US20060096236A1 - Structural wall apparatuses, systems, and methods - Google Patents

Structural wall apparatuses, systems, and methods Download PDF

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Publication number
US20060096236A1
US20060096236A1 US11/268,970 US26897005A US2006096236A1 US 20060096236 A1 US20060096236 A1 US 20060096236A1 US 26897005 A US26897005 A US 26897005A US 2006096236 A1 US2006096236 A1 US 2006096236A1
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Prior art keywords
foundation
studs
stud
coupling
leg
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US11/268,970
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Clark Martens
David Martens
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FORT PITT GROUP LP
TITAL STRUCTURAL LLC
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TITAN STRUCTURAL LLC
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Priority to US62518704P priority Critical
Priority to US65512805P priority
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Priority to US11/268,970 priority patent/US20060096236A1/en
Assigned to TITAL STRUCTURAL L.L.C. reassignment TITAL STRUCTURAL L.L.C. ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: MARTENS, CLARK M., MARTENS, DAVID C.
Priority claimed from CA 2541557 external-priority patent/CA2541557A1/en
Publication of US20060096236A1 publication Critical patent/US20060096236A1/en
Assigned to FORT PITT GROUP, LP reassignment FORT PITT GROUP, LP ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: TITAN STRUCTURAL, LLC
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B5/00Floors; Floor construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted therefor
    • E04B5/02Load-carrying floor structures formed substantially of prefabricated units
    • E04B5/04Load-carrying floor structures formed substantially of prefabricated units with beams or slabs of concrete or other stone-like material, e.g. asbestos cement
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02DFOUNDATIONS; EXCAVATIONS; EMBANKMENTS; UNDERGROUND OR UNDERWATER STRUCTURES
    • E02D27/00Foundations as substructures
    • E02D27/01Flat foundations
    • E02D27/02Flat foundations without substantial excavation
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/0007Base structures; Cellars

Abstract

Methods, systems, and apparatuses for a foundation wall.

Description

    FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • This invention is related to building construction, and more particularly to the construction of walls that may be prefabricated and may be foundation walls 302 or other walls that are positioned partially or fully underground.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • Concrete block and poured concrete foundation walls are thought to account for over 97 percent of existing building foundation walls. Most of the remaining 3 percent of foundation walls are thought to be constructed from precast concrete. Thus, there is thought to be a need for a cost effective multi-material wall that is designed to support earth and that may be prefabricated and quickly erected on a building site.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • The accompanying drawings, wherein like reference numerals are employed to designate like components, are included to provide a further understanding of foundation wall apparatuses, systems, and methods, are incorporated in and constitute a part of this specification, and illustrate embodiments of a foundation wall apparatuses, systems, and methods that together with the description serve to explain the principles of foundation wall apparatuses, systems and methods.
  • Various other objects, features and advantages of the invention will be readily apparent according to the following description exemplified by the drawings, which are shown by way of example only, wherein:
  • FIG. 1 illustrates a perspective view of an embodiment of a structure in which a foundation wall is included;
  • FIG. 2 illustrates a perspective view of an embodiment of a foundation wall;
  • FIG. 3 illustrates a cross-sectional view of a lower portion of an embodiment of a foundation wall at a stud;
  • FIG. 4 illustrates a cross-sectional view of an upper portion of the foundation wall at a stud of FIG. 3;
  • FIG. 5 illustrates a top, cross-sectional view of an embodiment of a foundation wall;
  • FIG. 6 illustrates a side, cross-sectional view of an upper portion of an embodiment of a foundation wall between studs;
  • FIG. 7 illustrates a top, cross-sectional view of an embodiment of a foundation wall;
  • FIG. 8 illustrates a side view of an embodiment of a snap fit attachment;
  • FIG. 9 illustrates a top view of an embodiment of a foundation wall that includes a corner;
  • FIG. 10 illustrates a top view of an embodiment of a foundation wall that includes a corner;
  • FIG. 11 illustrates side views of embodiments of studs and legs;
  • FIG. 12 illustrates a side view of an embodiment of a stud;
  • FIG. 13 illustrates a top view of an embodiment of a foundation wall;
  • FIG. 14 illustrates a side view of an embodiment of an upper portion of a brick ledge stud;
  • FIG. 15 illustrates a side view of a lower portion of the brick ledge stud of FIG. 14;
  • FIG. 16 illustrates a top view of an embodiment of a portion of a foundation wall including a corner support element;
  • FIG. 17 illustrates a top view of an embodiment of a portion of a foundation wall including a corner support element;
  • FIG. 18 illustrates a top view of an embodiment of a portion of a foundation wall including a corner support element;
  • FIG. 19 illustrates a top view of an embodiment of a portion of a foundation wall including a corner support element;
  • FIG. 20 illustrates a top view of an embodiment of a foundation wall;
  • FIG. 21 illustrates a front view of an embodiment of a window support configuration;
  • FIG. 22 illustrates a top view of the window support configuration of FIG. 21;
  • FIG. 23 illustrates a front view of an embodiment of a beam pocket;
  • FIG. 24 illustrates a top view of the beam pocket of FIG. 23;
  • FIG. 25 illustrates a front view of an embodiment of a beam pocket;
  • FIG. 26 illustrates a top view of the beam pocket of FIG. 25;
  • FIG. 27 illustrates a front view of an embodiment of a foundation wall including adjacent foundation wall panels;
  • FIG. 28 illustrates a side view of an embodiment of a portion of a foundation wall supporting an attached garage floor; and
  • FIG. 29 illustrates a top view of the embodiment of a foundation wall portion supporting an attached garage floor of FIG. 28.
  • FIG. 30 is a flow chart of one embodiment of a process for manufacturing concrete components of a foundation wall.
  • FIG. 31 is a flow chart of one embodiment of a corner manufacturing process;
  • FIG. 32 is a flow chart of one embodiment of a footer element manufacturing process.
  • FIG. 33 is a flow chart of one embodiment of a metal element manufacturing process.
  • FIG. 34 is a flow chart of one embodiment of a non-concrete and non-steel manufacturing process.
  • FIG. 35 is a flow chart of one embodiment of a foundation wall panel manufacturing process.
  • FIG. 36 is a flow chart of an embodiment of a foundation wall panel transport and install process.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • Reference will now be made to embodiments of foundation wall apparatuses, systems, and methods, examples of which are illustrated in the accompanying drawings. Details, features, and advantages of the foundation wall apparatuses, systems, and methods will become further apparent in the following detailed description of embodiments thereof.
  • As used herein, a “foundation wall” refers to a wall that is positioned partially or fully underground. A “foundation wall” may comprise a portion or all of a basement wall, frost wall, garage wall, and/or other partially or fully underground wall. The foundation wall may include one or more components described herein with respect to foundation walls, such as, for example, support elements including foundations, footers, elements that secure or facilitate the securing of portions of the foundation wall to other structures, and/or elements that accommodate the inclusion of elements of a structure, such as, for example, doors, windows, driveways, brick and other facades, supports such as support beams, the extension of wiring or pipes through the foundation wall, and/or other elements.
  • Any reference in the specification to “one embodiment,” “a certain embodiment,” or a similar reference to an embodiment is intended to indicate that a particular feature, structure or characteristic described in connection with the embodiment is included in at least one embodiment of the invention. The appearances of such terms in various places in the specification do not necessarily all refer to the same embodiment. References to “or” are furthermore intended as inclusive, so “or” may indicate one or another of the ored terms or more than one ored term.
  • Concrete block foundation walls are generally constructed using preformed masonry units assembled on site by masons or bricklayers. Poured concrete foundation walls are generally “poured” on site into a removable set of panels called forms. Both concrete block foundation walls and poured concrete foundation walls may include internal steel reinforcing bars to add tensile strength. Likewise, both of these types of foundation walls may be coated with a waterproofing layer or insulated. Both concrete block and poured concrete foundation walls, however, are thought to have significant drawbacks including a high cost and time consuming formation. Construction of such concrete block or poured concrete foundation walls during cold weather can also add significant delays and subsequent cost to the installation of these types of foundation walls, and temperatures near or below freezing can halt all work.
  • Unlike other components such as windows, lumber, and other building materials that are purchased on national accounts, concrete block and concrete foundation wall components are typically purchased from local installers, which can also cause their construction to be expensive.
  • Foundation walls may be constructed by pouring concrete into formwork that stays in place as part of the foundation walls. The formwork may be either an insulation component or hollow PVC sleeves. These foundation walls may take as long as two weeks to construct at the construction site, are typically more expensive, and offer few advantages.
  • Embodiments of foundation wall apparatuses, systems, and methods are described below. The foundation wall apparatuses, systems, and methods may pertain to a foundation wall, may be fully engineered, and may be factory built. The foundation wall apparatuses, systems, and methods may be included or employed in a basement of a residential building, light commercial building, and/or another structure. Embodiments may use readily available materials and manufacturing techniques to construct a foundation wall that may be partially or completely waterproof and internally insulated. Embodiments may meet all building codes and may be ordered to be custom fabricated, and installed in hours or days, rather than weeks. Embodiments may facilitate the building of a foundation wall for each specific building at regional assembly facilities. Each foundation wall or wall panel may be engineered and constructed to withstand both the axial load of the building in which it is installed and the transverse load of ground or other loads incident thereon.
  • FIG. 1 is a perspective view of an embodiment of a structure 300 in which an embodiment of a foundation wall 302 is included. The structure 300 may include components typically found in a residential building, light commercial building, or other building or structure. The structure 300 may include a subterranean base, such as the foundation 304, which may form a base for a basement wall, for example. The foundation 304 may include, in different embodiments, concrete, which may be poured on-site, compacted stone, and/or another material, and may include a drain, such as the drain 305 shown in the foundation 304 of FIG. 3. The foundation wall 302 may, along with a basement or other floor 306 and a ceiling, base for one or more additional floors 308, or other structure, enclose an interior 310 portion of the structure 300. The floor 306 may, for example, comprise concrete, may be a floor slab on grade, and may be formed by pouring the concrete on-site. The interior 310 may be an interior of a basement or portion thereof, or may be the interior of another room, floor, or structure.
  • The foundation wall 302 may be shaped such that it encloses a rectangular area or another shaped area. For example, the foundation wall 302 may be shaped with various angles or curves, as desired. In one embodiment, the foundation wall 302 in FIG. 1 is shaped such that the angles {circle around (1)}, {circle around (2)}, and {circle around (3)} are right or close to right angles, and the angles {circle around (4)} and {circle around (5)} are obtuse angles. In another embodiment as shown in FIG. 20, a foundation wall 902, which may include one or more components described with respect to the foundation wall 302, is shaped as shown, and may be structured to include walls of a garage 904, for example. The foundation wall, such as the foundation wall 302 or foundation wall 902, may be variously shaped as desired.
  • The foundation wall 302 may, in various embodiments, be further or alternatively shaped to accommodate the inclusion of various building items, such as windows and doors. For example, the foundation wall 302 may be formed with openings 312 and 314 into which windows and window sills may be installed. The foundation wall 302 may also or alternatively be formed to surround an opening 316 into which a door and door sill may be installed.
  • The foundation wall 302, in one embodiment, includes first through fourth surfaces 320, 322, 324, and-326, respectively, which, in the embodiment illustrated in FIG. 1, may be referred to as a top surface 320, a bottom surface 322, an inner surface 324 that faces the interior 310 of the structure 300, and an outer surface 326 that faces away from the interior 310 of the structure 300 toward space 328 exterior to the structure 300. The outer surface 326 may be designed to bear a lateral load, such as earth or fill, that may be backfilled against that outer surface 326 during or after construction of a basement or other subterranean structure. The foundation wall 302 may, however, be used in various applications where only part or even none of the outer surface 326 is bearing a lateral load. For example, a portion of the foundation wall 302 may extend through the interior 310 of the structure 300 in place of a beam 329 to provide support for joists or another base for one or more additional floors 308.
  • The inner surface 324 may be formed for attachment of finish material, such as paneling, dry wall, or plaster to create a finished interior surface. Where a portion of the foundation wall extends through the interior 310 of the structure 300, the exterior surface may also be fitted for attachment of finish materials.
  • In the embodiment illustrated in FIG. 1, the top surface 320, bottom surface 322, inner surface 324, and the outer surface 326 outline the perimeter of the foundation wall 302. The bottom surface 322 may extend below the upper surface of the floor 306 when, for example, the floor 306 is poured or otherwise constructed after the foundation wall 302 is erected. Such construction of the floor 306 above the bottom surface 322 of the foundation wall 302 may provide further structural support for the foundation wall 302.
  • FIGS. 2-5 show sections of an embodiment of a foundation wall 302 and portions of a structure 300 in which the foundation wall 302 may be included. In this embodiment, the foundation wall 302 includes studs 330 and stud coupling elements 420.
  • FIG. 2 shows a perspective view of the foundation wall 302 embodiment. In this embodiment, the studs 330 are elongated members whose lengths are vertically positioned in the wall. The vertical position may be perpendicular to the top surface 320 and/or bottom surface 322, or may have another position. The studs 330 may have rectangular cross sections such as shown from the view of FIGS. 3 and 4 and from the view of FIG. 5, or the cross sections may have other shapes.
  • The studs 330 may also be dimensioned as desired. For example, in one embodiment, one or more of the studs 330 are each 8 feet, 2 inches long and have a rectangular cross section, such as shown in FIG. 5, with dimensions S1=2.5 inches and S2=8.5 inches. In another embodiment, one or more of the studs 330 are 9 feet, 2 inches long and have a rectangular cross section, as shown in FIG. 5, with dimensions S1=2.5 inches and S2=6.5 inches. The foundation wall 302 may include a plurality of studs 330 spaced at regular intervals, such as on approximately 16 or 24 inch centers. Where a length of a foundation wall is not a multiple of the regular interval, one or more of the studs may be spaced at other than the regular interval. One or more studs having different dimensions and/or non-uniform cross-sectional shapes may be used in addition to or in place of studs having rectangular cross-sections. Representative embodiments of studs are described below with respect to FIG. 11, although studs having other dimensions and shapes may be used as desired for various desired structures.
  • Each stud 330 may comprise concrete and may be precast or extruded. The concrete may be, for example, a concrete composite. For example, each stud 330 may be a concrete/steel composite in which steel, such as steel reinforcement bar, is embedded or otherwise formed with the concrete. The steel may include one or more reinforcing elements, such as one or more vertically embedded reinforcing elements 332 that reinforce the stud 330. In one embodiment, the one or more reinforcing elements 332 are elongated, and may be cylindrical, or “rod” shaped. The one or more reinforcing elements 332 may comprise or consist of a metal, such as #3, #4, or #5 rebar, for example, and may be pretensioned to facilitate support of a compressive axial load to the one or more reinforcing elements 332.
  • In one embodiment, the one or more reinforcing elements 332 of the stud 330 protrude from the bottom surface 322. The protruding portion of each reinforcing element 332 may be formed with the foundation 304 and/or a footer element, such as the footer element 360 described below. The protruding portion or portions may facilitate carrying and transporting the stud 330 by hand or by other means.
  • The studs 330 may be spaced apart, as shown in FIGS. 2 and 5, at a desired spacing. For example, in one embodiment the center-to-center spacing between adjacent studs 330, or the distance D1 between the centers C1 and C2 of the studs 330 shown in FIG. 5 is 16 inches. In another embodiment, this distance D1 is 24 inches. The spacing may vary between different adjacent studs 330. In one embodiment, the spacing between adjacent studs 330 near corners of the foundation wall 302 is different than the spacing between adjacent studs 330 along a straight portion of the foundation wall 302. For example, the embodiment of FIG. 9, which shows a portion of a foundation wall 302 near a corner 350 that has an angle {circle around (1)} of 45 or close to 45 degrees, the studs 330 adjacent the corner 350 have a center-to center distance D2 that is less than the center-to-center distance D1 between adjacent studs along a straight portion of the foundation wall 302. Additionally, the studs adjacent the corner 350 may be differently oriented, such that {circle around (2)} from stud to stud creates an angle that is 45 or close to 45 degrees in this embodiment. The corner 350 may, however, create another angle, such as 22.5 degrees in one example, with respect to the studs 330 to which the corner 350 is coupled.
  • In another example, as shown in the embodiment of FIG. 10, the foundation wall 302 includes a corner 352 that has an angle {circle around (3)} of 90 or close to 90 degrees. The center-to-center spacing D3 between the studs 330 adjacent the corner 352 may be different, such as closer, than the center-to-center spacing D1 between the studs 330 along a straight portion of the foundation wall 302. Additionally, the studs 330 adjacent the corner 352 in this embodiment are differently oriented, such that {circle around (4)} is 90 or close to 90 degrees. In another embodiment, the studs 330 adjacent the corner 350 or the corner 352 may be differently oriented such that {circle around (2)} and {circle around (4)} are different than {circle around (1)} and {circle around (3)}, respectively.
  • FIGS. 16 and 17 illustrate embodiments of the foundation wall 302 that include a corner support element 700. In FIG. 16, a portion of the foundation wall 302 is formed to meet another portion of the foundation wall 302 at a 90 or close to 90 degree corner such that {circle around (5)} is 90 or close to 90 degrees. Either portion of that foundation wall 302 may include the corner support element 700 such that the corner support element 700 faces and may be fastened to the other portion of the foundation wall 302. The corner support element 700 may be, for example, dimensioned with a length equal or close to the length of adjacent studs 330, such as described herein. The corner support element 700 may be constructed of concrete or may include a concrete portion 702, an affixed flexible portion, such as a foam layer 704, which may include one or more foam materials such as described herein, and a nailer 706, which may comprise pressure treated wood or light gauge steel channel, for example, or another material or materials. The foam layer 704 may reduce the weight of the corner support element 700 while retaining the intended corner configuration of the corner support element 700.
  • The concrete portion 702 may have a stepped configuration, such that the foam layer 704 and/or nailer is set atop the lower step of the concrete portion 702. In one embodiment where the concrete portion 702 has a stepped configuration, the foam layer 704 may be not included or removed such that the lower step may be employed as a shelf for placement of brick fascia, for example. The corner support element 700 may also include one or more finishes and/or other layers, such as finish layers 368 and/or protective layer 366 described herein. The corner support element 700 may also be formed with an element that secures the corner support element 700 to the studs 330, such as an anchor bolt 708. The studs 330 may include apertures through which the anchor bolt 708 may extend, or the anchor bolt 708 may be formed with one or both of the studs 330 and the corner support element 700.
  • In the embodiment illustrated in FIG. 16, the corner support element 700 and adjacent studs 330 may be formed to create a shelf 709 for placement of brick fascia or other material on an inside corner. In the embodiment illustrated in FIG. 17, the corner support element 700 and adjacent studs 330 may be formed to create a shelf 709 for placement of brick fascia or other material on an outside corner.
  • In another embodiment, as shown in FIG. 18, a corner support element 710 includes a concrete portion 712 and two flexible portions, such as foam layers 714 and 716. One or more reinforcing elements, such as one or more elongated steel elements of #3, #4, and/or #5 reinforcement bar or “rebar” in one embodiment, may be embedded at least partially in, or otherwise formed with, the concrete portion 712.
  • The foam layers 714 and 716 may be coupled with the concrete portion 712 with an adhesive, by mechanical connection such as a screw, or by another method. The foam layer 716 may provide flexibility of the foundation wall 302 when subject to external or internal stresses, and may reduce the weight of the corner support element 710 while retaining its corner shape. The concrete portion 712 may have a stepped configuration, such that the foam layer 714 and/or the foam layer 716 is set atop a lower step of the concrete portion 712. In one embodiment where the concrete portion 712 has a stepped configuration, the foam layer 714 may be not included or removed such that the lower step may be employed as a shelf, for example.
  • In another embodiment, as shown in FIG. 19, a corner support element 720 faces space 328 exterior to the structure 300 or another structure in which it is included. The corner support element 720 may include a concrete portion 722 and an affixed flexible portion, such as a foam layer 724. The concrete portion 722, in this embodiment, includes concrete and may include a concrete composite. The concrete portion 722 may have a stepped configuration, such that the foam layer 724 is set atop a lower step of the concrete portion 722.
  • In one embodiment where the concrete portion 722 has a stepped configuration, the foam layer 724 may be not included or removed such that the lower step may be employed as a shelf or ledge, such as a brick ledge, for example. In another embodiment, the foam layer 724 may be included, but its top portion may be lower in height than the top portion of the concrete portion 722 such that the corner support element 720 has a stepped configuration. In either embodiment, brick ledge studs, such as the brick ledge studs 640 as described herein with respect to FIG. 14, may be positioned adjacent the concrete support element 720 such that the top surface of the lower step is contiguous with the ledge 642 of each brick ledge stud 640. A brick facade or other structure may be built on one the lower steps of the concrete support element 720 and brick ledge studs 640. A brick lintel or other support member (not shown) may be positioned on, and affixed to, those lower steps to support the brick facade or other structure. The lintel may comprise light or moderate gauge steel channel, for example.
  • The corner support element 720 may also be formed with an element that secures the corner support element 720 to the brick ledge studs 640, such as an anchor bolt 726. The brick ledge studs 640 may include apertures through which the anchor bolt 726 may extend, or the anchor bolt 726 may be formed with the brick ledge studs 640 and the corner support element 720.
  • In another embodiment, a corner support element, such as any described herein, may be an element such as a “U” or “V” channel or clip, either of which may be made, for example, with steel or another metal in sheet or other form. For example, as shown in FIG. 9, the corner 350 of the wall may include a corner support element 353 that is formed with concrete or a corner support element 354 that is a “V” channel or clip. In another example as shown in FIG. 10, the corner 352 may include a corner support element 355 that is formed with concrete or a corner support element 356 that is a differently-shaped “V” channel. A corner support element that is a “U” or “V” channel or clip may be secured to the wall in any way desired, such as by bolt.
  • FIG. 3 shows a cross-sectional view of a lower portion of a foundation wall 302 embodiment. In this embodiment, the foundation wall 302 is supported on a footer element 360.
  • The footer element 360 may comprise compacted stone or concrete, may include reinforcing elements, such as one or more rods of #4 or #5 rebar, and may be configured to support and secure the foundation wall 302. The footer element 360 may, in one embodiment, be a continuous piece that extends along the foundation wall 302 near or below the bottom surface 322. In another embodiment, the footer element 360 may include pieces that may be formed or secured together, such as by a butt joint or lap joint or other connection, or may include spacing between one or more of the pieces. For example, the footer element 360 may comprise pieces that are 2.5 or 3 inches by 8 or 10 inches and are up to 20 feet in length. The footer element 360 may be contoured to have a footprint that conforms to the footprint of the wall 302. In one embodiment, the footer element 360 includes a channel the studs 330 may be inserted into.
  • The foundation wall 302 may be secured by its studs 330, with or without a footer element, near or through the bottom surface 322 of the studs 330. For example, one or more foundation anchor bolts 362 may be formed in or attached to one or more of the foundation wall 302 studs 330 and those foundation anchor bolts may be secured to the foundation. Alternately, one or more foundation anchor bolts 362 may be formed in or attached to the foundation such that they protrude through a footer element 360 portion of the foundation wall 302 to be secured thereto or such that they protrude into studs 330 of the foundation wall 302 to be secured thereto. The foundation anchor bolt 362 may be positioned, during production of the wall 302, footer element 360, or foundation 304, such that when one or more of the foundation wall 302, footer element 360, and foundation 304 is constructed, it or they are formed around part of the foundation anchor bolt 362. Alternately or in addition, the various components described herein may be coupled by way of brackets, welding, adhesives, or as otherwise desired.
  • In an embodiment where the footer element 360 is not formed around the foundation anchor bolt 362, the footer element 360 may be formed with holes that may each receive one or more foundation anchor bolts 362, which may be secured with a compression fit washer fit into the hole, for example. The hole may then be further or completely filled with a water resistant element. In an embodiment, a stud 330 includes a keyway that protrudes from its base, and may be integral with the stud 330, such as by casting the stud 330 and keyway together. In this embodiment, the footer element 360 may include a reverse keyway in which the keyway of the stud 330 may be inserted. Such a configuration may provide some resistance in stud 330 and wall 302 to an imposed shear load. The keyway of the stud 330 may include concrete and may be a concrete composite.
  • The footer element 360 may also be secured to the floor 306, such as with the floor anchor bolt 364. The floor anchor bolt 364 may positioned such that when each of the footer element 360 and floor 306 is formed, each is formed around part of the floor anchor bolt 364. For example, the footer element 360 may be formed around part of the anchor bolt 364, the footer element 360 may be positioned on-site as shown in FIG. 3 such that the floor anchor bolt 364 protrudes from the footer element 360. The floor 306, which may comprise concrete, may then be poured around the protruding portion of the floor anchor bolt 364 such that when the concrete hardens, the footer element 360 will be secured to the floor 306 by the floor anchor bolt 364.
  • In another embodiment, the footer element 360 may be secured to the foundation 304 via a snap fit attachment. The embodiment of FIG. 8 shows a front view of a snap fit attachment 370, which includes a joining element 372 and a mating element 374. The joining element 372 and the mating element 374 may comprise metal, plastic such as PVC, or another material. The joining element 372 may comprise a material that is different than a material the mating element 374 comprises. The snap fit attachment 370 may be shaped, for example, for an annular snap fit or another type of snap fit. For example, the joining element 372 may comprise end portions 376 and 378 that each have an annular shape that may be forced, or snap fit, into the recess 380 delineated by the mating element 374. The recess 380 may be shaped to receive and secure an end portion 376 or 378 when forced therein, thus securing the joining element 372 to the mating element 374. In one embodiment, the mating element 374 is elongated such that the recess 380 forms a channel into which one or more joining elements 372 may each be secured via an end portion 376 or 378.
  • The joining element 372 may be symmetrical such that the end portions 378 and 380 are identically shaped, or the joining element 372 may be asymmetrical.
  • The footer element 360 may be formed with the joining element 372. For example, the footer element 360 may have an end portion 378 of the joining element 372 inserted therein when the footer element 360 is cast. In one embodiment, the foundation 304 of FIG. 3 may be formed with the mating element 374, such that the upper surfaces 382 of the mating element 374 are positioned coincident with or near the top portion 305 of the foundation 304, and the recess 380 of the mating element 374 is exposed, i.e., not covered by or filled with part of the foundation 304 or otherwise covered or filled. In this embodiment, the footer element 360 may be secured to the foundation 304 by snapping the joining element 372 formed with the footer element 360 into the mating element 374 formed with the foundation 304. Multiple joining elements 372 and mating elements 374 may be formed with the footer element 360 and foundation 304, respectively.
  • In another embodiment, the foundation wall 302 may be formed with the joining element 372, such as by forming the foundation wall 302, near its bottom surface 322 at a stud 330, around the end portion 376 of the joining element 372 such that the end portion 378 protrudes below the bottom surface 322 of the stud 330. In this embodiment, where the foundation 304 is formed with the mating element 374 such as described above, the foundation wall 302 may be secured to the foundation 304 via the joining element 372 and mating element 374, as described with respect to the footer element 360 and foundation 304, above. Multiple joining elements 372 (each formed with a stud 330) and multiple mating elements 374 may be formed in the foundation wall 302 and foundation 304, respectively. In this embodiment, the footer element 360 may not be included in the structure in which the foundation wall 302 is secured. In another embodiment, the footer element 360, instead of the foundation 304, may be formed with the mating element 374 such that the foundation wall 302 may be secured to the footer element 360 via one or more sets of joining and mating elements 372 and 374.
  • The joining element 372 and mating element 374 may be designed as desired. In one embodiment, the joining element 372 is an elongated member, and the mating element 374 is a channel that secures the joining element 372 therein. For example, one or more studs 330 of a foundation wall 302 may each be formed with a joining element 372 that is a rod-shaped elongated member that protrudes below the bottom surface 322 of the stud 330. In this example, the footer element 360 may be formed with a mating element 374 that is a channel into which the rod-shaped elongated members may be inserted and secured. The elongated members and channel may be made of any desired materials, such as PVC or another polymer, or metal.
  • The foundation wall 302 may include a component that insulates the foundation wall 302. Returning to the FIG. 3 embodiment, the foundation wall 302 may include one or more stud insulating components 365, which may include high-density foam or another insulating material or materials. Each stud insulating component 365 may be positioned adjacent a different stud 330, and may cover some or all of the surface of the stud 330 that faces the outer surface 326 of the foundation wall 302. Each stud insulating component 365 may be or operate as a thermal break between the stud 330 and the area exterior to a structure in which the foundation wall 302 may be included. Each stud insulating component 365 may reduce the transfer of heat through it, and may thus reduce or prevent condensation in the stud 330.
  • The foundation wall 302 may include a protective layer that may provide protection from backfilling operations and the weather and other elements, and may partially or fully waterproof the foundation wall 302. In the FIG. 3 embodiment, the foundation wall 302 may include a protective layer 366, which may be positioned such that the outer surface 326 of the foundation wall 302 includes the protective layer 366. The protective layer 366 may be thermally glued, welded, stapled, tied, nailed, or otherwise coupled with the foundation wall 302, such as to one or more studs 330, the footer element 360, the header 400 as described below, and/or the stud insulating components 365, for example. In an embodiment including stud insulating components 365 as described above, the stud insulating components 365 may each be positioned between the protective layer 366 and a stud 330. The protective layer 366 may include plastic, such as a heavy duty polymer such as PVC, or another material. The protective layer 366 may be shaped as a thin sheet or “skin,” and may be a continuous sheet. The protective layer 366 may be a nonstructural component of the foundation wall 302 or comprise a material that provides structural support of the foundation wall 302.
  • In one embodiment, the protective layer 366 is positioned such that it comprises some or all of the outer surface 326 and some or all of the bottom 322 of the foundation wall 302. In an embodiment that includes a footer element 360, the protective layer 366 may comprise some or all of the outer surface 326 of the foundation wall 302 and may surround some or all of the footer element 360. In either embodiment, the protective layer 366 may further extend such that it comprises a portion of the inner surface 324 of the foundation wall 302, and may further extend out from the inner surface 324 and couple with another element, such as with the floor 306 in which case the floor 306 may be poured around the portion of the protective layer 366 extending out from the inner surface 324. In either embodiment, the protective layer 366 may prevent some or all water or other liquid or gas that contacts it from penetrating it, and thus penetrating the foundation wall 302 and/or entering the interior 310 of a structure in which the foundation wall 302 is included, such as the structure 300.
  • In an embodiment in which one or both of the anchor bolts 362 and 364 are included, the protective layer 366 may include one or more holes or other apertures through which the one or both anchor bolts 362 and 364 may extend. In an embodiment in which the one or more reinforcing elements 332 of the stud 330 each protrudes from the bottom surface 322 of the stud 330 as described above, the protective layer 366 may include a hole or aperture through which each protruding portion of the reinforcing element 332 may extend.
  • In the FIG. 3 embodiment, the foundation wall 302 may include, adjacent one or more of the studs 330 and near the inner surface of the foundation wall 302, a nailer 367. Each nailer 367 may comprise wood or light gauge steel channel, for example, and/or another material. Each nailer 367 may be affixed, such as by one or more screws or other fastening means, to a stud 330. Each nailer may accommodate interior finishes, such as a dry wall or interior finish as described below.
  • In the FIG. 3 embodiment, the foundation wall 302 may include one or more finish layers 368, such as paneling, dry wall, lath and plaster, and/or a polymer finish layer, that are positioned near or comprise the inner surface 324 of the foundation wall 302. In one embodiment, the one or more finish layers 368 include a polymer finish layer and a drywall finish layer. The polymer finish layer may extend across some or all of the foundation wall 302 such that a different portion of a polymer finish layer is positioned adjacent and secured to each nailer 367, and the dry wall finish layer is positioned adjacent and secured to the polymer finish layer 368. In one embodiment, the protective layer 366 includes a polymer finish layer.
  • FIG. 4 shows a cross-sectional view of an upper portion of the foundation wall 302 shown in FIG. 3. The foundation wall 302 may be secured to a header 400, which may comprise, for example, wood, such as a 2×6 or other size plank that may include wood, pressure treated wood, metal, such as light or moderate gauge steel, or another construction material. The foundation wall 302 may alternatively or additionally be secured to a sill plate 402, which may comprise a wood, metal or other material. The header 400 and/or sill plate 402 may extend across the top surface 320 of the foundation wall 302. The header 400 and/or sill plate 402 may, in one embodiment, be a continuous piece that extends along the foundation wall 302 near or above the top surface 320. In another embodiment, the header 400 and/or sill plate 402 may include pieces that may be formed or secured together, such as by a bult joint or lap joint or other connection, or may include spacing between one or more of the pieces. The header 400 and/or sill plate 402 may be secured to the foundation wall 302 at one or more of the studs 330, such as by an anchor bolt 404 or other means. In one embodiment, the foundation wall 302 incorporates the header 400 and/or sill plate 402.
  • FIG. 5 shows a top, cross-sectional view of the foundation wall 302 showing stud coupling elements 420 of one embodiment. Each stud coupling element 420 may include, in one embodiment, an element in sheet form, such as sheet metal, sheet polymer, and/or sheet wood or a wood layer. For example, a stud coupling element 420 may include a light gauge sheet steel element, a strong polymer sheet element, multiple sheet elements of metal and/or polymer, or another element or composite. Each stud coupling element 420 may extend between two studs 330. Each stud coupling element 420 may extend along a portion of a side surface 424 of the stud 330 and along a portion of the outer surface 422 of the stud 330 that faces the outer surface 326 of the foundation wall 302. Such a configuration may provide lateral, compressive, shear, and/or other load support to the stud 330 and the foundation wall 302, such as described below. Each stud coupling element 420 may be secured to each of two adjacent studs 330 near a portion of the stud 330 that faces the outer surface 326 of the foundation wall 302.
  • In one embodiment, each stud 330 includes along its outer surface 422 a channel 426 that extends some distance between the bottom surface 322 and the top surface 320 of the foundation wall 302. The channel 426 may be integrally formed, such as by casting, with the stud 330. In this embodiment, a portion of each of the two stud coupling elements 420 adjacent the stud 330 is inserted into and secured in the channel 426, such as by interference fit and/or by spot welding the two stud coupling elements 420 together at one or more positions along the channel 426. In one embodiment, the channel 426 includes a channel insert, which may be a material positioned adjacent the wall of the channel 426 to facilitate securing portions of the two stud coupling elements 420.
  • Each stud coupling element 420 may further or alternatively have a curved configuration. For example, as shown in FIG. 5, the stud coupling element 420 may have a bowed configuration between adjacent studs 330 such that the stud coupling element 420 bows out toward the inner surface 324 of the foundation wall 302. Each stud coupling element 420 may alternatively have a different configuration. For example, in another embodiment as shown in FIG. 13, a stud coupling element 427 is configured such that it bows less or extends substantially straight, such as substantially parallel to the inner surface 324 of the foundation wall 302, between adjacent studs 330. In another embodiment shown in FIG. 13, a stud coupling element 428 may be bent, such as with a bend 429 extending parallel to the longitudinal axes of the adjacent studs 330. Alternately, the stud coupling element 428 may extend between the adjacent studs 330 in a “V” shape. Each stud coupling element 420, or a stud coupling element 427 or 428, may also be configured with one or more “V” shaped bends 430, which may provide further rigidity of the support element by reducing or preventing deformation or buckling of the support element, such as “oil canning,” and may provide further structural support to the foundation wall 302.
  • In one embodiment, each stud coupling element 420 extends from near or at the top surface 320 of the foundation wall 302, such as shown in FIG. 6, to near or at the bottom surface 322 of the foundation wall 302, as shown in FIG. 4. In another embodiment, each stud coupling element 420 extends a portion of the distance between the bottom surface 322 and top surface 320 of the foundation wall 302. In another embodiment that is not illustrated, each stud coupling element 420 includes multiple support elements that are coupled from stud 330 to adjacent stud 330 and spaced from each other along the length of the studs 330 from the bottom surface 322 to the top surface 320 of the foundation wall 302.
  • Each stud coupling element 420 may include one or more layers that are shaped and configured within the foundation wall 302 as described above, and may include a material such that the stud coupling element 420 provides structural support to the foundation wall 302 for one or more compressive and/or shear loads, that may be provided by a structure above the foundation wall 302 such as a first floor, a lateral and/or shear load, such as provided by earth pressing against the outer surface 326 of the foundation wall 302, elements such as wind, and/or other matter and forces in space 328 exterior to the foundation wall 302. The material each stud coupling element 420 comprises may be an amount and type of material that may provide such structural support. In one embodiment, this layer includes a thin layer of light gauge galvanized steel. In another embodiment, this layer includes a plastic. The layer may have a thickness such that the stud coupling element 420 will provide a desired structural support to the foundation wall 302.
  • In one embodiment, an interior steel skin (not shown) is included in the foundation wall 302 and extends along the wall near the inner surface 324 or outer surface 326 to provide additional structural support to the foundation wall 302.
  • In one embodiment, the foundation wall 302 includes insulating material, such as one or more wall insulating elements 440 illustrated in FIG. 5, which may each be positioned between a stud coupling element 420 and the protective layer 366 or other layer near the outer surface 326 of the foundation wall 302. Each wall insulating element 440 may be sized to fill some or all of the space bounded by the stud coupling element 420, the adjacent studs 330, the layer near the outer surface 326 of the foundation wall 302, and the top and bottom surfaces 320 and 322, respectively, of the foundation wall 302. Each wall insulating element 440 may include one or more materials that may thermally insulate the wall 302, and may possibly provide flexibility and/or load transfer to a stud coupling element 420. For example, each wall insulating element 440 may include low-density foam, such as expanded polystyrene (EPS), that provides thermal insulation to the foundation wall 302. In one embodiment, a wall insulating element 440 includes different foams with different densities.
  • The foundation wall 302, in one embodiment, does not include material in some or much of the space between the stud coupling elements 420 and the inner surface 324 of the foundation wall 302, such that this area without material may be used as a mechanical chase 442. In another embodiment, each stud 330 is shaped to delineate one or more apertures 444 that extend through the stud 330. In this embodiment, wires, cables and/or other elements may extend through the interior of the foundation wall 302 in the mechanical chase and threaded the elements through the one or more apertures 444 of each stud 330.
  • FIG. 6 is a cross-sectional view of the foundation wall 302 that shows, inter alia, the relative positioning of a wall insulating element 440, a stud coupling element 420, and a mechanical chase, such as described herein.
  • As described above, a foundation wall, such as the foundation wall 302 or foundation wall 902, may have various shapes and configurations. The foundation wall 302 may include portions that include studs, legs, and sills having different sizes, shapes, and configurations to accommodate various constructions and structural loads of a structure, such as described below with respect to FIGS. 7, 11, 12, 14, 15, and 21-29. In one embodiment, the foundation wall 302 or 902 or another foundation wall includes one or more studs 330, as described herein, and one or more legs, sills, and additional studs positioned in portions of the foundation wall 302 or 902 to accommodate various features and/or configurations of a structure in which the foundation wall is included.
  • FIG. 7 shows an embodiment of a portion of a foundation wall 302 taken from a view similar to that of FIG. 5. In this embodiment, the foundation wall 302, which may otherwise include any combination of the matter described herein with respect to the foundation wall 302, may include two or more studs 530 that are positioned adjacent or in abutment to provide further structural support to the foundation wall 302. For example, the foundation wall 302 may be structured as the foundation wall 302, except that the adjacent studs 530 may be positioned in place of any stud 330 or other stud described herein. Each adjacent stud 530 may be structured in the same ways as the studs 330 described herein, but may include an aperture 532 through which the adjacent studs 530 may be secured, such as via an anchor bolt 534 or other mechanical connection. The adjacent studs 530 may also include a gasket 536, that may be placed between the adjacent studs 530 near the inner surface of the foundation wall 302. The studs may be further secured near the outer surface 326 of the foundation wall 302, such as with a heat welded lap joint 538.
  • FIG. 27 shows a front view of an embodiment of a portion 540 of a foundation wall such as the foundation wall 302 or the foundation wall 902 described herein. In this embodiment, the foundation wall portion 540 includes two foundation wall panels 542 and 543 positioned side to side. The two foundation wall panels 542 and 543 may be positioned such that they extend between or comprise portions of a foundation wall 302 of a structure. The two foundation wall panels 542 and 543 are secured to each other by bolts 546 or threaded rod and nuts 547 extending through aligned apertures 544 in the adjacent studs 540. In that embodiment, the two foundation wall panels 542 and 543 are secured to a footer element, such as the footer element 360 described herein, by way of anchor bolts 364 and are secured to a header 400 and/or sill plate 402 by anchor bolts 404.
  • FIG. 11 shows side views of embodiments of studs 330 and legs that may be included in a foundation wall, such as the foundation wall 302 or foundation wall 902 described herein. In one embodiment, a stud 600 may be dimensioned as a stud 330, but includes one or more holes 602 as described herein through which, for example, cable or wiring may be passed, or through which a bolt, screw, or other fastening element or plumbing or another pipe may extend.
  • A window leg, such as the window leg 610, may be included in a foundation wall 302 for supporting a window positioned within, near, or adjacent the wall. The window leg 610 may be dimensioned, for example, with a length of 5 feet, 8.5 inches or 6 feet, 8.5 inches, and may have a cross section such as described with respect to the stud 330, or another dimension.
  • The window leg 610 may be included in the foundation wall 302 in a configuration such as shown in the embodiment of FIGS. 21 and 22, which show a front view and a top view, respectively, of a window support configuration 612. In this embodiment, the window support configuration 612 includes two studs, which may each be a stud 330, for example, spaced apart to accommodate the width of a window that may be positioned within the space 613.
  • A window sill 614, which may be configured with concrete and one or more reinforcing elements like a stud 330 but with a length spanning the spacing between the studs 330 of FIG. 21, may extend between the studs 330. The window leg 610 may be positioned under the window sill 614 to provide structural support to the window sill 614. The studs 330, window leg 610, and window sill 614 may be configured such that the window sill 614 is secured to the studs 330 and window leg 610, the studs 330 are secured to a header 400 or other element positioned above, and the studs 330 and window leg are secured to a footer element 360 or a foundation, for example. The stud 330, window leg 610, and window sill 614 may be secured in any way described herein or desired, such as by including apertures through which anchor bolts or screws may extend or by brackets.
  • As shown in FIG. 22, stud coupling elements 615 and 616, which may be configured like stud coupling element 420 but may have varying widths and heights, for example, may each extend between a stud 330 and the window leg 610. The support members 615 and 616 may not extend above the bottom portion of the window sill 614. Wall insulating elements 440 may be positioned between the support elements 615 and 616 and a layer, such as the protective layer 366 described herein, near the outer surface 326 of the foundation wall 302.
  • Returning to FIG. 11, a beam pocket leg 620 may be included in a foundation wall 302 for supporting a structural member, such as an I-beam or other beam, that may provide support within the structure 300 in which the foundation wall 302 is included. The beam pocket leg 620 may be, for example, 7 feet long with a cross section such as described with respect to the stud 330, or another dimension.
  • The beam pocket leg 620 may be included in the foundation wall 302 in a configuration such as shown in the embodiment of FIGS. 23 and 24, which show a front view and a top view, respectively, of a beam pocket 622. In this embodiment, the beam pocket 622 includes two studs 330 spaced apart to accommodate a structural element, such as a first end of an I-beam 629, that may extend across the interior of the structure 300 in which the foundation wall 302 is included. Another beam pocket 622 may be included and positioned, for example, in a portion of the foundation wall 302 on the opposite side of the structure, and may receive the second end of the I-beam 629 within its space 623.
  • The beam pockets 622 may each include a beam pocket sill 624, which may be configured like a stud 330 but with a length spanning the spacing between neighboring studs 330 as illustrated in FIG. 21. The beam pocket sill 624 may extend between the studs 330. The beam pocket leg 620 may be positioned under the beam pocket sill 624 to provide structural support to the beam pocket 622. The beam pocket leg 620 may also be turned “sideways” with respect to the studs 330 such that its narrower sides face the wider sides of the studs 330. In one embodiment, the beam pocket leg 620 is oriented 90 or near 90 degrees with respect to the studs 330.
  • The stud 330, beam pocket leg 620, and beam pocket sill 624 may be configured such that the beam pocket sill 624 is secured to the studs 330 and beam pocket leg 620, the studs 330 are secured to the header 400 or sill plate 402, and the studs 330 and beam pocket leg 620 are secured to the footer element 360 or the foundation 304. The stud 330, beam pocket leg 620, and beam pocket sill 624 may be secured in any way described herein, such as by including apertures through which anchor bolts or screws may extend, by use of brackets, or in another way.
  • As shown in FIG. 24, a support member 625, which may be configured like a stud coupling element 420 but may have a lesser width and height, for example, may extend between a stud 330 and the beam pocket leg 620. The support members 625 may not extend above the bottom portion of the beam pocket sill 624. Wall insulating elements 440 may be positioned between the support element 625 and a layer, such as the protective layer 366 described herein, near the outer surface 326 of the foundation wall 302. The studs 330, beam pocket leg 620 and beam pocket sill 624 of the beam pocket 622 may include nailers, such as the nailer 626, affixed near the inner surface 324 of the foundation wall 302. The nailer 626 may comprise wood or another material.
  • In another embodiment as shown in FIGS. 25 and 26, two beam pocket legs 620 may be employed in a beam pocket 627 to provide more support to the foundation wall 302 near the I-beam 629 or other structural member. In this embodiment, FIGS. 25 and 26 show a front view and a top view, respectively, of a beam pocket 627. The two beam pocket legs 620 may be positioned in a “sideways” configuration, as described with respect to the beam pocket leg 620 in FIGS. 23 and 24, or may be aligned with the studs 330. The two beam pocket legs 620 may be secured together, such as described with respect to the butted studs 530 of FIG. 7, or otherwise secured together.
  • A door leg 630, as illustrated in FIG. 11, may be included in a foundation wall 302 for providing support in an area within, near, or adjacent the foundation wall 302 where a door may be installed. The door leg 630 may be, for example, 7 feet long with a cross section such as described with respect to the stud 330, or another dimension.
  • A brick ledge stud 640, also illustrated in FIG. 11, may be included in a foundation wall 302 for providing a ledge 642 that may support a brick facade, or other elements. A support member 643, which may be a lintel, such as a lintel comprising light or moderate gauge steel channel, for example, or other support member may be positioned on, and affixed to, the ledge 642 to support the brick facade or other material. The brick ledge stud 640 may be, for example, 8 feet, 2 inches long or 9 feet, 2 inches long with a non-uniform cross section. The brick ledge stud 640 may have, at its lower portion 644, a cross section such as described with respect to the stud 330, or another dimension, and a different cross section at its upper portion 646. For example, cross sections may be 2.5 inches by 8.5 inches at the lower portion 644 and 2.5 inches by 5.5 inches in the upper portion 646. In one embodiment, the brick ledge stud 640 includes one or more holes 648, which may be employed for purposes such as described with respect to holes of any stud described herein. The brick ledge stud 640 may include a nailer, such as a nailer 649, affixed to its upper portion 646. The nailer 649 may be wood, such as pressure treated plywood, metal, or another material.
  • In one embodiment as shown in FIGS. 28 and 29, which show a side and top view, respectively, of a portion of a foundation wall supporting an attached garage floor 1300, two brick ledge studs 640 may be employed to support the garage floor 1300. A portion of the garage floor 1300, such as one end, may be supported at by the ledge 642 of the brick ledge stud 640. As shown in FIG. 29, two studs 330 may each be positioned adjacent a brick ledge stud 640. A “U” channel 1302, which may be made of 12 gauge steel, for example, may be positioned between the brick ledge studs 640. The studs 330, 640, the U channel 1302, and the garage floor 1300 may be coupled, such as via one or more bolts 1304. The same configuration of studs 330, 640, U channel 1302 and bolts 1304 may be included in an opposite-facing portion of the foundation wall and may support another portion, such as a second end, of the garage floor 1300.
  • A frost wall stud 650, as illustrated in FIG. 11, may be included in a foundation wall 302 for providing support within, near, or adjacent the wall where a frost wall is to be attached thereto. The frost wall stud 650 may be various lengths such as, for example, 7 feet long with a cross section such as described with respect to the stud 330, or another dimension.
  • Each of the studs and legs 530, 600, 610, 620, 630, 640, and 650 may include, in various embodiments, one or more elements and/or characteristics described herein with respect to the stud 330, such as, for example, concrete as one material included in the stud; one or more reinforcing elements, such as one or more reinforcing elements 332, sized for the stud or leg; one or more securing elements such as an anchor bolt 362 or a snap fit attachment 370 for securing the stud or leg, such as to a foundation, footer element, or floor, and one or more other elements, such as a header, sill, other stud, and/or other leg.
  • These elements and/or characteristics may be designed or modified as desired, and characteristics described herein may be formed in or used with other elements of a foundation wall, such as the foundation wall 302 or 902 described herein. For example, as shown in the embodiment of FIG. 12, a stud 660, which may function as a stud 330 in a foundation wall 302 or foundation wall 902 as described herein, for example, may include a bent, #3 rebar 662 as a reinforcing element, a bent anchor bolt 664 for securing the stud 660 to a footer element, and variously positioned holes 666. Additionally or alternatively, a footer element 668 may be used in the foundation wall 302 or 902 instead of the footer element 360 described herein, and may include one or more reinforcing elements 670, such as #5 rebar. The footer element 668 may be dimensioned with a larger cross section than the stud 660 such that a nailer 367 may be affixed to the stud 660 and have its exposed side 672 contiguous with a side 674 of the footer element 668.
  • In another example, as shown in the embodiment of FIGS. 14 and 15, a brick ledge stud 670, which may function as a brick ledge stud 640 in a foundation wall 302 or 902 as described herein, for example, may include a bent, #4 rebar 676 as a reinforcing element, a bent anchor bolt 664 that may be a bent length of threaded rod, and variously positioned holes 678. In this embodiment, a footer element 679 may be used and may include the one or more reinforcing elements 670, and may be dimensioned with a larger cross section than the stud 670 such that a nailer 367 may be affixed to the stud 670 and have its exposed side 672 contiguous with a side 674 of the footer element 668.
  • In another embodiment, a foundation wall or portion thereof as described herein is employed as an above ground wall or other wall that is not a foundation wall.
  • FIG. 30 is a flow chart of one embodiment of a process for manufacturing 800, according to a foundation wall system, foundation wall components that include concrete such as studs, legs, and sills, the foundation wall including one or more studs and one or more support elements extending between the studs, such as described herein with respect to the foundation wall 302 or 902 and FIGS. 1-29. In the foundation wall system of this embodiment, some or all of the components that include concrete, such as one or more studs, legs, and sills (e.g., the window sill 614 and/or the beam pocket sill 624, but possibly not the sill 402 or another sill positioned above the foundation wall, although the sill plate 402 may include concrete), may include the same concrete or concrete composite.
  • The foundation wall system may also dictate that different studs, legs, and sills having different dimensions and have some dimensions that are the same, and all the studs may be produced with a limited number of casting forms and limited configuration of those forms. Thus, most or every stud, leg, and sill that may be used in foundation walls in this system may include, along its length, at least some portion whose cross section is selected from a limited set of dimensions. Additionally, most or every stud, leg, and sill may have a length selected from a limited set of lengths, and thus a limited number of lengths of reinforcing elements and/or coupling elements such as bolts may be needed to reinforce and facilitate coupling of most or every stud, leg, and sill.
  • For example, in one embodiment, every stud and leg shown in FIG. 11 has a cross section, along some or all of its length, that is either 2.5 inches by 8.5 inches, in which case its length is no greater than 8 feet, 2 inches, or has a cross section, along some or all of its length, that is 2.5 inches by 6.5 inches, in which case its length is no longer than 9 feet, 2 inches. Thus, since the studs and legs 330, 600, 610, 630, and 650 in this embodiment each have a uniform cross section, each may be cast in either a 2.5″×8.5″×8′2″ form or a 2.5″×6.5″×9′2″ form, both of which may be further shaped to form a channel, such as the channel 426, in the stud or leg, and/or otherwise shaped, such as to form a keyway, such as described herein, or other shape in the stud or leg. Since each of these studs has a limited number of possible lengths, by employing a limited number cores or other spacers that each have one of a limited number of lengths and either a 2.5″×8.5″ or 2.5″×6.″ uniform cross section, each of these studs and legs may be produced in either the 2.5″×8.5″×8′2″ or 2.5″×6.5″×9′2″ form and/or in additional forms having inside dimensions common to either form. Each spacer may be placed in a form to create a void in an element or other material cast in the form.
  • In this embodiment, the brick ledge stud 640 has a 2.5″×8.″ or 2.5″×6.″ uniform cross section along its lower portion 644, and may employ either form with one of a set of cores or other spacers that may be customized or standardized. Each spacer may have a uniform cross section equaling or being close to the difference between the cross section of the selected form and that of the upper portion 646 of the brick ledge stud 640. Thus, for example, a core or spacer dimensioned 2.5″×3″ and any desired length may be placed in the form for a 2.5″×8.″ stud to create a brick ledge stud 640.
  • Additionally, in another embodiment, the window sill 614 and/or beam pocket sill 624 may each have a uniform cross section that is either 2.5″×8.5″ or 2.5″×6.″ such that the sill may be produced by employing either form with a spacer having an appropriate length and a 2.5″×8.″ or 2.5″×6.″ uniform cross section.
  • In another embodiment, a limited number of additional spacers may be used, such as where one or more, but not all, of the studs, legs, and sills include a configuration such as, for example, a channel, such as the channel 426, and/or a keyway, such as described herein.
  • Thus, at 805 of the manufacturing process 800 illustrated in FIG. 30, one or more spacers (if needed) and one or more reinforcing elements and/or coupling elements such as bolts are selected for the specific stud, leg, or sill to be produced, and are positioned within the appropriate form. At 810, the concrete or concrete composite may be inserted into the form and the stud, leg, or sill may then be cast. The stud, leg, or sill may be cast such that the one or more reinforcing elements protrude from one or both ends of the stud, leg, or sill, and the coupling element, if included, protrudes from a surface of the stud, leg, or sill. At 810, holes may be formed in the stud, leg, or sill if desired, or holes may be formed later or not formed if desired.
  • At 820, the stud, leg, or sill may cure, and may be stacked with other studs, legs, sills, and/or other elements for the curing.
  • After the stud, leg, or sill has cured, one or more elements may, at 830, be coupled to the stud, leg, or sill. For example, at 830, a stud 330 formed by the process at 800, 810, and 820 may be coupled with a stud insulating component 365, protective layer 366, nailer 367, and/or one or more finish layers 368, such as described herein. The process at 800, 810, 820, and 830 may be repeated to produce additional studs, legs, and/or sills.
  • FIG. 31 is a flow chart of a corner manufacturing process 835. At 840 the materials and forming elements for a corner support, such as a corner support element 710, for example, are selected. At 845, a concrete portion of the corner support element, such as the concrete portion 712, may be produced by casting or another method. The concrete portion may be formed, at 845, with one or more reinforcing elements, such as described herein with respect to the concrete portion 712, for example, and may be formed with one or more holes. The concrete portion may be cast at 845 in a form with reinforcing elements positioned therein, such as described in connection with the stud, leg, or sill manufacturing process 800. The concrete portion may also or alternatively be formed, at 845, with one or more coupling elements, such as one or more anchor bolts or other elements as desired. The one or more coupling elements may facilitate coupling the corner support element with other portions of a foundation wall, such as one or more studs.
  • At 850, the concrete portion or other portion of the corner support element may cure, and may be stacked with other corner support elements or other elements for curing.
  • The corner support element may also include one or more flexible portions, such as foam layers, and may have one or more elements coupled with the corner support element. Thus, at 860, after the corner support element has cured, the one or more flexible portions and/or other elements may be formed and coupled with the concrete portion of the corner support element and/or to each other, such as via glue, nail, or other coupling element or elements.
  • As an example of the corner manufacturing process 835, in one embodiment, the concrete portion 712 of the corner support element 710 described herein may be cast in a form at 845. Furthermore, an anchor bolt 718 may be positioned in the form before adding the concrete to cast the concrete portion 712 with the anchor bolt 718 embedded or partially embedded therein. At 850, the concrete portion 712 may be stacked for curing. At 860, after the concrete portion 712 has cured, foam layers 714 and 716 are formed and then coupled with the concrete portion 712, such as with an adhesive or by another method.
  • Each corner support element formed may be designed as desired, and may be contoured to a corner or other portion of a foundation wall. For example, in an embodiment, the corner support element 710 may be coupled by the anchor bolt 718 to two studs 330, as shown and described with respect to FIG. 18, and may be coupled with a footer 360. In this embodiment, the corner support element 710 and studs 330 may have equal or similar lengths. The corner support element 710 may also or alternatively have cross sectional dimensions that are equal or similar to the larger cross sectional width of each adjacent stud 330 plus the widths of any elements coupled to each stud 330, such as one or more stud insulating components, protective layers, nailers, finish layers, and/or other elements.
  • In one embodiment, each corner support element formed at 840, 850, and 860 has a shape and size selected from a limited set of shapes and sizes such that each corner support element may be coupled to one or more studs and/or legs having a limited set of dimensions. For example, each corner support element may be sized to be coupled with one or more studs and/or legs that are each produced in either the 2.5″×8.5″×8′ or 2.5″×6.5″×9′ form as described above. In this example, one or more of the corner support elements may each be shaped to create an angle, selected either from an infinite or a limited set of angles, in a foundation wall. The limited set of angles may be, for example, 45, 90, 135, and 270 degrees.
  • In one embodiment, a limited set of forms and possibly spacers may be used to produce, at 845, the concrete portions of some or all corner support elements, such as described above with respect to the limited set of forms and spacers that may be needed to produce some or all studs, legs, and sills at 800.
  • FIG. 32 is a flow chart of a footer element manufacturing process 865. At 870, the materials and forming elements for a footer element, such as the footer element 360 described herein, for example, are selected. The footer element may include one or more reinforcing elements. Each reinforcing element may include steel and/or another metal and may comprise an elongated element that may be shaped as a bar, for example. At 875, the footer is formed. The footer element may be produced by casting or by another method. The footer may include more than one piece. Each piece may be designed as desired, and may be designed to contour to a straight portion of a foundation wall, or to a corner, angled portion, curved portion, or other portion of the foundation wall. Each piece may be produced at any desired length, such as any length up to 20 feet, for example, and one or more pieces may include an angle therein to support a corner support element, such as corner support element 710 described herein, for example. In other embodiments, the footer element is not included in the foundation wall panel, is only included in some foundation wall panels in certain positions, or is produced with compacted stone or gravel.
  • In one embodiment, each footer element piece has a shape and size selected from a limited set of shapes and sizes such that each piece may be coupled to one or more studs, legs, and/or corner support elements, where the studs, legs, and/or corner support elements have a limited set of dimensions, such as described above. For example, some or all footer element pieces that may be included in a straight portion of a foundation wall may each have a 2.5 or 3 inch by 8 inch or a 2.5 or 3 inch by 10 inch uniform cross section. The 2.5 or 3 inch side of each footer element piece in this example may be coupled with one or more studs and/or legs that are each produced in either the 2.5″×8.5″×8′ or 2.5″×6.5″×9′ form, as described above. In this example, one or more footer element pieces may have a footprint shaped to be coupled with a corner support element and/or one or more studs.
  • Also at 875, holes may be formed in the footer element or piece. The holes may each be shaped and positioned to receive a coupling element that may couple the footer element or piece to one or more other foundation wall elements or portions of one or more foundation wall elements, such as a foundation, floor, one or more studs, one or more legs, one or more corner support elements, and/or one or more other elements. Each coupling element may be a coupling element described herein, such as a hole, bolt, or adhesive.
  • At 880, the footer element or piece may cure, and may be stacked with other footer elements or pieces, or other elements, for curing and at 885, one or more elements may be added to the footer element.
  • In certain embodiments, such as those illustrated in FIGS. 30-32, machinery may be employed to move and stack the studs, legs, sills, corner support elements, and footer elements or pieces and other elements from their forms or formation process to the area in which they will cure. The machinery may increase efficiency and speed in the production of the elements. The machinery may include a crane apparatus, such as a custom designed overhead crane that moves the elements to the curing area. The machinery may be automated to further increase production efficiency and speed.
  • FIG. 33 is a flow chart of one embodiment of a metal element manufacturing process 900, according to the foundation wall system of FIGS. 1-29. In the metal element manufacturing process 900, one or more stud coupling elements, such as the stud coupling elements 420 described herein, and one or other elements that include a metal such as steel may be formed. In this embodiment, the process is described with respect to a stud coupling element that includes light gauge steel in sheet form, although the stud coupling element may be produced, in another embodiment, with another type of steel, metal, polymer, and/or a combination of materials.
  • At 905, steel, received in a roll, is flattened and pieces are cut in appropriate sizes to produce stud coupling elements. The sizes may be based upon the distance between, and length of, the studs 330 to which they will be coupled. In another embodiment at 905, the steel may be received in flattened form and cut to the appropriate sizes. For example, one piece may be formed 8 feet, 2 inches long and with an a width greater than 16 inches where the piece is intended to extend between, and be coupled to, two studs 330 that are each 8 feet, 2 inches long and spaced 16 inches apart center-to-center.
  • At 910, the cut, flat steel pieces are formed as stud coupling elements having desired shapes, such as by using a press brake or a roll former. The pieces may each be shaped as any stud coupling element 420 described herein, or as another shape.
  • At 920, other elements of a foundation wall including steel or another metal, such as a sill plate 402 and/or one or more other elements described herein with respect to a foundation wall may be produced.
  • FIG. 34 is a flow chart of one embodiment of a non-concrete and non-steel manufacturing process 1000 for manufacturing one or more elements that may include foam or another flexible material, such as one or more wall insulating elements 440, stud insulating components 365, foam layers of corner support elements such as foam layers 704 of corner support elements 700, and/or other elements; one or more elements that include wood, such as one or more headers 400, nailers such as nailers 367, sill plates 402, and/or other elements that may be part of, or coupled with, a foundation wall; and one or more elements that may include polymer, such as protective layers 366, stud coupling elements 420, and other elements that may accommodate brick ledges, windows, doors, and other portions of a foundation wall or a structure in which the foundation wall is included.
  • At 1005, foam may be received in raw block form and formed into elements having dimensions appropriate for the foundation wall elements they will comprise. The foam may include low density foam, such as a one pound per cubic foot foam or another foam such as described herein. High density foam, such as a two pound per cubic foot foam or another foam such as described herein, and/or another foam. The elements may be formed, at 1000, by placing the blocks on a computerized hot wire cutting machine and cutting the elements with the machine, for example. In one embodiment, foam blockouts may be formed at 1000 to be used as spacers or otherwise employed in forms used to produce some foundation wall elements such as described with respect to FIG. 11.
  • At 1010, lumber, such as 2× treated lumber and possibly other wood, is received and the elements are formed, such as by cutting, to appropriate dimensions. Holes may be formed in the elements at 1010, if desired, to facilitate coupling of the elements with other elements of the foundation wall, such as reinforcing elements 332 protruding from studs 330, for example.
  • At 1020, polymer may be received in rolls and formed into elements having dimensions appropriate for the foundation wall elements they will comprise. The polymer may include various types of polymer, such as any polymer described herein, for example. The elements may be formed, at 1020, by optionally coupling rolls together to form rolls large enough for all the elements to be cut therefrom, then cutting the elements. A press brake machine and/or a thermal forming or other heating method may be used, for example, to form the portion of a protective layer 366 that wraps around the first and second surfaces of the foundation wall, such as the top surface 320 and bottom surface 322 of the foundation wall 302. Also, at 1020, corners or other portions of the protective layer 366 and/or other elements may be welded, glued, or otherwise joined to increase their waterproofing capability. The protective layer may be formed of multiple portions that each may attach to a foundation wall panel, such as the foundation wall panel 1102 described below.
  • FIG. 35 is a flow chart of one embodiment of a foundation wall panel manufacturing process 1100. The foundation wall panel may be formed of components as described in connection with FIGS. 1-29 and using foundation wall elements produced by the processes depicted in and described in connection with FIGS. 30-34. The foundation wall panel may be a portion of a foundation wall, may include any configuration described herein with respect to the foundation walls that include studs and stud coupling elements, and may be any desired width, such as any width up to 20 feet, for example. The foundation wall panel may be custom designed for inclusion in a foundation wall by employing a computerized design and build software program that integrates ordering, estimating, shop, and build drawings, as well as certain manufacturing processes. In one embodiment, the size, number, and order of foundation wall panels and their components are based on planned foundation requirements for an upcoming period of time, such as the next one or two weeks.
  • The coupling of elements of the foundation wall panel may be achieved as described herein with respect to coupling the respective elements. At 1105, the studs, legs, sills, corner support elements, and footer elements or pieces, and nailers illustrated in FIGS. 1-29 and produced as described in FIGS. 30-34, for example, may be moved to an assembly area and coupled at appropriate locations to form a foundation wall panel. The coupling may be by a mechanism described herein or another mechanism. In one embodiment, the foam layers of corner support elements are coupled thereto before the corner support elements are secured in the foundation wall panel. In another embodiment, at 1105, steel strapping may be coupled with the studs and/or legs at the sides of the studs and/or legs that will face the fourth surface 326 of the foundation wall. The steel strapping may be positioned along the length of the studs and/or legs, or at an angle, and may increase shear resistance of the studs and/or legs.
  • At 1110, stud coupling elements, such as the stud coupling element 420 illustrated in FIG. 13 and the stud coupling element produced as described in FIG. 33, may be moved to the assembly area and added to the foundation wall panel by being coupled with the studs, legs, and/or each other, such as described herein.
  • At 1120, foam or flexible material elements, such as those described herein and produced as described in connection with FIG. 34 may be moved to the assembly area and coupled with the studs, legs, sills, and/or otherwise positioned within the wall panel. For example, stud insulating components may be coupled with the studs, legs, and/or sills and wall insulating elements may be positioned adjacent the stud coupling elements, as described herein. At 1130, the header and/or sill plate, which may be as described herein and may be as produced in connection with FIG. 30, may be coupled with each other and with some studs of the foundation wall panel at the top surfaces of the studs. At 1140, the polymer elements, such as the protective layer portion produced as described at 1020 in FIG. 34, are coupled with the foundation wall panel, such as at the studs, wall insulating elements, and other elements such as described above with respect to the foundation wall 302.
  • The process described in FIG. 35 may be performed in any order as desired. For example, a protective layer portion, at 1140, may be coupled with the foundation wall panel, and then a wall insulating element may, at 1120, be positioned between the protective layer portion and the stud coupling element coupled between the studs at 1110.
  • The process described in FIG. 35 may be repeated to produce additional foundation wall panels.
  • In one embodiment, the elements are moved to the assembly area at 1105, 1110, 1120, 1130, and 1140, with machinery that may include a crane apparatus, such as the machinery described for moving foundation wall elements in connection with FIGS. 30-32.
  • FIG. 36 is a flow chart of an embodiment of a foundation wall panel transport and installation process 1200, for transporting the foundation wall panels to a construction site, for example, and installing the panels to form a foundation wall. At 1205, completed foundation wall panels are loaded onto a truck, railcar or other vehicle, such as by stacking the foundation wall panels on the vehicle via the machinery with a crane apparatus described above, for transport. At 1210, the foundation wall panels are removed from the vehicle and positioned on, and coupled with, a foundation, such as described with respect to the foundation wall 302 and the foundation 304 described herein. The foundation wall panels may be removed and positioned at 1210 via a light duty mobile crane or truck or otherwise removed and positioned. The foundation wall panels may be appropriately positioned on the foundation, plumbed straight and level, coupled thereto, and may be coupled to each other at their sides, such as by bolts, for example, or by another method. In one embodiment, the foundation wall panels include coupling elements at their sides, such as snap-fit attachments, screws, bolts, holes, and/or other coupling elements. The foundation wall panels may be placed and coupled together sequentially, according to building plan instructions In one embodiment, only about 10-15 fully manufactured foundation wall panels and corresponding connections are required to build the foundation wall. Thus, instead of the substantial time, such as weeks, it may require to build existing foundation walls that use sand, cement, and over 3000 individual concrete blocks, the foundation wall in this embodiment, may be built within hours or days.
  • At 1220, the foundation wall panels are treated in this embodiment. The foundation wall panels may be treated at their sides, such as with sealants and/or gasket materials. The foundation wall panels may be treated between the protective layer portions of each panel, such as by welding, gluing, caulking, and/or another method. In one embodiment, the protective layer of each foundation wall panel extends beyond the side of each foundation wall panel such that when two foundation wall panels are coupled, their respective protective layers overlap. In this embodiment, the overlapping portions of the protective layers may be treated, at 1220, by heat welding the portions together or by another method. Other treatments may be applied at 1220, such as, for example, the coupling of additional polymer elements with the foundation and/or footer element or piece, for example. The treating of the foundation wall panels may decrease penetration of moisture between the foundation wall panels, thus increasing resistance to moisture penetration in the foundation wall.
  • At 1230, other foundation wall elements and other elements of the structure in which the foundation wall comprised of panels may be included, such as described herein, may be added. For example, finishing layers, such as finishing layers 368, may be coupled with the foundation wall panels, a floor such as a floor 306 may be poured adjacent portions of the foundation wall, and/or some components of the structure may be coupled with the foundation wall by mechanical or other coupling method. In one embodiment, the finishing layers may be added during production of the foundation wall panel.
  • While specific embodiments of the invention have been described in detail, it would be appreciated by those skilled in the art that various modifications and alternations would be developed in light of the overall teachings of the disclosure. For example, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that, although the present invention is described primarily with respect to the construction of a residential home building, the composite foundation walls of the present invention can be used for commercial or industrial building construction as well. In another example, dimensions of matter described with respect to certain embodiments may be approximate and may be altered as desired. Accordingly, the particular arrangements, apparatuses, systems, and methods disclosed are meant to be illustrative only and not limiting as to the scope of the invention.

Claims (40)

1. A process for forming at least a portion of a foundation wall, comprising:
forming a foundation wall panel, the forming of the foundation wall panel comprising coupling two studs with a footer element and coupling a stud coupling element with the two studs, the stud coupling element extending between the two studs.
2. The process of claim 1, further comprising coupling a protective layer with the two studs.
3. The process of claim 2, further comprising positioning a wall insulating element between the stud coupling element and the protective layer.
4. The process of claim 1, further comprising coupling a corner support element with the foundation wall panel.
5. The process of claim 4, further comprising coupling the corner support element with the footer element.
6. The process of claim 1, further comprising coupling a leg with the footer element.
7. The process of claim 6, wherein the leg is a door leg.
8. The process of claim 6, wherein the leg is a window leg.
9. The process of claim 6, wherein the leg is a beam pocket leg.
10. The process of claim 6, further comprising coupling a sill with the leg.
11. A process for forming at least a portion of a foundation wall, comprising:
forming a foundation wall panel, the forming of the foundation wall panel comprising coupling two studs with a footer element and coupling a protective layer with the two studs.
12. The process of claim 11, wherein the protective layer extends at least along a portion of the bottom surface of the foundation wall.
13. A process for installing at least a portion of a foundation wall, comprising:
coupling two foundation wall panels with one another, the two foundation wall panels each comprising two studs and a stud coupling element that extends between the two studs; and
coupling the two foundation wall panels with a foundation.
14. The process of claim 13, further comprising treating the two foundation wall panels.
15. The process of claim 14, wherein the treating increases resistance to moisture penetration in the foundation wall.
16. The process of claim 14, wherein the treating includes applying a sealant to the two foundation wall panels.
17. The process of claim 14, wherein the treating includes coupling a gasket to the two foundation wall panels.
18. The process of claim 14, wherein the two foundation wall panels each further comprise a protective layer, and wherein the treating includes heat welding the protective layers together.
19. The process of claim 13, further comprising applying a finishing layer to the two foundation wall panels.
20. The process of claim 13, further comprising coupling the footer element with a floor.
21. A system for forming a foundation wall, comprising:
a form configurable for casting studs of a foundation wall, the studs having a common cross section along at least a portion of each of their lengths; and
spacers that may each be placed in the form to configure the form for casting a different type of the studs.
22. The system of claim 21, wherein one of the different types of the studs is a brick ledge stud.
23. The system of claim 21, wherein one of the different types of the studs is a frost wall stud.
24. The system of claim 21, wherein the form is further configurable for casting legs of the foundation wall, the legs having the common cross section along at least a portion of each of their lengths, the system further comprising additional spacers that may each be placed in the form to further configure the form for casting a different type of the legs.
25. The system of claim 24, wherein one of the different types of the legs is a beam door leg.
26. The system of claim 24, wherein one of the different types of the legs is a window leg.
27. The system of claim 24, wherein one of the different types of the legs is a beam pocket leg.
28. The system of claim 24, wherein the form is further configurable for casting sills of the foundation wall, the sills having the common cross section along at least a portion of each of their lengths, the system further comprising spacers that may each be placed in the form to further configure the form for casting a different type of the sills.
29. The system of claim 28, wherein one of the different types of the sills is a beam pocket sill.
30. The system of claim 28, wherein one of the different types of the sills is a window sill.
31. The system of claim 21, wherein the common cross section is approximately 2.5 inches by 8.5 inches.
32. The system of claim 21, wherein the common cross section is approximately 2.5 inches by 6.5 inches.
33. A cast foundation wall system, comprising:
a plurality of forms having common inside dimensions; and
a spacer to be placed inside any one of the forms to create a void in a material cast in the form.
34. The system of claim 33, wherein the void is shaped like the spacer.
35. The system of claim 33, wherein the material includes concrete.
36. The system of claim 33, wherein the material includes concrete and steel.
37. The system of claim 33, wherein a first of the inside dimensions is approximately 2.5 inches.
38. The system of claim 37, wherein a second of the inside dimensions is approximately 8.5 inches.
39. The system of claim 37, wherein a second of the inside dimensions is approximately 6.5 inches.
40. The system of claim 33, further comprising casting the material in the form.
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US20100088981A1 (en) * 2008-10-09 2010-04-15 Thermapan Structural Insulated Panels Inc. Structural Insulated Panel for a Foundation Wall and Foundation Wall Incorporating Same
US20100107539A1 (en) * 2008-11-05 2010-05-06 Martens Clark M Insulating wall panel apparatuses, systems, and methods

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