US20060105182A1 - Erosion resistant textured chamber surface - Google Patents

Erosion resistant textured chamber surface Download PDF

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US20060105182A1
US20060105182A1 US10989975 US98997504A US2006105182A1 US 20060105182 A1 US20060105182 A1 US 20060105182A1 US 10989975 US10989975 US 10989975 US 98997504 A US98997504 A US 98997504A US 2006105182 A1 US2006105182 A1 US 2006105182A1
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micrometers
component
electron beam
surface
chamber
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Abandoned
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US10989975
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Karl Brueckner
Brian West
Marc Schweitzer
Jennifer Tiller
Alan Popiolkowski
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Applied Materials Inc
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Applied Materials Inc
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C23COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
    • C23CCOATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL BY DIFFUSION INTO THE SURFACE, BY CHEMICAL CONVERSION OR SUBSTITUTION; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL
    • C23C14/00Coating by vacuum evaporation, by sputtering or by ion implantation of the coating forming material
    • C23C14/22Coating by vacuum evaporation, by sputtering or by ion implantation of the coating forming material characterised by the process of coating
    • C23C14/56Apparatus specially adapted for continuous coating; Arrangements for maintaining the vacuum, e.g. vacuum locks
    • C23C14/564Means for minimising impurities in the coating chamber such as dust, moisture, residual gases
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C23COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
    • C23CCOATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL BY DIFFUSION INTO THE SURFACE, BY CHEMICAL CONVERSION OR SUBSTITUTION; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL
    • C23C16/00Chemical coating by decomposition of gaseous compounds, without leaving reaction products of surface material in the coating, i.e. chemical vapour deposition [CVD] processes
    • C23C16/44Chemical coating by decomposition of gaseous compounds, without leaving reaction products of surface material in the coating, i.e. chemical vapour deposition [CVD] processes characterised by the method of coating
    • C23C16/4401Means for minimising impurities, e.g. dust, moisture or residual gas, in the reaction chamber
    • C23C16/4404Coatings or surface treatment on the inside of the reaction chamber or on parts thereof
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J37/00Discharge tubes with provision for introducing objects or material to be exposed to the discharge, e.g. for the purpose of examination or processing thereof
    • H01J37/02Details
    • H01J37/16Vessels; Containers
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J37/00Discharge tubes with provision for introducing objects or material to be exposed to the discharge, e.g. for the purpose of examination or processing thereof
    • H01J37/32Gas-filled discharge tubes, e.g. for surface treatment of objects such as coating, plating, etching, sterilising or bringing about chemical reactions
    • H01J37/32431Constructional details of the reactor
    • H01J37/32458Vessel
    • H01J37/32477Vessel characterised by the means for protecting vessels or internal parts, e.g. coatings
    • H01J37/32504Means for preventing sputtering of the vessel
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J37/00Discharge tubes with provision for introducing objects or material to be exposed to the discharge, e.g. for the purpose of examination or processing thereof
    • H01J37/32Gas-filled discharge tubes, e.g. for surface treatment of objects such as coating, plating, etching, sterilising or bringing about chemical reactions
    • H01J37/32431Constructional details of the reactor
    • H01J37/32798Further details of plasma apparatus not provided for in groups H01J37/3244 - H01J37/32788; special provisions for cleaning or maintenance of the apparatus
    • H01J37/32853Hygiene
    • H01J37/32862In situ cleaning of vessels and/or internal parts
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J37/00Discharge tubes with provision for introducing objects or material to be exposed to the discharge, e.g. for the purpose of examination or processing thereof
    • H01J37/32Gas-filled discharge tubes, e.g. for surface treatment of objects such as coating, plating, etching, sterilising or bringing about chemical reactions
    • H01J37/32431Constructional details of the reactor
    • H01J37/32798Further details of plasma apparatus not provided for in groups H01J37/3244 - H01J37/32788; special provisions for cleaning or maintenance of the apparatus
    • H01J37/32853Hygiene
    • H01J37/32871Means for trapping or directing unwanted particles
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L21/00Processes or apparatus adapted for the manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or solid state devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/67Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere
    • H01L21/683Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere for supporting or gripping
    • H01L21/687Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere for supporting or gripping using mechanical means, e.g. chucks, clamps or pinches
    • H01L21/68714Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere for supporting or gripping using mechanical means, e.g. chucks, clamps or pinches the wafers being placed on a susceptor, stage or support
    • H01L21/6875Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere for supporting or gripping using mechanical means, e.g. chucks, clamps or pinches the wafers being placed on a susceptor, stage or support characterised by a plurality of individual support members, e.g. support posts or protrusions
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L21/00Processes or apparatus adapted for the manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or solid state devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/67Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere
    • H01L21/683Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere for supporting or gripping
    • H01L21/687Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere for supporting or gripping using mechanical means, e.g. chucks, clamps or pinches
    • H01L21/68714Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere for supporting or gripping using mechanical means, e.g. chucks, clamps or pinches the wafers being placed on a susceptor, stage or support
    • H01L21/68757Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere for supporting or gripping using mechanical means, e.g. chucks, clamps or pinches the wafers being placed on a susceptor, stage or support characterised by a coating or a hardness or a material
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J2237/00Discharge tubes exposing object to beam, e.g. for analysis treatment, etching, imaging
    • H01J2237/02Details
    • H01J2237/022Avoiding or removing foreign or contaminating particles, debris or deposits on sample or tube
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10T428/24Structurally defined web or sheet [e.g., overall dimension, etc.]
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10T428/31504Composite [nonstructural laminate]
    • Y10T428/31678Of metal

Abstract

A component for a substrate processing chamber has a structure having an overlying metal coating. The metal coating has a plurality of electron beam textured features that are formed by scanning an electron beam across a surface of the metal coating. The electron beam textured features include a plurality of depressions and protuberances on the surface that are capable of accumulating process deposits during processing of a substrate to reduce contamination of the substrate. The component having the metal coating provides improved processing results, and exhibits reduced erosion during cleaning processes performed to remove process deposits from the component.

Description

    BACKGROUND
  • In the processing of substrates such as semiconductor wafers and displays, a substrate is placed in a process chamber and exposed to an energized gas to deposit or etch material on the substrate. During such processing, process residues are generated and can deposit on internal surfaces in the chamber. For example, in sputter deposition processes, material sputtered from a target for deposition on a substrate also deposits on other component surfaces in the chamber, such as on deposition rings, shadow rings, wall liners, and focus rings. In subsequent process cycles, the deposited process residues can “flake off” of the chamber surfaces to fall upon and contaminate the substrate. To reduce the contamination of the substrates by process residues, the surfaces of components in the chamber can be textured. Process residues adhere to the textured surface and inhibit the process residues from falling off and contaminating the substrates in the chamber.
  • In one version, the textured component surface is formed by directing an electromagnetic energy beam onto a surface of a process chamber component surface to form depressions and protrusions to which process deposits adhere. An example of such a surface is a Lavacoat™ surface, as described for example in U.S. Patent Publication No. 2003-0173526 to Popiolkowski et al, published on Sep. 18, 2003, and filed on Mar. 13, 2002; and U.S. Patent Publication No. 2004-0056211 to Popiolkowski et al, published on Mar. 25, 2004, and filed on Jul. 17, 2003—both commonly assigned to Applied Materials, Inc, and both of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entireties. The Lavacoat™ surface comprises depressions and protrusions to which process residues can adhere to reduce the contamination of substrates during their processing.
  • While components having textured surfaces provide improved residue adherence over other types of process components, performance issues can arise when the components are cleaned to remove accumulated process residues. In an exemplary cleaning process, the component comprising the textured surface is immersed in a cleaning solution, such as an acidic solution. However, cleaning solutions that are capable of cleaning process residues can also erode the textured surface to alter the surface features, and consequently, reduce the adherence of process residues thereto. For example, textured component surfaces comprising aluminum and titanium can be eroded by an acidic solution of HNO3 and HF—which is used to remove tantalum-containing process residues from the component surfaces. Because the eroded surfaces can exhibit poor residue adhesion, the components may require replacement or refurbishment after only a few cleaning cycles, thereby increasing substrate processing costs and chamber downtime.
  • Accordingly, it is desirable to have a component comprising a textured surface that provides good adherence of process residues, to improve processing results and reduce contamination of substrates. It is further desirable to be able to effectively clean accumulated process residues from the component surface without erosion of the residues during cleaning. It is further desirable to have a method of fabricating a component having a textured surface that has improved erosion resistance during cleaning processes and provides good results in the processing of substrates.
  • SUMMARY
  • In one version, a component for a substrate processing chamber has a structure having an overlying metal coating. The metal coating has a plurality of electron beam textured features that are formed by scanning an electron beam across a surface of the metal coating. The textured features include a plurality of depressions and protuberances that are capable of accumulating process deposits during processing of a substrate to reduce contamination of the substrate. The component having the metal coating provides improved processing results, and exhibits reduced erosion during cleaning processes performed to remove process deposits from the component.
  • In another version, a process kit for a substrate processing chamber has a ring adapted to at least partially surround a substrate in the processing chamber. The ring is of a metallic material, and has a stainless steel coating. The stainless steel coating has electron beam textured features thereon, the electron beam textured features having a plurality of depressions and protuberances. The process kit provides improved erosion resistance in the substrate processing chamber.
  • In yet another version, a process chamber shield for a substrate processing chamber has a shield structure that is adapted to at least partially shield a process chamber wall. The shield structure is of a metallic material, and has a stainless steel coating. The stainless steel coating has electron beam textured features thereon, the electron beam textured features having a plurality of depressions and protuberances. The process chamber shield provides improved erosion resistance in the substrate processing chamber.
  • In another version, a method of fabricating a component for a substrate processing chamber includes providing a component structure and forming a metal coating on the component structure. An electron beam is scanned across a surface of the metal coating to form a plurality of textured features including depressions and protuberances on the surface. The metal coating can be formed by at least partially melting a coating material and propelling the coating material onto the component structure.
  • DRAWINGS
  • These features, aspects, and advantages of the present invention will become better understood with regard to the following description, appended claims, and accompanying drawings, which illustrate examples of the invention. However, it is to be understood that each of the features can be used in the invention in general, not merely in the context of the particular drawings, and the invention includes any combination of these features, where:
  • FIG. 1 a is a sectional side view of a component having a metal coating and a textured surface formed by scanning an electromagnetic energy beam across the layer;
  • FIG. 1 b is a sectional top view of an embodiment of the component of FIG. 1 a; and
  • FIG. 2 is a sectional side view of an embodiment of a substrate processing chamber having one or more components comprising electron beam textured features on a metal coating.
  • DESCRIPTION
  • A process chamber component 22 having a textured surface 20 is provided for the processing of substrates in an energized gas in a process chamber 106, as shown for example in FIGS. 1 a and 1 b. The component 22 having the textured surface reduces particle generation in the process chamber 106 by providing a “sticky” surface to which process deposits 24 adhere, thus allowing the deposits 24 to accumulate on the textured surface 20. Process deposits 24 that adhere to the textured surface 20 can include metal-containing deposits, such as deposits comprising at least one of tantalum, tantalum nitride, titanium, titanium nitride, aluminum, copper, tungsten, and tungsten nitride. The chamber components 22 having the textured surface 20 can comprise, for example, a portion of a gas delivery system 112 that provides process gas in the chamber 106, a substrate support 114 that supports the substrate 104 a in the chamber 106, a process kit 139, a gas energizer 116 that energizes the process gas, chamber enclosure walls 118 and shields 120, or a gas exhaust 122 that exhausts gas from the chamber 106.
  • Referring to FIG. 2, which illustrates an exemplary version of a physical vapor deposition chamber 106, components 22 having the textured surface 20 can include a chamber enclosure wall 118, a chamber shield 120, a target 124, a target rim 125, a component of a process kit 139 such as at least one of a cover ring 126 and a deposition ring 128, a support ring 130, insulator ring 132, a coil 135, coil support 137, shutter disk 104 b, clamp shield 141, and a portion of the substrate support 114. For example, components having the textured surface can include Applied Material's part numbers 0020-50007, 0020-50008, 0020-50010, 0020-50012, 0020-50013, 0020-48908, 0021-23852, 0020-48998, 0020-52149, 0020-51483, 0020-49977, 0020-52151, 0020-48999, 0020-48042 and 0190-14818, from Applied Materials, Santa Clara, Calif. This list of components is merely exemplary and the other components or components from other types of chambers can also have the textured surface, thus, the present invention should not be limited to the components listed or described herein.
  • In one version, one or more process chamber components 22 comprise a surface that is textured by scanning an electromagnetic energy beam 40 such as an electron beam 40 across the surface 20, to form electron beam textured features 25 on the surface. An example of such a textured surface 20 is that formed by a Lavacoat™ process, as described for example in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/653,713 to West, et al, filed on Sep. 2, 2003, entitled “Fabricating and Cleaning Chamber Components Having Textured Surfaces,” and aforementioned U.S. Patent Publication Nos. 2003/0173526 and 2004/0056211, all commonly assigned to Applied Materials, Inc., and all of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entireties. The electron beam textured features 25 of the Lavacoat™ process comprise a plurality of depressions 23 and protuberances 26 to which process deposits 24 generated during processing can adhere, as shown for example in FIG. 1 a.
  • The Lavacoat™ textured surface 20 can be formed by generating an electromagnetic energy beam 40, such as an electron beam 40, and directing the beam onto the surface 20 of the component 22. While the electromagnetic energy beam is preferably an electron beam, it can also comprise protons, neutrons and X-rays and the like. The beam 40 is typically focused on a region of the surface 20 for a period of time, during which time the beam 40 interacts with the surface 20 to form the textured features 25 on the surface 20. It is believed that the beam 40 forms the features 25 by rapidly heating the region of the surface 20, typically to a melting temperature of the surface material. At least a portion of the surface material may even be evaporated or ablated from the surface 20 by the rapid heating. The rapid heating causes some of the surface material to be ejected outwards, which forms depressions 23 in the regions the material was ejected from, and protuberances 26 in areas where the ejected material re-deposits. After the desired features in the region are formed, the beam 40 is scanned to a different region of the component surface 20 to form features in the new region.
  • The electromagnetic energy beam 40 can be scanned across the surface 20 to form a desired pattern of textured features 25 on the surface 20, such as a honeycomb-like structure of depressions 23 and protuberances 26, as shown for example in FIG. 1 a. The features 25 formed by this method are typically macroscopically sized. For example, the depressions 23 can have a depth d as measured from a base level 28 of the surface 20 of from about 20 micrometers to about 1600 micrometers. A surface diameter w of the depressions 23 may be from about 120 micrometers to about 2600 micrometers and even from about 200 micrometers to about 2300 micrometers. The protuberances 26 can comprise a height h above the base surface 28 of from about 50 micrometers to about 1600 micrometers, and even from about 100 micrometers to about 1200 micrometers. The Lavacoat™ textured surface 20 can have an overall surface roughness average of from about 60 micrometers to about 100 micrometers, the roughness average of the surface 20 being defined as the mean of the absolute values of the displacements from the mean line of the features along the surface 20. The textured surface 20 can also be further roughened after scanning with the electromagnetic energy beam 40 to provide different levels of texture on the surface 20, as described for example in the patent applications to Popiolkowski et al. and West et al. that are incorporated by reference above. For example, the surface 20 can be grit blasted by propelling grit particles towards the surface 20 with pressurized gas, or can be chemically roughened, to form a relatively fine texture overlying the macroscopically sized features 25 on the surface 20. The roughened surface 20 improves the adhesion of process deposits 24 to reduce contamination of the processed substrates 104 a.
  • In one version, the textured surface 20 can be formed on a metal coating 30 on the component 22, as shown for example in FIG. 1 a. The metal coating 30 desirably comprises a material that is resistant to erosion by the energized gases provided to process a substrate 104 a or clean the process chamber 106, and is also desirably resistant to erosion from cleaning solutions that may be used to clean the component 20, such as acidic or basic cleaning solutions. The metal coating 30 can be formed on a surface 33 of an underlying structure 32 of the component 30 to protect the underlying structure 32. For example, the underlying structure 32 may comprise a first material having desired properties, such as desired thermal and mechanical properties, and the metal coating 30 may comprise a second material having higher erosion resistance than the first material. The metal coating 30 may also comprise a material that can be treated to provide a desired texture of the metal coating surface, such as for example a desired roughness or textured pattern on the surface 20, that could not otherwise be desirably provided by the material of the underlying structure 32. For example, the material of the metal coating may be selected to allow for a finer or rougher texturing of the metal coating surface 20. A suitable material for the metal coating 30 can be selected with respect to the substrate processing requirements to provide the desired properties, and can comprise for example at least one of stainless steel, copper, nickel, tantalum and titanium.
  • A material having suitable properties for the underlying structure 32 may be a metallic material, such as for example at least one of titanium, stainless steel; copper, tantalum and aluminum; and can also comprise a ceramic material, such as at least one of aluminum oxide, aluminum nitride, and quartz. The underlying structure is selected according to desired properties such as desired thermal and mechanical properties. For example, an underlying structure 32 comprising aluminum may be desirable because aluminum is typically a relatively cheap material having good thermal conductivity. An underlying structure 32 comprising stainless steel may provide good erosion resistance and thermal conductivity. An underlying structure 32 comprising titanium may provide a desired relatively low thermal coefficient of expansion. Also, an underlying structure 32 comprising copper may provide good thermal conductivity as well as a relatively low thermal coefficient of expansion. Underlying structures 32 comprising a ceramic material, such as aluminum oxide, may provide a desired level of thermal insulation and/or thermal conductivity, and a desired relatively low thermal coefficient of expansion. In one suitable embodiment, a metal coating 30 comprising stainless steel is formed over an underlying structure 32 comprising aluminum or titanium, such as a process kit or shield structure, to provide a component 22 having a textured surface 20 with improved erosion resistance while maintaining the desired overall mechanical and thermal properties of the component 22. In another suitable embodiment, a metal coating 30 comprising stainless steel is formed over an underlying structure 32 comprising aluminum oxide.
  • In one version, the metal coating 30 can be providing by spraying a coating of material over the surface 33 of the underlying component structure 32. Suitable spraying methods can include thermal spraying methods, such as for example at least one of HVOF (high velocity oxygen fuel), flame spraying, plasma spraying, twin wire or single wire arc spraying, welding methods such as TIG, and other thermal spraying methods, which are capable of forming well-bonded coatings. In a typical thermal spraying method, the coating material in powder or wire form is heated to a molten or near-molten state, for example by a torch. A pressurized gas is used to propel the coating material onto the surface 33 of the underlying structure 32. For example, in the HVOF method, an HVOF spray gun ignites an oxygen-fuel mixture to heat and at least partially melt the coating material as it is propelled towards the structure surface 33. A HVOF spray gun that may be suitable for forming the metal coating 30 is the HVOF spray gun available from Sulzer Metco Holding AG in Winterthur, Switzerland. Alternatively, the metal coating 30 can be formed by other methods, such as by electroplating metal coating material on the underlying structure 32, or by a physical or chemical vapor deposition method.
  • The metal coating 30 desirably comprises a thickness that is sufficiently high to provide good erosion resistance and allow for the formation of the textured features 25 on the surface 20 of the coating 30. The metal coating 30 is desirably also sufficiently thin to provide good adhesion of the coating 30 to the underlying structure 32 to inhibit spalling or flaking of the coating 30 from the structure. A suitable thickness may be a thickness of the metal coating 30 may from about 120 micrometers to about 2600 micrometers, such as from about 500 micrometers to about 1300 micrometers. The metal coating 30 can be formed over substantially the entire surface 33 of the underlying structure 32, or on selected portions of the structure surface 33 that are, for example, especially susceptible to erosion, or that tend to accumulate large quantities of process deposits 24. Once the metal coating 30 has been formed, the coating 30 can be textured, for example by scanning an electron beam 40 across the surface 20 of the coating 30, to form the textured features 25 that are capable of collecting process deposits during the processing of substrates 104 a. The textured features 25 are desirably formed substantially entirely in the metal coating 30, and substantially without exposing the underlying structure 32, as shown for example in FIG. 1 a.
  • The component 22 comprising the metal coating 30 having the textured surface 20 can be cleaned after processing a predetermined number of substrates 104 a to remove process deposits 24 that have accumulated on the textured surface 20, such as tantalum-containing deposits. For example, the textured surface 20 of the component 22 can be immersed in a cleaning solution, such as an acidic solution of 20% by weight HF and 80% by weight HNO3, to clean the process deposits 24. Any exposed regions of the surface 33 of the underlying structure 32 that are not covered by the metal coating 30 can be masked with a protective material, such as a polyester-based material, to protect the regions from erosion by the cleaning solution. An example of a protective material may be polyester tape (plater's tape) commercially available from 3M™, United States. Other cleaning solutions and steps may also be provided, such as rinsing with de-ionized water, ultrasonicating, baking or immersing in other chemical cleaning solutions.
  • The component 22 having the metal coating 30 with the textured surface 20 provides improved results over components 22 without the metal coating 30. For example, a component 22 having a metal coating 30 with an electron beam textured surface 20 that comprises stainless steel, and that is formed over an underlying structure 32 comprising aluminum or titanium, can be cleaned in a cleaning solution comprising HF and HNO3 and recycled for re-use in the process chamber 106 at least about 10 times, while continuing to provide good processing results in the chamber 106. In contrast, a component 22 without a metal coating 30, such as a component 22 consisting of aluminum and having an electron beam textured surface 20, is typically capable of being cleaned and re-cycled for re-use in the process chamber 106 no more than about 3 times, before the erosion of the component 22 becomes too severe to provide good processing results.
  • An example of a suitable process chamber 106 having a component 22 with a metal coating 30 and electron beam textured features 25 and is shown in FIG. 2. The chamber 106 can be a part of a multi-chamber platform (not shown) having a cluster of interconnected chambers connected by a robot arm mechanism that transfers substrates 104 a between the chambers 106. In the version shown, the process chamber 106 comprises a sputter deposition chamber, also called a physical vapor deposition or PVD chamber, which is capable of sputter depositing material on a substrate 104 a, such as one or more of tantalum, tantalum nitride, titanium, titanium nitride, copper, tungsten, tungsten nitride and aluminum. The chamber 106 comprises enclosure walls 118 that enclose a process zone 109, and that include sidewalls 164, a bottom wall 166, and a ceiling 168. A support ring 130 can be arranged between the sidewalls 164 and ceiling 168 to support the ceiling 168. Other chamber walls can include one or more shields 120 that shield the enclosure walls 118 from the sputtering environment.
  • The chamber 106 comprises a substrate support 114 to support substrates 104 a in the sputter deposition chamber 106. The substrate support 114 may be electrically floating or may comprise an electrode 170 that is biased by a power supply 172, such as an RF power supply. The substrate support 114 can also support other wafers 104 such as a moveable shutter disk 104 b that can protect the upper surface 134 of the support 114 when the substrate 104 a is not present. In operation, the substrate 104 a is introduced into the chamber 106 through a substrate loading inlet (not shown) in a sidewall 164 of the chamber 106 and placed on the support 114. The support 114 can be lifted or lowered by support lift bellows and a lift finger assembly (not shown) can be used to lift and lower the substrate onto the support 114 during transport of the substrate 104 a into and out of the chamber 106.
  • The support 114 may also comprise a process kit 139 one or more rings, such as a cover ring 126 and a deposition ring 128, which cover at least a portion of the upper surface 134 of the support 114 to inhibit erosion of the support 114. In one version, the deposition ring 128 at least partially surrounds the substrate 104 a to protect portions of the support 114 not covered by the substrate 104 a. The cover ring 126 encircles and covers at least a portion of the deposition ring 128, and reduces the deposition of particles onto both the deposition ring 128 and the underlying support 114.
  • A process gas, such as a sputtering gas, is introduced into the chamber 106 through a gas delivery system 112 that includes a process gas supply comprising one or more gas sources 174 that each feed a conduit 176 having a gas flow control valve 178, such as a mass flow controller, to pass a set flow rate of the gas therethrough. The conduits 176 can feed the gases to a mixing manifold (not shown) in which the gases are mixed to from a desired process gas composition. The mixing manifold feeds a gas distributor 180 having one or more gas outlets 182 in the chamber 106. The process gas may comprise a non-reactive gas, such as argon or xenon, which is capable of energetically impinging upon and sputtering material from a target. The process gas may also comprise a reactive gas, such as one or more of an oxygen-containing gas and a nitrogen-containing gas, that are capable of reacting with the sputtered material to form a layer on the substrate 104 a. Spent process gas and byproducts are exhausted from the chamber 106 through an exhaust 122 which includes one or more exhaust ports 184 that receive spent process gas and pass the spent gas to an exhaust conduit 186 in which there is a throttle valve 188 to control the pressure of the gas in the chamber 106. The exhaust conduit 186 feeds one or more exhaust pumps 190. Typically, the pressure of the sputtering gas in the chamber 106 is set to sub-atmospheric levels.
  • The sputtering chamber 106 further comprises a sputtering target 124 facing a surface 105 of the substrate 104 a, and comprising material to be sputtered onto the substrate 104 a, such as for example at least one of tantalum and tantalum nitride. The target 124 is electrically isolated from the chamber 106 by an annular insulator ring 132, and is connected to a power supply 192. The sputtering chamber 106 also has a shield 120 to protect a wall 118 of the chamber 106 from sputtered material. The shield 120 can comprise a wall-like cylindrical shape having upper and lower shield sections 120 a, 120 b that shield the upper and lower regions of the chamber 106. In the version shown in FIG. 2, the shield 120 has an upper section 120 a mounted to the support ring 130 and a lower section 120 b that is fitted to the cover ring 126. A clamp shield 141 comprising a clamping ring can also be provided to clamp the upper and lower shield sections 120 a,b together. Alternative shield configurations, such as inner and outer shields, can also be provided. In one version, one or more of the power supply 192, target 124, and shield 120, operate as a gas energizer 116 that is capable of energizing the sputtering gas to sputter material from the target 124. The power supply 192 applies a bias voltage to the target 124 with respect to the shield 120. The electric field generated in the chamber 106 from the applied voltage energizes the sputtering gas to form a plasma that energetically impinges upon and bombards the target 124 to sputter material off the target 124 and onto the substrate 104 a. The support 114 having the electrode 170 and support electrode power supply 172 may also operate as part of the gas energizer 116 by energizing and accelerating ionized material sputtered from the target 124 towards the substrate 104 a. Furthermore, a gas energizing coil 135 can be provided that is powered by a power supply 192 and that is positioned within the chamber 106 to provide enhanced energized gas characteristics, such as improved energized gas density. The gas energizing coil 135 can be supported by a coil support 137 that is attached to a shield 120 or other wall in the chamber 106.
  • The chamber 106 can be controlled by a controller 194 that comprises program code having instruction sets to operate components of the chamber 106 to process substrates 104 a in the chamber 106. For example, the controller 194 can comprise a substrate positioning instruction set to operate one or more of the substrate support 114 and substrate transport to position a substrate 104 a in the chamber 106; a gas flow control instruction set to operate the flow control valves 178 to set a flow of sputtering gas to the chamber 106; a gas pressure control instruction set to operate the exhaust throttle valve 188 to maintain a pressure in the chamber 106; a gas energizer control instruction set to operate the gas energizer 116 to set a gas energizing power level; a temperature control instruction set to control temperatures in the chamber 106; and a process monitoring instruction set to monitor the process in the chamber 106.
  • Although exemplary embodiments of the present invention are shown and described, those of ordinary skill in the art may devise other embodiments which incorporate the present invention, and which are also within the scope of the present invention. For example, the features 25 can be formed on the surface 20 by means other than those specifically described. Also, the metal coating 30 may comprise materials other than those described, and may be formed by alternative suitable methods. Furthermore, relative or positional terms shown with respect to the exemplary embodiments are interchangeable. Therefore, the appended claims should not be limited to the descriptions of the preferred versions, materials, or spatial arrangements described herein to illustrate the invention.

Claims (18)

  1. 1. A component for a substrate processing chamber, the component comprising:
    (a) a component structure;
    (b) a metal coating on the component structure; and
    (c) electron beam textured features on the metal coating, the electron beam textured features comprising a plurality of depressions and protuberances,
    whereby the component provides improved erosion resistance in the substrate processing chamber.
  2. 2. A component according to claim 1 wherein the metal coating comprises at least one of stainless steel, copper, nickel, tantalum and titanium.
  3. 3. A component according to claim 2 wherein the metal coating comprises a sprayed coating that is formed by at least partially melting coating material and propelling the coating material onto the component structure.
  4. 4. A component according to claim 1 wherein the metal coating has a thickness of from about 120 micrometers to about 2600 micrometers.
  5. 5. A component according to claim 1 wherein the electron beam textured features comprise depressions having (i) a depth of from about 20 micrometers to about 1600 micrometers, and (ii) a surface diameter of from about 120 micrometers to about 2600 micrometers, and protuberances comprising a height of from about 50 micrometers to about 1600 micrometers.
  6. 6. A component according to claim 1 wherein the component comprises at least one of a chamber enclosure wall, a chamber shield, a target, a target rim, a cover ring, a deposition ring, a support ring, an insulator ring, a coil, a coil support, a shutter disk, a clamp shield, and a portion of a substrate support.
  7. 7. A substrate processing chamber comprising the component of claim 1, the chamber comprising a substrate support, gas delivery system, gas energizer and exhaust.
  8. 8. A process kit for a substrate processing chamber, the process kit comprising:
    (a) a ring adapted to at least partially surround a substrate in the processing chamber, the ring comprising a metallic material;
    (b) a stainless steel coating on the ring; and
    (c) electron beam textured features on the stainless steel coating, the electron beam textured features comprising a plurality of depressions and protuberances,
    whereby the process kit provides improved erosion resistance in the substrate processing chamber.
  9. 9. A component according to claim 8 wherein the electron beam textured features comprise depressions having (i) a depth of from about 20 micrometers to about 1600 micrometers, and (ii) a surface diameter of from about 120 micrometers to about 2600 micrometers, and protuberances comprising a height of from about 50 micrometers to about 1600 micrometers.
  10. 10. A component according to claim 8 wherein the ring comprises a metallic material comprising at least one of titanium, stainless steel, copper, tantalum and aluminum.
  11. 11. A process chamber shield for a substrate processing chamber, the shield comprising:
    (a) a shield structure adapted to at least partially shield a process chamber wall, the shield structure comprising a metallic material;
    (b) a stainless steel coating on the shield structure; and
    (c) electron beam textured features on the stainless steel coating, the electron beam textured features comprising a plurality of depressions and protuberances,
    whereby the process chamber shield provides improved erosion resistance in the substrate processing chamber.
  12. 12. A component according to claim 11 wherein the electron beam textured features comprise depressions having (i) a depth of from about 20 micrometers to about 1600 micrometers, and (ii) a surface diameter of from about 120 micrometers to about 2600 micrometers, and protuberances comprising a height of from about 50 micrometers to about 1600 micrometers.
  13. 13. A component according to claim 11 wherein the shield structure comprises a metallic material comprising at least one of titanium, stainless steel, copper, tantalum and aluminum.
  14. 14. A method of fabricating a component for a substrate processing chamber, the method comprising:
    (a) providing a component structure;
    (b) forming a metal coating on the component structure, the metal coating having a surface; and
    (c) scanning an electron beam across the surface to form a plurality of electron beam textured features comprising depressions and protuberances in the surface.
  15. 15. A method according to claim 14 wherein (b) comprises forming a metal coating comprising at least one of stainless steel, copper, nickel, tantalum and titanium.
  16. 16. A method according to claim 14 wherein (b) comprises spraying a metal coating on the component structure by at least partially melting coating material and propelling the coating material onto the structure.
  17. 17. A method according to claim 14 wherein (b) comprises forming a metal coating having a thickness of from about 120 micrometers to about 2600 micrometers.
  18. 18. A method according to claim 14 wherein (c) comprises scanning an electron beam across the surface to form a plurality of electron beam textured features comprising depressions having (i) a depth of from about 20 micrometers to about 1600 micrometers, and (ii) a surface diameter of from about 120 micrometers to about 2600 micrometers, and protuberances having a height of from about 50 micrometers to about 1600 micrometers.
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NL2014497A (en) * 2015-03-20 2016-10-10 Asm Int Nv Method for cleaning deposition apparatus.

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