US20060047400A1 - Method and apparatus for braking and stopping vehicles having an electric drive - Google Patents

Method and apparatus for braking and stopping vehicles having an electric drive Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US20060047400A1
US20060047400A1 US10/927,195 US92719504A US2006047400A1 US 20060047400 A1 US20060047400 A1 US 20060047400A1 US 92719504 A US92719504 A US 92719504A US 2006047400 A1 US2006047400 A1 US 2006047400A1
Authority
US
United States
Prior art keywords
speed
torque
motor
method
vehicle
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US10/927,195
Inventor
Raj Prakash
Dale Crombez
Peter Worrel
Vijay Garg
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Ford Motor Co
Original Assignee
Ford Motor Co
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Ford Motor Co filed Critical Ford Motor Co
Priority to US10/927,195 priority Critical patent/US20060047400A1/en
Assigned to FORD MOTOR COMPANY reassignment FORD MOTOR COMPANY ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: CROMBEZ, DALE, GARG, VIJAY, PRAKASH, RAJ, WORREL, PETER
Publication of US20060047400A1 publication Critical patent/US20060047400A1/en
Application status is Abandoned legal-status Critical

Links

Images

Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60WCONJOINT CONTROL OF VEHICLE SUB-UNITS OF DIFFERENT TYPE OR DIFFERENT FUNCTION; CONTROL SYSTEMS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR HYBRID VEHICLES; ROAD VEHICLE DRIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR PURPOSES NOT RELATED TO THE CONTROL OF A PARTICULAR SUB-UNIT
    • B60W10/00Conjoint control of vehicle sub-units of different type or different function
    • B60W10/04Conjoint control of vehicle sub-units of different type or different function including control of propulsion units
    • B60W10/08Conjoint control of vehicle sub-units of different type or different function including control of propulsion units including control of electric propulsion units, e.g. motors or generators
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L15/00Methods, circuits, or devices for controlling the traction-motor speed of electrically-propelled vehicles
    • B60L15/20Methods, circuits, or devices for controlling the traction-motor speed of electrically-propelled vehicles for control of the vehicle or its driving motor to achieve a desired performance, e.g. speed, torque, programmed variation of speed
    • B60L15/2009Methods, circuits, or devices for controlling the traction-motor speed of electrically-propelled vehicles for control of the vehicle or its driving motor to achieve a desired performance, e.g. speed, torque, programmed variation of speed for braking
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L7/00Electrodynamic brake systems for vehicles in general
    • B60L7/10Dynamic electric regenerative braking
    • B60L7/14Dynamic electric regenerative braking for vehicles propelled by ac motors
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L7/00Electrodynamic brake systems for vehicles in general
    • B60L7/10Dynamic electric regenerative braking
    • B60L7/18Controlling the braking effect
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60TVEHICLE BRAKE CONTROL SYSTEMS OR PARTS THEREOF; BRAKE CONTROL SYSTEMS OR PARTS THEREOF, IN GENERAL; ARRANGEMENT OF BRAKING ELEMENTS ON VEHICLES IN GENERAL; PORTABLE DEVICES FOR PREVENTING UNWANTED MOVEMENT OF VEHICLES; VEHICLE MODIFICATIONS TO FACILITATE COOLING OF BRAKES
    • B60T13/00Transmitting braking action from initiating means to ultimate brake actuator with power assistance or drive; Brake systems incorporating such transmitting means, e.g. air-pressure brake systems
    • B60T13/10Transmitting braking action from initiating means to ultimate brake actuator with power assistance or drive; Brake systems incorporating such transmitting means, e.g. air-pressure brake systems with fluid assistance, drive, or release
    • B60T13/58Combined or convertible systems
    • B60T13/585Combined or convertible systems comprising friction brakes and retarders
    • B60T13/586Combined or convertible systems comprising friction brakes and retarders the retarders being of the electric type
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60WCONJOINT CONTROL OF VEHICLE SUB-UNITS OF DIFFERENT TYPE OR DIFFERENT FUNCTION; CONTROL SYSTEMS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR HYBRID VEHICLES; ROAD VEHICLE DRIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR PURPOSES NOT RELATED TO THE CONTROL OF A PARTICULAR SUB-UNIT
    • B60W30/00Purposes of road vehicle drive control systems not related to the control of a particular sub-unit, e.g. of systems using conjoint control of vehicle sub-units, or advanced driver assistance systems for ensuring comfort, stability and safety or drive control systems for propelling or retarding the vehicle
    • B60W30/18Propelling the vehicle
    • B60W30/18009Propelling the vehicle related to particular drive situations
    • B60W30/18109Braking
    • B60W30/18127Regenerative braking
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60WCONJOINT CONTROL OF VEHICLE SUB-UNITS OF DIFFERENT TYPE OR DIFFERENT FUNCTION; CONTROL SYSTEMS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR HYBRID VEHICLES; ROAD VEHICLE DRIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR PURPOSES NOT RELATED TO THE CONTROL OF A PARTICULAR SUB-UNIT
    • B60W2540/00Input parameters relating to the driver
    • B60W2540/10Accelerator pedal position
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60WCONJOINT CONTROL OF VEHICLE SUB-UNITS OF DIFFERENT TYPE OR DIFFERENT FUNCTION; CONTROL SYSTEMS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR HYBRID VEHICLES; ROAD VEHICLE DRIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR PURPOSES NOT RELATED TO THE CONTROL OF A PARTICULAR SUB-UNIT
    • B60W2540/00Input parameters relating to the driver
    • B60W2540/12Brake pedal position
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/64Electric machine technologies for applications in electromobilty
    • Y02T10/642Control strategies of electric machines for automotive applications
    • Y02T10/645Control strategies for dc machines
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/72Electric energy management in electromobility
    • Y02T10/7258Optimisation of vehicle performance
    • Y02T10/7275Desired performance achievement
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S903/00Hybrid electric vehicles, HEVS
    • Y10S903/902Prime movers comprising electrical and internal combustion motors
    • Y10S903/903Prime movers comprising electrical and internal combustion motors having energy storing means, e.g. battery, capacitor
    • Y10S903/947Characterized by control of braking, e.g. blending of regeneration, friction braking

Abstract

A method and apparatus are provided for braking and stopping a vehicle whose powertrain includes an electric drive. The electric drive is used to generate braking torque which is used to decelerate the vehicle down to a full stop. The braking torque is achieved using any of several closed loop speed control systems. The system can be used as a substitute for or as a supplement to conventional friction bakes.

Description

    FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • This invention generally relates to vehicles with electric drive systems, and deals more particularly with a method and apparatus for braking and stopping the vehicle using the electric drive.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • Many recent designs of electric powered and hybrid electric powered vehicles employ a regenerative braking system in order to increase operating efficiency. During a braking event, the electric motor which normally drives one or more traction wheels is switched to operate as an electrical generator. Using the momentum and kinetic energy of the vehicle, the electric drive motor generates electricity that may be used to recharge on-board energy storage systems, such as batteries and ultra capacitors, power accessories, or power auxiliary on-board systems.
  • Regenerative braking systems are particularly effective in recovering energy during city driving, where driving patterns of repeated acceleration and decelerations are common. Electric drive vehicles employing regenerate braking typically utilize traditional friction brakes, along with a vehicle control system that coordinates the operation of the friction brakes and the regenerative brake in order to provide adequate stopping ability while making dual brake operations essentially transparent to the driver. Normally, such a control system controls the electric motor torque to perform regenerative braking until the vehicle decelerates to a certain speed at which time the friction brakes are gradually applied to bring the vehicle to a compete stop.
  • The dual braking strategy described above may not be optimum for certain types of electric drive configurations, and may not be appropriate for configurations where it is desirable to completely avoid friction braking components. For example, a two axle vehicle might be provided with friction brakes on the wheels of only one axle; clearly it would be desirable to provide an electric means of fully braking the axle not equipped with friction brakes. In some configurations, it may be desirable to completely avoid the use of friction brakes, thus necessitating the use of some electronic means of achieving adequate braking. Even in those configurations where all wheels are equipped with friction brakes, it may be desirable to provide frictionless electric braking for each axle in the event that the friction brakes are intentionally or unintentionally disabled for any reason.
  • Accordingly, a need exists in the art for a braking system for vehicles with electric drive systems capable of providing frictionless deceleration and braking of the vehicle to all speeds down to and including zero speed, regardless of the configuration of the vehicle's motor drive, axles and wheels. The present invention is intended to satisfy this need.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • A system is provided for decelerating and stopping a vehicle equipped with an electric drive system without the need for friction brakes, or with reduced need for friction brakes on at least one wheel. Braking deceleration of the vehicle is achieved by controlling the electric drive motor to produce negative torque which is transmitted to the wheels, enabling deceleration down to and including zero speed. To maintain the stopping position of the vehicle on grade inclines, the electric drive motor is controlled to produce a small, compensating amount of positive or negative torque at zero speed, depending on the direction of the incline. The system may also be used as a back-up braking system for vehicles equipped with friction brakes, or to provide supplemental braking on axle assemblies that are not equipped with friction brakes.
  • One advantage of the invention is that the braking system can be used with reduced need for conventional friction brakes. Another advantage lies in the ability of the present braking system to decelerate the vehicle down to and including zero speed, and maintain the vehicle at a complete stop under various driving conditions, such as on a grade, using the speed control loop of the electric drive. A still further advantage of the invention is that the need for conventional friction brakes may be completely avoided.
  • In accordance with a first embodiment of the invention, a method is provided for braking and stopping a vehicle having at least one traction wheel driven by an electric motor. Braking and stopping is achieved by sensing a speed parameter related to the speed of the vehicle, sensing a commanded braking rate, generating a motor control signal using the sensed speed parameter and commanded braking rate, producing a negative torque using the electrical drive motor, applying braking forces to the traction wheels using the negative torque, and controlling the amount of negative torque produced by the electric drive motor using the motor control signal to achieve the commanded braking rate. The motor control signal may include a torque command signal, a speed command signal or a combination of these two signals. The torque command signal can be used to control the motor until the vehicle decelerates to a pre-selected speed, following which a speed control signal is used for motor control. The motor control signal is based on torque commands determined by the position of the vehicle's brake and accelerator pedals. The sensed speed parameter may include either the speed of the drive motor, the speed of at least one wheel of the vehicle, or a combination of these sensed speeds.
  • In accordance with a second embodiment of the invention, a system is provided for braking and stopping a vehicle powered by an electric motor driving at least one traction wheel. The system includes a closed loop speed control loop whose speed command is a zero speed signal. This closed loop system features modification of its control signal (torque command signal for the electric drive) by a bipolar torque limit signal-pair. The limit signal-pair is directly derived from a torque command that is obtained by the vehicle system controller, with the accelerator and brake pedals as inputs. The torque command of the vehicle system controller may be used for driving and deceleration at higher speeds, but the torque-limited speed control loop is used for bringing the vehicle to a stop.
  • These non-limiting features, as well as other advantages of the present invention may be better understood by considering the following details of a description of a preferred embodiment of the present invention. In the course of this description, reference will frequently be made to the attached drawings.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • FIG. 1 is an exemplary block diagram of an electric drive system for a vehicle;
  • FIG. 2 is a graph showing the brake torque as a function of speed, produced in a vehicle equipped with the combination of electric and friction braking systems;
  • FIG. 3 is a graph showing commanded torque and actual electric drive braking torque as a function of speed, in a vehicle equipped with the electric braking system, according to one embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 4 is a graph of the actual electric drive brake torque as a function of speed generated in accordance with another embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 5 is a graph showing actual electric drive brake torque as a function of speed, produced according to a further embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 6 is a block diagram of a system for braking and stopping an electric drive vehicle, which includes torque limiting with bipolar signals and a speed control loop, in accordance with the present invention;
  • FIG. 7 is a block diagram of a system for obtaining averaged motor speed; and,
  • FIG. 8 is a block diagram of a speed control loop having a nested torque control system, used in the present invention.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT
  • The invention relates to a method and apparatus for decelerating, braking and stopping a vehicle equipped with an electric drive system which includes an electric motor. A typical electric drive system 10 is shown in FIG. 1. An electric motor 12 mounted on the vehicle's chassis has an output drive shaft 14 which is connected through a differential gear-set 16 to a drive axle 18 carrying one or more traction wheels 20. Energy for powering the motor 12 is derived from an on-board storage battery 22 which provides DC power that is converted by an inverter 24 into AC power used to drive the motor 12. Although an AC motor 12 has been disclosed here, it should be noted that the present invention is suitable for use with a variety of DC and poly-phased AC motors. A vehicle control system 26 coordinates and controls the operation of the energy storage and drive components, and manages system functions such as charging, engine starting and stopping and regenerative braking. The vehicle control system 26 may implement any of a variety of known control strategies, using software programs and input information derived from a variety of on-board sensors 28, as well as accelerator pedal and brake pedal position information 30. It should be noted here that although a drive system 10 has been shown employing only a single motor 12, the present invention may be used in drive systems employing multiple electric motors, alternate fuel sources and hybrid configurations employing at least one drive electric motor. Furthermore, the motor 12 may be in the form of a wheel motor that is incorporated directly into one or more wheels on the vehicle. For sake of convenience in the describing and claiming the invention, “negative torque” applied to a drive wheel shall mean a torque that opposes the motion of the vehicle, whereas a positive torque applied to the wheel shall mean a torque that favors the vehicle's motion.
  • The vehicle control system 26 may deliver either a torque command or a speed command to the motor 12, having a polarity and magnitude that is based on the positions of the accelerator pedal and the brake pedal 30. The torque command can be either positive or negative in both drive and reverse “gear” selected as the desired direction of travel; as is known in the art, a positive command results in traction torque while a negative command results in braking or deceleration torque. The details of generating both torque and speed commands as a function of pedal positions depend on the particular vehicle configuration and will be based on any of various control strategies which are well known in the art. A torque or speed command developed by the control system 26 is delivered to the inverter 24, causing the motor 12 to produce positive torque which is delivered by a driven axle 18 to traction wheels 20. Based on the position of the accelerator and brake pedals 30, the control system 26 switches the motor 12 to its regenerative mode in which the motor 12 acts as an electrical generator, converting the vehicle's kinetic energy into electrical energy used to recharge the battery 22. During regenerative braking, motor 12 produces a negative torque.
  • The relationship between the negative torque produced by motor 12 and that produced by the vehicle's friction brakes is better understood by reference to FIG. 2 which plots torque of the motor 12 as well as friction brake torque as a function of vehicle speed. The plot of FIG. 2 corresponds to a typical vehicle that employs friction brakes on at least one wheel, in addition to regenerative braking provided by at least one electric drive motor on the vehicle. Different modes of braking torque occur over three distinct regions respectively designated as Region 1, Region 2 and Region 3. At higher vehicle speeds shown in Region 1, regenerative braking results in an electric drive torque command 32 which continues until the vehicle brakes to a speed at which friction brakes are applied to produce friction brake torque 34 at the beginning of Region 2. As the friction brake torque 34 increases, the electric drive torque command 32 ramps down until Region 3 is reached where the braking torque is entirely the result of the friction brakes. In Region 3, friction brake torque 34 reaches a constant value and the electric drive torque produced by the torque command 32 is zero.
  • In accordance with the present invention, deceleration of the vehicle down to and including zero speed (a complete stop) is accomplished using negative torque produced by the motor 12, without the use of braking torque supplied by friction brakes.
  • In accordance with one technique of the present invention, the vehicle control system 26 delivers signals to the motor 12 commanding negative torque 32 as shown in FIG. 3, down to a pre-selected speed where the negative torque is then ramped down to zero. The actual electric drive torque produced by the commanded torque signal 32 is designated by the numeral 36 and can be seen to closely follow the commanded torque curve 32. Thus, using this first technique, only torque control is used for decelerating and stopping the vehicle. This technique is suitable for vehicle operation on essentially level ground. If there is change in ground elevation or grade resulting in an upward slope or downward slope there could be some movement of the vehicle after coming to a near stop. Thereafter, the system will react to the vehicle's speed and effect deceleration but perfect holding at zero speed may not be achieved with this technique if material ground (elevation or grade) slope is present. Accordingly, it may be necessary in using this technique to apply the vehicle's parking brakes, either manually or automatically through the electronic controls, in order to assure that the vehicle is held in a stationary position.
  • In accordance with another technique, the motor 12 is used to produce negative torque down to a pre-selected speed using the torque control mode previously described, following which motor 12 is switched to speed control mode in which the speed command is zero or another command determined by the accelerator and brake pedal position inputs 30. FIG. 4 is a graph of torque versus speed, which illustrates the second technique more clearly. As can be seen at higher speeds, using the torque control mode 56, the electric drive actual torque 52 is relatively constant down to a pre-selected speed where the control scheme is switched over to speed control mode 58. Speed control results in the actual drive torque 52 ramping down from a corner point 54 to zero speed where the vehicle reaches a full stop. This technique provides adequate position holding when the vehicle stops on a (ground elevation/grade change) material grade slope, since at near zero speed, a speed control loop used to implement the technique generates enough torque to compensate for the slope.
  • If desired, the motor 12 can be operated in a speed control mode throughout the deceleration and stopping procedure using a zero speed command or other speed command that is based on the position of the pedals 30. FIG. 5 is a graph showing the actual electric drive torque 60 during the deceleration and stopping procedure performed using only the speed control mode of operation. It can be seen that the plot of the actual negative torque 60 is more gradual in the reduction of torque as speed decreases. Moreover, it can be seen that the actual torque 60 becomes slightly positive at zero speed. This slightly positive torque at zero speed corresponds to a situation where the vehicle is on a slightly positive or upward grade incline. The slight amount of residual positive torque maintains the vehicle in its stopped position, and compensates for the incline. Similarly, if the vehicle comes to rest on a downward grade incline, a small amount of negative torque is applied at zero speed in order to maintain the position of the vehicle on the incline.
  • In some applications and vehicle configurations it may not be convenient to translate accelerator and brake pedal inputs 30 into a speed command. In order to address this possibility, a further technique is provided in accordance with the present invention which is illustrated in the block diagram of FIG. 6. Accelerator and brake pedal positions 62, 64 are translated into torque commands by a torque command generator 66; these torque commands may be either negative or positive, depending upon the vehicle's operating conditions. The torque commands are translated into a bi-polar signal (two states—state 1 or state 2) by a bi-polar signal generator 68 which is used as a bi-polar torque limiter, with either positive or negative limit values 70, 72, to further control the torque command signal 74 that is used to control the electric drive 10.
  • The speed control loop includes a dynamic compensator 38 which outputs a torque command signal 74 to the electric drive 10 after being subjected to limits 70, 72. The electric drive produces a torque 50 and motor speed 48. The motor speed 48 is fed back in a feedback loop 46 where it is compared at 40 with the motor speed command (normally zero speed) and the error information is fed to the dynamic compensator 38. The output of the dynamic compensator 38 is the torque command signal 74 which is subjected to the limits 70, 72 and hence may become limited. The resulting torque command signal is the final torque command signal for the electric drive 10. One function of the speed control loop is to generate electric drive torque command whose function is to reduce the speed of the motor 12 to zero by closed loop control action. As previously noted, due to the action of the speed control loop, the torque at zero and near zero speeds will be positive (corresponding to the traction) if there is a grade opposing the forward motion of the vehicle, and it will be negative if there is a grade favoring the forward motion of the vehicle. As can be seen in FIG. 6, the torque control loop is nested within the speed control loop with the motor speed 48 being fed back in loop 46 to be combined with the commanded motor speed. The commanded motor speed is the desired vehicle speed multiplied by an appropriate gear ratio related to the gear-set 16 (FIG. 1). The initial condition of the dynamic compensator 38 should be set to the value of the torque command value existing at the moment preceding the transition from torque control to speed control. It should be noted here that if the brake pedal is not depressed a sufficient amount, the torque limiting which is imposed will be small in magnitude and the electric drive torque produced may not be sufficient to obtain zero motor speed and vehicle speed. In this case, the vehicle operator will depress the brake pedal a further amount in order to obtain zero speed. In a similar manner, if the vehicle is being brought to a stop on a steep slope, the operator may need to depress the brake sufficiently and, possibly fully, in order to achieve and/or maintain a complete vehicle stop. When the torque command as output by the pedal interpreter changes sign, the speed control loop is exited. It should be appreciated here that if the driver does not depress the brake sufficiently and the above described torque limiting function is not employed, the vehicle can be held on a grade solely through the use of the speed control function. In other words, if the torque command signal 74 of the closed loop system of FIG. 6 is not subjected to the limits 70, 72, then the system would be able to achieve and maintain zero speed on a grade even though the brake is not depressed sufficiently.
  • It should be further noted that in each of the control techniques described above, regeneration cannot take place at low speeds, even though the sign of the electric drive torque is negative. Due to certain fixed losses in the drive system, the battery will be supplying power at speeds near zero, even though the generated torque is negative. Moreover, due to the action of the speed control loop, the torque at zero and near zero speeds will be positive (corresponding to traction) if there is a grade opposing the forward motion of the vehicle, and it will be negative if there is a grade favoring the forward motion of the vehicle.
  • Depending upon the vehicle and electric drive configuration, some small inaccuracies of the motor speed signal may occur at vehicle speeds near zero. This may be caused in part by noise and quantization effects due to the operation of motor speed encoders. Thus, it may be desirable to improve the motor speed detection in certain applications, and in this connection a technique is shown in FIG. 7 for improving speed detection accuracy. A plurality of wheel speed sensors, WSS#1-WSS#4 are used in combination with a motor speed sensor 84 to arrive at a speed signal used for the control process. The wheel speed sensor information is combined and averaged at 76 and multiplied by a scale factor at 78 which is related to the gear ratio between the motor 12 and wheels 20. The averaged and scaled wheel speed information is added to the motor speed 84 at 80 and then multiplied by a factor of ⅕ at block 82. The resulting motor speed value having superior accuracy is used at the feedback signal and loop 46 (FIG. 6).
  • FIG. 8 shows a simplified speed control loop with nested torque control system. In this embodiment, the torque control loop is a loop within the speed control loop, and the motor speed is measured and used as the feedback signal. Commanded motor speed is the desired vehicle speed multiplied by the appropriate gear ratio. The same scheme given above and shown in FIG. 7 can be used for obtaining motor speed in those embodiments of the invention wherein the speed control loop shown in FIG. 8 is used.
  • From the foregoing description it is apparent that a novel method is provided of braking and stopping a vehicle having at least one traction wheel. The method includes the steps of sensing a speed parameter related to the speed of the vehicle, sensing a commanded brake rate, generating a motor control signal using the sensed speed parameter and commanded braking rate, producing a negative torque using the electric motor, applying a braking force to the traction wheel using the negative torque, and controlling the amount of negative torque produced by the electric motor using the motor control, signals to achieve the commanded braking rate. The motor control signal may be a power command signal or a force command signal.
  • It is to be understood that the specific methods and techniques which have been described are merely illustrative of one application of the principles of the invention. For example, if the motor torque capability is limited, the present method can be utilized in combination with friction brakes that may or may not be downsized. Moreover, the present invention does not require the elimination of friction brakes on at least one wheel. Numerous modifications may be made to the method and system as described without departing from the true spirit and scope of the invention.

Claims (27)

1. A method of braking and stopping a vehicle having at least one traction wheel driven by an electric motor, comprising the steps of:
sensing a speed parameter related to the speed of the vehicle;
sensing a commanded braking rate;
generating a motor control signal to achieve a desired braking action;
producing a negative torque using the electric motor;
applying a braking force to the traction wheel using the negative torque produced by the electric motor; and,
controlling the amount of negative torque produced by the electric motor using the motor control signal to achieve the commanded braking rate.
2. The method of claim 1, wherein the motor control signal is a torque command signal.
3. The method of claim 1, wherein, the motor control signal is a speed command signal
4. The method of claim 1, wherein, the motor control signal is a power command signal.
5. The method of claim 1, wherein, the motor control signal is a force command signal.
6. The method of claim 1, wherein the motor control signal is generated using the sensed speed parameter and the commanded braking rate.
7. The method of claim 1, wherein the step of applying braking force is continued until the vehicle is stopped.
8. The method of claim 1, wherein the step of generating the motor control signal comprises:
producing a torque command signal used to control the motor until the vehicle decelerates to a preselected speed, and
producing a speed control signal used to control the motor after the vehicle has decelerated to the preselected speed.
9. The method of claim 1, wherein the step of applying braking force is continued until the vehicle decelerates to a stop.
10. The method of claim 1, wherein the step of generating the motor control signal comprises producing a torque control signal based on the positions of the vehicle's brake and accelerator pedals.
11. The method of claim 1, wherein the step of generating the motor control signal comprises:
generating a negative torque control signal used to control the amount of negative torque produced by the electric motor until the sensed speed parameter reaches a preselected value, and
then, generating a speed control signal used to control the speed of the electric motor after the sensed speed reaches the preselected value.
12. The method of claim 1, wherein the step of sensing the speed parameter comprises:
sensing the speed of the motor, and
sensing the speed of at least one wheel of the vehicle.
13. The method of claim 1, wherein the step of sensing the commanded braking rate comprises sensing a parameter related to the operation of the brake pedal.
14. The method of claim 1, wherein the step of generating the motor control signal comprises:
generating a torque command signal,
generating a speed command signal,
modifying the speed command signal using the torque command signal.
15. The method of claim 14, wherein;
the step of sensing the speed parameter comprises generating a motor speed signal representing the speed of the electric motor, and
the step of generating the motor control signal comprises feeding back the motor speed signal in a motor control feedback loop, and controlling the motor using the feedback signal and the modified speed command signal.
16. A method of braking and stopping a vehicle powered by an electric motor driving at least one traction wheel, comprising the steps of:
sensing a speed parameter related to the speed of the vehicle;
sensing a commanded braking rate;
generating a commanded motor speed signal;
generating a torque limiting signal using the commanded braking rate;
generating a torque command signal using the commanded motor speed signal and torque limiting signal;
controlling the motor using the torque command signal to produce negative torque; and,
applying a braking force to the traction wheel using the negative torque.
17. The method of claim 16, wherein the step of sensing the speed parameter comprises sensing the speed of the motor.
18. A method of claim 16, wherein the step of sensing the speed parameter comprises sensing the speed of at least one wheel of the vehicle.
19. The method of claim 16, wherein the step of sensing the commanded braking rate comprises sensing a parameter related to the operation of a brake pedal on the vehicle.
20. The method of claim 16, wherein the step of generating the torque command signal comprises using the sensed speed parameter as a feedback signal in a closed feedback loop, and performing dynamic compensation of the torque command signal using the feedback signal.
21. The method of claim 16, wherein the step of generating the torque command signal comprises modifying the torque command signal using the torque limiting signal.
22. The method of claim 16, wherein the torque limiting signal is determined by at least one of the brake pedal or accelerator pedal inputs.
23. The method of claim 16, further comprising the steps of:
controlling the motor using the torque command signal to produce positive torque; and,
applying a braking force to the traction wheel using the positive torque.
24. A system for braking and stopping a vehicle powered by an electric motor driving at least one traction wheel, comprising:
a torque command signal generator for generating a torque command signal used to drive the motor and produce negative torque for braking the traction wheel; and,
a torque limiting signal generator for converting brake pedal and accelerator pedal position values into torque limiting signals used to modify the torque command signal.
25. The system of claim 24, wherein the torque command signal generator comprises a dynamic compensator for compensating for the effects of changes in motor speed.
26. The system of claim 24, wherein the torque command signal generator comprises a closed speed control loop.
27. The system of claim 26, wherein the torque limiting signal generator includes a bipolar signal generator.
US10/927,195 2004-08-25 2004-08-25 Method and apparatus for braking and stopping vehicles having an electric drive Abandoned US20060047400A1 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US10/927,195 US20060047400A1 (en) 2004-08-25 2004-08-25 Method and apparatus for braking and stopping vehicles having an electric drive

Applications Claiming Priority (5)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US10/927,195 US20060047400A1 (en) 2004-08-25 2004-08-25 Method and apparatus for braking and stopping vehicles having an electric drive
GB0514459A GB2417532A (en) 2004-08-25 2005-07-14 Control system for a vehicle having regenerative braking
DE102005039788A DE102005039788A1 (en) 2004-08-25 2005-08-22 Method for braking and stopping vehicles with electric drive
JP2005242386A JP5325370B2 (en) 2004-08-25 2005-08-24 Method for braking and stopping a vehicle having an electric drive
US11/699,799 US7698044B2 (en) 2004-08-25 2007-01-29 Method and apparatus for braking and stopping vehicles having an electric drive

Related Child Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US11/699,799 Division US7698044B2 (en) 2004-08-25 2007-01-29 Method and apparatus for braking and stopping vehicles having an electric drive

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20060047400A1 true US20060047400A1 (en) 2006-03-02

Family

ID=34912842

Family Applications (2)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US10/927,195 Abandoned US20060047400A1 (en) 2004-08-25 2004-08-25 Method and apparatus for braking and stopping vehicles having an electric drive
US11/699,799 Active US7698044B2 (en) 2004-08-25 2007-01-29 Method and apparatus for braking and stopping vehicles having an electric drive

Family Applications After (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US11/699,799 Active US7698044B2 (en) 2004-08-25 2007-01-29 Method and apparatus for braking and stopping vehicles having an electric drive

Country Status (4)

Country Link
US (2) US20060047400A1 (en)
JP (1) JP5325370B2 (en)
DE (1) DE102005039788A1 (en)
GB (1) GB2417532A (en)

Cited By (27)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20040194280A1 (en) * 2003-04-07 2004-10-07 Borroni-Bird Christopher E. Rolling chassis and assembled bodies
AU2007200324B2 (en) * 2006-03-24 2008-12-11 Hitachi, Ltd. Electric drive vehicle
US20090240403A1 (en) * 2005-12-23 2009-09-24 Hwang Joon Ha Control system and method for electric-powered forklifts
US20090312917A1 (en) * 2006-05-16 2009-12-17 Torsten Zawade Device and method for activating and/or deactivating functions of a vehicle
US20100025167A1 (en) * 2008-07-31 2010-02-04 Caterpillar Inc. Braking system for an off-highway machine involving electric retarding integrated with service brakes
US20100065356A1 (en) * 2008-09-15 2010-03-18 Caterpillar Inc. Electric powertrain for off-highway trucks
US20100070120A1 (en) * 2008-09-15 2010-03-18 Caterpillar Inc. Engine load management for traction vehicles
US20100066294A1 (en) * 2008-09-15 2010-03-18 Caterpillar Inc. Method and apparatus for detecting phase current imbalance in a power generator
US20100066316A1 (en) * 2008-09-15 2010-03-18 Caterpillar Inc. Method and apparatus for detecting a short circuit in a DC link
US20100065355A1 (en) * 2008-09-15 2010-03-18 Caterpillar Inc. Cooling system for an electric drive machine and method
US7795825B2 (en) 2008-09-15 2010-09-14 Caterpillar Inc Over-voltage and under-voltage management for electric drive system
ITRM20090333A1 (en) * 2009-06-26 2010-12-27 Oxygen S P A the parking braking system for electrically powered scooter
US7956762B2 (en) 2008-09-15 2011-06-07 Caterpillar Inc. Method and apparatus for power generation failure diagnostics
US20110144877A1 (en) * 2009-12-16 2011-06-16 Aisin Aw Co., Ltd. Driving support device, method, and program
US20110144847A1 (en) * 2009-12-16 2011-06-16 Aisin Aw Co., Ltd. Driving support device, method, and program
US20110148184A1 (en) * 2009-12-18 2011-06-23 Hitachi Automotive Systems, Ltd. Braking control apparatus for electric vehicle
US20110184603A1 (en) * 2011-04-06 2011-07-28 Erick Michael Lavoie Direction determination for active park assist
US8054016B2 (en) 2008-09-15 2011-11-08 Caterpillar Inc. Retarding energy calculator for an electric drive machine
US8078348B2 (en) * 2007-10-25 2011-12-13 Honda Motor Co., Ltd. Electric vehicle and regeneration control method for electric vehicle
US8253357B2 (en) 2008-09-15 2012-08-28 Caterpillar Inc. Load demand and power generation balancing in direct series electric drive system
US8281908B2 (en) 2008-08-29 2012-10-09 Caterpillar Inc. Brake cooling fluid diverter for an off-highway machine
US8324846B2 (en) 2008-09-15 2012-12-04 Caterpillar Inc. Electric drive retarding system and method
US8410739B2 (en) 2008-09-15 2013-04-02 Caterpillar Inc. Method and apparatus for determining the operating condition of generator rotating diodes
US8626368B2 (en) 2010-09-07 2014-01-07 Caterpillar Inc. Electric drive power response management system and method
CN103863127A (en) * 2012-12-07 2014-06-18 北京科实医学图像技术研究所 Electric braking device of motor vehicle
US20140358340A1 (en) * 2013-05-28 2014-12-04 Vladimir Radev Hybrid electric vehicle
EP3078537A4 (en) * 2013-12-02 2016-12-14 Nissan Motor Electric vehicle control device and electric vehicle control method

Families Citing this family (34)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE102004062012A1 (en) * 2004-12-23 2006-07-20 Robert Bosch Gmbh Method for operating a hybrid vehicle
FR2898833B1 (en) * 2006-03-23 2008-12-05 Conception & Dev Michelin Sa Ground link for vehicle
CN101200170B (en) * 2006-12-11 2010-06-16 比亚迪股份有限公司 Electric automobile accelerating device and method
DE102007017821A1 (en) * 2007-04-16 2008-10-23 Liebherr-Werk Biberach Gmbh Lorry
GB2455507A (en) * 2007-12-11 2009-06-17 Ford Global Tech Llc Electric motor vehicle emergency braking system
EP2473364B1 (en) * 2009-08-31 2019-09-25 Multiple Electric Systems, L.L.C. Multiple induction electric motor and vehicle
JP5455802B2 (en) 2010-06-11 2014-03-26 日立建機株式会社 Pitching control device for electric vehicle
EP2594426A4 (en) * 2010-07-15 2018-01-10 Hitachi Construction Machinery Co., Ltd. Electric work vehicle
JP5472028B2 (en) * 2010-10-19 2014-04-16 三菱自動車工業株式会社 Motor torque control device
US10186094B2 (en) 2011-07-26 2019-01-22 Gogoro Inc. Apparatus, method and article for providing locations of power storage device collection, charging and distribution machines
EP2737601A4 (en) 2011-07-26 2016-01-20 Gogoro Inc Apparatus, method and article for collection, charging and distributing power storage devices, such as batteries
US9437058B2 (en) 2011-07-26 2016-09-06 Gogoro Inc. Dynamically limiting vehicle operation for best effort economy
EP2737598A4 (en) 2011-07-26 2015-09-02 Apparatus, method and article for reserving power storage devices at reserving power storage device collection, charging and distribution machines
EP2737593A4 (en) 2011-07-26 2015-05-27 Gogoro Inc Apparatus, method and article for authentication, security and control of power storage devices, such as batteries
JP5793245B2 (en) 2011-07-26 2015-10-14 ゴゴロ インク Apparatus, method and article for providing vehicle diagnostic data
US8560147B2 (en) 2011-07-26 2013-10-15 Gogoro, Inc. Apparatus, method and article for physical security of power storage devices in vehicles
WO2013016562A2 (en) 2011-07-26 2013-01-31 Gogoro, Inc. Apparatus, method and article for providing information regarding availability of power storage devices at a power storage device collection, charging and distribution machine
ES2701751T3 (en) 2011-07-26 2019-02-25 Gogoro Inc Apparatus, method and article for authentication, security and control of energy storage devices, such as batteries, based on user profiles
US9552682B2 (en) 2011-07-26 2017-01-24 Gogoro Inc. Apparatus, method and article for redistributing power storage devices, such as batteries, between collection, charging and distribution machines
CN103875149B (en) 2011-07-26 2017-02-15 睿能创意公司 Apparatus, method and article for a power storage device compartment
TWI551489B (en) * 2011-11-08 2016-10-01 睿能創意公司 Apparatus, method and article for security of vehicles
JP5887918B2 (en) * 2011-12-26 2016-03-16 アイシン精機株式会社 Vehicle braking device
WO2014078557A1 (en) 2012-11-16 2014-05-22 Gogoro, Inc. Apparatus, method and article for vehicle turn signals
DE102012223866A1 (en) * 2012-12-19 2014-07-17 Bayerische Motoren Werke Aktiengesellschaft Device for avoiding rolling against direction of travel of inserted drive position for motor vehicle on inclined surface, has regulator for regulating rotational speed of electric drive machine at zero
KR101533312B1 (en) * 2013-02-07 2015-07-03 국방과학연구소 Restart to be Pushed Against Method for Unmanned Ground Remote Vehicle
JP2013226052A (en) * 2013-08-09 2013-10-31 Hitachi Constr Mach Co Ltd Pitching control device of electric vehicle
CN105452569B (en) * 2013-08-20 2017-11-07 通用电气公司 System and method for controlling vehicle
JP6446045B2 (en) 2013-11-08 2018-12-26 ゴゴロ インク Apparatus, method and article for providing vehicle event data
CN106507694B (en) 2014-01-23 2019-04-30 睿能创意公司 Use the system and method for the array of the power storage device of such as battery
WO2016025392A1 (en) 2014-08-11 2016-02-18 Gogoro Inc. Multidirectional electrical connector, plug and system
USD789883S1 (en) 2014-09-04 2017-06-20 Gogoro Inc. Collection, charging and distribution device for portable electrical energy storage devices
CN107873006A (en) 2015-06-05 2018-04-03 睿能创意公司 Detection and the system and method for responding vehicle load
US10259341B2 (en) * 2017-03-15 2019-04-16 GM Global Technology Operations LLC Control systems and methods for preventing low vehicle speed
US10227021B2 (en) 2017-03-15 2019-03-12 GM Global Technology Operations LLC Initialization of closed loop control for vehicle stopping

Citations (24)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5251680A (en) * 1990-08-08 1993-10-12 Aisin Aw Co., Ltd. Collision-preventing apparatus for electric motor vehicle
US5775784A (en) * 1994-11-29 1998-07-07 Mitsubishi Jidosha Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Braking control system for electric automobile
US5905349A (en) * 1998-04-23 1999-05-18 Ford Motor Company Method of controlling electric motor torque in an electric vehicle
US5988307A (en) * 1995-05-19 1999-11-23 Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha Power transmission apparatus, four-wheel drive vehicle with power transmission apparatus incorporated therein, method of transmitting power, and method of four-wheel driving
US6122588A (en) * 1999-10-19 2000-09-19 Ford Global Technologies, Inc. Vehicle speed control with continuously variable braking torque
US6148784A (en) * 1995-08-31 2000-11-21 Isad Electronic Systems Gmbh & Co. Kg Drive systems, especially for a motor vehicle, and method of operating same
US6158405A (en) * 1995-08-31 2000-12-12 Isad Electronic Systems System for actively reducing rotational nonuniformity of a shaft, in particular, the drive shaft of an internal combustion engine, and method of operating the system
US6199650B1 (en) * 1995-08-31 2001-03-13 Isad Electronic Systems Gmbh & Co. Kg Drive system, especially for a motor vehicle, and method of operating same
US6278916B1 (en) * 2000-05-09 2001-08-21 Ford Global Technologies, Inc. Torque control strategy for management of creep and grade hold torque in a wheeled vehicle whose powertrain includes a rotary electric machine
US6281646B1 (en) * 1995-08-31 2001-08-28 Isad Electronic Systems Gmbh & Co. Kg Drive system with drive-motor, electric machine and battery
US6288508B1 (en) * 1997-11-05 2001-09-11 Yamaha Hatsudoki Kabushiki Kaisha Electric motor for a vehicle having regenerative braking and reverse excitation braking
US6353786B1 (en) * 1998-06-30 2002-03-05 Nissan Diesel Co., Ltd. Braking device for an electrically-powered car that uses a load of an electrical motor as a braking force
US20020036429A1 (en) * 2000-09-27 2002-03-28 Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha Control apparatus and method of vehicle braking and driving force
US6364434B1 (en) * 1999-04-01 2002-04-02 Daimlerchrysler Corporation Intelligent coast-down algorithm for electric vehicle
US6377007B1 (en) * 1999-07-05 2002-04-23 Mitsubishi Jidosha Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Motor torque control device of electric vehicle
US6378636B1 (en) * 2000-10-11 2002-04-30 Ford Global Technologies, Inc. Method and system for providing for vehicle drivability feel after accelerator release in an electric or hybrid electric vehicle
US20020116101A1 (en) * 2000-12-21 2002-08-22 Hitoshi Hashiba Torque control strategy for management of regenerative braking of a wheeled vehicle whose powertrain includes a rotary electric machine
US6456909B1 (en) * 2000-03-06 2002-09-24 Hitachi, Ltd. Control apparatus of electric vehicle
US6459980B1 (en) * 1999-02-08 2002-10-01 Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha Vehicle braked with motor torque and method of controlling the same
US6490511B1 (en) * 2000-11-10 2002-12-03 Ford Motor Company Torque-based monitor in a hybrid electric vehicle
US20030042054A1 (en) * 2001-09-05 2003-03-06 Kenichiro Matsubara Auxiliary drive and automobile equipped with the same
US6543565B1 (en) * 2000-11-10 2003-04-08 Ford Motor Company Method and system for collecting regenerative braking energy in a parallel hybrid electric vehicle
US20030098185A1 (en) * 2001-11-29 2003-05-29 Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha Vehicular control apparatus and method
US20030109359A1 (en) * 2001-12-10 2003-06-12 Takahiro Eguchi Vehicular power-transmission control system

Family Cites Families (50)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP0004194A1 (en) * 1978-03-13 1979-09-19 Hybricon, Inc. Hybrid car with electric and heat engine
US5125469A (en) * 1991-03-04 1992-06-30 Scott Gerald A System for storing and using deceleration energy
JP3225578B2 (en) * 1992-03-19 2001-11-05 株式会社日立製作所 Electric car
US5450324A (en) * 1993-01-07 1995-09-12 Ford Motor Company Electric vehicle regenerative antiskid braking and traction control system
US5376869A (en) * 1993-02-11 1994-12-27 General Electric Company Electric vehicle drive train with rollback detection and compensation
JP3114470B2 (en) * 1993-12-09 2000-12-04 株式会社日立製作所 Vehicle control apparatus
JP3321991B2 (en) * 1994-06-03 2002-09-09 トヨタ自動車株式会社 Braking apparatus for an electric vehicle
US5848373A (en) * 1994-06-24 1998-12-08 Delorme Publishing Company Computer aided map location system
JP3315816B2 (en) * 1994-07-29 2002-08-19 トヨタ自動車株式会社 Regenerative braking abnormality determination method of electric car
US5644200A (en) * 1994-10-03 1997-07-01 Yang; Tai-Her Driving electrical machine speed controlled power combined system and device
JP2929715B2 (en) * 1994-11-29 1999-08-03 三菱自動車工業株式会社 Brake control apparatus for an electric vehicle
JP3129126B2 (en) * 1994-12-09 2001-01-29 三菱自動車工業株式会社 Shift control method of an electric vehicle
JP3539696B2 (en) * 1995-02-10 2004-07-07 富士重工業株式会社 Constant-speed running control device for electric vehicles
JP3587600B2 (en) * 1995-09-19 2004-11-10 公害健康被害補償予防協会 Electric vehicle braking method and device
JP3129204B2 (en) * 1995-10-18 2001-01-29 トヨタ自動車株式会社 The hybrid drive system
JPH114504A (en) * 1997-06-10 1999-01-06 Toyota Motor Corp Brake system for vehicle
JP3937524B2 (en) * 1997-09-30 2007-06-27 トヨタ自動車株式会社 Vehicle braking / driving force control device
JP3365301B2 (en) * 1998-03-19 2003-01-08 トヨタ自動車株式会社 Vehicle braking energy control apparatus and control method thereof
US6061623A (en) * 1998-07-17 2000-05-09 Ford Global Technologies, Inc. Method and system for pre-positioning wheel torque in a torque based vehicle speed control
JP3536704B2 (en) * 1999-02-17 2004-06-14 日産自動車株式会社 Vehicle driving force control device
US6199004B1 (en) * 1999-05-17 2001-03-06 Ford Global Technologies, Inc. Vehicle and engine control system
US6192847B1 (en) * 1999-06-24 2001-02-27 Ford Global Technologies, Inc. Method and apparatus for selectively controlling the speed of an engine
US6279531B1 (en) * 1999-08-09 2001-08-28 Ford Global Technologies, Inc. System and method for controlling engine torque
US6193628B1 (en) * 1999-08-17 2001-02-27 Ford Global Technologies, Inc. Vehicle shift quality using a supplemental torque source
JP3540209B2 (en) * 1999-08-25 2004-07-07 本田技研工業株式会社 Hybrid vehicle control device
US6376927B1 (en) * 2000-01-18 2002-04-23 Saturn Corporation Hybrid electric drive and control method therefor
DE60102403T2 (en) * 2000-01-24 2005-03-10 Hino Jidosha K.K., Hino hybrid vehicle
GB0002375D0 (en) * 2000-02-03 2000-03-22 Renishaw Plc Reactionless rotary drive mechanism
US6336070B1 (en) * 2000-03-01 2002-01-01 Ford Global Technologies, Inc. Apparatus and method for engine crankshaft torque ripple control in a hybrid electric vehicle
JP3896240B2 (en) * 2000-03-24 2007-03-22 住友電工ブレーキシステムズ株式会社 Control method of regenerative cooperative brake system
US6263267B1 (en) * 2000-05-09 2001-07-17 Ford Global Technologies, Inc. Traction control system for a hybrid electric vehicle
WO2002004806A1 (en) * 2000-07-11 2002-01-17 Aisin Aw Co., Ltd. Drive device
US6321144B1 (en) * 2000-08-08 2001-11-20 Ford Global Technologies, Inc. Torque control strategy for management of rollback in a wheeled vehicle whose powertrain includes a rotary electric machine
GB2370130B (en) * 2000-10-11 2004-10-06 Ford Motor Co A control system for a hybrid electric vehicle
JP3777974B2 (en) * 2000-11-15 2006-05-24 三菱自動車工業株式会社 Vehicle braking device
US6411882B1 (en) * 2000-12-02 2002-06-25 Ford Global Technologies, Inc. Drive-by-wire vehicle engine output control system
CN1498335B (en) * 2001-01-24 2012-01-11 泰为信息科技公司 Real-time navigation system for mobile environment
JP4151224B2 (en) * 2001-02-20 2008-09-17 アイシン・エィ・ダブリュ株式会社 Control device for hybrid vehicle
JP3701567B2 (en) * 2001-02-20 2005-09-28 本田技研工業株式会社 Control device for hybrid vehicle
JP2002242717A (en) * 2001-02-20 2002-08-28 Honda Motor Co Ltd Control device for hybrid vehicle
JP3721088B2 (en) * 2001-03-01 2005-11-30 株式会社日立カーエンジニアリング Control device for hybrid vehicle
US20020163251A1 (en) * 2001-05-07 2002-11-07 Crombez Dale Scott Regenerative brake system architecture for an electric or hybrid electric vehicle
US6616569B2 (en) * 2001-06-04 2003-09-09 General Motors Corporation Torque control system for a hybrid vehicle with an automatic transmission
US6558290B2 (en) * 2001-06-29 2003-05-06 Ford Global Technologies, Llc Method for stopping an engine in a parallel hybrid electric vehicle
US6427109B1 (en) * 2001-10-11 2002-07-30 Ford Global Technologies, Inc. Powertrain torque estimate
US6590299B2 (en) * 2001-11-08 2003-07-08 Ford Global Technologies, Llc Hybrid electric vehicle control strategy to provide vehicle creep and hill holding
US6650996B1 (en) * 2001-12-20 2003-11-18 Garmin Ltd. System and method for compressing data
JP3941695B2 (en) * 2003-01-08 2007-07-04 株式会社豊田自動織機 Vehicle travel control device
US7188025B2 (en) * 2003-12-18 2007-03-06 International Business Machines Corporation Method and apparatus for exchanging traffic condition information using peer to peer networking
US20060247844A1 (en) * 2005-04-27 2006-11-02 Irving Wang Intelligent traffic monitoring and guidance system

Patent Citations (26)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5251680A (en) * 1990-08-08 1993-10-12 Aisin Aw Co., Ltd. Collision-preventing apparatus for electric motor vehicle
US5775784A (en) * 1994-11-29 1998-07-07 Mitsubishi Jidosha Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Braking control system for electric automobile
US5988307A (en) * 1995-05-19 1999-11-23 Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha Power transmission apparatus, four-wheel drive vehicle with power transmission apparatus incorporated therein, method of transmitting power, and method of four-wheel driving
US6483197B1 (en) * 1995-08-31 2002-11-19 Continental Isad Electronic Systems Gmbh & Co., Kg Drive system, electric machine for use in a drive system, and method for operating an electric machine in a drive system
US6148784A (en) * 1995-08-31 2000-11-21 Isad Electronic Systems Gmbh & Co. Kg Drive systems, especially for a motor vehicle, and method of operating same
US6158405A (en) * 1995-08-31 2000-12-12 Isad Electronic Systems System for actively reducing rotational nonuniformity of a shaft, in particular, the drive shaft of an internal combustion engine, and method of operating the system
US6199650B1 (en) * 1995-08-31 2001-03-13 Isad Electronic Systems Gmbh & Co. Kg Drive system, especially for a motor vehicle, and method of operating same
US6281646B1 (en) * 1995-08-31 2001-08-28 Isad Electronic Systems Gmbh & Co. Kg Drive system with drive-motor, electric machine and battery
US6288508B1 (en) * 1997-11-05 2001-09-11 Yamaha Hatsudoki Kabushiki Kaisha Electric motor for a vehicle having regenerative braking and reverse excitation braking
US5905349A (en) * 1998-04-23 1999-05-18 Ford Motor Company Method of controlling electric motor torque in an electric vehicle
US6353786B1 (en) * 1998-06-30 2002-03-05 Nissan Diesel Co., Ltd. Braking device for an electrically-powered car that uses a load of an electrical motor as a braking force
US6459980B1 (en) * 1999-02-08 2002-10-01 Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha Vehicle braked with motor torque and method of controlling the same
US6364434B1 (en) * 1999-04-01 2002-04-02 Daimlerchrysler Corporation Intelligent coast-down algorithm for electric vehicle
US6377007B1 (en) * 1999-07-05 2002-04-23 Mitsubishi Jidosha Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Motor torque control device of electric vehicle
US6122588A (en) * 1999-10-19 2000-09-19 Ford Global Technologies, Inc. Vehicle speed control with continuously variable braking torque
US6456909B1 (en) * 2000-03-06 2002-09-24 Hitachi, Ltd. Control apparatus of electric vehicle
US6278916B1 (en) * 2000-05-09 2001-08-21 Ford Global Technologies, Inc. Torque control strategy for management of creep and grade hold torque in a wheeled vehicle whose powertrain includes a rotary electric machine
US20020036429A1 (en) * 2000-09-27 2002-03-28 Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha Control apparatus and method of vehicle braking and driving force
US6598945B2 (en) * 2000-09-27 2003-07-29 Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha Control apparatus and method of vehicle braking and driving force
US6378636B1 (en) * 2000-10-11 2002-04-30 Ford Global Technologies, Inc. Method and system for providing for vehicle drivability feel after accelerator release in an electric or hybrid electric vehicle
US6490511B1 (en) * 2000-11-10 2002-12-03 Ford Motor Company Torque-based monitor in a hybrid electric vehicle
US6543565B1 (en) * 2000-11-10 2003-04-08 Ford Motor Company Method and system for collecting regenerative braking energy in a parallel hybrid electric vehicle
US20020116101A1 (en) * 2000-12-21 2002-08-22 Hitoshi Hashiba Torque control strategy for management of regenerative braking of a wheeled vehicle whose powertrain includes a rotary electric machine
US20030042054A1 (en) * 2001-09-05 2003-03-06 Kenichiro Matsubara Auxiliary drive and automobile equipped with the same
US20030098185A1 (en) * 2001-11-29 2003-05-29 Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha Vehicular control apparatus and method
US20030109359A1 (en) * 2001-12-10 2003-06-12 Takahiro Eguchi Vehicular power-transmission control system

Cited By (41)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20040194280A1 (en) * 2003-04-07 2004-10-07 Borroni-Bird Christopher E. Rolling chassis and assembled bodies
US20090240403A1 (en) * 2005-12-23 2009-09-24 Hwang Joon Ha Control system and method for electric-powered forklifts
AU2007200324B2 (en) * 2006-03-24 2008-12-11 Hitachi, Ltd. Electric drive vehicle
US8523296B2 (en) 2006-03-24 2013-09-03 Hitachi, Ltd. Electric drive vehicle
AU2011201327B2 (en) * 2006-03-24 2011-08-11 Hitachi, Ltd. Electric drive vehicle
AU2009200234B2 (en) * 2006-03-24 2010-12-23 Hitachi, Ltd. Electric drive vehicle
US9174538B2 (en) * 2006-05-16 2015-11-03 Volkswagen Ag Device and method for activating and/or deactivating functions of a vehicle
US20090312917A1 (en) * 2006-05-16 2009-12-17 Torsten Zawade Device and method for activating and/or deactivating functions of a vehicle
US8078348B2 (en) * 2007-10-25 2011-12-13 Honda Motor Co., Ltd. Electric vehicle and regeneration control method for electric vehicle
US20100025167A1 (en) * 2008-07-31 2010-02-04 Caterpillar Inc. Braking system for an off-highway machine involving electric retarding integrated with service brakes
US8490760B2 (en) 2008-08-29 2013-07-23 Caterpillar Inc. Brake cooling fluid diverter for an off-highway machine
US8281908B2 (en) 2008-08-29 2012-10-09 Caterpillar Inc. Brake cooling fluid diverter for an off-highway machine
US9063202B2 (en) 2008-09-15 2015-06-23 Caterpillar Inc. Method and apparatus for detecting phase current imbalance in a power generator
US7795825B2 (en) 2008-09-15 2010-09-14 Caterpillar Inc Over-voltage and under-voltage management for electric drive system
US7918296B2 (en) 2008-09-15 2011-04-05 Caterpillar Inc. Cooling system for an electric drive machine and method
US7956762B2 (en) 2008-09-15 2011-06-07 Caterpillar Inc. Method and apparatus for power generation failure diagnostics
US20100065355A1 (en) * 2008-09-15 2010-03-18 Caterpillar Inc. Cooling system for an electric drive machine and method
US20100066316A1 (en) * 2008-09-15 2010-03-18 Caterpillar Inc. Method and apparatus for detecting a short circuit in a DC link
US8428805B2 (en) 2008-09-15 2013-04-23 Caterpillar Inc. Engine load management for traction vehicles
US8410739B2 (en) 2008-09-15 2013-04-02 Caterpillar Inc. Method and apparatus for determining the operating condition of generator rotating diodes
US7996163B2 (en) 2008-09-15 2011-08-09 Caterpillar Inc. Method and apparatus for detecting a short circuit in a DC link
US20100066294A1 (en) * 2008-09-15 2010-03-18 Caterpillar Inc. Method and apparatus for detecting phase current imbalance in a power generator
US8054016B2 (en) 2008-09-15 2011-11-08 Caterpillar Inc. Retarding energy calculator for an electric drive machine
US20100070120A1 (en) * 2008-09-15 2010-03-18 Caterpillar Inc. Engine load management for traction vehicles
US8140206B2 (en) 2008-09-15 2012-03-20 Caterpillar Inc. Engine load management for traction vehicles
US8253357B2 (en) 2008-09-15 2012-08-28 Caterpillar Inc. Load demand and power generation balancing in direct series electric drive system
US8324846B2 (en) 2008-09-15 2012-12-04 Caterpillar Inc. Electric drive retarding system and method
US20100065356A1 (en) * 2008-09-15 2010-03-18 Caterpillar Inc. Electric powertrain for off-highway trucks
ITRM20090333A1 (en) * 2009-06-26 2010-12-27 Oxygen S P A the parking braking system for electrically powered scooter
WO2010150237A1 (en) 2009-06-26 2010-12-29 Oxygen S.P.A. Parking brake system for electrically propelled scooters
US8417405B2 (en) 2009-12-16 2013-04-09 Aisin Aw Co., Ltd. Driving support device, method, and program
US20110144847A1 (en) * 2009-12-16 2011-06-16 Aisin Aw Co., Ltd. Driving support device, method, and program
US20110144877A1 (en) * 2009-12-16 2011-06-16 Aisin Aw Co., Ltd. Driving support device, method, and program
US20110148184A1 (en) * 2009-12-18 2011-06-23 Hitachi Automotive Systems, Ltd. Braking control apparatus for electric vehicle
US8573709B2 (en) * 2009-12-18 2013-11-05 Hitachi Automotive Systems, Ltd. Braking control apparatus for electric vehicle
US8626368B2 (en) 2010-09-07 2014-01-07 Caterpillar Inc. Electric drive power response management system and method
US20110184603A1 (en) * 2011-04-06 2011-07-28 Erick Michael Lavoie Direction determination for active park assist
US8290657B2 (en) 2011-04-06 2012-10-16 Ford Global Technologies Direction determination for active park assist
CN103863127A (en) * 2012-12-07 2014-06-18 北京科实医学图像技术研究所 Electric braking device of motor vehicle
US20140358340A1 (en) * 2013-05-28 2014-12-04 Vladimir Radev Hybrid electric vehicle
EP3078537A4 (en) * 2013-12-02 2016-12-14 Nissan Motor Electric vehicle control device and electric vehicle control method

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
US20070124052A1 (en) 2007-05-31
DE102005039788A1 (en) 2006-03-02
JP2006067790A (en) 2006-03-09
GB0514459D0 (en) 2005-08-17
US7698044B2 (en) 2010-04-13
JP5325370B2 (en) 2013-10-23
GB2417532A (en) 2006-03-01

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
Cikanek et al. Regenerative braking system for a hybrid electric vehicle
US7136737B2 (en) Coordinated brake control system
EP2292486B1 (en) Control apparatus for hybrid vehicle
US6059064A (en) Hybrid vehicle
EP1074087B1 (en) Control method and apparatus for internal combustion engine electric hybrid vehicles
JP3089958B2 (en) Brake control apparatus for an electric vehicle
CA1292051C (en) Motor vehicle driving system
JP5247000B2 (en) Coastal deceleration control device for vehicle
US7523797B2 (en) Power output apparatus, method of controlling power output apparatus, and automobile with power output apparatus mounted thereon
JP3862619B2 (en) Engine stop control in a parallel hybrid electric vehicle
US5775784A (en) Braking control system for electric automobile
US8744712B2 (en) Drive control device for electric vehicle, and electric vehicle
US8033955B2 (en) Methods and systems for regulating hill descent speed of an electric vehicle
US6492785B1 (en) Variable current limit control for vehicle electric drive system
US5788597A (en) Process and apparatus for braking a hybrid-drive motor vehicle
US7216943B2 (en) Hybrid vehicle
US8152245B2 (en) Vehicle system having regenerative brake control
JP5304274B2 (en) Brake control device for vehicle
US8634987B2 (en) Control apparatus for electric vehicle
US5376869A (en) Electric vehicle drive train with rollback detection and compensation
US20050151420A1 (en) Hybrid electric vehicle powertrain with regenerative braking
US6405818B1 (en) Hybrid electric vehicle with limited operation strategy
US8062175B2 (en) Method and apparatus for optimizing braking control during a threshold braking event
US20130162009A1 (en) Electric vehicle regenerative braking system
US20100036575A1 (en) Vehicle Deceleration Rate Control Method and Apparatus

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AS Assignment

Owner name: FORD MOTOR COMPANY, MICHIGAN

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:PRAKASH, RAJ;CROMBEZ, DALE;WORREL, PETER;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:015742/0304

Effective date: 20040823

STCB Information on status: application discontinuation

Free format text: ABANDONED -- AFTER EXAMINER'S ANSWER OR BOARD OF APPEALS DECISION