US20060084288A1 - Flexible land grid array connector - Google Patents

Flexible land grid array connector Download PDF

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Publication number
US20060084288A1
US20060084288A1 US10/969,369 US96936904A US2006084288A1 US 20060084288 A1 US20060084288 A1 US 20060084288A1 US 96936904 A US96936904 A US 96936904A US 2006084288 A1 US2006084288 A1 US 2006084288A1
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Prior art keywords
plurality
metallic film
film conductors
major surface
upper
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Granted
Application number
US10/969,369
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US7021941B1 (en
Inventor
Ping Chuang
Li-Sen Chen
Chien-Yu Hsu
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Speed Tech Corp
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Speed Tech Corp
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Priority to US10/969,369 priority Critical patent/US7021941B1/en
Assigned to SPEED TECH CORP. reassignment SPEED TECH CORP. ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: CHEN, LI-SEN, CHUANG, PING, HSU, CHIEN-YU
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of US7021941B1 publication Critical patent/US7021941B1/en
Publication of US20060084288A1 publication Critical patent/US20060084288A1/en
Application status is Expired - Fee Related legal-status Critical
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical

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Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05KPRINTED CIRCUITS; CASINGS OR CONSTRUCTIONAL DETAILS OF ELECTRIC APPARATUS; MANUFACTURE OF ASSEMBLAGES OF ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
    • H05K3/00Apparatus or processes for manufacturing printed circuits
    • H05K3/30Assembling printed circuits with electric components, e.g. with resistor
    • H05K3/32Assembling printed circuits with electric components, e.g. with resistor electrically connecting electric components or wires to printed circuits
    • H05K3/325Assembling printed circuits with electric components, e.g. with resistor electrically connecting electric components or wires to printed circuits by abutting or pinching, i.e. without alloying process; mechanical auxiliary parts therefor
    • H05K3/326Assembling printed circuits with electric components, e.g. with resistor electrically connecting electric components or wires to printed circuits by abutting or pinching, i.e. without alloying process; mechanical auxiliary parts therefor the printed circuit having integral resilient or deformable parts, e.g. tabs or parts of flexible circuits
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01RELECTRICALLY-CONDUCTIVE CONNECTIONS; STRUCTURAL ASSOCIATIONS OF A PLURALITY OF MUTUALLY-INSULATED ELECTRICAL CONNECTING ELEMENTS; COUPLING DEVICES; CURRENT COLLECTORS
    • H01R13/00Details of coupling devices of the kinds covered by groups H01R12/70 or H01R24/00 - H01R33/00
    • H01R13/02Contact members
    • H01R13/22Contacts for co-operating by abutting
    • H01R13/24Contacts for co-operating by abutting resilient; resiliently-mounted
    • H01R13/2407Contacts for co-operating by abutting resilient; resiliently-mounted characterized by the resilient means
    • H01R13/2414Contacts for co-operating by abutting resilient; resiliently-mounted characterized by the resilient means conductive elastomers
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01RELECTRICALLY-CONDUCTIVE CONNECTIONS; STRUCTURAL ASSOCIATIONS OF A PLURALITY OF MUTUALLY-INSULATED ELECTRICAL CONNECTING ELEMENTS; COUPLING DEVICES; CURRENT COLLECTORS
    • H01R12/00Structural associations of a plurality of mutually-insulated electrical connecting elements, specially adapted for printed circuits, e.g. printed circuit boards [PCBs], flat or ribbon cables, or like generally planar structures, e.g. terminal strips, terminal blocks; Coupling devices specially adapted for printed circuits, flat or ribbon cables, or like generally planar structures; Terminals specially adapted for contact with, or insertion into, printed circuits, flat or ribbon cables, or like generally planar structures
    • H01R12/50Fixed connections
    • H01R12/51Fixed connections for rigid printed circuits or like structures
    • H01R12/52Fixed connections for rigid printed circuits or like structures connecting to other rigid printed circuits or like structures
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05KPRINTED CIRCUITS; CASINGS OR CONSTRUCTIONAL DETAILS OF ELECTRIC APPARATUS; MANUFACTURE OF ASSEMBLAGES OF ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
    • H05K2201/00Indexing scheme relating to printed circuits covered by H05K1/00
    • H05K2201/01Dielectrics
    • H05K2201/0104Properties and characteristics in general
    • H05K2201/0133Elastomeric or compliant polymer
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05KPRINTED CIRCUITS; CASINGS OR CONSTRUCTIONAL DETAILS OF ELECTRIC APPARATUS; MANUFACTURE OF ASSEMBLAGES OF ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
    • H05K2201/00Indexing scheme relating to printed circuits covered by H05K1/00
    • H05K2201/09Shape and layout
    • H05K2201/09209Shape and layout details of conductors
    • H05K2201/095Conductive through-holes or vias
    • H05K2201/09509Blind vias, i.e. vias having one side closed
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05KPRINTED CIRCUITS; CASINGS OR CONSTRUCTIONAL DETAILS OF ELECTRIC APPARATUS; MANUFACTURE OF ASSEMBLAGES OF ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
    • H05K2201/00Indexing scheme relating to printed circuits covered by H05K1/00
    • H05K2201/09Shape and layout
    • H05K2201/09818Other shape and layout details not provided for in H05K2201/09009 - H05K2201/09209; Shape and layout details covering several of these groups
    • H05K2201/09827Tapered, e.g. tapered hole, via or groove
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05KPRINTED CIRCUITS; CASINGS OR CONSTRUCTIONAL DETAILS OF ELECTRIC APPARATUS; MANUFACTURE OF ASSEMBLAGES OF ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
    • H05K2201/00Indexing scheme relating to printed circuits covered by H05K1/00
    • H05K2201/10Details of components or other objects attached to or integrated in a printed circuit board
    • H05K2201/10227Other objects, e.g. metallic pieces
    • H05K2201/10378Interposers
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05KPRINTED CIRCUITS; CASINGS OR CONSTRUCTIONAL DETAILS OF ELECTRIC APPARATUS; MANUFACTURE OF ASSEMBLAGES OF ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
    • H05K3/00Apparatus or processes for manufacturing printed circuits
    • H05K3/40Forming printed elements for providing electric connections to or between printed circuits
    • H05K3/42Plated through-holes or plated via connections
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05KPRINTED CIRCUITS; CASINGS OR CONSTRUCTIONAL DETAILS OF ELECTRIC APPARATUS; MANUFACTURE OF ASSEMBLAGES OF ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
    • H05K3/00Apparatus or processes for manufacturing printed circuits
    • H05K3/46Manufacturing multilayer circuits
    • H05K3/4602Manufacturing multilayer circuits characterized by a special circuit board as base or central core whereon additional circuit layers are built or additional circuit boards are laminated

Abstract

An LGA connector is used to interconnect an LGA package and a printed circuit board. The LGA connector includes an elastomeric body with a plurality of through-holes. Metal films are formed on inner walls of through-holes and splay out around the mouths of their upper and lower openings. The metal films are formed by vacuum metallization, sputtering, chemical plating, electrical plating or PVD. The through-holes have a funnel-like shape to absorb external stresses and redirect the stress to shrink the through-hole diameters. Moreover, the metal films' elastic deformation is larger than conventional metal conductive fillers so as to improve reliability.

Description

    BACKGROUND
  • 1. Field of Invention
  • The present invention relates to a flexible land grid array connector. More particularly, the present invention relates to a flexible connector between a land grid array connector and a printed circuit board.
  • 2. Description of Related Art
  • Integrated circuits are typically housed within a package, which is designed to protect the circuit from damage, provide adequate heat dissipation during operation, and provide electrical connection between the integrated circuits and the leads of a printed circuit board. Several conventional package types, such as land grid array (LGA), pin grid array (PGA), ball grid array (BGA) and column grid array (CGA), are designed to provide the above functions.
  • The current trend for connector design in the computer field is to provide both high-density and high-reliability connections between various major circuit devices of a computer. High reliability for such connections is essential due to potential end product failure. As both module size and distance from which solder connections are located to the center of the module (i.e., the distance from neutral point, hereafter DNP) continue to increase, even CGA solder connections can become unreliable, especially due to thermal fatigue. These same concerns about broken interconnections also apply to PGA applications when the DNP is too large. Therefore, what is needed is an interconnection, which is relatively flexible and capable of accommodating the thermal mismatch over an expected temperature range that can closely match the electrical performance and density of a BGA or CGA array.
  • One solution is to use an LGA connector. An array of interconnection elements, known as an interposer, is placed between two arrays to be connected, and provides the electrical connection between the contact pins or pads. Since the individual contact members of an interposer can be made resilient, they can accommodate a CTE (coefficient of thermal expansion) mismatch between the module and system board.
  • An LGA package is an integrated circuit package having a plurality of planar metallized areas, called lands, for interconnection between the leads of the integrated circuit and a printed circuit board. An LGA can be mounted to a printed circuit board with connectors, which have been developed to maintain a solderless connection between an integrated circuit package and a printed circuit board. As the number of lands is increased, the pitch between contacts decreases and manufacturing problems consequently increase.
  • For example, the manufacturing method of placing individual wires into tightly packed through-holes requires tremendous technological developments. Another example is a metallized polymer interconnect (MPI) connector. The MPI connector includes a siloxane core with conductive fillers that is positioned between the LGA module and the substrate. However, extreme stress relaxation rates are needed in order to achieve a desired level of durability.
  • SUMMARY
  • It is therefore an objective of the present invention to provide a flexible LGA connector, so as to provide reliable electrical connection and enhance its durability.
  • In accordance with the foregoing and other objectives of the present invention, an LGA connector is used to interconnect an LGA package and a printed circuit board. The LGA connector includes an elastomeric body with a plurality of through-holes. Metal films are formed on inner walls of the through-holes and splay out around the mouths of their upper and lower openings. The metal films are formed by vacuum metallization, sputtering, chemical plating, electrical plating or PVD (physical vapor deposition). The through-holes have a funnel-like shape to absorb external stresses by redirecting the stress to shrink the diameters of the through-holes. Moreover, the metal films' elastic deformation is larger than conventional metal conductive fillers so as to improve reliability.
  • According to another preferred embodiment, a triple-layered elastomeric body is provided when corresponding contact electrodes of an LGA package and a printed circuit board are mismatched in position. An upper elastomeric layer and a lower elastomeric layer made of rubber exist, which have a plurality of funnel-like through-holes formed by etching. A metal layer is formed on an inner wall and around each upper and lower opening of each through-hole of each layer. An interconnection elastomeric layer made of rubber exists, which has a plurality of funnel-like through-holes formed by etching. A metal layer is formed on an inner wall and around each upper and lower opening of each through-hole so as to interconnect the metal layer of the upper and lower elastomeric layer. Thus, the LGA connector in this preferred embodiment can interconnect an LGA package and a printed circuit board even when corresponding contact electrodes are mismatched in position.
  • It is to be understood that both the foregoing general description and the following detailed description are by examples and are intended to provide further explanation of the invention as claimed.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • The accompanying drawings are included to provide a further understanding of the invention and are incorporated in and constitute a part of this specification. The drawings illustrate embodiments of the invention and, together with the description, serve to explain the principles of the invention. In the drawings,
  • FIG. 1A illustrates a cross-sectional view of an LGA connector according to one preferred embodiment of this invention;
  • FIG. 1B illustrates a cross-sectional view of an LGA connector according to another preferred embodiment of this invention;
  • FIG. 2 illustrates a top cross-sectional view of an LGA connector's elastomeric body according to one preferred embodiment of this invention;
  • FIG. 3 illustrates a cross-sectional view of an LGA connector according to yet another preferred embodiment of this invention; and
  • FIG. 4 illustrates a cross-sectional view of an LGA connector under upper and lower stress according to one preferred embodiment of this invention.
  • DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
  • Reference will now be made in detail to the present preferred embodiments of the invention, examples of which are illustrated in the accompanying drawings. Wherever possible, the same reference numbers are used in the drawings and the description to refer to the same or like parts.
  • In order to overcome the shortcomings of the prior art, the present invention provides an LGA connector for solderless connection between an LGA package and a printed circuit board. The LGA connector is an elastomeric body having a plurality of through-holes. There is a metal layer on an inner wall and around each upper and lower opening of each through-hole so as to interconnect an LGA package and a printed circuit board.
  • FIG. 1A illustrates a cross-sectional view of an LGA connector according to one preferred embodiment of this invention. The LGA connector includes an elastomeric body 200 made of rubber, which has a plurality of funnel-like through-holes 202 formed by etching. A metal layer 204 is formed on an inner wall and around each upper and lower opening of each through-hole 202. Each metal layer 204 is insulated from one another. A polyurethane layer 203 is formed by coating between the metal layer 204 and the inner wall of each through-hole 202 so as to maintain the as-deposited physical and chemical properties of the metal layers. The manufacturing method for coating the metal layer 204 can be vacuum metallization, chemical plating, electrical plating, physical vapor deposition or sputtering.
  • FIG. 1B illustrates a cross-sectional view of an LGA connector according to another preferred embodiment of this invention: The LGA connector includes an elastomeric body 200 made of rubber, which has a plurality of funnel-like through holes 202 formed by etching. A metal layer 204 is formed on an inner wall and around each upper and lower opening of each through-hole 202. Each metal layer 204 is insulated from one another. A bump 206 of elastomeric material is formed around each through-hole 202 so as to increase contact effect. In practice, a clamp 210 should be designed on a printed circuit board 106 so as to secure an LGA package 100 and the LGA connector together. The manufacturing method for coating the metal layer 204 can be vacuum metallization, chemical plating, electrical plating, physical vapor deposition or sputtering. This LGA connector could be employed to interconnect two printed circuit boards with LGA-type electrodes as well.
  • FIG. 2 illustrates a top cross-sectional view of an LGA connector's elastomeric body according to one preferred embodiment of this invention. FIG. 2 is taken along the line A-A in FIG. 1A and illustrates an elastomeric body 200 made of rubber, which has a plurality of through-holes 202 coated by metal layers 204.
  • FIG. 3 illustrates a cross-sectional view of an LGA connector according to yet another preferred embodiment of this invention. When corresponding contact electrodes 101 a and 105 a mismatch in position (i.e., a contact electrode 101 a mismatches its corresponding contact electrode 105 a such that they cannot be connected by the LGA connector illustrated in FIGS. 1A and 1B), this preferred embodiment discloses a triple-layered elastomeric body to resolve this issue. An upper elastomeric layer 200 a made of rubber exists, which has a plurality of funnel-like through-holes 202 a formed by etching. A metal layer 204 a is formed on an inner wall and around each upper and lower opening of each through-hole 202 a. Each metal layer 204 a is insulated from one another. A lower elastomeric layer 200 c made of rubber exists, which has a plurality of funnel-like through-holes 202 c formed by etching. A metal layer 204 c is formed on an inner wall and around each upper and lower opening of each through-hole 202 c. An interconnection elastomeric layer 200 b made of rubber exists, which has a plurality of through-holes 202 b formed by etching. A metal layer 204 b is formed on an inner wall and around each upper and lower opening of each through-hole 202 b so as to interconnect the metal layer 204 a and 204 c. Thus, the LGA connector in this preferred embodiment could interconnect an LGA package and a printed circuit board even when corresponding contact electrodes are mismatched in position. This LGA connector could be employed to interconnect two printed circuit boards with LGA-type electrodes as well.
  • FIG. 4 illustrates a cross-sectional view of an LGA connector under upper and lower stress according to one preferred embodiment of this invention. The LGA connector equipped with an elastomeric body 200 and funnel-like through-holes 202 can accommodate the thermal mismatch and achieve a desired level of durability. When the through-holes have a funnel-like design, pressure, under upper stress 208 a and lower stress 208 b, can be absorbed by redirecting the stress to shrink the through-hole diameters. Moreover, metal layers are more flexible than metal fillers, such that the electrical connection is more reliable.
  • According to the preferred embodiments above, the disclosed LGA connector equipped with an elastomeric body and funnel-like through-holes can provide a reliable electrical connection. When the through-holes have a funnel-like design, pressure from above and below can be absorbed by shrinking the through-hole diameters. Moreover, metal layers are more flexible than metal fillers, such that the electrical connection is more reliable.
  • It will be apparent to those skilled in the art that various modifications and variations can be made to the structure of the present invention without departing from the scope or spirit of the invention. In view of the foregoing, it is intended that the present invention cover modifications and variations of this invention provided they fall within the scope of the following claims and their equivalents.

Claims (12)

1. An LGA connector for interconnection between an LGA packaged integrated circuit and a printed circuit board, said LGA connector comprising:
an elastomeric body, having an upper major surface, and a lower major surface opposed to said upper major surface;
a plurality of tubular metallic film conductors, each connecting an upper opening on said upper major surface to an opposed lower opening on said lower major surface, each of said plurality of tubular metallic film conductors being formed by metallic deposition around said upper opening and said opposed lower opening and onto a surface of an inner wall of a through-hole connecting said upper opening and said opposed lower opening, each of said plurality of tubular metallic film conductors being insulated from one another; and
each of said plurality of tubular metallic film conductors having an axial cross-section which tapers inwardly from said upper opening to form a funnel-like shape with a central through-hole; and
wherein each of said plurality of tubular metallic film conductors compress radially inward in reaction to external stresses exerted against said upper major surface and said lower major surface;
whereby a portion around said upper opening of each of said plurality of metallic film conductors connects to the LGA packaged integrated circuit, and a portion around said opposed lower opening of each of said plurality of metallic film conductors connects to the printed circuit board.
2. (canceled)
3. The LGA connector of claim 1, wherein said plurality of tubular metallic film conductors are formed by vacuum metallization, chemical plating, physical vapor deposition, or sputtering.
4. (canceled)
5. An LGA connector for interconnection between an LGA packaged integrated circuit and a printed circuit board, said LGA connector comprising:
an elastomeric body, having an upper major surface, and a lower major surface opposed to said upper major surface;
a plurality of tubular metallic film conductors, each connecting an upper opening on said upper major surface to an opposed lower opening on said lower major surface, each of said plurality of tubular metallic film conductors being formed by metallic deposition around said upper opening and said opposed lower opening and onto a surface of an inner wall of a through-hole connecting said upper opening and said opposed lower opening, and each of said plurality of tubular metallic film conductors being insulated from one another; and
a polyurethane layer interposed between each of said plurality of metallic film conductors and the corresponding surface of said elastomeric body;
each of said plurality of tubular metallic film conductors having an axial cross-section which tapers inwardly from said upper opening and said opposed lower opening to form a funnel-like shape with a central through-hole; and
wherein each of said plurality of tubular metallic film conductors compress radially inward in reaction to external stresses exerted against said upper major surface and said lower major surface;
whereby a portion around said upper opening of each of said plurality of metallic film conductors connects to the LGA packaged integrated circuit, and a portion around said opposed lower opening of each of said plurality of metallic film conductors connects to the printed circuit board.
6. (canceled)
7. The LGA connector of claim 5, wherein said plurality of tubular metallic film conductors are formed by vacuum metallization, chemical plating, physical vapor deposition, or sputtering.
8. (canceled)
9. (canceled)
10. (canceled)
11. (canceled)
12. (canceled)
US10/969,369 2004-10-19 2004-10-19 Flexible land grid array connector Expired - Fee Related US7021941B1 (en)

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US20060084288A1 true US20060084288A1 (en) 2006-04-20

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US20080094085A1 (en) * 2004-12-16 2008-04-24 Hougham Gareth G Metalized Elastomeric Probe Structure
US20090053908A1 (en) * 2004-12-16 2009-02-26 International Business Machines Corporation Metalized Elastomeric Electrical Contacts
US20090300914A1 (en) * 2007-04-30 2009-12-10 International Business Machines Corporation Metallized Elastomeric Electrical Contacts

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US7056131B1 (en) * 2003-04-11 2006-06-06 Neoconix, Inc. Contact grid array system
US7114961B2 (en) * 2003-04-11 2006-10-03 Neoconix, Inc. Electrical connector on a flexible carrier
US7758351B2 (en) * 2003-04-11 2010-07-20 Neoconix, Inc. Method and system for batch manufacturing of spring elements
US20070020960A1 (en) * 2003-04-11 2007-01-25 Williams John D Contact grid array system
US7628617B2 (en) * 2003-06-11 2009-12-08 Neoconix, Inc. Structure and process for a contact grid array formed in a circuitized substrate
US7597561B2 (en) * 2003-04-11 2009-10-06 Neoconix, Inc. Method and system for batch forming spring elements in three dimensions
US20050227510A1 (en) * 2004-04-09 2005-10-13 Brown Dirk D Small array contact with precision working range
US8584353B2 (en) * 2003-04-11 2013-11-19 Neoconix, Inc. Method for fabricating a contact grid array
US7244125B2 (en) * 2003-12-08 2007-07-17 Neoconix, Inc. Connector for making electrical contact at semiconductor scales
US7354276B2 (en) * 2004-07-20 2008-04-08 Neoconix, Inc. Interposer with compliant pins
US7347698B2 (en) * 2004-03-19 2008-03-25 Neoconix, Inc. Deep drawn electrical contacts and method for making
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US20050205988A1 (en) * 2004-03-19 2005-09-22 Epic Technology Inc. Die package with higher useable die contact pad area
US20070050738A1 (en) * 2005-08-31 2007-03-01 Dittmann Larry E Customer designed interposer
US7357644B2 (en) * 2005-12-12 2008-04-15 Neoconix, Inc. Connector having staggered contact architecture for enhanced working range
US20070238332A1 (en) * 2006-04-07 2007-10-11 Lotes Co., Ltd. Electrical connector and its manufacturing method
US20080045076A1 (en) * 2006-04-21 2008-02-21 Dittmann Larry E Clamp with spring contacts to attach flat flex cable (FFC) to a circuit board
US7785111B2 (en) * 2007-08-24 2010-08-31 Tyco Electronics Corporation Electrical connector with elastomeric element
US8215966B2 (en) * 2010-04-20 2012-07-10 Tyco Electronics Corporation Interposer connector assembly
US8641428B2 (en) 2011-12-02 2014-02-04 Neoconix, Inc. Electrical connector and method of making it
US9680273B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2017-06-13 Neoconix, Inc Electrical connector with electrical contacts protected by a layer of compressible material and method of making it
US20150257281A1 (en) * 2014-03-10 2015-09-10 Marvell World Trade Ltd. Method for forming a via structure using a double-side laser process
RU2671543C1 (en) * 2017-06-26 2018-11-01 Российская Федерация, от имени которой выступает Министерство обороны Российской Федерации Method of creating a bilateral topological pattern in metallization on substrates with through metallized micro-holes
RU2659726C1 (en) * 2017-10-05 2018-07-03 Российская Федерация, от имени которой выступает Государственная корпорация по космической деятельности "РОСКОСМОС" Micromodule

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US6239386B1 (en) * 1994-07-19 2001-05-29 Tessera, Inc. Electrical connections with deformable contacts
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US20080094085A1 (en) * 2004-12-16 2008-04-24 Hougham Gareth G Metalized Elastomeric Probe Structure
US20090053908A1 (en) * 2004-12-16 2009-02-26 International Business Machines Corporation Metalized Elastomeric Electrical Contacts
US7771208B2 (en) * 2004-12-16 2010-08-10 International Business Machines Corporation Metalized elastomeric electrical contacts
US8054095B2 (en) 2004-12-16 2011-11-08 International Business Machines Corporation Metalized elastomeric probe structure
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