an implantable porous luminal substrate. In this embodiment of the invention, a porous substrate having an inner and an outer surface with interstitial spaces defined therebetween is provided. The sealant of this embodiment includes a hydrogel that includes, in combination, at least two polysaccharides. This sealant fills the interstitial space of the porous substrate and imparts a substantially liquid-tight barrier between the inner and outer surfaces of the porous material. The sealant may also be a sol-gel which includes, in combination, at least two polysaccharides.
  • In another embodiment of the present invention, the prosthesis includes a tubular member that is impregnated with a hydrogel that is defined by a mixture of a seed gum polysaccharide and a sea weed extract polysaccharide dispersed in a glycerol-water solution. Alternatively, this prosthesis includes a tubular member that is impregnated with a hydrogel that is defined by a mixture of a linear polysaccharide component and a branched polysaccharide component dispersed in a glycerol-water solution.
  • A method for rendering an implantable porous tubular substrate fluid-tight is also provided. The method includes providing an implantable porous substrate having an inner and an outer surface with an interstitial space defined therebetween; providing a hydrogel or a sol-gel that includes at least two polysaccharides; and impregnating the porous substrate with the hydrogel or sol-gel to render the substrate fluid-tight.
  • In yet another embodiment of the present invention, there is provided a bioresorbable sealant composition for use in a soft-tissue prosthesis including, in combination, at least two polysaccharides which when mixed together in an aqueous medium form a hydrogel. This hydrogel forms a liquid-tight seal when applied to the prosthesis as a sealant. A controlled-release, bioresorbable sealant composition is also provided whereby in addition to the combination of at least two polysaccharides, there is also included a therapeutic or bioactive agent which is slowly released in the body subsequent to implantation as the sealant gradually bioerodes and tissue ingrowth increases.
  • Methods of preparing and using the aforementioned sealant compositions and prostheses containing same are also disclosed.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  • While this invention is satisfied by embodiments in many different forms, there will be described herein in detail preferred embodiments of the invention, with the understanding that the present disclosure is to be considered as exemplary of the principles of the invention and is not intended to limit the invention to the embodiments illustrated and described.
  • The present invention relates to sealant compositions and implantable soft tissue prostheses having such compositions impregnated therein. In particular, the invention relates to hydrogel or sol-gel sealant compositions which include the combination of at least two polysaccharides. The sealant compositions of the present invention form a substantially liquid-tight, i.e., blood-tight seal on porous substrate surfaces, and particularly the luminal surfaces of substrates such as on vascular grafts. These sealant compositions biodegrade over time in order to allow healing and endothelial cell ingrowth.
  • The implantable soft tissue prostheses of the present invention can be formed of any porous material, including any synthetic or natural polymer material, onto which a hydrogel or sol-gel can effectively adhere. Thus, such porous materials may include polyesters, expanded poly(tetrafluoroethylene), nylons, polypropylenes, polyurethanes, polyacrylonitriles, polyolefins, polycarbonates, highly cross-linked collagens, polylactides, polyglycosides and combinations thereof. Woven or knitted grafts made of such materials may also be used in this invention. In addition, velour or double velour grafts may also be used.
  • For purposes of this invention, “hydrogel” and “hydrogel matrix” both refer to a polymeric material that swells in water without dissolving and that retains a significant amount of water in its structure. Such a material has properties intermediate between the liquid and solid states. Hydrogels also deform elastically and recover, yet will often flow at higher stresses. Thus, for purposes of this invention hydrogels are water-swollen, three-dimensional networks of hydrophilic polymers.
  • By way of contrast, a sol-gel is a hydrogel in which part of the structure is, in some way water-soluble. Thus, in a sol-gel system, some portion of the material is water-extractable, although the rate of solubilization may be low. Accordingly, for purposes of this invention, “sealant” or “sealant matrix” both refer to either a hydrogel or a sol-gel composition as described herein.
  • These sealant matrices can be made more stable by cross-linking the component parts thereof. The sealant matrices of the present invention can be cross-linked in several ways. For example, formation of covalent bonds between one or more of the polysaccharides in the matrix can produce generally irreversible cross-linking. Alternatively, the sealant matrices of the invention can be cross-linked by the formation of ionic bonds in at least one of the polysaccharides. In another example, cross-links may be formed in the sealant matrices of the invention through weaker intermolecular interactions, such as, for example, hydrogen bonding and specific van der Waals interactions. In yet another example of cross-linking in the present invention, a semicrystalline hydrophilic polymer can form a hydrogel when the amorphous regions of such a polymer absorbs water and the water-insoluble crystalline regions (crystallites) act as physical crosslinks.
  • These sealant cross-linking mechanisms may be either intramolecular or intermolecular. Furthermore, such interactions may occur between two or more polysaccharides or one polysaccharide and one or more other hydrophilic polymers. It is difficult to predict whether a particular combination of polysaccharides when combined under various conditions will form a gel material which is stable under physiological conditions, is compatible with an appropriate plasticizer, and is suitable for rendering an implantable graft blood-tight. Thus, Table 1 below is exemplary of some the combinations of polysaccharides prepared according to the present invention. These exemplary polysaccharides were evaluated for their abilities to form stable gels in a physiological phosphate buffer at pH 7.2.
    TABLE 1
    POLYSACCHARIDE GELS
    IMPREGNATED
    COMBINATIONS GRAFT AND
    INSOLUBLE PREPARED WITH POROSITY
    POLYSACCHARIDE IN BUFFER GLYCEROL TESTED
    Low Viscosity Alginic Acid + Pectin No No
    Med Viscosity Alginic Acid + Pectin No
    High Viscosity Alginic Acid + Pectin Yes Yes
    Low Viscosity Alginic Acid + Chitosan Yes
    Med Viscosity Alginic Acid + Chitosan No
    Carrageenan Type I + Locust Yes Yes Yes
    Bean Gum
    Carrageenan Type I + Pectin Yes Yes
    Carrageenan Type II + Locust Yes Yes Yes
    Bean Gum
    Carrageenan Type II + Pectin Yes Yes
    100% Guar Gum No Yes
    100% Locust Bean Gum No Yes
    100% Purified Agar Yes Yes
    Guar Gum + Locust No Yes
    Bean Gum
    Guar Gum + Xantham Yes Yes
    Gum
    Xantham Gum + Locust Yes Yes
    Bean Gum
    Purified Agar + Guar Yes Yes Yes
    Gum
  • Accordingly, in the present invention, at least two polysaccharides must be used to define such sealant matrices. In particular, the following list of polysaccharides may be used herein: heparin, algin, carboxymethyl cellulose, carrageenan, including carrageenan type I, carrageenan type II, carrageenan type III, and carrageenan type IV; furcellaran, agarose, guar, locust bean gum, gum arabic, hydroxyethyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose, methyl cellulose, hydroxyalkylmethyl cellulose, pectin, chitosan; starch and starch derivatives including, amylose and amylopectin; xanthan, their salts, and mixtures thereof. Certain proteins and polyamino acids may also be useful. Such a list is illustrative and should not be construed to limit in any way the scope of the invention.
  • Plasticizers and softeners may also be used in the present sealant matrices. Examples of such reagents include glycerol, sorbitol and diols, such as, polypropylene glycol; partially esterfied citric acid, such as, mono-ethylcitrates; and lactic acid esters, such as ethyl lactate may also be used in the present sealant matrices. In the present invention, from about 0% to about 70% plasticizer may be used. It is critical, however, to monitor the concentration of plasticizer in a particular sealant. Too much plasticizer can cause a sealant-impregnated graft material to leak. Such plasticizers, used in the proper concentration as indicated above, are beneficial because they increase the softness and flexibility of the impregnated implantable material.
  • Table 2 below summarizes some of the relevant chemical properties and gel forming abilities of exemplary polysaccharides of the present invention.
    TABLE 2
    POLYSACCHARIDE PROPERTIES AND GEL FORMING ABILITIES
    GEL FORMING
    ABILITY WITH
    POLYSACCHARIDE PROPERTIES OTHER MATERIALS COMMENTS
    Agar Contains some SO3H Guar gum Forms strong, rigid
    low solubility below forms strong rigid gel, gels that melt at high
    100° C. resistant to pH changes temperatures
    Algin Polyelectrolyte, polyamino acids, such as, Elasticity of gels
    (salts of alginic acid) contains COO, poly(lysine), Ca+2 varies with alginate
    forms pseudo plastic structure
    solutions
    Amylose Forms dispersions in
    water that undergo
    retrogradation
    Carrageenan, kappa Polyanion, contains K+, proteins, such as, k- Forms firm, rigid gels
    SO3H, Na salt is casein, locust bean gum when cooled
    soluble in cold water,
    other in hot water.
    Carrageenan, iota Polyanion, contains K+, Mg+2, Ca+2, proteins, Forms elastic, stable,
    SO3H, similar to k-casein, locust bean gum syneresis free gels
    kappa carrageenan that are thermally
    but more soluble reversible
    Carrageenan, lambda Polyanion contains K+, proteins, milk Anticoagulant,
    SO3H, the most proteins, locust bean induces connective
    soluble, non gelling gum tissue growth
    Chitosan Contains-NH2 Hyaluronic acid, Stimulates
    Heparin, Chondroitin macrophage
    Sulfate, Cellulose growth, anti-
    Sulfate, and Sodium infective agent,
    Carboxymethyl immuno-enhancer,
    Cellulose hemostatic,
    accelerates wound
    healing
    Furcelleran Polyanion, contains Locust bean gum, K+, properties similar
    some SO3H, fewer Ca+2, milk proteins to carrageenan
    than the kappa
    carrageenans but
    more than Agar;
    forms flexible,
    opalescent gels.
    Guar Gum Nonionic, disperses Borates, Xanthan Gum, Viscosity increases
    ad swells in cold or Carrageenans, and after being heated;
    hot water forms Agar gels are weaker
    high viscosity, than locust bean
    cloudy pseudo gums
    plastic solutions
    Gum Arabic acidic Gelatin Has a protective
    polysaccharide, colloid action
    highly soluble,
    forms Newtonian
    solutions with low
    viscosity, even at
    low concentrations
    Hydroxyethyl Nonionic, both Sodium carboxymethyl Properties not
    Cellulose, form clear, smooth cellulose affected by pH,
    Hydroxypropyl solutions and Newtonian at low
    Cellulose impermeable films shear rates, pseudo
    plastic at high shear
    rates
    Locust Bean Gum Nonionic, partially kappa carrageenan, Viscosity increases
    soluble in cold Furcelleran, xanthan after heating above
    water, fully soluble 85° C.
    in hot water,
    delayed viscosity
    Pectin Soluble in hot Sugar, Ca+2, pH < 3 Forms pseudo
    water, gels upon plastic solutions
    cooling
    Sodium Polyanion, hydrates Casein, Soy Protein,
    Carboxymethyl rapidly to form Guar Gum, HPC and
    Cellulose clear solutions Chitosan
    Xanthan Gum Anionic, forms Locust Bean Gum Viscosity does not
    viscous, strongly (thermally reversible change
    pseudo plastic gel), Guar Gum significantly with
    solutions (weak), Methyl temperature or pH
    Cellulose
  • As previously stated, the present invention utilizes in combination at least two polysaccharides as component parts of the sealant matrix. Such paired combinations of polysaccharides include, but are not limited to the following combinations: alginic acid/pectin, alginic acid/chitosan, carrageenan type I/locust bean gum, carrageenan type I/pectin, carrageenan type II/locust bean gum, carrageenan type II/pectin, carrageenan type II/guar gum, carrageenan type IV/locust bean gum, locust bean gum/xanthan, guar gum/locust bean gum, guar gum/xanthan, alginic acid/poly lysine, agar/guar gum, proteins and polyamino acids.
  • It is known that ions, in particular, K+, Ca+2, and Mg+2 synergistically interact with certain polysaccharides to form gels. Accordingly, sealant impregnated grafts may be contacted with a solution of such ions in order to increase the strength of the gel. In the present invention, the sealant impregnated grafts may be, for example, dipped, steeped, sprayed or otherwise conventionally contacted with a solution of ions, such as for example, K+, Ca+2, and Mg+2 ions, although other ions may also be useful. Accordingly, the sealant matrices may include for example, carrageenan type II, Ca+2 ion and locust bean gum or carrageenan type IV, Ca+2 ion and locust bean gum.
  • In another embodiment of the present invention, an anticoagulant agent or other bioactive agents may be incorporated into the sealant. In this way, as the sealant's polysaccharide matrix biodegrades the bioactive agent, i.e. anticoagulant agent, may be controllably released over time. Thus, the anticoagulant agent augments the sealant's ability to prevent blood leakage through, for example, the walls of a porous vascular graft. In the present invention, the anticoagulant agent may be a prostaglandin, a urokinase, a streptokinase, a sulfated polysaccharide, an albumin, their pharmaceutical salts and mixtures thereof. Other suitable anticoagulant agents may also be used. Preferably, the anticoagulant agent is heparin or its pharmaceutical salt.
  • As the type and composition of the sealant matrix can vary, so too can the type and structure of the porous implantable material. For example, generally synthetic grafts fall into one of two categories: textile grafts or extrusion grafts. Textile grafts are manufactured out of extruded fibers, such as, for example, Dacron polyester. Such fibers are made into yarns and are then formed into tubular structures by knitting or weaving. Alternatively, extrusion grafts are non-textile grafts manufactured out of polymers, such as, for example, polytetrafluoroethylene, that are extruded and mechanically stretched to produce a microporous tube. In general, non-coated textile grafts have a higher water permeation rate than non-textile extruded grafts. Accordingly, how a graft is manufactured influences its porosity.
  • For purposes of this invention, “porous” or “porosity” refers to the relative amount of open or interstitial space in the wall of, for example, a vascular graft. The tightness of the weave or knit of a textile graft, or the degree of stretching of an extruded graft influences its porosity. Other factors influencing the porosity of a textile graft include the type of yarn used and knitting or weaving configuration used. For example, graft materials made of texturized fabrics that have additional yarns added thereto give the fabric a plied or napped texture and are called velour (single-sided) or double-velour (double-sided). Traditionally, such velour grafts were less likely to bleed after implantation because they had more surface area and were easier to preclot.
  • By way of contrast, grafts formed of expanded PTFE (ePTFE) have a fibrous structure which is defined by interspaced nodes interconnected by elongated fibrils. The spaces between the node surfaces that are spanned by the fibrils are defined as the internodal distance (IND). The porosity of an ePTFE vascular graft is controlled by varying the IND of the microporous structure of the graft. An increase in the IND within a given structure results in enhanced tissue ingrowth, as well as cell endothelialization, along the inner surface thereof. This tissue ingrowth and endothelialization promotes stability, enhances radial strength and increases the patency of the graft.
  • Accordingly, either textile or extruded materials may be used in connection with the sealants of the present invention. It is critical, however, that the walls of the intended graft material be sufficiently porous so that the polysaccharide hydrogel or sol-gel can impregnate the interstitial spaces thereof. For purposes of this invention, “impregnate” is intended to mean the partial or complete filling of the interstitial space, e.g., the pores or spaces between the inner and outer surface of, for example, a vascular graft, in order to render such a graft substantially blood-tight.
  • For purposes of this invention, the specific porosity of a material can be measured with a Wesolowski Porosity tester. With this apparatus, a graft is tied off at one end and the free end is attached to a valve on a porometer so that the graft hangs freely in a vertical position. Then, water is run through the graft for one minute and all the water that escapes from the graft is collected and measured. The specific porosity of the graft is then calculated according to the following formula: P = V A
    where V is the volume of water collected in ml/min and A is the surface area of the graft exposed to water in cm2. A specific porosity of ≦1.0 ml/min/cm2 is considered an acceptable amount of leakage for an implantable vascular graft. Accordingly, for purposes of this invention, a substantially blood-tight graft means a graft with a specific porosity, after impregnation with a sealant of the present invention, of ≦1.0 ml/min/cm2.
  • In yet another embodiment of the present invention, an anticoagulant agent or other bioactive agent dispersed within a controlled release material is impregnated within the interstitial space between the inner and outer surface of a porous implantable device. The controlled release material is a hydrogel matrix containing at least two polysaccharides as described hereinabove. Thus, as the hydrogel is biodegraded by natural enzymes present in the body, the anticoagulant agent is slowly released over time. Accordingly, in addition to imparting a substantially blood-tight seal to, for example, a vascular graft, the hydrogel matrix as it biodegrades, also provides a support structure from which the anticoagulant or bioactive agent is controllably released. In this way, the controlled release of the anticoagulant enhances the ability of this hydrogel composition to prevent blood loss to the patient by coagulating any blood that evades the physical barrier created by the hydrogel.
  • According to Kinam Park et al., Biodegradable Hydrogels For Drug Delivery (Technomic Publishing Co. 1993), drug release in a hydrogel system is influenced by various formulation variables and/or physiochemical properties of the components in the system. Thus, in addition to polymer degradation, release of the anticoagulant is affected by the physical parameters of the polymer, such as, water content, degree of crosslinking, crystallinity, and phase separation. In addition, the physiochemical properties of the anticoagulant, particularly its solubility in the polymer and aqueous medium and the amount of drug loaded into the hydrogel are also expected to have significant effects on the release characteristics of the drug-polymer composite. Accordingly, the release rate of the anticoagulant agent will vary according to the variables disclosed hereinabove. Providing the appropriate release rate, however, can be achieved by one skilled in the art by adjusting these parameters.
  • Any conventional method for filling or impregnating the interstitial spaces of the porous substrate can be used. For example, a sealant mixture of the present invention was placed in a glass container and a porous substrate, such as, for example, a porous vascular graft, was submerged in the sealant mixture. A vacuum was applied to the glass container until no bubbles remained on the surface of the graft or in the solution. The vacuum forced the sealant into the interstitial spaces of the graft. Then, the graft was removed from the sealant mixture, excess sealant removed or squeezed out and allowed to dry.
  • Alternatively, the graft may be filled with a sealant composition according to the present invention and pressurized to cause penetration of the composition into the pores of the graft wall. For example, one end of a porous substrate, such as, for example, a vascular graft, was tied off. The other end of the graft was connected to the nozzle portion of a 60 cc syringe. The syringe was filled with a composition of the present invention and the composition was pushed through the syringe with a plunger. In this way, the composition of the present invention impregnated, e.g., was forced into the interstitial spaces of the graft. Once the graft was filled with the composition, the syringe was withdrawn and excess sealant was removed from the graft. The graft was then allowed to dry. This injection procedure may be repeated any number of times as may be required to ensure effective impregnation of the substrate, for example, up to six times. Other means of using force to cause sealant penetration into the interstices of the graft wall are also contemplated.
  • As previously described, the sol-gel of the present invention is made from a partially water-extractable, e.g., water soluble, material. The solubility rate of the sol-gel material of the present invention is, however, very low. The sol-gel material of the present invention is formed from at least two polysaccharides as described herein above. Accordingly, such a sol-gel sealant is optimally suited for providing blood-tight barriers to porous graft materials because such a sealant provides an initial blood-tight surface that is slowly biodegraded and/or solubilized into biocompatible products to permit endothelial cell proliferation into the graft from the surrounding tissue.
  • Gums, for example, seed gums, are polymeric substances that, in an appropriate solvent or swelling agent, form highly viscous dispersions or gels at low, dry substance content. In particular, seed gum polysaccharides are water soluble polymers that produce viscous aqueous dispersions. The seed gum polysaccharide family of the present invention includes, for example, corn starch, guar gum and locust bean gum, although other gum materials are also useful. Similarly, the sea weed extract polysaccharides are also water-soluble polymers that produce viscous aqueous dispersions. Thus, all members of the sea weed extract polysaccharide family may be used in the present invention, including, for example, algin, carrageenan, including types I-IV, and agar.
  • In one embodiment of the present invention, the hydrogel includes a combination of a linear polysaccharide component and a branched polysaccharide component dispersed in a glycerol-water solution. The linear polysaccharides of the present invention are water-soluble polymers that produce viscous aqueous dispersions. Thus, all members of the linear polysaccharide family may be used in the present invention, including, for example, algin, starch amylose and its derivatives, carrageenan, including types I-IV, pectin, and cellulose derivatives. Similarly, the branched polysaccharides of the present invention are water-soluble polymers that produce viscous aqueous dispersions. Thus, all members of the branched polysaccharide family may be used in the present invention, including, for example, guar gum, xanthan, locust bean gum, starch, amylopectin and its derivatives, and gum arabic.
  • The following examples are provided to further illustrate methods of preparation of the sealant compositions and their application to porous implantable substrates.
  • EXAMPLE 1 CARRAGEENAN TYPE I/LOCUST BEAN GUM
  • Several preparations of the sealant compositions of the present invention were prepared in 600 ml beakers as described herein.
  • Sealant Composition A: A solution of carrageenan type I (SIGMA Chemical Co., St. Louis, Mo) was prepared by adding 4 gm of carrageenan type I to 300 ml of water under constant mixing with a Dyna-Mixer. The carrageenan type I used in this experiment is predominantly of the kappa variety and contains lesser amounts of the lambda variety. This carrageenan type I is of commercial grade and is derived from various seaweeds. When this solution was smooth and no lumps were visible, the mixing was stopped and 20 gm of glycerol was added thereto and then stirred by hand.
  • Sealant Composition B: A solution of locust bean gum was prepared by adding 3 grn locust bean gum to 300 ml water under constant mixing with a Dyna-Mixer. When this solution was smooth and no lumps were visible, the mixing was stopped and 20 gm of glycerol was added thereto and then stirred by hand.
  • Sealant Composition C: Equal amounts (1:1 mixture) of solutions A and B was prepared by hand mixing.
  • The ability of Solution C to make woven and knitted double velour grafts water-tight was then assessed under the following three conditions: (1) grafts were coated with a room temperature sealant and then dried at room temperature; (2) grafts were coated with a sealant at a temperature of 60° C. and then dried at room temperature; (3) grafts were coated with a room temperature sealant and then dried at 60° C. Each parameter was tested in triplicate. For purposes of this invention, “room temperature” means a temperature from about 22° C. to about 25° C.
  • To impregnate each graft with one of the sealant compositions, the following protocol was followed. Each graft was attached to a 60 cc syringe. A sealant composition was then added to the syringe and was then injected into the graft until the graft was full and under pressure. The graft was then emptied, the excess sealant removed by applying force thereto and allowed to dry. Grafts dried at room temperature were allowed to dry from about 2 to about 4 hours. Grafts dried at 60° C. were dried in an oven from about 30 minutes to about 1 hour. This procedure was repeated six times per graft. After the sixth treatment, the ability of each sealant composition to seal the graft was tested by measuring the water porosity, e.g., specific porosity, of the graft as described hereinabove. Table 3 summarizes the results for each of the grafts tested.
    TABLE 3
    CARRAGEENAN TYPE I/LOCUST BEAN
    GRAFT GRAFT
    GRAFT DIAMETER LENGTH WATER POROSITY**
    SAMPLE (cm) (cm) (ml) (ml/min/cm2)
    Uncoated Woven 0.8 25 3550 56.5
    Uncoated Knitted 0.8 25 3510 56.5
    Woven 1* 0.8 27 200 3.68
    Woven 2+ 0.8 27 750 13.80
    Knitted Double 0.8 21 2750 52.10
    Velour 1*
    Knitted Double 0.8 21 3200 60.60
    Velour 2+

    *Graft impregnated with 23° C. sealant and dried at room temperature.

    +Graft impregnated with 60° C. sealant and dried at room temperature.

    **Porosity measured in accordance with the Wesolowski test described herein.
  • As the data indicate, the sealant impregnated woven grafts were significantly more water-tight than the knitted double velour grafts. Both the woven and knitted grafts held more water when the sealant was injected at 60° C. It should be noted that all grafts were soft and flexible after the final coating and were manipulated easily without causing the sealant to crack. As the specific porosity of all of the grafts were ≧1 ml/min/cm2, none of these preparations are suitable for implanting into a host organism. Accordingly, a sealant composition of carrageenan type II and locust bean gum was tried.
  • EXAMPLE 2 CARRAGEENAN TYPE II/LOCUST BEAN GUM
  • In another experiment, the sealant properties of a carrageenan type II-locust bean gum hydrogel were assessed. The protocol for this experiment was the same as in Example 1 except that in Sealant Composition A, 4 gm of carrageenan type II (SIGMA Chemical Co., St. Louis, Mo) was used instead of carrageenan type I. The carrageenan type II used in this experiment is predominantly of the iota variety. In addition, Sealant Composition A alone was used to impregnate a woven graft. The results of the experiment are indicated below in Table 4.
    TABLE 4
    CARRAGEENAN TYPE II/LOCUST BEAN GUM
    GRAFT GRAFT
    GRAFT DIAMETER LENGTH WATER POROSITY**
    SAMPLE (cm) (cm) (ml) (ml/min/cm2)
    Uncoated Woven 0.8 25 3550 56.5
    Uncoated Knitted 0.8 25 3510 56.5
    Woven 1* 0.8 27 6 0.09
    Woven 2+ 0.8 27 8 0.12
    Woven 3# 0.8 27 1 0.01
    Knitted Double 0.8 24 2600 43.13
    Velour 1*
    Knitted Double 0.8 24 2650 43.96
    Velour 2+
    Knitted Double 0.8 21 1050 19.90
    Velour 3#
    Woven 0.8 27 2000 29.49
    (carrageenan
    type II alone)*
    Woven 0.8 28 300 4.27
    (carrageenan
    type II alone)#

    *Graft impregnated with 23° C. sealant and dried at room temperature.

    +Graft impregnated with 60° C. sealant and dried at room temperature.

    #Graft impregnated with 23° C. sealant and dried at 60° C.

    **Porosity measured in accordance with the Wesolowski test described herein.
  • As the data indicate, the sealant impregnated woven grafts were significantly more water-tight than the knitted double velour grafts. There is no difference in porosity between grafts dried at room temperature versus grafts dried at 60° C. Both the woven and knitted grafts held more water when the sealant was injected at 60° C. The woven grafts coated with carrageenan type II alone were significantly more porous than grafts coated with the carrageenan type II locust bean mixture. Drying the carrageenan type II coated graft at 60° C. significantly improved water tightness as demonstrated in the porosity tests. All grafts were soft and flexible after the final coating and were manipulated easily without causing the sealant to crack. As the data indicate, the carrageenan type II/locust bean gum sealant impregnated woven grafts were substantially water tight, e.g., gave specific porosity data of ≦1.0 ml/min/cm2. These data indicate that such a graft-sealant combination is viable for implanting into a host organism.
  • EXAMPLE 3 CARRAGEENAN TYPE IV/LOCUST BEAN GUM
  • In another experiment, the sealant properties of a carrageenan type IV/locust bean gum hydrogel were assessed. The protocol for this experiment was the same as in Example 1 except that in Sealant Composition A, 4 gm of carrageenan type IV (SIGMA Chemical Co., St. Louis, Mo) was used instead of carrageenan type I. The carrageenan type IV used in this experiment is predominantly of the lambda variety. The carrageenan type IV used in this experiment was derived from Gigartina aciculaire and G. pistillata. The results of this experiment are indicated below in Table 5.
    TABLE 5
    CARRAGEENAN TYPE IV/LOCUST BEAN GUM
    GRAFT GRAFT
    GRAFT DIAMETER LENGTH WATER POROSITY**
    SAMPLE (cm) (cm) (ml) (ml/min/cm2)
    Uncoated 0.8 25 3550 56.5
    Woven
    Uncoated 0.8 25 3510 56.5
    Knitted
    Woven 1* 0.8 27 5 0.07
    Woven 2+ 0.8 28 5 0.07
    Knitted Double 0.8 25 2050 32.60
    Velour 1*
    Knitted Double 0.8 26 1550 23.70
    Velour 2+

    *Graft impregnated with 23° C. sealant and dried at room temperature.

    +Graft impregnated with 60° C. sealant and dried at room temperature.

    **Porosity measured in accordance with Wesolowski test described herein.
  • As the data indicate, the sealant impregnated woven grafts were significantly more water-tight than the knitted double velour grafts. There was no difference in porosity between the woven grafts injected with 60° C. sealant compared to woven grafts injected with 23° C. sealant. The knitted grafts, however, held more water when the sealant was injected at 60° C. It should be noted that all grafts were soft and flexible after the final coating and were manipulated easily without causing the sealant to crack. As the data indicate, like the carrageenan type II/locust bean gum sealant, the carrageenan type IV/locust bean gum sealant was able to provide a substantially water-tight graft that can be implanted into a host organism.
  • As Examples 1-3 demonstrate, carrageenan types II and IV were more effective in sealing the grafts when used in combination with locust bean gum than carrageenan type I. The sealants were more effective when used with woven grafts than with knitted double velour grafts primarily due to the larger porosity inherent in knitted constructions. In grafts impregnated with carrageenan type II and locust bean gum, there was no difference between grafts that were dried at room temperature versus grafts dried at 60° C. Both the knitted and woven grafts injected with 60° C. sealant held more water in the porosity tests when compared to similar grafts injected with 23° C. sealant.
  • The woven grafts coated with carrageenan type II alone did not give comparable results to the woven grafts coated with the carrageenan type II and locust bean gum combination. The results in Table 4, however, demonstrate that the carrageenan type II impregnated grafts dried at 60° C. allowed more sealant to adhere to the graft and were less porous. Grafts coated with the carrageenan type IV/locust bean gum combination were comparable to the carrageenan type II/locust bean gum combination. The drying method did not change the observed porosity characteristics. Grafts coated with the carrageenan type I/locust bean gum combination, however, were the most porous of the sealant mixtures tested in Examples 1-3.
  • EXAMPLE4 AGAR/GUAR GUM
  • In an attempt to find an universally applicable sealant, e.g., a sealant that renders both woven and knitted textile grafts substantially blood-tight, it was decided to experiment with a mixture including a combination of agar/guar gum. In this example, the porosity of grafts impregnated with a hydrogel made from the combination of purified agar and guar gum was tested. Two knitted grafts and two double velour grafts were injected at 60° C. because it was found that the agar/guar gum sealant mixture formed a gel at 40° C. Each graft was injected six times as described in Example 1. One of each type of graft was dried between injections at room temperature from about 1 to about 2 hours (denoted trial 1) and the other grafts were dried in an oven at 60° C. from about 30 minutes to about 1 hour (denoted trial 2). Water porosity testing was performed on each graft as described in Example 1 above. The results of the porosity testing for the purified agar/guar gum sealant composition is presented hereinbelow as Table 6.
    TABLE 6
    AGAR/GUAR GUM
    TRIAL 1
    GRAFT GRAFT
    GRAFT DIAMETER LENGTH WATER POROSITY**
    SAMPLE (cm) (cm) (ml) (ml/min/cm2)
    Uncoated Knitted 0.8 25 3510 56.5
    Uncoated Woven 0.8 25 3550 56.50
    Woven 1 0.8 24 3 0.049
    Woven 2 0.8 24 3 0.049
    Knitted 1 0.8 20 35 0.696
    Knitted 2 0.8 19 165 3.45

    **Porosity measured in accordance with the Wesolowski test described herein.
  • In another experiment, the purified agar/guar gum mixture was tested again as described above but using a different batch of knitted and double velour grafts. As indicated in Table 7 herein below, the results between the two experiments are comparable.
    TABLE 7
    AGAR/GUAR GUM
    TRIAL 2
    GRAFT GRAFT
    GRAFT DIAMETER LENGTH WATER POROSITY**
    SAMPLE (cm) (cm) (ml) (ml/min/cm2)
    Uncoated Knitted 0.8 25 3510 56.5
    Uncoated 0.8 25 3550 56.5
    Woven
    Woven #1 0.8 20 1 0.019
    Woven #2 0.8 20 2 0.039
    Knitted #1 1.0 16.5 11 0.212
    Knitted #2 1.0 16.5 54 1.04

    **Porosity measured in accordance with the Wesolowski test described herein.
  • As the results from tables 6 and 7 indicate, grafts dried at room temperature were less porous than grafts dried at 60° C. It is thought that as heat removes water from the graft it interferes with the gelling process and leads to the observed higher porosity results. In addition, the grafts dried at room temperature were more flexible than the graft dried at 60° C. The results indicate that the purified agar/guar gum sealants are comparable to the carrageenan types II and IV/locust bean gum sealant mixtures. In fact, the data from Tables 6 and 7 suggest that the agar/guar gum sealant mixture, when dried at room temperature, is well suited for rendering blood-tight both woven and knitted grafts.
  • EXAMPLE 5
  • In this example, data is provided from various porosity experiments conducted as described in Example 1. In this experiment, the porosity of knitted and woven grafts were assessed by changing various parameters including the polysaccharides used, the concentration and ratio of the various polysaccharides, the concentration of glycerol, as well as, the temperature of the sealant and of the drying process. These data are summarized in Table 8 herein below.
    TABLE 8
    No.
    Of Drying Porosity
    Glycerol Graft Injec- Tem- Value (ml/
    Sealant Components Content Type Coating Method tions perature min/cm2) Comments
    1.0 Alginate/ None Knitted Vacuum 23° C. Not tested Coating Uneven, Brittle
    100 ml water 12 mm Room Temp Sealant
    (Graft dipped in
    1% CaCl Solution
    after coating)
    4.5 Alginate/300 ml 6 g Knitted Injection 4 23° C. 29.7 Coating Uneven, Gelation not controlled
    water 8 mm Room Temp Sealant
    (Graft dipped in 1%
    CaCl Solution
    after coating)
    1.0 g Carrageenan Type None Knitted Vacuum 23° C. 47.4 Coating Uneven, Stiff, Brittle
    I/200 ml water 12 mm Room Temp Sealant
    1.0 g Locust Bean 16.8 g Knitted Vacuum 23° C. 48.8 Graft flexible, not coated in crimps
    Gum/200 ml water 16.8 g = 12 mm Room Temp Sealant
    33.6 g Total
    4.5 g Carrageenan Type 4.5 g Knitted Vacuum 23° C. 47.7 Coating on graft broke under pressure of
    I/300 ml water 3.0 g = 12 mm Room Temp Sealant porometer
    3.0 g Locust Bean 7.5 g Total Knitted Vacuum 23° C. 47.7 Coating on graft broke under pressure of
    Gum/300 ml water 12 mm 50° C. Sealant porometer
    5.0 Carrageenan Type I/ 40 g Knitted Injection 4 23° C. 47.1 Grafts were very oily
    300 ml water 40 g = 12 mm Room Temp Sealant
    4.0 g Locust Bean 80 Total
    Gum/300 ml water
    4.0 g Carrageenan Type 30 g Woven Injection 6 23° C. 3.68
    I/300 ml water 30 g = 8 mm Room Temp Sealant
    3.0 g Locust Bean Gum 60 g Total
    Woven Injection 6 60° C. 13.8
    8 mm Room Temp Sealant
    Knitted Injection 6 23° C. 52.10
    8 mm Room Temp Sealant
    Knitted Injection 6 60° C. 60.60
    8 mm Room Temp Sealant
    4.0 g Carrageenan Type 20 g Woven Injection 3 23° C. 37.3
    II/300 ml water 20 g = 8 mm Room Temp Sealant
    3.0 g. Locust Bean 40 g Total Woven Injection 4 23° C. 32.2
    Gum/300 ml. water 8 mm Room Temp Sealant
    30 g Woven Injection 6 23° C. 0.068 First woven graft to give porosity value
    30 g = 8 mm Room Temp Sealant less than 1.0.
    60 g Total Woven Injection 6 23° C. 0.064
    8 mm of 60° C. Sealant
    Woven Injection 6 60° C. 0.102
    8 mm Room Temp Sealant
    4.0 g. Carrageenan Type 30 g Woven Injection 6 23° C. 0.088
    II/300 ml water 30 g = 8 mm Room Temp. Sealant
    3.0 g. Locust Bean 60 g Total Woven Injection 6 23° C. 0.014
    Gum/300 ml water 8 mm 60° C. Sealant
    (Retrials) Woven Injection 6 60° C. 0.118
    8 mm Room Temp Sealant
    Knitted Injection 6 23° C. 43.1
    8 mm Room Temp Sealant
    Knitted Injection 6 23° C. 19.9
    8 mm 60° Sealant
    Knitted Injection 6 60° C. 44.0
    8 mm Room Temp Sealant
    4.0 g Carrageenan 30 g Woven Injection 6 23° C. 29.5
    Type II 8 mm Room Temp Sealant
    Woven Injection 6 60° C. 4.27
    8 mm Room Temp Sealant
    8.0 g Carrageenan Type 30 g Woven Injection 4 23° C. 0.015 Coated Graft slightly inflexible
    II/300 ml water 30 g = 8 mm Room Temp Sealant
    60 g Total Woven Injection 5 23° C. 0.015 Coated Graft slightly inflexible
    8 mm Room Temp Sealant
    Woven Injection 6 23° C. 0.015 Coated Graft slightly inflexible
    8 mm Room Temp Sealant
    Knitted Injection 6 23° C. 3.86 Coated Graft too Stiff
    8 mm Room Temp Sealant
    Knitted Injection 6 60° C. 2.62 Coated Graft too Stiff
    8 mm Room Temp Sealant
    45 g Knitted Injection 6 23° C. 4.37 Coated Graft Flexible
    45 g = 8 mm Room Temp Sealant
    90 g Total Knitted Injection 6 60° C. 1.46 Coated Graft Flexible
    8 mm Room Temp Sealant
    2.0 g Carrageenan Type 15 g Woven Injection 6 23° C. 0.07
    IV/150 ml water 15 g = 8 mm Room Temp Sealant
    1.5 g. Locust Bean 30 g Total Woven Injection 6 60° C. 0.07
    Gum/150 ml water 8 mm Room Temp Sealant
    Knitted Injection 6 23° C. 32.6
    8 mm Room Temp Sealant
    Knitted Injection 6 60° C. 23.70
    8 mm Room Temp Sealant
    8.0 g Carrageenan Type  60 g Woven Injection 6 23° C. Not Tested Grafts felt very oily. Did not completely dry.
    IV/300 ml water  60 g = 8 mm Room Temp Sealant Glycerol content too high.
    120 g Total Woven Injection 6 60° C. Not Tested Grafts felt very oily. Did not completely dry.
    8 mm Room Temp Sealant Glycerol content too high.
    Knitted Injection 6 23° C. 19.9 Grafts felt very oily. Glycerol
    8 mm Room Temp Sealant content too high.
    Knitted Injection 6 60° C. 25.8 Grafts felt very oily. Glycerol
    8 mm Room Temp Sealant content too high.
    32 g Knitted Injection 6 23° C. 0.0468 First knitted graft to give porosity level
    46 g = 8 mm Room Temp Sealant less than 1.0
    78 g Total Knitted Injection 6 60° C. 0.248
    8 mm Room Temp Sealant
    8.0 g Carrageenan Type 35 g Woven Injection 6 23° C. 0 Graft did not leak any water in porosity test
    IV/300 ml water 35 g = 8 mm Room Temp Sealant
    8.0 g Guar Gum/ 70 g Total Woven Injection 6 60° C. 0 Graft did not leak any water in porosity test
    300 ml water 8 mm Room Temp Sealant
    Knitted Injection 6 23° C. 0.942
    8 mm Room Temp Sealant
    Knitted Injection 6 60° C. 0.610
    8 mm Room Temp Sealant
    3.0 g Purified Agarose/ 30 g Total Woven Injection 6 23° C. 0.049
    300 ml water 8 mm 60° C. Sealant
    Woven Injection 6 60° C. 0.049
    8 mm 60° C. Sealant
    Knitted Injection 6 23° C. 0.0696
    8 mm 60° C. Sealant
    Knitted Injection 6 60° C. 3.45
    8 mm 60° C. Sealant
    Woven Injection 6 23° C. 0.019
    8 mm 60° C. Sealant
    Woven Injection 6 60° C. 0.039
    8 mm 60° C. Sealant
    Knitted Injection 6 23° C. 0.212
    8 mm 60° C. Sealant
    Knitted Injection 6 60° C. 1.04
    8 mm 60° C. Sealant
    5.0 g Chitosan/300 ml 30 g Woven Injection 6 23° C. 0
    0.1 M Acetic Acid 30 g 7 mm Room Temp Sealant
    7.0 g Guar Gum/300 ml Woven Injection 6 60° C. 0.021
    water 7 mm Room Temp Sealant
    Knitted Injection 6 23° C. 0.162
    7 mm Room Temp Sealant
    Knitted Injection 6 60° C. 0.032
    7 mm Room Temp Sealant

    Uncoated Graft Porosity Values:

    Woven 8 mm 56.5 ml/min/cm2

    Knitted 8 mm 56.5 ml/min/cm2
  • These data indicate that sealant mixtures of carrageenan type IV/guar gum, carrageenan type IV/locust bean gum, agarose/guar gum and chitosan/guar gum sealant combinations are universally able to provide substantially blood-tight barriers to both woven and vascular grafts.
  • The invention being thus described, it will be obvious that the same may be varied in many ways. Such variations are not to be regarded as a departure from the spirit and scope of the invention and all such modifications are intended to be included within the scope of the following claims.

Claims (14)

1. A device comprising:
an implantable soft tissue prosthesis and
a hydrogel comprising a combination of at least two different polysaccharides.
2. The device of claim 1, wherein said prosthesis is porous.
3. The device of claim 1, wherein said hydrogel is impregnated on a surface of said prosthesis.
4. The device of claim 1, wherein said prosthesis is tubular having an inner surface and an outer surface.
5. The device of claim 4, wherein said hydrogel is impregnated on said inner surface of said prosthesis.
6. The device of claim 1, wherein said polysaccharides are selected from the group consisting of algin, carboxymethyl cellulose, carrageenan, furcellaran, agarose, guar, locust bean gum, gum arabic, hydroxyethyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose, methyl cellulose, hydroxyalkylmethyl cellulose, pectin, partially de-acetylated chitosan, starch, starch derivatives, amylase, amylopectin, hyaluronic acid and its derivatives, heparin, xanthan, and combinations thereof.
7. The device of claim 1, wherein said combination of polysaccharides is selected from the group consisting of alginic acid/pectin, alginic acid/chitosan, carrageenan type I/locust bean gum, carrageenan type I/pectin, carrageenan type II/locust bean gum, carrageenan type II/pectin, carrageenan type II/guar gum, carrageenan type IV/locust bean gum, locust bean gum/xanthan, guar gum/locust bean gum, guar gum/xantham, chitosan/heparin and agar/guar gum.
8. The device of claim 1, wherein said hydrogel further comprises an anticoagulant.
9. The device of claim 8, wherein said anticoagulant is selected from the group consisting of heparin, prostaglandin, urokinase, streptokinase, sulfated polysaccharide, albumin, and combinations thereof.
10. The device of claim 1, wherein said prosthesis is impregnated with said hydrogel by a method selected from the group consisting of submersion and injection.
11. The device of claim 1, wherein said hydrogel further comprises an ion selected from the group consisting of K+, Ca2+, Mg2+and combinations thereof.
12. The device of claim 1, wherein said prosthesis comprises a porous material comprising a synthetic or natural polymer.
13. The device of claim 1, wherein said prosthesis comprises a porous material selected from the group consisting of polyester, expanded poly(tetrafluoroethylene), nylon, polypropylene, polyurethane, polyacrylonitrile, and combinations thereof.
14. The device of claim 8, wherein said hydrogel provides controlled release of said anticoagulant.
US11/366,700 1996-09-13 2006-03-02 Bioresorbable sealants for porous vascular grafts Abandoned US20060159720A1 (en)

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DE69728054D1 (en) 2004-04-15
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EP0941131A1 (en) 1999-09-15
AU4414097A (en) 1998-04-02
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US5851229A (en) 1998-12-22

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