US20060151485A1 - Microwave applicator - Google Patents

Microwave applicator Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US20060151485A1
US20060151485A1 US10530823 US53082305A US2006151485A1 US 20060151485 A1 US20060151485 A1 US 20060151485A1 US 10530823 US10530823 US 10530823 US 53082305 A US53082305 A US 53082305A US 2006151485 A1 US2006151485 A1 US 2006151485A1
Authority
US
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
waveguide
end
applicator
microwave
tissue
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US10530823
Inventor
Nigel Cronin
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
UK INVESTMENT ASSOCIATES LLC
Original Assignee
MICROSULIS Ltd
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05BELECTRIC HEATING; ELECTRIC LIGHTING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05B6/00Heating by electric, magnetic, or electromagnetic fields
    • H05B6/64Heating using microwaves
    • H05B6/80Apparatus for specific applications
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B18/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body
    • A61B18/18Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body by applying electromagnetic radiation, e.g. microwaves
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B18/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body
    • A61B18/18Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body by applying electromagnetic radiation, e.g. microwaves
    • A61B18/1815Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body by applying electromagnetic radiation, e.g. microwaves using microwaves

Abstract

A microwave applicator comprising a coaxial electrical input (4) and a waveguide (1) filled with dielectric (2), an inner conductor (7) of the coaxial input extending longitudinally within one end of the waveguide to launch microwaves in the TM01 mode to travel to the distal end face (8) of the waveguide so that microwaves are transmitted when the distal end face is contacted by the biological tissue to be treated.

Description

    TECHNICAL FIELD
  • [0001]
    This invention relates to a microwave applicator suitable for heating biological tissue and a method of heat treating surface tissue.
  • [0002]
    The applicants have previously proposed a microwave applicator for surgical use comprising a waveguide of reduced diameter by virtue of containing a dielectric of high permittivity. A coaxial electrical input generates microwaves in the TE11 mode within the dielectric and these radiate from the distal end face of the waveguide.
  • DISCLOSURE OF THE INVENTION
  • [0003]
    According to a first aspect, the present invention, consists in a microwave applicator comprising a coaxial electrical input and a waveguide filled with dielectric, a central conductor of the coaxial input extending longitudinally within one end of the waveguide to launch microwaves preferably in the TM01 mode, to travel to the distal end face of the waveguide so that microwaves are transmitted from the distal end face when in contact with the biological tissue to be treated.
  • [0004]
    The TM01 mode is preferred because it has a field pattern that is a good match with the coaxial input, better than the fundamental TE11 mode more commonly used. The TM01 also produces a simple transition between the coaxial input and the waveguide. The central conductor is preferably coaxially aligned within a circular waveguide and extends a short way within the waveguide to match the general dimensions of the waveguide, especially its length and diameter, and the permittivity of the dielectric and frequency of the electrical input.
  • [0005]
    The distal end face of the waveguide is preferably flat and radiates microwave energy with parallel wavefronts that advance into the biological tissue in contact with the distal end face and have minimum lateral spreading. The depth of penetration of the microwaves is dependent upon the frequency and electrical input power, but typically only a small distance of penetration is required for local heat treatment of tissue in microsurgery. In an alternative embodiment, the distal end face may be slightly domed and centred on the axis of the waveguide instead of being flat.
  • [0006]
    Another particularly important feature of the invention is the ability to make use of resonance in the waveguide so that reflections from the transition at the input end, and from the distal end face caused by the change in dielectric at each, are out of phase and therefore enhance forwards transmission when the distal end face is in contact with the biological tissue, and are in phase and therefore enhance reflection to the coaxial input when the distal end face is out of contact with the biological tissue. Therefore, microwave energy is only transmitted to any appreciable extent from the distal end face when in contact with the biological tissue to be treated, and this is a key safety feature in the mode of operation.
  • [0007]
    According to a second aspect, the invention consists in a microwave applicator comprising a waveguide, a coaxial electrical input with a central conductor extending longitudinally within one end of the waveguide to launch microwaves preferably in the TM01 mode, that travel to the distal end of the waveguide and are transmitted into biological tissue to be treated, a diaphragm of low loss dielectric material being provided within the waveguide so as to extend laterally of the waveguide to reflect the microwaves travelling along it, the longitudinal location of the diaphragm being selected in relation to the ends of the waveguide so that the coherent addition of the reflected waves from the waveguide junction and the diaphragm combine to create a wave which is of correct magnitude and phase to cancel the reflection from the coaxial waveguide junction.
  • [0008]
    Preferably, the thickness of the diaphragm and the permittivity of the dielectric material from which the diaphragm is made are selected to determine the magnitude of the rearward reflection of microwaves from the diaphragm for optimum cancellation of the rearward reflection in the coaxial input.
  • [0009]
    Preferably, the waveguide is air-filled, and the distal end of the waveguide is adapted to contact (or nearly contact) the surface tissue to be treated.
  • [0010]
    The microwave applicator of the first or second aspect of the invention can be used in a method of heat treating surface tissue, the distal end face of the waveguide being brought into contact with the surface tissue for treatment.
  • DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • [0011]
    The invention will now be described by way of example with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:
  • [0012]
    FIG. 1 is an axial section of a flexible laparoscopic microwave applicator according to a first embodiment of the invention;
  • [0013]
    FIG. 2 shows graphs of reflection coefficient against microwave frequency for the applicator of FIG. 1 when the distal end is in air (graph S) and when in contact with biological tissue (graph T);
  • [0014]
    FIG. 3 is an axial section of a microwave applicator according to a second embodiment of the invention;
  • [0015]
    FIG. 4 is an axial section of a microwave applicator according to a third embodiment of the invention;
  • [0016]
    FIG. 5 is an axial section of a microwave applicator according to a fourth embodiment of the invention;
  • [0017]
    FIG. 6 is an axial section of a microwave applicator according to a fifth embodiment of the invention; and
  • [0018]
    FIG. 7 is a schematic drawing of a microwave applicator in use for medical treatment according to the invention.
  • EMBODIMENTS OF THE INVENTION
  • [0019]
    The microwave applicator of FIG. 1 consists of a waveguide 1 formed by a cylindrical body of dielectric 2 covered in an outer layer of aluminium foil 3, and a flexible coaxial cable input power supply 4 which is connected to the waveguide at one end so that the outer conductor 5 of the coaxial cable is electrically connected via a copper ferrule 6 to the aluminium tape 3, and the inner conductor 7 of the coaxial cable extends axially a short distance l into the dielectric body 2. The distal end face 8 of the waveguide 1 is flat and is covered by a layer of a non-stick polymer coating such as FEP or paralene.
  • [0020]
    The waveguide 1 preferably operates in the TM01 mode.
  • [0021]
    Typically, for this microwave applicator to operate at a frequency of 9.2 GHz the dimensions of the waveguide are as follows; overall length L=12.9 mm, diameter D=5.2 mm, l=5.9 mm; and the permittivity of the dielectric body k=25. The dielectric is typically, Hik 500f dielectric material sold by Emerson & Cummings.
  • [0022]
    The performance of the microwave applicator of FIG. 1 at different frequencies is shown by the graphs of FIG. 2, in which Graph S shows the variation of reflection coefficient S11 when the distal end face 8 of the applicator is in air, and in which Graph T shows the variation of reflection coefficient S11 when the distal end face 8 of the applicator is in contact with biological tissue to be treated. A drop in value of S11 in FIG. 2 is indicative of a good microwave match, which is clearly demonstrated in Graph T at the designed operating frequency of 9.2 GHz. Under these conditions, the applicator is transmitting maximum microwave energy into the biological tissue, but if the contact with the tissue is broken and the distal end face is in air or gas such as CO2, then the transmitted energy falls immediately to a much lower level as the energy is reflected back to the coaxial cable input power supply 4.
  • [0023]
    It will be appreciated that a microwave applicator as shown in FIG. 1 can be relatively inexpensive to manufacture, and can therefore be sold as a disposable product for microsurgery.
  • [0024]
    The microwave applicator of FIG. 1, being of reduced diameter of 5.2 mm, is suitable for insertion through a Trocar in laproscopic surgery to produce a local heating effect in a controlled manner adjacent the distal end face when in contact with biological material.
  • [0025]
    For example, such an applicator may be used to destroy small surface tumours, for the treatment of ovarian cancer, or the treatment of endometriosis, or any surface lesions.
  • [0026]
    The second embodiment of the invention shown in FIG. 3 is similar in configuration to that of FIG. 1, and the same reference numbers are used for equivalent components. However, the waveguide 1 comprises a rigid aluminium cylindrical wall 13, typically 2 mm thick, and the dielectric body 2 is composed of a hard ceramic material, such as stabilised zirconia (TECHNOX® 2000) which has a permittivity K=25. This dielectric material gives the applicator an ability to handle higher power levels, typically, up to 200 watts, compared with a power level of, say, 45 watts for the applicator of FIG. 1. The waveguide 1 preferably operates in the TM01 mode.
  • [0027]
    The applicator of FIG. 3 is designed to operate at a lower frequency of 2.45 GHz, and also has an increased length L=50 mm and diameter D=20 mm. It will be appreciated that the diameter D is determined by the frequency of operation and permittivity K, and is selected to allow treatment of an appropriate size area of tissue, the increased area compared with FIG. 1 being balanced by the increased power to provide an appropriate power density at the distal end 8 for the treatment intended.
  • [0028]
    The projection l of the central conductor 7 extends 25 mm into the dielectric body 2, and an air gap 9 is provided between the outer conductor 5 and dielectric of the coaxial cable input 4 and the waveguide 1 to allow the dielectric filling of the coaxial cable to expand.
  • [0029]
    The applicator of FIG. 3 with a larger distal end 8 is more suitable for the treatment of larger surface breaking tumours, for example, primary and secondary tumours on the liver.
  • [0030]
    In an alternative embodiment of the invention, suitable for treating smaller liver tumours, the same configuration as that of FIG. 3 is used but, the stabilised zirconia dielectric is replaced by alumina having a permittivity K=10, and the dimensions are as follows: L=18 mm; D=10 mm; l=11 mm; and the operating frequency is 9.2 GHz. This applicator will treat a small area of tissue than that of FIG. 3, but will cause less collateral damage.
  • [0031]
    The microwave applicator shown in FIG. 4 consists of an air-filled waveguide 11 formed by an aluminium cylindrical wall 13 with an input connection 14 for a flexible coaxial cable input power supply which is connected to the waveguide at one end. The outer surface of the wall 13 is covered by a UPVC sleeve 16. The outer conductor of the coaxial cable is electrically connected to the wall 13 of the waveguide via a brass fitting 17, and the inner conductor of the coaxial cable is connected to a conductor 15 which extends axially a short distance l into the waveguide 11. A PTFE bush 18 separates and forms an electrical insulator between the conductor 15 and fitting 17. A Perspex diaphragm 20 is located laterally within the waveguide near the open end within a rebated section 21 which spaces it a distance w away from the open end 18. The diaphragm 20 has a thickness t. The waveguide 11 preferably operates in the TM01 mode.
  • [0032]
    The operating frequency of the applicator is 7 GHz and the dimensions are typically L=108 mm; D=42 mm; l=13 mm; w=27.7 mm; and t=4.3 mm. These dimensions are selected in connection with the operating frequency and permittivity of the diaphragm so that when in use with the open end of the waveguide in contact with surface tissue to be treated, the rearward reflections of microwaves from the tissue and the transition between the coaxial cable 14 and waveguide 11 are substantially cancelled out by the reflections from the diaphragm which reduces reflections within the coaxial cable. In this balance situation, the majority of the microwave energy is then transmitted to the tissue being treated. In particular, the thickness t of the diaphragm 20 and the permittivity k of the material of which it is composed will determine the size of rearward reflection of microwaves from it. The location of the diaphragm 20 relative to the ends of the waveguide 11 will determine the relative phases of the rearward reflections of the microwaves.
  • [0033]
    A microwave applicator such as that of FIG. 4 would be suitable for skin treatments such as the treatment of psoriasis, especially because the end of the probe has minimal contact with the tissue being treated. Preferably, the edge of the waveguide 11 at the open end may be coated or fitted with some other protection (22) such as silicone rubber, for engagement with the tissue.
  • [0034]
    An alternative embodiment of the invention is illustrated in FIG. 5 in which the microwave applicator consists of a waveguide 31 supported at one end of a rigid tube 32 having a handle 33 and input power connection 34 at its other end. The applicator is held and manipulated by the handle 33 and the waveguide 31 forms a treatment head. A coaxial cable 35 extends through the tube 32 and connects the input power connection 34 to the waveguide 31.
  • [0035]
    The waveguide 31 consists of a cylindrical aluminium sleeve 36 which is connected to an aluminium end cap 37 at the input end. An aluminium support bush 38 is connected at one end to a central bore 39 in the end cap 37, and is connected at its other end to the tube 32 so that the coaxial cable 35 can pass through it. The outer conductor 40 of the coaxial cable 35 is exposed and electrically connected to the end cap 37, and the inner conductor 41 of the coaxial cable 35 is exposed to project axially into the waveguide 31. A cylindrical body 42 of dielectric comprising TECHNOX® 2000 ceramic is fitted within the sleeve 36 and is formed with a central bore 43 to receive the inner conductor 41. An air gap 44 is formed between the end of the dielectric filling 45 of the coaxial cable and the dielectric body 42 of the waveguide.
  • [0036]
    The handle 33 is machined from aluminium and has a concentric recess 45 at its input end to receive the input power connection 34. A central bore 46 in the handle accommodates the coaxial cable 35.
  • [0037]
    The waveguide 31 preferably operates in the TM01 mode.
  • [0038]
    Typically, the applicator is designed to operate at 2.45 GHz and the dimensions of the waveguide comprise a sleeve 36 of length L=50 mm and inner diameter D=20 mm, and an inner conductor 41 with an exposed length l=11.8 mm and an air gap 44 of length 2 mm. The tube 32 is typically stainless steel and has a diameter of 8 mm and length 250 mm or other appropriate length to reach tissue being treated. The tube 32 may be bent laterally at one or more locations 46 along its length to improve the ease with which the radiation emitting end face 47 of the treatment head can be engaged in surface-to-surface contact with tissue to be treated.
  • [0039]
    Another embodiment of the invention is illustrated in FIG. 6, which like that of FIG. 5, consists of a waveguide 51 forming a treatment head at one end of a rigid tube 52, and a handle and input power connection (not shown) at the other end of the tube 52. The waveguide 51 consists of a machined aluminium component consisting of a cylindrical sleeve 54 and end wall 55 having an aperture 56 to receive the tube 52 and coaxial cable 57. A cylindrical body of dielectric 58 comprising Hik500f is fitted inside the sleeve 54 and is formed with a central bore 59 to receive the inner conductor 60 of the coaxial cable 57. The outer conductor 61 of the cable 57 is electrically connected to the end wall 55 and an air gap 62 is formed between the end of the dielectric filling 63 of the cable 57 and the dielectric body 58.
  • [0040]
    Typically, the applicator is designed to operate at 9.2 GHz and the waveguide dimensions comprise a sleeve 54 of length L=16 mm and inner diameter 10 mm, and an inner conductor 60 with an exposed length of 13 mm, and an air gap 62 of 2 mm.
  • [0041]
    The microwave applicator of FIGS. 5 and 6 can be used, like the applicators of FIGS. 1 and 3, to treat tumours or other surface lesions, or for the treatment of endometriosis. The treatment head is inserted through an opening in a patient's body, either through a Trocar or directly through a larger incision. The applicator is then manipulated to bring the end face of the treatment head into face-to-face contact with the tissue to be treated adjacent the tumour or lesion. Microwave radiation emitted from the end face of the treatment head is then transmitted into the tumour or lesion and surrounding tissue and causes it to be ablated. This process can be repeated as necessary to ablate multiple tumours or lesions at different locations before the treatment is completed.
  • [0042]
    A microwave applicator according to the invention can also be used to stop the flow of blood from bleeding tissue by bringing the end face of the treatment head into contact with the bleeding tissue and transmitting radiation to ablate the tissue.
  • [0043]
    Although the methods of medical treatment described above use the microwave applicators illustrated it should be appreciated that the invention also relates generally to the method of treating tumours or lesions on or within the surface of tissue, especially the liver, using any form of microwave applicator having a treatment head with a radiation emitting surface which can engage the tissue in face-to-face contact so as to transmit radiation into the tissue.
  • [0044]
    FIG. 7 illustrates medical treatment of surface tumours on a patient's liver 70. An incision is made across the patient's abdomen and the abdominal wall is held in clamps 71 to create an opening into the abdominal cavity. The liver is then freed from the surrounding tissue so that it can be accessed for treatment. The condition of the liver is assessed and decisions are made as to the treatment to be given, whether to remove part of the liver and/or to ablate part of the liver. In the drawing, the liver shown has multiple surface tumours 72 which require ablation. A microwave applicator 73, preferably such as illustrated in any of FIGS. 1 to 6, is manipulated to align the end face of the treatment head with a tumour, and to bring the end face into contact with the tumour. The power supply to the applicator is then switched on so that it generates microwaves that irradiate the tumour, causing it to be ablated. The applicator is then lifted away from the liver surface either before or after the power has been reduced or switched-off. The whole process is then repeated multiple times to ablate each of the surface tumours in turn.
  • [0045]
    Real time intra-operative ultrasound scanning is used to assess the location and extent of the tumours within or on the surface of the liver. Also, the extent of the ablation achieved when treating an individual tumour is assessed using intra-operative ultrasound scanning. The ablated tissue appears as a “thermal cloud” emanating from the end face of the applicator when viewed in the scan output. The treatment is therefore continued until the “thermal cloud” encompasses the whole of the tumour and a safety margin around it.
  • [0046]
    A larger tumour or tumours may require removal of part of the liver. This is done by cutting the liver, which causes bleeding. The microwave applicator is then used to stem the bleeding by bringing the end face of the treatment head into contact with the bleeding surface and turning on the power to the applicator to ablate the bleeding surface. This procedure is then repeated over the whole of the bleeding surface.
  • [0047]
    Once treatment of the liver is completed, the abdomen is washed with saline solution, and the abdominal wall is sutured.

Claims (19)

  1. 1. A microwave applicator comprising a coaxial electrical input (4) and a waveguide (1) filled with dielectric (2), an inner conductor (7) of the coaxial input (4) extending longitudinally within one end of the waveguide (1) to launch microwaves mode to travel to the distal end face (8) of the waveguide (1) so that microwaves are transmitted when the distal end face (8) is contacted by biological tissue to be treated.
  2. 2. A microwave applicator as claimed in claim 1 in which the inner conductor (7) is axially aligned with the waveguide (1).
  3. 3. A microwave applicator as claimed in claim 1 or 2 in which the waveguide (1) is a circular waveguide.
  4. 4. A microwave applicator as claimed in any one of the preceding claims in which the distal end face (8) is substantially flat and normal to the axis of the waveguide (1).
  5. 5. A microwave applicator as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 3 in which the distal end face (8) is flat or slightly domed and centred on the axis of the waveguide (1).
  6. 6. A microwave applicator as claimed in any one of the preceding claims in which the distal end face (8) has a polymer coating (22).
  7. 7. A microwave applicator as claimed in any one of the preceding claims in which the length and diameter of the waveguide (1), the length of the inner conductor (7) within the waveguide, and the permittivity of the dielectric material (2) are selected so that at the designed operating frequency, the waveguide is in resonance.
  8. 8. A microwave applicator as claimed in any one of the preceding claims in which the waveguide (1) is adapted so that in operation, when the distal end face (8) is in contact with biological tissue to be treated, forwards transmission from the distal end face is enhanced by the relative phase of reflections from the distal end face (8) and the input (4) to the waveguide; and when the distal end face (8) is in air or gas, reflections to the input (4) are enhanced by the relative phase of reflections from the distal end face (8) and the input (4) to the waveguide.
  9. 9. A microwave applicator comprising a waveguide (1), a coaxial electrical input (4) with an inner conductor (7) extending longitudinally within one end of the waveguide to launch microwaves in the TM01 mode that travel to the distal end (8) of the waveguide and are transmitted into biological tissue to be treated, a diaphragm (20) of low loss dielectric material being provided within the waveguide (1) so as to extend laterally of the waveguide to reflect the microwaves travelling along it, the longitudinal location of the diaphragm (20) being selected in relation to the ends of the waveguide (1) so that the phase of reflections from the diaphragm (20) and said ends serve to reduce or cancel rearward reflections in the coaxial input (4).
  10. 10. A microwave applicator as claimed in claim 9 in which the thickness of the diaphragm (20), and the permittivity of the dielectric material from which it is made are selected to determine the magnitude of the rearward reflection of microwaves from the diaphragm (20) for optimum cancellation of the rearward reflection in the coaxial input.
  11. 11. A microwave applicator as claimed in claim 9 or 10 which is air-filled.
  12. 12. A microwave applicator as claimed in any one of the preceding claims in which the waveguide launches microwaves in the TM01 mode.
  13. 13. A method of heat treating surface tissue using the microwave applicator of any one of claims 1 to 12 in which the end face (8) of the waveguide (1) is brought into contact with the surface tissue.
  14. 14. A method as claimed in claim 13 in which the surface tissue is internal tissue and the applicator is inserted into a body for treatment.
  15. 15. A method as claimed in claim 14 in which the insertion of the applicator is via a Trocar.
  16. 16. A method as claimed in claim 13 in which the surface tissue is the external skin of the body.
  17. 17. A method of treating a liver in a body comprising providing a microwave applicator having a treatment head at one end capable of emitting microwave radiation from an emitting face, inserting the microwave applicator through an incision into the body positioning the head of the microwave applicator in contact with a surface of the liver with the emitting face adjacent to a region to be treated, and powering the microwave applicator so that the emitting face emits microwave radiation that heats said region to be treated.
  18. 18. A method of treating biological tissue to stop bleeding comprising providing a microwave applicator having a treatment head at one end capable of emitting microwave radiation from an emitting face, positioning the head of the microwave applicator in contact with a surface of the biological tissue to be treated with the emitting face adjacent to bleeding tissue to be treated, and powering the microwave applicator so that the emitting face emits radiation that heats the bleeding tissue to be treated.
  19. 19. A method of treating a skin condition such as psoriasis using a microwave applicator having a microwave emitting window which is brought into contact with, or into close proximity of, skin to be treated and is powered so as to emit microwave radiation and irradiate the skin to be treated.
US10530823 2002-10-10 2003-09-15 Microwave applicator Abandoned US20060151485A1 (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB0223564.6 2002-10-10
GB0223564A GB2387544B (en) 2002-10-10 2002-10-10 Microwave applicator
PCT/GB2003/004082 WO2004033039A1 (en) 2002-10-10 2003-09-15 Microwave applicator

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US12206090 US8586897B2 (en) 2002-10-10 2008-09-08 Microwave applicator

Related Child Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US12206090 Continuation US8586897B2 (en) 2002-10-10 2008-09-08 Microwave applicator

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20060151485A1 true true US20060151485A1 (en) 2006-07-13

Family

ID=9945670

Family Applications (3)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US10530823 Abandoned US20060151485A1 (en) 2002-10-10 2003-09-15 Microwave applicator
US12206090 Active 2025-08-25 US8586897B2 (en) 2002-10-10 2008-09-08 Microwave applicator
US14055059 Abandoned US20140042154A1 (en) 2002-10-10 2013-10-16 Microwave Application

Family Applications After (2)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US12206090 Active 2025-08-25 US8586897B2 (en) 2002-10-10 2008-09-08 Microwave applicator
US14055059 Abandoned US20140042154A1 (en) 2002-10-10 2013-10-16 Microwave Application

Country Status (8)

Country Link
US (3) US20060151485A1 (en)
EP (1) EP1551508B1 (en)
JP (1) JP4532277B2 (en)
CN (1) CN100589854C (en)
CA (1) CA2501241C (en)
DE (1) DE60329696D1 (en)
GB (1) GB2387544B (en)
WO (1) WO2004033039A1 (en)

Cited By (17)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20080233020A1 (en) * 2007-03-15 2008-09-25 Capital Technologies, Inc. Processing apparatus with an electromagnetic launch
US20080275436A1 (en) * 2004-07-02 2008-11-06 Nigel Cronin Radiation Applicator and Method of Radiating Tissue
US20080294155A1 (en) * 2006-01-03 2008-11-27 Microsulis House Radiation Applicator and Method of Radiating Tissue
US20080314894A1 (en) * 2002-10-10 2008-12-25 Nigel Cronin Microwave application
US20090295674A1 (en) * 2008-05-29 2009-12-03 Kenlyn Bonn Slidable Choke Microwave Antenna
US20110009855A1 (en) * 2007-11-14 2011-01-13 Gogusev Jean Effect of radiofrequency fields on cell growth and methods for laparoscopic treatment
US8073550B1 (en) 1997-07-31 2011-12-06 Miramar Labs, Inc. Method and apparatus for treating subcutaneous histological features
US8401668B2 (en) 2007-04-19 2013-03-19 Miramar Labs, Inc. Systems and methods for creating an effect using microwave energy to specified tissue
US8406894B2 (en) 2007-12-12 2013-03-26 Miramar Labs, Inc. Systems, apparatus, methods and procedures for the noninvasive treatment of tissue using microwave energy
US8469951B2 (en) 2011-08-01 2013-06-25 Miramar Labs, Inc. Applicator and tissue interface module for dermatological device
US8688228B2 (en) 2007-04-19 2014-04-01 Miramar Labs, Inc. Systems, apparatus, methods and procedures for the noninvasive treatment of tissue using microwave energy
US9149331B2 (en) 2007-04-19 2015-10-06 Miramar Labs, Inc. Methods and apparatus for reducing sweat production
US9241763B2 (en) 2007-04-19 2016-01-26 Miramar Labs, Inc. Systems, apparatus, methods and procedures for the noninvasive treatment of tissue using microwave energy
US20160329637A1 (en) * 2015-05-07 2016-11-10 King Fahd University Of Petroleum And Minerals Ferrite-loaded circular waveguide antenna for 3d scanning
US20170100186A1 (en) * 2012-05-22 2017-04-13 Covidien Lp Electrosurgical instrument
US9757197B2 (en) 2009-10-06 2017-09-12 Angiodynamics, Inc. Medical devices and pumps therefor
US9770295B2 (en) 2003-06-23 2017-09-26 Angiodynamics, Inc. Radiation applicator for microwave medical treatment

Families Citing this family (15)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB2406521B (en) * 2003-10-03 2007-05-09 Microsulis Ltd Treatment of hollow anatomical structures
WO2005115235A1 (en) 2004-05-26 2005-12-08 Medical Device Innovations Limited Tissue detection and ablation apparatus and apparatus and method for actuating a tuner
US7301424B2 (en) * 2005-06-29 2007-11-27 Intel Corporation Flexible waveguide cable with a dielectric core
GB0704650D0 (en) * 2007-03-09 2007-04-18 Medical Device Innovations Ltd Tissue classifying apparatus
CN104707263B (en) * 2007-12-12 2017-09-12 美丽华实验室公司 Energy propagation system
EP2086285A1 (en) 2008-02-01 2009-08-05 Anton Paar GmbH Applicator and Apparatus for heating samples by microwave radiation
US8882757B2 (en) 2008-11-11 2014-11-11 Avedro, Inc. Eye therapy system
EP2859862B1 (en) 2009-07-28 2017-06-14 Neuwave Medical, Inc. Ablation system
CA2800312A1 (en) 2010-05-03 2011-11-10 Neuwave Medical, Inc. Energy delivery systems and uses thereof
US9532828B2 (en) * 2010-11-29 2017-01-03 Medtronic Ablation Frontiers Llc System and method for adaptive RF ablation
US9198724B2 (en) * 2011-04-08 2015-12-01 Covidien Lp Microwave tissue dissection and coagulation
GB201121436D0 (en) 2011-12-14 2012-01-25 Emblation Ltd A microwave applicator and method of forming a microwave applicator
WO2013096803A3 (en) 2011-12-21 2014-09-25 Neuwave Medical, Inc. Energy delivery systems and uses thereof
US9333035B2 (en) 2012-09-19 2016-05-10 Denervx LLC Cooled microwave denervation
US20170296268A1 (en) 2016-04-15 2017-10-19 Neuwave Medical, Inc. Systems and methods for energy delivery

Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3065752A (en) * 1959-11-14 1962-11-27 Philips Corp High frequency therapeutic radiator
US3461261A (en) * 1966-10-31 1969-08-12 Du Pont Heating apparatus
US4446874A (en) * 1981-12-30 1984-05-08 Clini-Therm Corporation Microwave applicator with discoupled input coupling and frequency tuning functions
US4891483A (en) * 1985-06-29 1990-01-02 Tokyo Keiki Co. Ltd. Heating apparatus for hyperthermia
US5364392A (en) * 1993-05-14 1994-11-15 Fidus Medical Technology Corporation Microwave ablation catheter system with impedance matching tuner and method
US5370644A (en) * 1988-11-25 1994-12-06 Sensor Electronics, Inc. Radiofrequency ablation catheter

Family Cites Families (12)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB2067059B (en) * 1980-01-03 1983-10-26 Stiftelsen Inst Mikrovags Method and device for heating by microwave energy
GB2074826B (en) * 1980-01-22 1983-11-23 Por Microtrans Ab Microwave heating applicator
FR2511876B1 (en) * 1981-08-31 1983-12-23 Centre Nat Rech Scient
GB8300779D0 (en) * 1983-01-12 1983-02-16 Univ Glasgow Microwave thermographic apparatus for bio-medical use
US4534347A (en) * 1983-04-08 1985-08-13 Research Corporation Microwave coagulating scalpel
US6485486B1 (en) * 1997-08-05 2002-11-26 Trustees Of Dartmouth College System and methods for fallopian tube occlusion
US6635055B1 (en) 1998-05-06 2003-10-21 Microsulis Plc Microwave applicator for endometrial ablation
GB9809536D0 (en) * 1998-05-06 1998-07-01 Microsulis Plc Sensor positioning
GB9817078D0 (en) * 1998-08-05 1998-10-07 Habib Nagy A Device for liver surgery
GB9904373D0 (en) * 1999-02-25 1999-04-21 Microsulis Plc Radiation applicator
JP2002109971A (en) * 2000-09-27 2002-04-12 Mitsubishi Cable Ind Ltd Highly foamed plastic insulation coaxial cable
GB2387544B (en) * 2002-10-10 2004-03-17 Microsulis Plc Microwave applicator

Patent Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3065752A (en) * 1959-11-14 1962-11-27 Philips Corp High frequency therapeutic radiator
US3461261A (en) * 1966-10-31 1969-08-12 Du Pont Heating apparatus
US4446874A (en) * 1981-12-30 1984-05-08 Clini-Therm Corporation Microwave applicator with discoupled input coupling and frequency tuning functions
US4891483A (en) * 1985-06-29 1990-01-02 Tokyo Keiki Co. Ltd. Heating apparatus for hyperthermia
US5370644A (en) * 1988-11-25 1994-12-06 Sensor Electronics, Inc. Radiofrequency ablation catheter
US5364392A (en) * 1993-05-14 1994-11-15 Fidus Medical Technology Corporation Microwave ablation catheter system with impedance matching tuner and method

Cited By (31)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US8853600B2 (en) 1997-07-31 2014-10-07 Miramar Labs, Inc. Method and apparatus for treating subcutaneous histological features
US8073550B1 (en) 1997-07-31 2011-12-06 Miramar Labs, Inc. Method and apparatus for treating subcutaneous histological features
US8586897B2 (en) 2002-10-10 2013-11-19 Angio Dynamics, Inc. Microwave applicator
US20080314894A1 (en) * 2002-10-10 2008-12-25 Nigel Cronin Microwave application
US9770295B2 (en) 2003-06-23 2017-09-26 Angiodynamics, Inc. Radiation applicator for microwave medical treatment
US9788896B2 (en) 2004-07-02 2017-10-17 Angiodynamics, Inc. Radiation applicator and method of radiating tissue
US20080275436A1 (en) * 2004-07-02 2008-11-06 Nigel Cronin Radiation Applicator and Method of Radiating Tissue
US20080294155A1 (en) * 2006-01-03 2008-11-27 Microsulis House Radiation Applicator and Method of Radiating Tissue
US7518092B2 (en) 2007-03-15 2009-04-14 Capital Technologies, Inc. Processing apparatus with an electromagnetic launch
US20090179028A1 (en) * 2007-03-15 2009-07-16 Purta David A Processing apparatus with an electromagnetic launch
US20080233020A1 (en) * 2007-03-15 2008-09-25 Capital Technologies, Inc. Processing apparatus with an electromagnetic launch
US8688228B2 (en) 2007-04-19 2014-04-01 Miramar Labs, Inc. Systems, apparatus, methods and procedures for the noninvasive treatment of tissue using microwave energy
US9427285B2 (en) 2007-04-19 2016-08-30 Miramar Labs, Inc. Systems and methods for creating an effect using microwave energy to specified tissue
US9241763B2 (en) 2007-04-19 2016-01-26 Miramar Labs, Inc. Systems, apparatus, methods and procedures for the noninvasive treatment of tissue using microwave energy
US9149331B2 (en) 2007-04-19 2015-10-06 Miramar Labs, Inc. Methods and apparatus for reducing sweat production
US8401668B2 (en) 2007-04-19 2013-03-19 Miramar Labs, Inc. Systems and methods for creating an effect using microwave energy to specified tissue
US20110009855A1 (en) * 2007-11-14 2011-01-13 Gogusev Jean Effect of radiofrequency fields on cell growth and methods for laparoscopic treatment
US8406894B2 (en) 2007-12-12 2013-03-26 Miramar Labs, Inc. Systems, apparatus, methods and procedures for the noninvasive treatment of tissue using microwave energy
US8825176B2 (en) 2007-12-12 2014-09-02 Miramar Labs, Inc. Apparatus for the noninvasive treatment of tissue using microwave energy
US8059059B2 (en) 2008-05-29 2011-11-15 Vivant Medical, Inc. Slidable choke microwave antenna
US20090295674A1 (en) * 2008-05-29 2009-12-03 Kenlyn Bonn Slidable Choke Microwave Antenna
US8361062B2 (en) 2008-05-29 2013-01-29 Vivant Medical, Inc. Slidable choke microwave antenna
US9757197B2 (en) 2009-10-06 2017-09-12 Angiodynamics, Inc. Medical devices and pumps therefor
US9314301B2 (en) 2011-08-01 2016-04-19 Miramar Labs, Inc. Applicator and tissue interface module for dermatological device
US8469951B2 (en) 2011-08-01 2013-06-25 Miramar Labs, Inc. Applicator and tissue interface module for dermatological device
US8535302B2 (en) 2011-08-01 2013-09-17 Miramar Labs, Inc. Applicator and tissue interface module for dermatological device
US9028477B2 (en) 2011-08-01 2015-05-12 Miramar Labs, Inc. Applicator and tissue interface module for dermatological device
US20170100186A1 (en) * 2012-05-22 2017-04-13 Covidien Lp Electrosurgical instrument
US9974606B2 (en) * 2012-05-22 2018-05-22 Covidien Lp Electrosurgical instrument
US20160329637A1 (en) * 2015-05-07 2016-11-10 King Fahd University Of Petroleum And Minerals Ferrite-loaded circular waveguide antenna for 3d scanning
US9979085B2 (en) * 2015-05-07 2018-05-22 King Fahd University Of Petroleum And Minerals Ferrite-loaded circular waveguide antenna for 3D scanning

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
JP2006501916A (en) 2006-01-19 application
DE60329696D1 (en) 2009-11-26 grant
JP4532277B2 (en) 2010-08-25 grant
CA2501241A1 (en) 2004-04-22 application
WO2004033039A1 (en) 2004-04-22 application
CN1688363A (en) 2005-10-26 application
US20140042154A1 (en) 2014-02-13 application
GB0223564D0 (en) 2002-11-20 grant
EP1551508B1 (en) 2009-10-14 grant
EP1551508A1 (en) 2005-07-13 application
US8586897B2 (en) 2013-11-19 grant
GB2387544A (en) 2003-10-22 application
GB2387544A9 (en) 2003-11-03 application
GB2387544B (en) 2004-03-17 grant
CA2501241C (en) 2011-05-31 grant
US20080314894A1 (en) 2008-12-25 application
CN100589854C (en) 2010-02-17 grant

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US5683382A (en) Microwave antenna catheter
US7467015B2 (en) Segmented catheter for tissue ablation
US7630774B2 (en) System and method for heating biological tissue via RF energy
US20100087808A1 (en) Combined Frequency Microwave Ablation System, Devices and Methods of Use
US6383182B1 (en) Directional microwave ablation instrument with off-set energy delivery portion
US4534347A (en) Microwave coagulating scalpel
US20100094273A1 (en) Antenna Assemblies for Medical Applications
US7118590B1 (en) Radiation applicator
US6277113B1 (en) Monopole tip for ablation catheter and methods for using same
US8246615B2 (en) Tissue impedance measurement using a secondary frequency
US20100228244A1 (en) Tissue measurement and ablation antenna
US6962586B2 (en) Microwave ablation instrument with insertion probe
EP1186274B1 (en) Surgical microwave ablation assembly
US7301131B2 (en) Microwave ablation instrument with flexible antenna assembly and method
US20100094272A1 (en) Antenna Assemblies for Medical Applications
US20110208177A1 (en) Ablation Devices With Dual Operating Frequencies, Systems Including Same, and Methods of Adjusting Ablation Volume Using Same
US20070282319A1 (en) Center fed dipole for use with tissue ablation systems, devices and methods
US20070049918A1 (en) Microwave device for vascular ablation
US20110118721A1 (en) Electromagnetic Energy Delivery Devices Including an Energy Applicator Array and Electrosurgical Systems Including Same
US5843020A (en) Ablation device and methods
EP2345454A1 (en) Ablation device with user interface at device handle and system including same
US20110040300A1 (en) Surface Ablation Antenna with Dielectric Loading
US20110034917A1 (en) Electrosurgical Devices having Dielectric Loaded Coaxial Aperture with Distally Positioned Resonant Structure and Method of Manufacturing Same
US20110034913A1 (en) Directive Window Ablation Antenna with Dielectric Loading
US20030018256A1 (en) Therapeutic ultrasound system

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AS Assignment

Owner name: MICROSULIS LIMITED, UNITED KINGDOM

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:CRONIN, NIGEL;REEL/FRAME:017538/0945

Effective date: 20051025

AS Assignment

Owner name: UK INVESTMENT ASSOCIATES LLC, NEVADA

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:MICROSULIS LIMITED;REEL/FRAME:029491/0357

Effective date: 20070614