US20060093645A1 - Glass scaffolds with controlled resorption rates and methods for making same - Google Patents

Glass scaffolds with controlled resorption rates and methods for making same Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US20060093645A1
US20060093645A1 US11/247,844 US24784405A US2006093645A1 US 20060093645 A1 US20060093645 A1 US 20060093645A1 US 24784405 A US24784405 A US 24784405A US 2006093645 A1 US2006093645 A1 US 2006093645A1
Authority
US
United States
Prior art keywords
scaffold
glass
rate
fibers
fiber
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US11/247,844
Inventor
Victor Janas
Kevor TenHuisen
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Advanced Technologies and Regenerative Medicine LLC
Original Assignee
Janas Victor F
Tenhuisen Kevor S
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to US09/772,363 priority Critical patent/US20020139147A1/en
Priority to US10/377,153 priority patent/US7005135B2/en
Application filed by Janas Victor F, Tenhuisen Kevor S filed Critical Janas Victor F
Priority to US11/247,844 priority patent/US20060093645A1/en
Publication of US20060093645A1 publication Critical patent/US20060093645A1/en
Assigned to ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES AND REGENERATIVE MEDICINE, LLC reassignment ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES AND REGENERATIVE MEDICINE, LLC ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: ETHICON, INC.
Application status is Abandoned legal-status Critical

Links

Classifications

    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C03GLASS; MINERAL OR SLAG WOOL
    • C03CCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF GLASSES, GLAZES, OR VITREOUS ENAMELS; SURFACE TREATMENT OF GLASS; SURFACE TREATMENT OF FIBRES OR FILAMENTS MADE FROM GLASS, MINERALS OR SLAGS; JOINING GLASS TO GLASS OR OTHER MATERIALS
    • C03C13/00Fibre or filament compositions
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61LMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR STERILISING MATERIALS OR OBJECTS IN GENERAL; DISINFECTION, STERILISATION, OR DEODORISATION OF AIR; CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES; MATERIALS FOR BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES
    • A61L27/00Materials for grafts or prostheses or for coating grafts or prostheses
    • A61L27/02Inorganic materials
    • A61L27/10Ceramics or glasses
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61LMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR STERILISING MATERIALS OR OBJECTS IN GENERAL; DISINFECTION, STERILISATION, OR DEODORISATION OF AIR; CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES; MATERIALS FOR BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES
    • A61L27/00Materials for grafts or prostheses or for coating grafts or prostheses
    • A61L27/40Composite materials, i.e. containing one material dispersed in a matrix of the same or different material
    • A61L27/42Composite materials, i.e. containing one material dispersed in a matrix of the same or different material having an inorganic matrix
    • A61L27/425Composite materials, i.e. containing one material dispersed in a matrix of the same or different material having an inorganic matrix of phosphorus containing material, e.g. apatite
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61LMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR STERILISING MATERIALS OR OBJECTS IN GENERAL; DISINFECTION, STERILISATION, OR DEODORISATION OF AIR; CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES; MATERIALS FOR BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES
    • A61L27/00Materials for grafts or prostheses or for coating grafts or prostheses
    • A61L27/40Composite materials, i.e. containing one material dispersed in a matrix of the same or different material
    • A61L27/42Composite materials, i.e. containing one material dispersed in a matrix of the same or different material having an inorganic matrix
    • A61L27/427Composite materials, i.e. containing one material dispersed in a matrix of the same or different material having an inorganic matrix of other specific inorganic materials not covered by A61L27/422 or A61L27/425
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61LMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR STERILISING MATERIALS OR OBJECTS IN GENERAL; DISINFECTION, STERILISATION, OR DEODORISATION OF AIR; CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES; MATERIALS FOR BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES
    • A61L27/00Materials for grafts or prostheses or for coating grafts or prostheses
    • A61L27/50Materials characterised by their function or physical properties, e.g. injectable or lubricating compositions, shape-memory materials, surface modified materials
    • A61L27/58Materials at least partially resorbable by the body
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C03GLASS; MINERAL OR SLAG WOOL
    • C03BMANUFACTURE, SHAPING, OR SUPPLEMENTARY PROCESSES
    • C03B5/00Melting in furnaces; Furnaces so far as specially adapted for glass manufacture
    • C03B5/02Melting in furnaces; Furnaces so far as specially adapted for glass manufacture in electric furnaces, e.g. by dielectric heating
    • C03B5/033Melting in furnaces; Furnaces so far as specially adapted for glass manufacture in electric furnaces, e.g. by dielectric heating by using resistance heaters above or in the glass bath, i.e. by indirect resistance heating
    • C03B5/0334Pot furnaces; Core furnaces
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C03GLASS; MINERAL OR SLAG WOOL
    • C03CCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF GLASSES, GLAZES, OR VITREOUS ENAMELS; SURFACE TREATMENT OF GLASS; SURFACE TREATMENT OF FIBRES OR FILAMENTS MADE FROM GLASS, MINERALS OR SLAGS; JOINING GLASS TO GLASS OR OTHER MATERIALS
    • C03C4/00Compositions for glass with special properties
    • C03C4/0007Compositions for glass with special properties for biologically-compatible glass
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/28Bones
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/28Bones
    • A61F2002/2817Bone stimulation by chemical reactions or by osteogenic or biological products for enhancing ossification, e.g. by bone morphogenetic or morphogenic proteins [BMP] or by transforming growth factors [TGF]
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/28Bones
    • A61F2002/2835Bone graft implants for filling a bony defect or an endoprosthesis cavity
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/30Joints
    • A61F2002/30001Additional features of subject-matter classified in A61F2/28, A61F2/30 and subgroups thereof
    • A61F2002/30003Material related properties of the prosthesis or of a coating on the prosthesis
    • A61F2002/30004The prosthesis made from materials having different values of a given property at different locations within the same prosthesis
    • A61F2002/30032The prosthesis made from materials having different values of a given property at different locations within the same prosthesis differing in absorbability or resorbability, i.e. in absorption or resorption time
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/30Joints
    • A61F2002/30001Additional features of subject-matter classified in A61F2/28, A61F2/30 and subgroups thereof
    • A61F2002/30003Material related properties of the prosthesis or of a coating on the prosthesis
    • A61F2002/3006Properties of materials and coating materials
    • A61F2002/30062(bio)absorbable, biodegradable, bioerodable, (bio)resorbable, resorptive
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/30Joints
    • A61F2002/30001Additional features of subject-matter classified in A61F2/28, A61F2/30 and subgroups thereof
    • A61F2002/30316The prosthesis having different structural features at different locations within the same prosthesis; Connections between prosthetic parts; Special structural features of bone or joint prostheses not otherwise provided for
    • A61F2002/30535Special structural features of bone or joint prostheses not otherwise provided for
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/30Joints
    • A61F2002/30001Additional features of subject-matter classified in A61F2/28, A61F2/30 and subgroups thereof
    • A61F2002/30667Features concerning an interaction with the environment or a particular use of the prosthesis
    • A61F2002/30677Means for introducing or releasing pharmaceutical products, e.g. antibiotics, into the body
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/30Joints
    • A61F2/30756Cartilage endoprostheses
    • A61F2002/30766Scaffolds for cartilage ingrowth and regeneration
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2210/00Particular material properties of prostheses classified in groups A61F2/00 - A61F2/26 or A61F2/82 or A61F9/00 or A61F11/00 or subgroups thereof
    • A61F2210/0004Particular material properties of prostheses classified in groups A61F2/00 - A61F2/26 or A61F2/82 or A61F9/00 or A61F11/00 or subgroups thereof bioabsorbable
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2250/00Special features of prostheses classified in groups A61F2/00 - A61F2/26 or A61F2/82 or A61F9/00 or A61F11/00 or subgroups thereof
    • A61F2250/0014Special features of prostheses classified in groups A61F2/00 - A61F2/26 or A61F2/82 or A61F9/00 or A61F11/00 or subgroups thereof having different values of a given property or geometrical feature, e.g. mechanical property or material property, at different locations within the same prosthesis
    • A61F2250/003Special features of prostheses classified in groups A61F2/00 - A61F2/26 or A61F2/82 or A61F9/00 or A61F11/00 or subgroups thereof having different values of a given property or geometrical feature, e.g. mechanical property or material property, at different locations within the same prosthesis differing in adsorbability or resorbability, i.e. in adsorption or resorption time
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2250/00Special features of prostheses classified in groups A61F2/00 - A61F2/26 or A61F2/82 or A61F9/00 or A61F11/00 or subgroups thereof
    • A61F2250/0058Additional features; Implant or prostheses properties not otherwise provided for
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2310/00Prostheses classified in A61F2/28 or A61F2/30 - A61F2/44 being constructed from or coated with a particular material
    • A61F2310/00005The prosthesis being constructed from a particular material
    • A61F2310/00179Ceramics or ceramic-like structures
    • A61F2310/00293Ceramics or ceramic-like structures containing a phosphorus-containing compound, e.g. apatite
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2310/00Prostheses classified in A61F2/28 or A61F2/30 - A61F2/44 being constructed from or coated with a particular material
    • A61F2310/00005The prosthesis being constructed from a particular material
    • A61F2310/00329Glasses, e.g. bioglass
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C03GLASS; MINERAL OR SLAG WOOL
    • C03CCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF GLASSES, GLAZES, OR VITREOUS ENAMELS; SURFACE TREATMENT OF GLASS; SURFACE TREATMENT OF FIBRES OR FILAMENTS MADE FROM GLASS, MINERALS OR SLAGS; JOINING GLASS TO GLASS OR OTHER MATERIALS
    • C03C2213/00Glass fibres or filaments
    • C03C2213/02Biodegradable glass fibres
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S514/00Drug, bio-affecting and body treating compositions
    • Y10S514/953Shaped forms adapted for noningestible use other than suppository type, e.g. films, inserts
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S514/00Drug, bio-affecting and body treating compositions
    • Y10S514/953Shaped forms adapted for noningestible use other than suppository type, e.g. films, inserts
    • Y10S514/954Ocular
    • Y10S514/955Biodegradable type

Abstract

The present invention relates to resorbable glass scaffolds for use in biological applications and methods for making same. Specifically, these scaffolds are composed of phosphate glass fibers, where the rate of dissolution into biological fluids is controlled by the length of time the glass is held above its melt temperature prior to spinning the fiber.

Description

    CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION
  • This application is a divisional of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/377,153, filed Feb. 28, 2003, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety and which is a continuation-in-part of U.S. application Ser. No. 09/772,363 entitled “Glass Scaffolds with Controlled Resorption Rates and Methods for Making Same”, filed on Jan. 30, 2001.
  • FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • The present invention relates to resorbable glass scaffolds for use in biological applications. Specifically, this invention relates to novel scaffolds, composed of resorbable glass with a tuned rate of resorption, and useful as biological replacements for hard tissue.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • Bone grafts in the form of non-woven, woven, braided, or knitted synthetic calcium phosphates (CaP) show potential as a resorbable scaffolding supporting the growth of new bones in applications such as spinal fusion, long bone fractures, non-union fractures, bone defects, and hip revisions. In known devices, the rate at which the device resorbs in the body is typically controlled by the surface area or composition of the graft. The ability to control the resorption rate of the scaffold by orders of magnitude without having to change the scaffold's composition or morphology may be advantageous to optimizing bone growth into the scaffold.
  • Bone grafts are used in the repair of significant fractures, the treatment of skeletal tumors, spinal fusion, and the reconstruction of failed total arthroplasties. Autogenous bone, or autograft, is harvested from another location in the patient, and used as the graft. Autograft performs very well in the applications cited above. The disadvantages of autograft include the limited supply of excess bone in the patient, as well as the inherent risks of morbidity and recovery pain resulting from a second surgery site. Allograft, bone taken from another human, has the advantage of being in larger supply that autograft bone. However, the greater immunogenic response of allograft, and risk of viral contamination or risk of transmission of live virus to the recipient, have led to the decline in use of allograft bone as a bone graft material. Xenograft, or bone grafts taken from another species, often elicits acute antigenic responses. In the vast majority of cases, xenograft fails in its role as a graft material.
  • Synthetic bone graft materials have been described in “Bone Graft and Bone Graft substitutes: A Review of Current Technology and Applications”; Damien and Parsons; J. Applied Biomaterials, Vol. 2, 1991, pages 187-208, which is incorporated herein by reference. The ideal graft should be able to support a load equivalent to the bone that is being replaced, so that the newly formed bone can remodel to the same quality and dimensions of the original bone that is being replaced. The ideal graft is also osteoactive, enhancing the formation of new bone. This is achieved both by the chemical nature of the material, as well as the structure, or architecture of the graft. Structurally, the graft needs to be porous to allow for ingrowth of the new bone. Though no optimal pore size has been established, the size of the pores required for good bone growth is between 100 and 500 microns. The ability to tailor the pore size and distribution is also viewed as a method of enhancing bone growth. In addition, the ideal graft material will be resorbed into the body at a rate equivalent to the rate at which the new bone is being formed. If the graft resorbs too rapidly, gaps and/or stress concentrations can result. If the resorption rate is too slow, the graft may inhibit the formation of new bone.
  • Bone grafts come in a variety of physical forms. These include, but are not limited to, loose particles, particles bound in polymer or other carrier material (a paste), ceramic precursors that react when blended together (calcium phosphate cements), porous solids, loose fiber constructs (such as felts), or textile processed fibers (weaves, braids, or knits).
  • The disadvantages of using loose particles as a bone graft include the tendency of the particles to either migrate away from the defect site in bodily fluids, or settle (or pack tightly) into the defect. Particle migration from the site results in possible tissue irritation and undesired tissue response in the regions where the particles eventually settle. Particle settling results in two issues. First, when the particles pack together, the pore size is reduced in the graft to less than 100 μm. This pore size does not allow the migration and ingrowth of cells into the graft. Particle settling also results in an inability to control the pore size and distribution in these systems. The size of the particles and how they pack together determine the size and distribution of pores in these types of grafts. Since settling is not controllable, there is no ability to use graft architecture to control new bone growth into the graft.
  • Particle migration and settling problems have been mitigated to some extent by the use of synthetic or natural matrix materials, including polymers such as PMMA, polysulfone (PS), or polyethylene (PE), which are not resorbable, and ceramics, such as plaster of Paris. Particles have also been enclosed in tubes of resorbable polymers, such as collagen or polyglycolide. The size and distribution of pores in these types of grafts are also not controllable. The size of the particles, how they pack together, and the space between them caused by the carrier matrix determine the distribution. As with loose particles, there is limited ability to use graft architecture to control new bone growth into the graft.
  • For bone grafts in the form of cements, there is also a limited ability to control the pore size and distribution. Pore creating agents may be put into the cement prior to its formation. However, the size and distribution of pores are determined by the size, form, and concentration of the agent, resulting in the inability to use graft architecture to control new bone growth into the graft. This inability to control pore size and distribution also results in limits in load support capability. A random distribution of pores results in a random distribution of defects in the structure and associated low load support capability.
  • Control of the pore size and distribution in porous solid bone grafts is also limited. Porous solid bone grafts have been formed using the replamine process on naturally occurring coral. Here, the pore size and distribution are limited to that of the species of coral used. Defect location is also uncontrollable, lowering the load support capability of the graft in fashion similar to that discussed above for cements. Pore creating agents may also be put into a ceramic prior to its formation. However, as is the case with cements, the size, form, and concentration of the agent determine the size and distribution of pores.
  • Bone grafts in the form of textile architectures, such as weaves, braids, or knits, have advantages over the other forms of bone grafts. Textile technology may by used to precisely place the fibers in a desired location in space, allowing for a large degree of control in the size and distribution of pores in the bone graft structure.
  • Tagai, et al., in U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,820,573, 4,735,857 and 4,613,577, disclose a glass fiber for the filing of a defect or hollow portion of a bone. In this case, the calcium phosphate glass fiber may be in the form of short fibers, continuous fiber, or woven continuous fibers.
  • Though bone grafts in the textile forms address the limitations of particulate or solid bone grafts, one area not addressed is that of graft resorption rate. As described above, an ideal graft material will be resorbed into the body at a rate equivalent to the rate at which the new bone is being formed. Fast or slow resorption results may inhibit the formation of new bone or create gaps and/or stress concentrations in the native tissue.
  • An implant that slowly disappears and is replaced by native tissue, is said to be resorbed into the body. This resorption is a biological process in which the body breaks down a material into simpler components either chemically or physically. These simpler components are either soluble in bodily fluids, or digestible in cells such as macrophages. The degradation products are chemical compounds that are not toxic, and can easily be incorporated into the structure of the body or excreted.
  • The effects of both biological and physiochemical material properties of calcium phosphate ceramics on the rate at which bone grafts are resorbed into the body has been described in “Biodegradation and Bioresorption of Calcium Phosphate Ceramics”, Legeros; Clinical Materials, Vol. 14, 1993, pages 65-88, which is incorporated herein by reference. Biological factors affecting the degree and rate of resorption include age, implantation site, metabolic activity, diseased states, and the types of cells involved. The physiochemical parameters that affect resorption include the factors affecting the extent of material dissolution, such as physical form, density, porosity, composition and crystallinity.
  • A key parameter for determining the effect of physical form on the rate at which the graft is resorbed is the ratio of the surface area of the graft to its volume. For a given composition, as the surface to volume ratio increases, the resorption rate increases. For example, a porous graft will resorb significantly faster than a solid graft of equivalent volume. Fine particles resorb at a higher rate than course particles. A loosely woven fibrous structure resorbs at a higher rate than a tightly knitted structure of the same volume.
  • In U.S. Pat. No. 5,429,996, Kaneko disclosed a glass fiber/wool bone graft composed of SiO2—NaO2—CaO—B2O3—CaF2—P2O5, where dissolution rate is controlled by the diameter of the glass fiber. This graft was demonstrated to work in the treatment of periodontal disease. U.S. Pat. No. 4,867,779 (Meunier et al.) discussed a particulate or fibrous glass agricultural product composed of SiO2—K2O—CaO—MgO—Fe2O3—B2O3—MnO—ZnO—CuO—MoO3—Na2O—Al2O3—P2O5—SO3, where dissolution rate is controlled by the specific surface area of the fibers or particles. The preferred embodiment of their invention stated a most preferable specific surface area of 0.3 m2/gm. The limit of both of these concepts is the difficulty involved in making the number of sizes required to control dissolution rate over a wide range.
  • The rate at which bone grafts are resorbed into the body is also a function of the composition of the material composing the graft. There is a great deal of prior work discussing compositional effects on dissolution rate in calcium phosphate ceramics and glasses. A good review for ceramics is found in Structure and Chemistry of Apatites and Other Calcium Orthophosphate; Elliot; Studies in Inorganic Chemistry, Vol. 18, 1994. For phosphate glasses, a review can be found in Inorganic Calcium Phosphate glasses; Ropp; Studies in Inorganic Chemistry, Vol. 15, 1992. Both reviews are incorporated herein by reference.
  • In U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,897,236, 3,930,833, and 3,958,973, (all to Roberts), both the rate of ion release and the solubility of soil feed glasses composed of a variety of metal oxides are controlled by the level of some of the metal oxides in the glass. These include SiO2, K2O, CaO, B2O3, and Na2O.
  • Drake, in a series of patents (U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,123,248, 4,148,623, and 4,350,675), disclosed controlled release glass fertilizers composed of oxides of alkaline, Group II & Group III metals and P2O5. In these glasses, the release of nutrients was controlled by the rate of dissolution of the glass, which in turn was controlled by the weight percents of the components of the glass. In U.S. Pat. No. 4,645,749, Drake discussed CaO—Na2O—P2O5 glasses for the preparation of analytical solutions, where the release of sodium ions is controlled by the ratio of calcium to phosphorous in the glass. Finally, Drake and Brocklehurst, in U.S. Pat. No. 4,678,659, disclosed a therapeutic device for oral administration to the alimentary canal, composed of soluble phosphate glasses. Here, the solubility of the glass is controlled by the ratio of metal oxides composing the glass, and is tailored to be more soluble in low pH conditions, and less soluble at higher pH conditions.
  • Other disclosures of water soluble phosphate-based glasses for biological application, include U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,721,049, 5,645,934, and 5,468,544 (all to Marcolongo et al.), U.S. Pat, Nos. 5,252,523, 5,071,795, and 4,940,677 (all to Beall et al.), U.S. Pat. No. 4,612,923, (to Kronenthal), U.S. Pat. No. 4,482,541, (to Telfer et al.), and U.S. Pat. No. 4,437,192, (to Fujia et al.). In each case, the rate at which the glass body breaks down, or dissolves, is controlled by the ratio of the metal oxides in the compositions.
  • Still other works cite water soluble mineral or glass fibers for use as degradable insulation or fireproofing, where dissolution rate is controlled by the ratio of metal oxides in the compositions. These include phosphate-based compositions, such as disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,843,854, (to Karppinen et al.), U.S. Pat. No. 5,250,488, (to Theolan et al.), and U.S. Pat. No. 5,108,957, (to Cohen et al.), as well as nonphosphate-based compositions, such as U.S. Pat. No. 5,401,693, (to Bauer et al.), U.S. Pat. No. 5,332,699, (to Olds et al.), and U.S. Pat. No. 5,055,428, (to Porter).
  • In all of the above cited disclosures, the composition was used as a method of controlling the rate of dissolution. The limitation of this approach in the development of bone graft materials with controlled pore size and distribution is that if one desires to have grafts with a number of different dissolution rates, one is required to melt and spin a large number of different material compositions. The different material compositions have associated different degrees of biocompatibility, creating a situation in which a material composition having a less than optimal biocompatibility may be selected in order to achieve a desired dissolution rate.
  • The atmosphere under which the materials have been melted is also known to alter the dissolution rate of phosphate-based glasses and glass-ceramics. In U.S. Pat. No. 5,609,660, (to Francis et al.), the dissolution rate of magnesium phosphate glass was reduced by a factor of two by exposing the glass, in particulate form, to a nitriding environment. U.S. Pat. No. 5,215,563 (to LaCourse et al.) teaches that by melting an iron phosphate glass under a high oxygen environment, the dissolution rate can be reduced by thirty-three percent. Though these concepts are an improvement over the earlier methods of altering the composition of the glass, the range of dissolution rates possible from these teachings is small. In the present invention, resorption rates over a wide (order of magnitude) range are made possible by altering a step in the glass fiber processing.
  • Control of dissolution rates in phosphate glasses have also been seen by changing the stress state of the glass. This has been shown in U.S. Pat. No. 3,640,827 (to Lutz), where the dissolution rate of 9-mm spheres of sodium phosphate glass was changed by an order of magnitude by heat treating the glass below its melting point (annealing). Although Lutz '827 teaches that an order of magnitude change in dissolution can be achieved by annealing, it is limited to glass forms with dimensions significantly greater than those of interest in forming fiborous scaffolds composed of phosphate glass fibers with diameters on the order of 1-50 μm. Choueka et al., in “Effect of Annealing Temperature on the Degredation of Reinforcing Fibers for Absorbable Implants”; J. Applied Biomaterials, Vol. 2, 1991, pages 187-208, which is incorporated herein by reference, reports that the dissolution rate of CaO—ZnO—Fe2O3—P2O5 glass fibers (10-20 μm in diameter) can be reduced by half by annealing below the melt temperature.
  • Finally, Ropp, in Inorganic Calcium Phosphate Glasses; Studies in Inorganic Chemistry, Vol. 15, 1992, teaches that for phosphate glasses, an increase in the time that the glass is held above its melt temperature results in a decrease in the dissolution rate of the glass by up to an order of magnitude. Ropp's work was done with cast glass bars, not fine (<100 μm diameter) glass fibers fabricated by melt drawing and pulling which are incorporated in bone graft textiles.
  • In summary, the prior art presents a number of synthetic bone grafts. The only grafts with tailored pore size and distributions are those composed of fibers formed into scaffold structures by textile operations. Tailored pore size is viewed as a method of enhancing bone growth. The effects of both biological and physiochemical material properties of calcium phosphate ceramics on the rate at which bone grafts are resorbed into the body have also been discussed. A known method of altering the resorption rate by an order of magnitude or more is by changing the composition of the scaffold. The ability to control the resorption rate of the scaffold by orders of magnitude without having to change the composition of the glass fibers composing the scaffold would be advantageous in matching the rate of bone growth into the scaffold with the dissolution of the scaffold.
  • It is therefore an object of the present invention to provide a bone graft in which the pore size and distribution are tailored to enhance bone growth, and the resorption rate of the scaffold is controlled over orders of magnitude by a simple and economical method.
  • Another object of this invention is to create structures to use as scaffolds for the in vitro or in vivo growth of human or animal tissue, such as bone or cartilage. These scaffolds can be used as implant materials for the replacement of defects or hollow portions of hard tissue resulting from external injury or surgical removal of hard tissue tumors. Their composition can be tailored such as to be resorbed by the body at a rate equivalent to the rate at which natural hard tissue grows into the above mentioned defects or hollow portions of hard tissue.
  • A still further object of this invention is the formation of laminated bioresorbable structures where each layer has controlled pore size and distribution for providing another degree of control for optimizing bone growth into the resorbable ceramic structure if the structure is used as bone graft.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • The limitations of the prior art are addressed by the present invention which includes a tissue scaffold having a plurality of resorbable glass fibers made from the same composition. A first of the plurality has a resorption rate greater than a second of the plurality, the first and second fibers having a resorption rate that is controlled by the duration that the glass from which the first and second fibers are formed is maintained in a melted state.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  • The present invention relates to novel bone implants and their use in bone repair and reconstruction, and more particularly, to resorbable phosphate-based fibrous scaffolds with tailored rates of resorption. In the present invention, resorbable phosphate fibrous scaffolds are formed having a wide range of resorption rates. The tailoring of resorption rates is made possible by altering a step in the glass fiber processing. Therefore, a wide range of composition is not required. In the current invention, previously reported processing techniques to control the dissolution rate of phosphate glasses are combined with textile techniques to yield bioresorbable glass structures for use as bone grafts. More specifically, in the present invention, a novel hard tissue scaffold is disclosed. The size and distribution of interconnected pores in the structure are controlled, as is the rate of resorption of the scaffold. This is done by creating a woven phosphate structure, where the individual filaments are on the order of 1-100 μm.
  • The process for forming the scaffolds starts with commercially available analytical grades of metal salts, such as, acetates, nitrates, oxides, hydroxides or carbonates, such as CaO, Fe2O3, Na2O, K2O, MgO, Al2O3, B2O3, MnO, ZnO, CuO, MoO3, SiO2, and phosphorus-containing materials, such as phosphates, pyrophosphates or metaphosphates. The technique of spinning degradable glass compositions is discussed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,604,097 (to Graves et al.), which is incorporated herein by reference. The oxides and phosphates are weighed to obtain a predetermined ratio, mixed thoroughly, and melted in a container, or crucible that is made of materials ideally inert to the melt. A key to this invention is the amount of time that the melt is held prior to being spun into fibers. As discussed in the previously mentioned Inorganic Calcium Phosphate Glasses; Studies in Inorganic Chemistry, Vol. 15, 1992, Ropp teaches that an increase in the time that a phosphate glass is held above its melt temperature results in an decrease in the dissolution rate of the glass by up to an order of magnitude. Ropp's work was in cast glass bars. In accordance with the present invention, the concept is extended to fine (<100 μm diameter) glass fibers formed by melt drawing and pulling, applicable to biological scaffolds.
  • After holding the melt for a specified time, the melt is converted to continuous fiber form following a number of methods disclosed in the prior art. Fibers may be drawn from the melt by dipping a metal or ceramic rod into the melt, or may be made to flow through a single or multi-holed bushing. The fibers are then drawn down to the desired final diameter, rapidly cooled, and collected on a take-up device. Prior to collection, the fibers may be coated with a sizing agent, which acts as a protection layer on top of the glass.
  • The next step is to convert the individual fibers to three-dimensional textile architectures. Textile technologies, such as weaving, braiding, or knitting, may be used to precisely place the fibers in a desired location in space, allowing for a large degree of control in the size and distribution of pores in the bone graft structure. A plurality of fiber types with the same glass composition, each having a different associated resorption rate based upon melt hold time may be formed into a common textile structure with a predetermined spatial distribution of each of said plurality of fiber types. The plurality of different fibers may have approximately the same diameter.
  • The result is a bioresorbable glass structure for use as bone replacement materials in which pore size and distribution, and the rate of resorption are controlled over a wider range than have been previously reported. The advantages of the present invention over biocompatible inorganic structures disclosed in the past is the ability to both control pore size and distribution for optimized bone ingrowth, and to control the resorption rate of the scaffold by orders of magnitude without having to change the composition of the glass fibers composing the scaffold. The goal is to match the rate of bone growth into the scaffold with the dissolution of the scaffold. In addition, by providing fibers with different resorption rates within the same scaffold, slower resorbing fibers can provide structural support for the scaffold while the faster resorbing fibers promote bone in-growth.
  • The structures created by this invention may be used as scaffolds for the in vitro or in vivo growth of human or animal tissue, such as bone or cartilage. These scaffolds can be used as implant materials for the replacement of defects or hollow portions of hard tissue resulting from external injury or surgical removal of hard tissue tumors.
  • Fibers made in accordance with the present invention, may be used in the formation of laminated structures, and a countless number of three-dimensional structures. The individual plies can be formed via textile operations such as weaving, braiding and knitting. Mixed fabric types can be incorporated into the structure for further control of pore size and distribution. Though no optimal pore size and distribution have been established, the size of the pores required for good bone growth is between 100 and 500 microns. The ability to tailor the pore size and distribution is also viewed as a method of enhancing bone growth.
  • A method in accordance with the present invention for making a hard tissue scaffold for use in repairing an injury to hard tissue, includes the steps of: (a) selecting a glass composition; (b) melting a first amount of the selected glass composition to yield a first glass in a melted state; (c) maintaining the first glass in a melted state for a first melt hold time to confer a first resorption rate to the first glass, the first resorption rate being matched to a predetermined rate of bone growth into the scaffold; (d) forming the first glass into a first resorbable fiber having the first resorption rate; (e) melting a second amount of the selected glass composition to yield a second glass in a melted state; (f) maintaining the second glass in a melted state for a second melt hold time to confer a second resorption rate to the second glass, the second resorption rate being slower than the first resorption rate; (g) forming the second glass into a second resorbable fiber having the second resorption rate; (h) including both the first resorbable fiber and the second resorbable fiber in the hard tissue scaffold, whereby the first resorbable fiber resorbs to promote bone in-growth while the second resorbable fiber persists for a predetermined time in order to maintain structural support for the scaffold.
  • In addition, the three-dimensional structure may be filled with biological materials, resorbable synthetic polymers, biopolymers or ceramic materials that may or may not contain materials capable of promoting bond growth through the device (three dimensional structure). These include autograft, allograft, or xenograft bone, bone marrow, demineralized bone (DBM), natural or synthetic bone morphogenic proteins (BMP's i.e. BMP 1 through 7), bone morphogenic-like proteins (i.e. growth and differentiation factor 5 (GFD-5) also known as cartilage-derived morphogenic factor 1, (GFD-7 and GFD-8) epidermal growth factor (EGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF i.e. FGF 1 through 9), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), insulin like growth factor (i.e. IGF-I and IGF-II and optionally IGF binding proteins), transforming growth factors (TGF-β i.e. TGF-β I through III), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or other osteoinductive or osteoconductive materials know in the art. Biopolymers could also be used as conductive or chemotactic materials, or as delivery vehicles for growth factors. Examples could be recombinant or animal derived collagen gelatin or elastin. Bioactive coatings or surface treatments could also be applied to the surface of the device. For example, bioactive peptide sequences (RGD's) could be applied to facilitate protein adsorption and subsequent cell tissue attachment. Antibiotics could also be coated on the surface of the device or delivered by a material within the device.
  • The polymeric materials filling the device could exist in a number of phases including solids, foams, or liquids. The three dimensional structure could be filled with polymer to some specified degree to improve the mechanical toughness of the device. Foamed polymeric materials could be lyophilized within the structure providing a scaffold within a scaffold. The porous polymeric foam would provide an osteoconductive medium for bone growth into the device. The porous foam could also serve as a delivery medium for growth factors, peptides, and other bioactive materials. The three dimensional structure could also be filled with liquid polymers containing biological agents, with the entire structure acting to control the release rate of the agent.
  • The present invention therefore contemplates a method further including the steps of preparing a resorbable matrix material to combine with the composite textile structure and combining the resorbable matrix material therewith to form the hard tissue scaffold.
  • The three-dimensional structure could also be filled with photocurable polymeric materials and cured in place with UV light source. It could also be filled with ceramic cements, monolithic ceramic materials or particles that are osteoconductive or inductive. The structure could also be post-processed with a ceramic or polymeric coating that is osteoconductive or inductive. The second ceramic material would act as a coating that would be different from the materials used for the main body of the scaffold.
  • The three-dimensional structure may also serve as a scaffold for the engineering of bone tissue to facilitate bone healing. The structure may have an internal porous structure that would be conducive to the growth of cells. As outlined in previous patents (Vacanti, U.S. Pat. No. 5,770,417), tissue can be harvested from a patient and the tissue can be sterile processed to provide a specific cell type (i.e., osteoblast, mesenchymal stem cell (Caplan, U.S. Pat. No. 5,486,359), etc.). The cells could contain inserted DNA encoding a protein that could stimulate the attachment, proliferation or differentiation of bone tissue. The three-dimensional structure would be placed in cell culture and the cells seeded onto or into the structure. The structure would be maintained in a sterile environment and then implanted into the donor patient once the cells have invaded the microstructure of the scaffold. The in vitro seeding of cells could provide for a more rapid healing process. Additionally, radio-opaque markers may be added to the scaffold to allow imaging after implantation.
  • Without intending to limit it in any manner, the present invention will be more fully described by the following examples.
  • EXAMPLE 1
  • Reagent grades of CaO, Fe2O3, and P2O5 in a molar ratio of 16.5:33.5:50 were thoroughly mixed to create a batch using a ball mill with high purity zirconia mixing media. The glass was melted in an platinum crucible under a nitrogen atmosphere using an electric furnace. A melt temperature of 1200° C. was sufficient to liquefy the batch. Three melts were created, each with a different hold time above the melt temperature. The hold times were 8, 24, and 48 hours. At the conclusion of the melt cycle, the liquid glass was poured out, or cast, onto steel plates. The glasses quickly solidified, and were stored as cast blocks in desiccators.
  • To create glass fibers, the glass blocks discussed above were remelted in platinum crucibles under a nitrogen atmosphere using an electric furnace at 900° C., and held until all bubbles had risen to the surface (<1 hour). The melt was transferred to a second electric furnace held at 750° C., and poured from the platinum crucible into a second platinum crucible with a base composed of a single-hold bushing. Under gravity flow, the glass flowed through the bushing, and onto the surface of a rotating drum. The speed of the drum was controlled to create a single filament with a diameter of 15-20 μm. The glass fibers were removed from the drum, and stored in desiccators.
  • One gram of fibers from each of the melt hold time (8, 24, and 48 hours) batches was placed in one liter plastic containers. At selected times, 10 ml aliquots were removed from the containers, filtered (0.2 μm), and analyzed via DC plasma emission spectroscopy for concentration of calcium and iron.
  • Table I below displays the concentration of calcium and iron in the PBS versus time for the fibers of the various melt hold times.
    TABLE I
    Concentration of calcium and iron in PBS solutions
    versus time for CaO/Fe2O3/P2O5 (molar ratio 16.5/33.5/50)
    glass fibers with different melt hold times.
    Time in Buffer Melt Hold Time
    (hours) (hours) [Ca] (mg/l) [Fe](mg/l)
    0 8 0.40 0.05
    24 0.40 0.05
    48 0.40 0.03
    8 8 3.51 1.77
    24 0.49 0.05
    48 0.46 0.04
    24 8 9.2 5.1
    24 0.52 0.08
    48 0.50 0.06
    168 8 15.1 15.0
    24 0.79 1.58
    48 0.61 0.43
  • The table shows that when corrected for the concentration of calcium and iron in the PBS mix itself, the release rates of both ions from the glass fibers held in the melt state for 24 to 48 hours are over an order of magnitude lower than that of the glass fibers held in the melt state for 8 hours.
  • EXAMPLE 2
  • Reagent grades of CaO, Fe2O3, and P2O5 in molar ratio of 33.5:16.5:50 were thoroughly mixed to create a batch using a ball mill with high purity zirconia mixing media. The glass was melted in a platinum crucible under a nitrogen atmosphere using an electric furnace. A melt temperature of 1100° C. was sufficient to liquefy the batch. Two melts were created, each with a different hold time above the melt temperature. The hold times were 8 and 72 hours. At the conclusion of the melt cycle, the liquid glass was poured out, or cast, onto steel plates. The glasses quickly solidified, and were stored as cast blocks in desiccators.
  • To create glass fibers, the glass blocks discussed above were remelted in platinum crucibles under a nitrogen atmosphere using an electric furnace at 900° C., and held until all bubbles had risen to the surface (<1 hour). The melt was transferred to a second electric furnace held at 750° C., and poured from the platinum crucible into a second platinum crucible with a base composed of a single-hole bushing. Under gravity flow, the glass flowed through the bushing, and onto the surface of a rotating drum. The speed of the drum was controlled to create a single filament with a diameter of 15-20 μm. The glass fibers were removed from the drum, and stored in desiccators.
  • One gram of fibers from each of the melt hold time (8 and 72 hours) batches was placed in one liter plastic containers. The containers held one liter of phosphate buffered saline solutions (P-3813, Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, Mo., mixed as per instructions) which were maintained at physiologic temperature (37° C.) in a water bath. At selected times, 10 ml aliquots were removed from the containers, filtered (0.2-μm), and analyzed via DC plasma emission spectroscopy for concentration of calcium and iron.
  • Table II below displays the concentration of calcium and iron in the PBS versus time for the fibers of the various melt hold times.
    TABLE II
    Concentration of calcium and iron in PBS solutions versus
    time for CaO/Fe2O3/P2O5 (molar ration 33.5/16.5/50)
    glass fibers with different melt hold times.
    Time in Buffer Melt Hold Time [Ca] [Fe]
    (hours) (hours) (mg/l) (mg/l)
    0 8 0.46 0.03
    72 0.45 0.04
    168 8 21.1 13.6
    72 18.7 12.9
  • The table shows that when corrected for the concentration of calcium and iron in the PBS mix itself, the release rates of both ions from the glass fibers held in the melt state for 72 hours are lower than that of the glass fibers held in the melt state for 8 hours.
  • It will be understood that the embodiment described herein is merely exemplary and that a person skilled in the art may make many variations and modifications without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. All such variations and modifications are intended to be included within the scope of the invention as defined in the appended claims.

Claims (20)

1. A scaffold used in repairing an injury to bone or cartilage, comprising:
a first glass fiber and a second glass fiber, each having the same glass composition, but different resorption rates, a resorption rate of said first glass fiber attributable to a first melt hold time
a first amount of said glass composition is maintained in a melted state to confer a first resorption rate to said first amount of said glass composition, the first resorption rate being matched to a predetermined rate of bone growth into the scaffold,
said first glass fiber being formed from said first amount of said glass composition into a resorbable fiber having the first resorption rate, a resorption rate of said second glass fiber attributable to a second melt hold time,
a second amount of said glass composition is maintained in a melted state to confer a second resorption rate to said second amount of said glass composition, the second resorption rate being slower than the first resorption rate,
said second glass fiber being formed from said second amount of said glass composition into a second resorbable fiber having the second resorption rate,
said first resorbable fiber and said second resorbable fiber being included in said scaffold, said first resorbable fiber being resorbable to promote bone in-growth while said second resorbable fiber persists for a predetermined time in order to maintain structural support for the scaffold.
2. The scaffold of claim 15, wherein said first and said second fibers form a composite textile structure.
3. The scaffold of claim 15, wherein said first and second fibers have a diameter in a range of from about 1 μm to about 100 μm.
4. The scaffold of claim 15, wherein said glass composition is a phosphate glass composition.
5. The scaffold of claim 4, wherein said glass composition includes CaO, Fe2O3 and P2O5 in a molar ratio of approximately 16.5:33.5:50.0.
6. The scaffold of claim 4, wherein said glass composition includes CaO, Fe2O3 and P2O5 in approximately the following range of molar ratios (CaO) 16.5 to 33.5: (Fe2O3) 16.5 to 33.5: (P2O5) 50.0.
7. The scaffold of claim 1, wherein the first melt hold time and the second melt hold time are each in the range of from about 8 hours to about 72 hours.
8. The scaffold of claim 2, wherein said composite textile structure results in a spacial distribution of each of said first and second fibers.
9. The scaffold of claim 2, wherein said first and second fibers have approximately the same diameter.
10. The scaffold of claim 2, further including a resorbable matrix material to combine with the composite textile structure to form said scaffold.
11. The scaffold of claim 10, wherein said matrix material is selected from the group consisting of: resorbable synthetic polymers, biopolymers, ceramics and photocurable polymers.
12. The scaffold of claim 10, further comprising bone growth agents in the matrix material.
13. The scaffold of claim 10, further comprising a medicament in the matrix to enable controlled release of said medicament.
14. (canceled)
15. A tissue replacement scaffold, comprising a plurality of resorbable glass fibers made from the same composition, a first of said plurality having a resorption rate greater than a second of said plurality, said first and second fibers having the resorption rate thereof controlled by the duration that the glass from which said first and second fibers are formed is held in a melted state.
16. The scaffold of claim 15, wherein said resorption rate of said first fiber approximately matches the rate of cellular ingrowth.
17. The scaffold of claim 15, further comprising a bone growth agent incorporated therein.
18. The scaffold of claim 15, further comprising a polymer matrix material disposed about said fibers.
19. The scaffold of claim 18, further including a medicament incorporated therein, the resorption rate of said scaffold determining the controlled rate of release of said medicament.
20. The scaffold of claim 1, wherein said fibers are formed into a textile structure.
US11/247,844 2001-01-30 2005-10-11 Glass scaffolds with controlled resorption rates and methods for making same Abandoned US20060093645A1 (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US09/772,363 US20020139147A1 (en) 2001-01-30 2001-01-30 Glass scaffolds with controlled resorption rates and methods for making same
US10/377,153 US7005135B2 (en) 2001-01-30 2003-02-28 Glass scaffolds with controlled resorption rates and methods for making same
US11/247,844 US20060093645A1 (en) 2001-01-30 2005-10-11 Glass scaffolds with controlled resorption rates and methods for making same

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US11/247,844 US20060093645A1 (en) 2001-01-30 2005-10-11 Glass scaffolds with controlled resorption rates and methods for making same

Related Parent Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US10/377,153 Division US7005135B2 (en) 2001-01-30 2003-02-28 Glass scaffolds with controlled resorption rates and methods for making same

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20060093645A1 true US20060093645A1 (en) 2006-05-04

Family

ID=36262233

Family Applications (2)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US10/377,153 Expired - Fee Related US7005135B2 (en) 2001-01-30 2003-02-28 Glass scaffolds with controlled resorption rates and methods for making same
US11/247,844 Abandoned US20060093645A1 (en) 2001-01-30 2005-10-11 Glass scaffolds with controlled resorption rates and methods for making same

Family Applications Before (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US10/377,153 Expired - Fee Related US7005135B2 (en) 2001-01-30 2003-02-28 Glass scaffolds with controlled resorption rates and methods for making same

Country Status (1)

Country Link
US (2) US7005135B2 (en)

Cited By (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20040127995A1 (en) * 2002-07-29 2004-07-01 Shalaby Shalaby W. Conformable, absorbable, solid composite preforms and their use for bone tissue engineering
US20060100498A1 (en) * 2002-07-19 2006-05-11 Boyce Todd M Process for selecting bone for transplantation
WO2008035088A2 (en) * 2006-09-23 2008-03-27 The University Of Nottingham Degradable composite
GB2461743A (en) * 2008-07-11 2010-01-20 Smith & Nephew Medical device or composition comprising at least two inorganic components
US20110106272A1 (en) * 2009-07-10 2011-05-05 Bio2 Technologies, Inc. Devices and Methods for Tissue Engineering
US20110206828A1 (en) * 2009-07-10 2011-08-25 Bio2 Technologies, Inc. Devices and Methods for Tissue Engineering
WO2014152113A3 (en) * 2013-03-14 2014-12-24 Prosidyan, Inc. Bioactive porous composite bone graft implants
WO2014152102A3 (en) * 2013-03-14 2015-02-12 Prosidyan, Inc. Bioactive porous bone graft implants
US9381274B2 (en) 2013-03-14 2016-07-05 Prosidyan, Inc. Bone graft implants containing allograft
US9775721B2 (en) 2009-07-10 2017-10-03 Bio2 Technologies, Inc. Resorbable interbody device
EP3151786A4 (en) * 2014-06-04 2018-01-10 Novabone Products, LLC Compositions and methods for regeneration of hard tissues

Families Citing this family (18)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US8529625B2 (en) 2003-08-22 2013-09-10 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Tissue repair and replacement
US7473678B2 (en) * 2004-10-14 2009-01-06 Biomimetic Therapeutics, Inc. Platelet-derived growth factor compositions and methods of use thereof
US9161967B2 (en) * 2006-06-30 2015-10-20 Biomimetic Therapeutics, Llc Compositions and methods for treating the vertebral column
MX2007012231A (en) 2005-04-04 2007-12-07 Univ California Inorganic materials for hemostatic modulation and therapeutic wound healing.
US9326995B2 (en) * 2005-04-04 2016-05-03 The Regents Of The University Of California Oxides for wound healing and body repair
CN101370531A (en) * 2005-11-17 2009-02-18 生物模拟治疗公司 Maxillofacial bone augmentation using rhpdgf-bb and a biocompatible matrix
AU2007212273B2 (en) * 2006-02-09 2013-10-10 Biomimetic Therapeutics, Llc Compositions and methods for treating bone
WO2007121071A2 (en) * 2006-04-18 2007-10-25 Mo-Sci Corporation Alkaline resistant phosphate glasses and method of preparation and use thereof
ES2664229T3 (en) 2006-06-30 2018-04-18 Biomimetic Therapeutics, Llc Compositions and Methods of PDGF-biomatrix for treating rotator cuff injuries
EP2462895B1 (en) 2006-11-03 2016-11-02 BioMimetic Therapeutics, LLC Compositions and methods for arthrodetic procedures
WO2009089340A1 (en) 2008-01-09 2009-07-16 Innovative Health Technologies, Llc Implant pellets and methods for performing bone augmentation and preservation
RU2010137106A (en) 2008-02-07 2012-03-20 Байомайметик Терапьютикс, Инк. (Us) Compositions and methods for osteogenesis distraktsiionnogo
US8167955B2 (en) * 2008-03-28 2012-05-01 The University Of Kentucky Research Foundation Carbon fiber reinforced carbon foams for repair and reconstruction of bone defects
AU2009291828C1 (en) * 2008-09-09 2016-03-17 Biomimetic Therapeutics, Llc Platelet-derived growth factor compositions and methods for the treatment of tendon and ligament injuries
JP2012519556A (en) * 2009-03-05 2012-08-30 バイオミメティック セラピューティクス, インコーポレイテッド Platelet-derived growth factor compositions and methods for treating osteochondral defects
US8673018B2 (en) * 2010-02-05 2014-03-18 AMx Tek LLC Methods of using water-soluble inorganic compounds for implants
WO2011103598A1 (en) 2010-02-22 2011-08-25 Biomimetic Therapeutics, Inc. Platelet-derived growth factor compositions and methods for the treatment of tendinopathies
US20150079146A1 (en) * 2012-04-12 2015-03-19 Novabone Products, Llc. Bioactive glass fiber mesh for repair of hard tissues

Citations (53)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3640827A (en) * 1968-10-09 1972-02-08 Fmc Corp Phosphate glass bodies
US3897236A (en) * 1973-02-15 1975-07-29 Ferro Corp Process for forming ferrous iron-containing phosphorus glasses
US3922155A (en) * 1973-05-23 1975-11-25 Leitz Ernst Gmbh Process of making biocompatible glass ceramic
US3930833A (en) * 1973-10-18 1976-01-06 Ferro Corporation Micronutrient metal-containing phosphate glasses
US3958973A (en) * 1973-10-18 1976-05-25 Ferro Corporation Micronutrient metal-containing phosphate glasses
US3981736A (en) * 1973-05-23 1976-09-21 Ernst Leitz G.M.B.H. Biocompatible glass ceramic material
US4123248A (en) * 1977-08-25 1978-10-31 International Standard Electric Corporation Controlled release fertilizer
US4131597A (en) * 1975-01-17 1978-12-26 Ernst Leitz Gmbh Bioactive composite material process of producing and method of using same
US4148623A (en) * 1977-11-22 1979-04-10 International Standard Electric Corporation Controlled release fertilizer
US4202055A (en) * 1976-05-12 1980-05-13 Battelle-Institut E.V. Anchorage for highly stressed endoprostheses
US4222128A (en) * 1977-05-20 1980-09-16 Kureha Kagaku Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Composite implant materials and process for preparing same
US4308064A (en) * 1978-10-19 1981-12-29 Ngk Spark Plugs Co., Ltd. Phosphate of calcium ceramics
US4329743A (en) * 1979-04-27 1982-05-18 College Of Medicine And Dentistry Of New Jersey Bio-absorbable composite tissue scaffold
US4350675A (en) * 1979-08-30 1982-09-21 International Standard Electric Corporation Controlled release glass
US4392828A (en) * 1976-03-16 1983-07-12 Ehrnford Lars E M Method for restoring a tooth
US4417912A (en) * 1980-10-28 1983-11-29 Ashai Glass Company Ltd. Method of producing crystallized glass from phosphate glass
US4437192A (en) * 1980-06-11 1984-03-20 Nippon Kogaku K.K. Implants of biologically active glass or glass ceramic containing titania
US4482541A (en) * 1982-02-23 1984-11-13 University Of Leeds Industrial Services Limited Water soluble glass articles, their manufacture, and their use in the treatment of ruminant animals
US4604097A (en) * 1985-02-19 1986-08-05 University Of Dayton Bioabsorbable glass fibers for use in the reinforcement of bioabsorbable polymers for bone fixation devices and artificial ligaments
US4608350A (en) * 1983-10-27 1986-08-26 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Precursor solutions for biologically active glass
US4612923A (en) * 1983-12-01 1986-09-23 Ethicon, Inc. Glass-filled, absorbable surgical devices
US4613577A (en) * 1983-07-06 1986-09-23 Mitsubishi Mining & Cement Co., Ltd. Fiber glass mainly composed of calcium phosphate
US4645749A (en) * 1984-07-18 1987-02-24 Standard Telephones And Cables, Plc Water soluble compositions for preparing analytical solutions
US4655777A (en) * 1983-12-19 1987-04-07 Southern Research Institute Method of producing biodegradable prosthesis and products therefrom
US4678659A (en) * 1983-11-26 1987-07-07 Stc, Plc Therapeutic devices incorporating water soluble glass compositions
US4781183A (en) * 1986-08-27 1988-11-01 American Cyanamid Company Surgical prosthesis
US4820573A (en) * 1983-07-06 1989-04-11 Mitsubishi Mining And Cement Co., Ltd. Fiber glass mainly composed of calcium phosphate
US4847219A (en) * 1984-04-11 1989-07-11 Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. Novel lead-iron phosphate glass
US4851046A (en) * 1985-06-19 1989-07-25 University Of Florida Periodontal osseous defect repair
US4867779A (en) * 1985-12-17 1989-09-19 Isover Saint-Gobain Nutritive glasses for agriculture
US4940677A (en) * 1988-10-17 1990-07-10 Corning Incorporated Zinc-containing phosphate glasses
US5013323A (en) * 1984-12-04 1991-05-07 Mitsubishi Mining & Cement Co., Ltd. Implant material for replacing hard tissue of living body
US5055428A (en) * 1990-09-26 1991-10-08 Owens-Corning Fiberglass Corporation Glass fiber compositions
US5071795A (en) * 1991-01-09 1991-12-10 Corning Incorporated Alkali zinc halophosphate glasses
US5108957A (en) * 1989-08-11 1992-04-28 Isover Saint-Gobain Glass fibers decomposable in a physiological medium
US5122484A (en) * 1991-05-23 1992-06-16 Corning Incorporated Zinc phosphate low temperature glasses
US5215563A (en) * 1990-05-04 1993-06-01 Alfred University Process for preparing a durable glass composition
US5250488A (en) * 1989-08-11 1993-10-05 Sylvie Thelohan Mineral fibers decomposable in a physiological medium
US5252523A (en) * 1991-10-09 1993-10-12 Corning Incorporated Bioabsorbable chlorophosphate glasses and bioabsorbable glass-polymer blends made therefrom
US5290494A (en) * 1990-03-05 1994-03-01 Board Of Regents, The University Of Texas System Process of making a resorbable implantation device
US5332699A (en) * 1986-02-20 1994-07-26 Manville Corp Inorganic fiber composition
US5401693A (en) * 1992-09-18 1995-03-28 Schuller International, Inc. Glass fiber composition with improved biosolubility
US5429996A (en) * 1992-10-09 1995-07-04 Nikon Corporation Bone grafting material
US5468544A (en) * 1993-11-15 1995-11-21 The Trustees Of The University Of Pennsylvania Composite materials using bone bioactive glass and ceramic fibers
US5486359A (en) * 1990-11-16 1996-01-23 Osiris Therapeutics, Inc. Human mesenchymal stem cells
US5609660A (en) * 1994-05-31 1997-03-11 Corning Incorporated Method of reducing water sensitivity of phosphate glass particles
US5679723A (en) * 1994-11-30 1997-10-21 Ethicon, Inc. Hard tissue bone cements and substitutes
US5721049A (en) * 1993-11-15 1998-02-24 Trustees Of The University Of Pennsylvania Composite materials using bone bioactive glass and ceramic fibers
US5770417A (en) * 1986-11-20 1998-06-23 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Children's Medical Center Corporation Three-dimensional fibrous scaffold containing attached cells for producing vascularized tissue in vivo
US5843854A (en) * 1990-11-23 1998-12-01 Partek Paroc Oy Ab Mineral fibre composition
US5984966A (en) * 1998-03-02 1999-11-16 Bionx Implants Oy Bioabsorbable bone block fixation implant
US6054400A (en) * 1995-01-13 2000-04-25 Brink; Maria Bioactive glasses and their use
US6517857B2 (en) * 1998-12-11 2003-02-11 Ylaenen Heimo Bioactive product and its use

Patent Citations (57)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3640827A (en) * 1968-10-09 1972-02-08 Fmc Corp Phosphate glass bodies
US3897236A (en) * 1973-02-15 1975-07-29 Ferro Corp Process for forming ferrous iron-containing phosphorus glasses
US3922155A (en) * 1973-05-23 1975-11-25 Leitz Ernst Gmbh Process of making biocompatible glass ceramic
US3981736A (en) * 1973-05-23 1976-09-21 Ernst Leitz G.M.B.H. Biocompatible glass ceramic material
US3930833A (en) * 1973-10-18 1976-01-06 Ferro Corporation Micronutrient metal-containing phosphate glasses
US3958973A (en) * 1973-10-18 1976-05-25 Ferro Corporation Micronutrient metal-containing phosphate glasses
US4131597A (en) * 1975-01-17 1978-12-26 Ernst Leitz Gmbh Bioactive composite material process of producing and method of using same
US4392828A (en) * 1976-03-16 1983-07-12 Ehrnford Lars E M Method for restoring a tooth
US4202055A (en) * 1976-05-12 1980-05-13 Battelle-Institut E.V. Anchorage for highly stressed endoprostheses
US4222128A (en) * 1977-05-20 1980-09-16 Kureha Kagaku Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Composite implant materials and process for preparing same
US4123248A (en) * 1977-08-25 1978-10-31 International Standard Electric Corporation Controlled release fertilizer
US4148623A (en) * 1977-11-22 1979-04-10 International Standard Electric Corporation Controlled release fertilizer
US4308064A (en) * 1978-10-19 1981-12-29 Ngk Spark Plugs Co., Ltd. Phosphate of calcium ceramics
US4376168A (en) * 1978-10-19 1983-03-08 Ngk Spark Plugs Co., Ltd. Phosphate of calcium ceramics
US4329743A (en) * 1979-04-27 1982-05-18 College Of Medicine And Dentistry Of New Jersey Bio-absorbable composite tissue scaffold
US4350675A (en) * 1979-08-30 1982-09-21 International Standard Electric Corporation Controlled release glass
US4437192A (en) * 1980-06-11 1984-03-20 Nippon Kogaku K.K. Implants of biologically active glass or glass ceramic containing titania
US4417912A (en) * 1980-10-28 1983-11-29 Ashai Glass Company Ltd. Method of producing crystallized glass from phosphate glass
US4482541A (en) * 1982-02-23 1984-11-13 University Of Leeds Industrial Services Limited Water soluble glass articles, their manufacture, and their use in the treatment of ruminant animals
US4735857A (en) * 1983-07-06 1988-04-05 Mitsubishi Mining & Cement Co., Ltd. Fiber glass mainly composed of calcium phosphate
US4613577A (en) * 1983-07-06 1986-09-23 Mitsubishi Mining & Cement Co., Ltd. Fiber glass mainly composed of calcium phosphate
US4820573A (en) * 1983-07-06 1989-04-11 Mitsubishi Mining And Cement Co., Ltd. Fiber glass mainly composed of calcium phosphate
US4608350A (en) * 1983-10-27 1986-08-26 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Precursor solutions for biologically active glass
US4678659A (en) * 1983-11-26 1987-07-07 Stc, Plc Therapeutic devices incorporating water soluble glass compositions
US4612923A (en) * 1983-12-01 1986-09-23 Ethicon, Inc. Glass-filled, absorbable surgical devices
US4655777A (en) * 1983-12-19 1987-04-07 Southern Research Institute Method of producing biodegradable prosthesis and products therefrom
US4847219A (en) * 1984-04-11 1989-07-11 Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. Novel lead-iron phosphate glass
US4645749A (en) * 1984-07-18 1987-02-24 Standard Telephones And Cables, Plc Water soluble compositions for preparing analytical solutions
US5013323A (en) * 1984-12-04 1991-05-07 Mitsubishi Mining & Cement Co., Ltd. Implant material for replacing hard tissue of living body
US4604097A (en) * 1985-02-19 1986-08-05 University Of Dayton Bioabsorbable glass fibers for use in the reinforcement of bioabsorbable polymers for bone fixation devices and artificial ligaments
US4604097B1 (en) * 1985-02-19 1991-09-10 Univ Dayton
US4851046A (en) * 1985-06-19 1989-07-25 University Of Florida Periodontal osseous defect repair
US4867779A (en) * 1985-12-17 1989-09-19 Isover Saint-Gobain Nutritive glasses for agriculture
US5332699A (en) * 1986-02-20 1994-07-26 Manville Corp Inorganic fiber composition
US4781183A (en) * 1986-08-27 1988-11-01 American Cyanamid Company Surgical prosthesis
US5770417A (en) * 1986-11-20 1998-06-23 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Children's Medical Center Corporation Three-dimensional fibrous scaffold containing attached cells for producing vascularized tissue in vivo
US4940677A (en) * 1988-10-17 1990-07-10 Corning Incorporated Zinc-containing phosphate glasses
US5108957A (en) * 1989-08-11 1992-04-28 Isover Saint-Gobain Glass fibers decomposable in a physiological medium
US5250488A (en) * 1989-08-11 1993-10-05 Sylvie Thelohan Mineral fibers decomposable in a physiological medium
US5290494A (en) * 1990-03-05 1994-03-01 Board Of Regents, The University Of Texas System Process of making a resorbable implantation device
US5215563A (en) * 1990-05-04 1993-06-01 Alfred University Process for preparing a durable glass composition
US5055428A (en) * 1990-09-26 1991-10-08 Owens-Corning Fiberglass Corporation Glass fiber compositions
US5486359A (en) * 1990-11-16 1996-01-23 Osiris Therapeutics, Inc. Human mesenchymal stem cells
US5843854A (en) * 1990-11-23 1998-12-01 Partek Paroc Oy Ab Mineral fibre composition
US5071795A (en) * 1991-01-09 1991-12-10 Corning Incorporated Alkali zinc halophosphate glasses
US5122484A (en) * 1991-05-23 1992-06-16 Corning Incorporated Zinc phosphate low temperature glasses
US5252523A (en) * 1991-10-09 1993-10-12 Corning Incorporated Bioabsorbable chlorophosphate glasses and bioabsorbable glass-polymer blends made therefrom
US5401693A (en) * 1992-09-18 1995-03-28 Schuller International, Inc. Glass fiber composition with improved biosolubility
US5429996A (en) * 1992-10-09 1995-07-04 Nikon Corporation Bone grafting material
US5468544A (en) * 1993-11-15 1995-11-21 The Trustees Of The University Of Pennsylvania Composite materials using bone bioactive glass and ceramic fibers
US5645934A (en) * 1993-11-15 1997-07-08 Trustees Of The University Of Pennsylvania Composite materials using bone bioactive glass and ceramic fibers
US5721049A (en) * 1993-11-15 1998-02-24 Trustees Of The University Of Pennsylvania Composite materials using bone bioactive glass and ceramic fibers
US5609660A (en) * 1994-05-31 1997-03-11 Corning Incorporated Method of reducing water sensitivity of phosphate glass particles
US5679723A (en) * 1994-11-30 1997-10-21 Ethicon, Inc. Hard tissue bone cements and substitutes
US6054400A (en) * 1995-01-13 2000-04-25 Brink; Maria Bioactive glasses and their use
US5984966A (en) * 1998-03-02 1999-11-16 Bionx Implants Oy Bioabsorbable bone block fixation implant
US6517857B2 (en) * 1998-12-11 2003-02-11 Ylaenen Heimo Bioactive product and its use

Cited By (22)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20060100498A1 (en) * 2002-07-19 2006-05-11 Boyce Todd M Process for selecting bone for transplantation
US8750960B2 (en) * 2002-07-19 2014-06-10 Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc. Process for selecting bone for transplantation
US7244445B2 (en) * 2002-07-29 2007-07-17 Poly Med, Inc Conformable, absorbable, solid composite preforms and their use for bone tissue engineering
US20040127995A1 (en) * 2002-07-29 2004-07-01 Shalaby Shalaby W. Conformable, absorbable, solid composite preforms and their use for bone tissue engineering
US8182496B2 (en) 2006-09-23 2012-05-22 University Of Nottingham Degradable composite material with fibres having various degradation rates
WO2008035088A2 (en) * 2006-09-23 2008-03-27 The University Of Nottingham Degradable composite
WO2008035088A3 (en) * 2006-09-23 2009-04-09 Univ Nottingham Degradable composite
US20100105799A1 (en) * 2006-09-23 2010-04-29 Nottingham, University Of Degradable composite
GB2461743A (en) * 2008-07-11 2010-01-20 Smith & Nephew Medical device or composition comprising at least two inorganic components
US9775721B2 (en) 2009-07-10 2017-10-03 Bio2 Technologies, Inc. Resorbable interbody device
US20110206828A1 (en) * 2009-07-10 2011-08-25 Bio2 Technologies, Inc. Devices and Methods for Tissue Engineering
US20110106255A1 (en) * 2009-07-10 2011-05-05 Bio2 Technologies, Inc. Devices and Methods for Tissue Engineering
US8652368B2 (en) 2009-07-10 2014-02-18 Bio2 Technologies, Inc. Devices and methods for tissue engineering
US8673016B2 (en) * 2009-07-10 2014-03-18 Bio2 Technologies, Inc. Devices and methods for tissue engineering
US20110106272A1 (en) * 2009-07-10 2011-05-05 Bio2 Technologies, Inc. Devices and Methods for Tissue Engineering
US8790682B2 (en) 2009-07-10 2014-07-29 Bio2 Technologies, Inc. Devices and methods for tissue engineering
US8337876B2 (en) * 2009-07-10 2012-12-25 Bio2 Technologies, Inc. Devices and methods for tissue engineering
WO2014152102A3 (en) * 2013-03-14 2015-02-12 Prosidyan, Inc. Bioactive porous bone graft implants
CN105246518A (en) * 2013-03-14 2016-01-13 普罗斯蒂安公司 Bioactive porous composite bone graft implants
US9381274B2 (en) 2013-03-14 2016-07-05 Prosidyan, Inc. Bone graft implants containing allograft
WO2014152113A3 (en) * 2013-03-14 2014-12-24 Prosidyan, Inc. Bioactive porous composite bone graft implants
EP3151786A4 (en) * 2014-06-04 2018-01-10 Novabone Products, LLC Compositions and methods for regeneration of hard tissues

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
US20030198660A1 (en) 2003-10-23
US7005135B2 (en) 2006-02-28

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
LeGeros Calcium phosphate-based osteoinductive materials
Kasten et al. Comparison of human bone marrow stromal cells seeded on calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite, β-tricalcium phosphate and demineralized bone matrix
Rohner et al. In vivo efficacy of bone‐marrow‐coated polycaprolactone scaffolds for the reconstruction of orbital defects in the pig
von Doernberg et al. In vivo behavior of calcium phosphate scaffolds with four different pore sizes
Alam et al. Evaluation of ceramics composed of different hydroxyapatite to tricalcium phosphate ratios as carriers for rhBMP-2
Yuan et al. Material-dependent bone induction by calcium phosphate ceramics: a 2.5-year study in dog
Pilliar et al. Porous calcium polyphosphate scaffolds for bone substitute applications—in vitro characterization
Salgado et al. Bone tissue engineering: state of the art and future trends
Ohura et al. Bone‐bonding ability of P2O5‐free CaO· SiO2 glasses
García-Gareta et al. Osteoinduction of bone grafting materials for bone repair and regeneration
Shi Biomaterials and tissue engineering
Kreklau et al. Tissue engineering of biphasic joint cartilage transplants
Thomson et al. Guided tissue fabrication from periosteum using preformed biodegradable polymer scaffolds
Perka et al. Segmental bone repair by tissue-engineered periosteal cell transplants with bioresorbable fleece and fibrin scaffolds in rabbits
Dorozhkin Calcium orthophosphate-based bioceramics
US4654464A (en) Bone substitute material on the base of natural bones
AU2010257282B2 (en) Bone graft substitute
EP1362565B1 (en) Artificial vertebra
CN1209170C (en) Porous synthetic bone graft and method of manufacture thereof
Fu et al. Mechanical and in vitro performance of 13–93 bioactive glass scaffolds prepared by a polymer foam replication technique
Wiltfang et al. Degradation characteristics of α and β tri‐calcium‐phosphate (TCP) in minipigs
Annaz et al. Porosity variation in hydroxyapatite and osteoblast morphology: a scanning electron microscopy study
KR100955410B1 (en) Implant material and process for producing the same
CA2435235C (en) Implantable biodegradable devices for musculoskeletal repair or regeneration
Jiang et al. Mandibular repair in rats with premineralized silk scaffolds and BMP-2-modified bMSCs

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AS Assignment

Owner name: ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES AND REGENERATIVE MEDICINE, L

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:ETHICON, INC.;REEL/FRAME:026286/0530

Effective date: 20110516

STCB Information on status: application discontinuation

Free format text: ABANDONED -- FAILURE TO RESPOND TO AN OFFICE ACTION