US20060042251A1 - Arc-electrolysis steam generator with energy recovery, and method therefor - Google Patents

Arc-electrolysis steam generator with energy recovery, and method therefor Download PDF

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US20060042251A1
US20060042251A1 US11/217,823 US21782305A US2006042251A1 US 20060042251 A1 US20060042251 A1 US 20060042251A1 US 21782305 A US21782305 A US 21782305A US 2006042251 A1 US2006042251 A1 US 2006042251A1
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arc
energy
steam
electrical
electrolysis
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US11/217,823
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Victor Villalobos
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Villalobos Victor M
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Priority to US60777004P priority
Priority to US61007204P priority
Priority to US61597504P priority
Priority to US11/029,119 priority patent/US20060042955A1/en
Priority to US11/078,598 priority patent/US7216484B2/en
Application filed by Villalobos Victor M filed Critical Villalobos Victor M
Priority to US11/217,823 priority patent/US20060042251A1/en
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F22STEAM GENERATION
    • F22BMETHODS OF STEAM GENERATION; STEAM BOILERS
    • F22B1/00Methods of steam generation characterised by form of heating method
    • F22B1/28Methods of steam generation characterised by form of heating method in boilers heated electrically
    • F22B1/30Electrode boilers
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F22STEAM GENERATION
    • F22BMETHODS OF STEAM GENERATION; STEAM BOILERS
    • F22B3/00Other methods of steam generation; Steam boilers not provided for in other groups of this subclass

Abstract

An arc-electrolysis steam generator apparatus and method of use thereof, wherein the steam generator comprises an arc-plasma electrolysis process utilizing a high pressure vessel and electrodes exposed to high frequency, high energy pulses. An inductor is placed around an arc-electrolysis unit, wherein the inductor captures electromagnetic energy and a plasma effect that produces high electrical energy pulses generated by the plasma arc performing work against its own magnetic field; thereby, supplementing the steam energy recovered from water.

Description

    PRIORITY CLAIM
  • To the fullest extent permitted by law, the present non-provisional patent application claims priority to, and the full benefit of the following applications: (1) provisional patent application entitled “Water Fueled Pneumatic Energy Storage and Generator Apparatus”, filed on Aug. 30, 2004, having assigned Ser. No. 60/605,706; (2) provisional patent application entitled “Self-sustaining Arc-hydrolysis Gaseous Fuel Generator”, filed on Sep. 7, 2004, having assigned Ser. No. 60/607,770; (3) provisional patent application entitled “Self-sustaining Arc-hydrolysis Gaseous Fuel Generator”, filed on Sep. 15, 2004, having assigned Ser. No. 60/610,072; provisional patent application entitled “Multiple Use Self-sustaining Arc-hydrolysis Gaseous Fuel Generator”, filed on Oct. 5, 2004, having assigned Ser. No. 60/615,975; (5) non-provisional patent application entitled “Arc-Hydrolysis Fuel Generator With Supplemental Energy Recovery”, filed on Jan. 4, 2005, having assigned Ser. No. 11/029,119; and (6) Non-provisional Patent Application entitled “Arc-Hydrolysis Steam Generator Apparatus and Method”, filed on Mar. 11, 2005, having assigned Ser. No. 11/078,598.
  • TECHNICAL FIELD
  • The present invention relates generally to steam generators, and more specifically to a scalable steam generator that generates steam energy through arc-hydrolysis of water, and provides generation and recovery of supplemental electrical energy from an electrical arc via induction and a plasma current effect.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • As concerns about our nation's dependence on foreign oil increase, and as Americans become more aware of the resulting direct effect on the economy of the country and of global environmental impacts of foreign petroleum use, interest has increased for domestically-produced alternative methods for fueling transportation engines, as well as methods for generation of electrical energy.
  • In order to stabilize the pattern of dependency on foreign oil, it is desirable to have a process that can both generate high pressure steam and recover electrical energy utilized in producing the steam. In an attempt to develop such high-yield energy processes, the engineering community has turned to a process called electrolysis.
  • Electrolysis may be defined as a process of transforming energy via passing an electrical current through a solution so as to break the solution into its component molecules. For example, via electrolysis, electric arcs generated between electrodes submerged in water may be utilized to ionize and/or hydrolyze the body of water, wherein the energy released in the formation of the electrical spark breaks apart each water molecule into its component hydrogen and oxygen elements. Hydrolyzing water via electrolysis is aptly termed arc-hydrolysis, as the electrical arc must take place under water.
  • To facilitate ionic transfer between the electrodes, and thereby increase the efficacy of the arc-hydrolysis process, the resistance of the water is often lowered by adding suitable ionizable compounds, notably salts such as halide salts, for example sodium chloride, ammonium chloride, potassium carbonate, sulfates or nitrates of alkaline or alkaline earth metals or transition metals. However, although efforts have thus far principally focused on increasing the energy yielded from such arc-hydrolysis processes, recovery of energy lost during such processes has largely been ignored.
  • Specifically, during existing arc-electrolysis processes, heat, in the form of pressurized steam generated by the high-temperature plasma formed by the arc, is lost. However, such heat energy, if recovered, could be utilized to power steam-driven devices. Similarly, electromagnetic energy and plasma currents are not presently recovered in existing arc-electrolysis processes and, accordingly, offer additional energy resources that, unfortunately, are largely disregarded or relatively unknown.
  • Therefore, it is readily apparent that there is a need for an apparatus and method for generating high-pressure steam via arc-hydrolysis, wherein supplemental energy recovery processes are further provided for the recapture of heat, electromagnetic current, and a plasma current effect, for the production of higher energy.
  • BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • Briefly described, in a preferred embodiment, the present invention overcomes the above-mentioned disadvantages and meets the recognized need for such an invention by providing an arc-hydrolysis steam generator with supplemental energy recovery, wherein an inductor from a magnetic field, and a plasma current effect formed by an arc discharge, are simultaneously utilized for electrolyzing water. The arc-hydrolysis steam generator of the present invention recovers the higher plasma current pulse energy, as well as the radiated energy, through special electrical circuitry, while water is recycled as vapor or steam; thereby, providing for higher efficiency of conversion of electrical energy to steam and reclaimed electricity.
  • According to its major aspects and broadly stated, the present invention in its preferred form is an arc-hydrolysis steam generator and method of use thereof, wherein an inductor is placed around an arc-hydrolysis unit, and wherein a substantial portion of the electric energy utilized to produce the electric arc is reclaimed via the inductor to thereby supplement the recoverable steam energy. The recovered electrical energy is returned to the electrical circuit, wherein the recovered energy reduces the quantity of electrical energy required to power the subsequent arc discharge process.
  • Higher electrical energy level pulses occur in the circuit as a plasma current effect, which is produced by repeatedly creating and collapsing a plasma arc. The plasma arc performs work against its own self-generated magnetic field, an effect that increases the current of the electrical pulses in the circuit by a factor of two or three times; thereby, augmenting the current of the electrical circuit. Such higher energy pulses can be utilized simultaneously to produce steam and harvest energy for storage in batteries for later use.
  • Additional electrical energy is reclaimed from a plasma current effect. Essentially, the same arc which produces the steam and magnetic field produces a repeated augmentation of the current after the resistance of the solution decreases due to the collapse of the arc, therefore increasing the current in the circuit by a factor of approximately two or three times. The present invention recovers these current surges by storing the energy in a capacitor or battery for later use by the circuit.
  • Because the plasma arcing process generates large amounts of heat as a byproduct, the heat produced by the process can be reclaimed and utilized as an environmentally desirable method of producing steam heat, producing SynGas fuel, producing hot water, cooling homes (through absorption refrigeration), and simultaneously generating supplemental electrical power. The inclusion of a method to dissipate such large amount of heat energy is also recommended for periods when generation of steam and or hot water is not required.
  • Additionally, water vapor, in the form of condensate exhausted by the steam, is circulated and returned to the process in a cyclical manner; thereby, reducing the quantity of water required to make up volume in the arc-hydrolysis unit.
  • More specifically, the present invention is an arc-hydrolysis steam generator with supplemental energy recovery and process therefor, wherein a low resistance electrolyte solution is subjected to an electric pulse arc discharge in a controlled high-pressure container. A high energy controlled direct current pulse produces a submerged arc in the electrolyte solution, wherein the solution is ionized into steam contained under high pressure.
  • The steam produced is subsequently fed to a steam turbine or similar converting device, wherein rotational energy is produced for use in powering pumps for water, for transportation purposes such as automobiles, cars, boats, etc., or for producing electrical energy. Additionally, mechanical energy from the steam turbine could selectively be utilized for other multiple heating applications as well, with or without producing electrical energy via an electrical generator. In addition to fueling steam turbines, the heat produced by the arc-hydrolysis can be utilized as an environmentally desirable method to heat or cool homes (i.e., through absorption refrigeration), as well as to clean and/or disinfect water or wet organic materials contaminated by bacteria, and/or to desalinize water.
  • In order to achieve maximization of the energy from the present invention, it is necessary to recapture the radiated magnetic energy that would normally be lost from the arc discharge. The electric arc discharge radiates electromagnetic energy, which is created around the arc when a high-energy direct current pulse is discharged across a spark gap. The delivered pulse is steady, extremely short in duration, and sharp in nature, with fast, abrupt interruption to produce the greatest magnetic field collapse for capture by the inductor. The pulse should be in the range of about 0.1 to 1 seconds, and the pulse interval should be approximately 0.01 seconds to generate the desired arc.
  • Additionally, a highly visible light effect is produced when the cold low voltage anode is exposed to the high-voltage anode positive potential discharge, wherein the anodes are submerged in a solution. When the low voltage switch on the low voltage side is open, a high voltage positive potential forms across the anodes, and, subsequently, when a switch is quickly closed and re-opened, an arc forms at the arc point between the low voltage anode and the high voltage anode; thereby, forming high voltage pulses. Accordingly, plasma is formed from the arc discharge, wherein the plasma ionizes the watery solution therearound, and the electron loss results in quanta or photons of electromagnetic nature, yielding a highly visible radiant light and extreme heat which converts the water into steam.
  • While water alone may be utilized to surround the arc, water forms a high dielectric and can prevent discharge, unless the potential across the electrodes is sufficient to break down the dielectric and split the water apart into its constituent ions, H+ and OH. In its ionized form, water is a fairly good conductor of electricity and its specific resistance is lower than in its normal liquid state. Accordingly, it may be necessary to include salts in the water to form a lower resistance electrolyte; thereby, permitting an easier breakdown at lower potential. Although the terms “water” or “solution” will be utilized hereinafter, it will be recognized that they are used similarly and may include an electrolyte solution.
  • As an electric current moves through the ionized water, energy is dissipated in the form of heat, just as current through a solid conductor dissipates energy in the form of heat. The heat converts the water into steam with high efficiency. As voltage between the electrodes decreases to low level, the water gives off further heat, and, in a cyclic fashion, the solution returns to its normal liquid state and stops conducting current, thus allowing voltage to build-up across the electrodes once more. Through this cycle, the water exhibits a current hysteresis in relation to the voltage. When not conducting electricity, the water tends to remain as an insulator until voltage passes a high enough voltage threshold point. Then, once it changes state and ionizes, the water tends to remain a conductor until the voltage falls again below near a zero low critical voltage threshold point. The hysteresis effect of current versus voltage is subsequently repeated. The current generated by this hysteresis effect increases the current in a cyclical fashion by a factor of two to three times the original current.
  • In addition to the necessary electrical conditions, a minimum temperature for the arc plasma must exist in the solution, as the plasma only exists when the liquid solution temperature is approximately 168° F. or higher. Between approximately 158° F. and 168° F., there is only an arc-less, steam-less electrolysis. The steam-producing plasma only starts around 168° F. when the tip of the anode begins to glow incandescent, at which time the steam production commences. An auxiliary heater is utilized to preheat the solution prior to initiating the arc to speed steam production.
  • Specifically, once the proper electrical voltage differential across the electrodes exists, and once the solution is at a temperature higher than 185° F., a steady stream of arcs begins to promote ionization of the solution during the upward leg of the pulse, whilst creating a plasma condition and a pulsating current-producing event in the downward leg of the pulse as the arc collapses. The high electrical energy pulses produced at the arc point must be sharp and very short in duration in order to obtain a maximum ratio of ionization rate to rate of electric energy recycled.
  • In summary, the steady direct current pulses across the anodes generate three concurrent events:
      • 1) water solution is converted into steam via heat and pressure;
      • 2) generation of a radiant pulsating field, wherein the pulsating field is subsequently utilized to recover electric energy by use of a reclaim grid comprising an inductor which recovers electromagnetic radiated energy; and,
      • 3) generation of high current pulses, wherein the plasma current effect augments system current; thereby, facilitating the harvesting of higher energy pulses for charging batteries for subsequent use by the process. This plasma current amplification effect is produced by the plasma magnetic field when the plasma arc is created and collapsed, wherein current is reclaimed to charge battery banks, and/or is utilized by the circuit.
  • These three concurrent events tend to promote each other, first, by producing steam and a pulsating plasma condition, and second, by producing an electromagnetic field from which higher energy is reclaimed. Thus, most of the electrical energy utilized to produce the arc discharge is recovered.
  • Accordingly, a feature and advantage of the present invention is its ability to be utilized to produce hydrogen- and oxygen-laden steam at high pressure.
  • Still another feature and advantage of the present invention is its ability to harvest energy created during arc-electrolysis via the magnetic field formed.
  • Still another feature and advantage of the present invention is its ability to harvest the electrical current created by the plasma current effect.
  • Still another feature and advantage of the present invention is its ability to reclaim energy to provide near self-sufficiency.
  • Still a further feature and advantage of the present invention is its ability to provide rotational power via a steam turbine.
  • Still another feature and advantage of the present invention is its ability to produce electrical power via electrical generators, and to reclaim otherwise wasted energy.
  • Still yet another feature and advantage of the present invention is its high efficiency in generation of electrical energy and steam.
  • An additional feature and advantage of the present invention is that it can be utilized to sterilize liquid materials.
  • Another feature and advantage of the present invention is its ability to charge batteries for later use when power costs are higher.
  • Yet an additional feature and advantage of the present invention is that it requires only addition of low resistance water solution and supplemental electrical energy for self-sufficiency.
  • Yet still another feature and advantage of the present invention is that it provides synergistic harvesting of steam and electrical energy from a spark gap in a watery solution.
  • Still yet an additional feature and advantage of the present invention is that it minimizes depletion of water because it condenses water for reuse.
  • These and other features and advantages of the present invention will become more apparent to one skilled in the art from the following description and claims when read in light of the accompanying drawings.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • The present invention will be better understood by reading the Detailed Description of the Preferred and Selected Alternate Embodiments with reference to the accompanying drawing figures, in which like reference numerals denote similar structure and refer to like elements throughout, and in which:
  • FIG. 1 is a block diagram of an arc-electrolysis steam generator according to the preferred embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 2 is a block diagram of a submerged steam generation system component of an arc-electrolysis steam generator according to the preferred embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of electrical circuitry of an arc-electrolysis steam generator according to the preferred embodiment of the present invention; and,
  • FIG. 4 is a block diagram of a steam/electricity generation process of an arc-electrolysis steam generator according to an alternate embodiment of the present invention.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED AND SELECTED ALTERNATIVE EMBODIMENTS
  • In describing the preferred and selected alternate embodiments of the present invention, as illustrated in FIGS. 1-4, specific terminology is employed for the sake of clarity. The invention, however, is not intended to be limited to the specific terminology so selected, and it is to be understood that each specific element includes all technical equivalents that operate in a similar manner to accomplish similar functions.
  • Referring now more specifically to FIG. 1, the present invention in its preferred embodiment is arc-electrolysis steam generator 10 comprising supplemental electrical external power 100.1, electrical system 300, steam generation system 200 comprising steam turbine 100.2, rotational energy system 103.3, condensate return pipe 100.4, condensate tank 100.5 and condensate pump 100.6. Arc-electrolysis steam generator 10 preferably utilizes electrical energy to power an arc-discharge at arc point 200.1 to ionize solution 200.9 via electrodes 200.2, 200.3 (best shown in FIG. 2), wherein solution 200.9 is then converted into steam 200.10. Steam 200.10 is pressurized by being confined within tank 200.11.
  • Solution 200.9 comprises ionizable soluble compounds, such as chlorides, sulfates and/or nitrates. Because the resistivity of distilled water is on the order of 1500 Ohm-cm, the addition of ionizable soluble compounds brings the electrical resistivity to between approximately about 15 Ohm-cm to about 7 Ohm-cm or between approximately 1/100 to 1/250 of the original resistivity of the distilled water.
  • A particularly preferred solution 200.9 is distilled water with addition of potassium carbonate (K2CO3) at a concentration of 0.25 molar (0.25 M). The resistivity of such solution 200.9 is about 7 Ohm-cm. Another preferred solution 200.9 is distilled water with addition of 10% by weight of sodium chloride (NaCl). The resistivity of such solution 200.9 is about 8 Ohm-cm.
  • Steam generation system 200 is preferably in fluid communication with steam turbine 100.2, wherein steam turbine 100.2 preferably receives high pressure steam 200.10 via pipe 200.6. Steam 200.10 is preferably returned to steam generation system 200 through condensate tank 100.5 and condensate return pump 100.6 via condensate return pipe 200.5. Steam 200.10 is retained in high-pressure tank 200.11.1. Condensate return pump 100.6 is preferably powered by electrical energy or rotational energy generated by the steam turbine 100.2 or the electrical reclaimed by electrical energy reclaim grid 200.4 (best shown in FIG. 2).
  • Steam turbine 100.2 utilizes steam to produce rotational energy mechanism 100.3. In addition to powering steam turbine 100.2, steam generation system 200 can provide steam 200.10 for external use.
  • Steam generation system 200 is preferably regulated via use of direct current (DC) high amperage pulses, high pressure and high temperature. Heat energy produced could be utilized for a variety of processes, such as, for exemplary purposes only, environmental heating and cooling (absorption refrigeration), industrial steam purposes, and heating water. If steam production is desired, then pressure and temperature are adjusted by pressure controlling valves 200.5.2, 200.6.1 (best shown in FIG. 2) and pump 100.6, wherein arc-discharge at arc point 200.1 produces the desired high pressure steam within arc-electrolysis steam generator 10. Electrical system 300 provides control of electrical energy added to arc-electrolysis steam generator 10.
  • Condensate water tank 100.5 is preferably in fluid communication with steam turbine 100.2 and collects steam condensate via condensate pipe 100.4. Condensate is returned to steam generation system 200 via condensate return pipe 200.5, wherein condensed water preferably flows from condensate tank 100.5 through condensate pump 100.6 to steam generation system 200, where the condensed water is converted into steam 200.10 to re-start the cycle.
  • Electrical energy and a liquid solution at the right temperature are required for initiation of operation of arc-electrolysis steam generator 10. Such electrical energy is preferably supplied to electrical system 300 from supplemental electrical energy source 100.1 or from batteries 300.8.1, 300.8.2. Supplemental electrical energy source 100.1 provides electrical energy to steam generation system 200 for commencement of operation of steam generation system 200 and/or for charging batteries 300.8.1, 300.8.2.
  • Arc discharge 200.1 preferably takes place at a very high temperature of between approximately 5000 to 6000 degrees Fahrenheit. A ten kWh arc-electrolysis steam generator 10, requires about 34,000 BTU/hour (10 kWh) to be utilized, dissipated or removed. Otherwise, the process will generate excessive heat which will be wasted and/or which will otherwise destroy steam generation system 200 if not properly utilized. Steam supply pipe 200.6, condensate return pipe 100.4, condensate tank 100.5 and condensate recovery pipe 200.5, preferably function to keep condensed water re-circulating to provide steam generation system 200 with solution 200.9 via pump 100.6 or via pressure within steam generation system 200. The steam produced is utilized by steam turbine 100.2 in producing rotational energy which can be utilized to generate electricity via a generator unit, or may alternately be utilized for transportation purposes. Pump 100.6, condensate tank 100.5, steam turbine 100.2, steam generating unit 200, electrical system 300, and pipes 200.6, 100.4, 200.5 can be designed and sized by one skilled in the art to facilitate the desired steam output capacity and heating requirements desired.
  • Pre-start solution heater 100.9 and pre-start heater solution bypass 100.8 are utilized to heat solution 200.9 to a temperature greater than approximately 168 degrees F. to commence the steam producing process.
  • Referring now more specifically to FIG. 2, steam generation system 200 preferably comprises high voltage hot anode 200.2 and low voltage cold anode 200.3, wherein arc point 200.1 is disposed between high voltage hot anode 200.2 and low voltage cold anode 200.3. Steam generation system 200 further comprises electrical energy reclaim grid 200.4, wherein electrical energy reclaim grid 200.4 is preferably disposed around high voltage hot anode 200.2, arc point 200.1, and low voltage cold anode 200.3, and wherein collector cable 200.4.1 preferably provides electrical communication between electrical energy reclaim grid 200.4 and collector electrode terminal 200.4.2. Low voltage cold anode 200.3 is preferably comprised of tungsten and passes through pressure seal 200.3.1. High voltage cold anode 200.2 preferably comprises stainless steel and passes through pressure seal 200.2.4. High voltage hot anode 200.2 is preferably in electrical communication with hot electrode terminal 200.2.2 via hot electrode cable 200.2.1, wherein hot electrode cable 200.2.1 preferably carries high current.
  • Arc chamber 200.9.1 preferably comprises PYREX ring 200.4.3, solution 200.9, steam 200.10, pressure seal 200.3.1, and pressure seal 200.2.4, wherein pressure seal 200.3.1 is preferably in electrical communication with cold electrode terminal 200.3.2 via cable 200.3.2, wherein cable 200.3.2 should preferably be able to carry high current of approximately 20 amps, or higher, depending on the application. Pressure seal 200.2.4 is preferably in electrical communication with hot electrode terminal 200.2.2 via cold electrode cable 200.2.4, wherein cable 200.2.4 should preferably be able to carry a high current of approximately 20 amps, or higher, depending on the application. Arc chamber 200.9.1 is preferably fed with solution 200.9 via condensate pipe 200.5, and steam 200.10 is preferably sent to steam turbine 100.2 via steam supply pipe 200.6.
  • Steam generation system 200 preferably comprises any magnetically inert material capable of withstanding high pressures (about 100-400 psi), such as, for exemplary purposes only, ceramic material. PYREX ring 200.4.3, or other borosilicate glass or non-magnetic material that can withstand high temperatures, preferably protects electrical energy reclaim grid 200.4 from potential corrosion and abrasive action of high pressure steam 200.10. Electrical energy reclaim grid 200.4 is preferably copper, or another highly conductive material, formed into one or several copper rings preferably embedded within PYREX ring 200.4.3. Electrical energy reclaim grid 200.4 preferably acts as an electromagnetic antenna and collects radiated magnetic energy formed by the formation and collapse of high current spark discharges at arc point 200.1.
  • During use, steam generation system 200 preferably comprises solution 200.9. A spark is generated in arc chamber 200.9.1 at arc point 200.1, between high voltage hot anode 200.2 and low voltage cold anode 200.3, wherein high voltage hot anode 200.2 preferably comprises stainless steel and wherein low voltage cold anode 200.3 preferably comprises tungsten material.
  • Electrodes 200.2 and 200.3 are preferably coaxially aligned, wherein arc point 200.1 is formed therebetween with a maximum effective electrical arc achieved when the dimensions of arc point 200.1 are at a few tenths of an inch or less to maintain the maximum effective electrode arc. The spark, or arc, is produced by high current pulse discharge flowing from high current hot anode 200.2 to low voltage anode 200.3. The optimal gap distance is selected by controller 200.8 via pneumatic signal 200.8.1 from controller 200.13, wherein controller 200.8 responds to signals via electrical feedback from terminal 200.4.2. Electrodes 200.2 and 200.3 preferably comprise rigid metallic electrodes, such as of tungsten or stainless steel.
  • Ionization of solution 200.9 takes place at arc point 200.1. In the preferred embodiment, controller 200.8 automatically adjusts the gap of the arc point 200.1 to maintain the optimum gap distance by controlling electrode 200.2; thereby, optimizing the level of steam production relative to electrical power generation as sensed via electrical activity feedback from terminal 200.4.2. The position of high current hot anode 200.2 relative to the optimum gap distance is preferably controlled in or out by controller 200.8 to maintain the optimum arc discharge energy, wherein increased anode surface area increases the electrolysis current.
  • Terminals 200.2.2 and 200.3.2 deliver electrical energy to produce a high current arc discharge, wherein electrical energy reclaim grid 200.4 preferably collects and stores energy formed by the arc discharge, recovering same from the magnetic field formed by the formation and collapse of the arc discharge at arc point 200.1. As previously discussed, electrical energy reclaim grid 200.4 comprises copper embedded in PYREX ring 200.4.3, wherein PYREX ring 200.4.3 is preferably disposed within steam generation system 200 proximate arc point 200.1.
  • Electrical energy reclaim grid 200.4 preferably collects the magnetic field energy after formation and collapse of the magnetic field, wherein the energy collected is preferably utilized to re-charge batteries 300.8.1, 300.8.2 (best shown in FIG. 3). Collection and reuse of this energy increases the electrical efficiency of the present invention, preferably collecting between 80% to 90% of the electrical energy utilized by the spark at arc point 200.1. For example, about 440 watts could be produced with a single arc discharge in water and baking soda solution using two 12 volt, 20 amp batteries.
  • Steam generation system 200 further comprises temperature transducer 200.7.1 and pressure transducer 200.7, wherein temperature transducer 200.7.1 and pressure transducer 200.7 monitor temperature and pressure, respectively, within steam generation system 200. Pressure controlling valves 200.5.1 and 200.6.1 maintain the pressure within steam generation system 200 in response to pressure transducer 200.7, and solution 200.9 is maintained in response to liquid level transducer 200.7.2.
  • The quantity of solution 200.9 and the rate of flow of steam 200.10 from steam generation system 200 are controlled by condensate pump 100.6 according to the selected pressure setpoint. The greater the electrical energy utilized at electrodes 200.2 and 200.3 and otherwise recovered, the faster the flow of steam (and thus the internal pressure and temperature), and the greater the volume of steam produced. Therefore, by increasing the flow of solution 200.9 and increasing current, the volume of steam is increased.
  • Pressure for a particular application can be adjusted preferably between atmospheric pressure to 200 psi, depending on the amount of steam required, wherein the higher the pressure, the higher the amount of steam generated. Preferably, modulating the speed of pump 100.6, and varying the pressure via pressure reducing valves 200.5.1, 200.6.1, controls the pressure inside steam generation system 200. Pressure transducer 200.7 preferably reads the pressure in high-pressure arc chamber 200.9.1 and communicates same to pressure controlling valves 200.5.1, 200.6.1. Condensate steam is circulated out of, and into, arc chamber 200.9.1 via condensate return pipe 200.5 and steam supply pipe 200.6.
  • In electronic terms, the present invention subjects a water solution to an oscillating spark gap from a high electrical voltage source; thereby, simultaneously yielding energy by producing high pressure steam and amplified-current electrical energy in the form of pulses, wherein electromagnetic energy is harvested via an inductor. The energy so harvested can be utilized to provide charge to batteries 300.8.1, 300.8.2, or for other purposes.
  • The measurable current gain from the plasma current effect is observed as approximately 180-200%, or higher, depending on the efficiency and capabilities of the voltage and current conversion of power conditioning module 300.3. The higher the current and voltage in circuit H (best shown in FIG. 3), the higher the energy available from circuit H, and the higher the current available to recharge power storage module 300.8, wherein a portion of the energy is utilized to further power the process of the present invention.
  • Power is preferably generated via two modes: The first comprises a current increase in the circuit by the plasma arc, and the second comprises collection and conversion of the radiated energy by energy recovery module 300.6 utilizing energy reclaim grid 200.4, wherein energy reclaim grid 200.4 comprises, for exemplary purposes only, an inductor. Circuit C (best shown in FIG. 3) provides electrical energy to recharge batteries 300.8.1, 300.8.2; thereby, minimizing the use of external energy needed from power supply module 300.1. Simultaneously, and secondary to the current increase, energy recovery module 300.6 collects energy captured by energy reclaim grid 200.4. Radiated energy is captured by energy reclaim grid 200.4 in circuit C and stored in capacitor 300.6.3, wherein capacitor 300.6.3 is charged to a usable voltage level and neon lamp 300.6.1 discharges the voltage to power storage module 300.8. The inventor has been able to harvest electrical energy at other points in the circuit as shown by lamps 300.3.1 and 300.4.1.
  • Referring now more particularly to FIGS. 2 and 3, electrical system 300 is designed for mobile or static applications. Power supply module 300.1 provides initial direct current power for charging the batteries as needed as well as to commence the process and to supplement the process as needed. DC Supplemental power supply 300.1.1 provides DC potential to the batteries and to power conditioning module 300.3 through power filtering module 300.2, wherein power filtering module 300.2 removes electrical noise and limits voltage and current entering power conditioning module 300.3. This feature is enabled via switch 300.1.3.
  • Power conditioning module 300.3 incorporates traditional DC-to-DC converters or DC-to-AC with bridge rectification techniques, wherein the converters also include inverters with variable autotransformers to change the voltage. Rectification and inductive elements are preferably in line for the purposes of current conditioning, making sure that one leg of the rectifier is connected to ground to convert the relatively low DC voltage of power storage module 300.8 (i.e. 12, 24 or 48 volts, or higher) into a high voltage. For example, about 120 VDC to about 1000 VDC, or higher is preferably utilized, depending on the size of the application desired. Many types of conversion and/or conditioning circuitry are known in the art.
  • Preferably, such conversion as DC-to-DC rather than DC-to-AC-to-DC is utilized to elevate the DC potential without causing harmonic distortion (and still using ground as a reference), while allowing the frequency and the current output of power storage module 300.8 to be controlled for cleaner power conversion. Frequency control setpoint 300.3.3 and current setpoint 300.3.3 facilitate control of large power applications.
  • Power filtering module 300.2 functions to limit current and voltage, wherein power filtering module 300.2 can be a simple pair of capacitors connected in parallel to ground and bridge by an inductor to filter the DC power being fed to the power conditioning module 300.3 or it can be as sophisticated as a solid state broad band power filter to eliminate electromagnetic interference (EMI) noise as well as to rectify the power (i.e., can be as simple as a bridge rectifier or preferably a state of the art solid state electronics power filter) provided between power supply module 300.1 and power conditioning module 300.3; thereby, reducing and/or eliminating high frequency EMI noise generated.
  • The energy output of power conditioning module 300.3 is stored in capacitor 300.5 and made available to high potential electrode circuit H which is connected to anode 200.2. The energy content through circuit H is preferably of high voltage and high current DC with a range of about 120 to about 1000 VDC and about 3 to about 100 amps, depending on the desired amount of steam desired. The voltage must be high enough to generate an arc between electrodes 200.2, 200.3 and must have high enough current to be able to convert solution 200.9 into steam.
  • Electrode 200.2 is immersed in solution 200.9 and is therefore ionically connected to electrode 200.3 through solution 200.9, while physically separated by an adjustable distance between the electrodes 200.2, 200.3. Electrode 200.2 is connected to circuit H and to pulse control module 300.7.
  • When pulse contact 300.7.2 is open, the resistance of solution 200.9 is high since electrode 200.2 (circuit H) is not electrically connected to the power storage module 300.8. Therefore, there exists a natural threshold of resistivity of solution 200.9 of approximately 8-15 ohms-cm which acts as a natural barrier to formation of an arc discharge.
  • Upon closing of pulse contact 300.7.2 as driven by frequency setpoint 300.7.1, the high resistance barrier threshold is overcome by the high voltage potential from capacitor 300.5; thereby, producing an arc at arc point 200.1. The electrical arc starts ionization of solution 200.9 and produces high heat, so long as both the electrical and temperature requirements are met. Within milliseconds after the closure of pulse contact 300.7.2, arcing occurs and electrons flow from power storage module 300.8 through circuit P via line 1 and electrode 200.3. The arc discharge takes place repeatedly through line 1, controlled by frequency setpoint 300.7.1. Thereafter, opening of pulse contact 300.7.2 in line 1 is fast and sharp with duration controlled by frequency setpoint 300.7.1 to optimize the production of steam. Within milliseconds of the beginning of the arc discharge, the resistance of the solution 200.9 will decrease, pulse contact 300.7.2 opens, current through circuit P increases two to three times, and electrons flow from circuit C to recharge power storage module 300.8 through line 2.
  • Through this repeated process of energizing the arc plasma via electrical pulses, high current pulses are produced by the plasma arc. An increase in electrical energy level occurs as the plasma effect is created and collapsed repeatedly performing work against its own self-generated magnetic field, an effect that increases the current in the circuit in Line 1 creating higher energy pulses and while still producing steam.
  • In the preferred embodiment, collector electrode terminal 200.4.2 (circuit C) is in electrical communication with capacitor 300.5, silicon control rectifier (SCR) 300.6.2 and neon lamp 300.6.1, wherein capacitor 300.5, silicon control rectifier (SCR) 300.6.2 and neon lamp 300.6.1 collect electrical energy from energy reclaim grid 200.4; thereby, reclaiming energy to charge batteries 300.8.1 or 300.8.2 when switch SW2 is closed. In the preferred configuration, connection post 200.3.2 (circuit P) is in electrical communication with power storage module 300.8, wherein power storage module 300.8 comprises batteries 300.8.1, 300.8.2. Voltage matching module 300.9 comprises variable autotransformer 300.10, rectifier 300.13 and capacitor 300.11, wherein voltage matching module 300.9 converts electrical pulses to usable DC voltage to match the voltage to batteries 300.8.1, 300.8.2.
  • The electrical circuitry for providing arc discharges and for recovering energy therefrom is preferably divided into three main circuits:
  • 1) Circuit H produces an elevated voltage as generated by power conditioning module 300.3 from battery 300.8.2 or external power source 300.1 as an excitation electrical source. The voltage provided by power conditioning module 300.3 should be as high as 5 kVA or higher to promote the arc discharge requirements; further, pulses need to be preferably higher than about 140 volts and higher than about 3 amps in order to generate steam. Circuit H provides high voltage, preferably with high direct current electrical energy via energy recovery module 300.6, wherein energy recovery module 300.6 raises the DC voltage supplied to capacitor 300.5. Energy recovery module 300.6 further provides energy input of high amperage to hot anode 200.2 via capacitor 300.5, wherein capacitor 300.5 is sequentially charged to provide energy for pulses to high voltage hot anode 200.2. For a typical application, high voltage hot anode 200.2 is provided with about 140 to about 300 volts or higher, at about 3 to about 100 amps or greater, depending on desired power output across anodes 200.3 and 200.2; thereby, creating an arc discharge at arc point 200.1. High amperage pulsed energy from low voltage cold anode 200.3 forms an arc plasma for ionization of solution 200.9, creating an electromagnetic event and a clearly visible incandescent light.
  • 2) Circuit P provides relative grounding of the arc discharge by connection to the positive of charging battery 300.8.1 and feeds voltage matching module 300.9 to provide power to the process via Line 2 from low voltage pulses, and further provides grounding as required by the process powering the low voltage cold anode 200.3 for initiating the arc discharge.
  • Circuit P provides the process with six (6) electrical features via Line 1; these are
      • (a) it creates a higher positive potential relative to the powering battery potential;
      • (b) it allows grounding of the circuit to the positive pole of the battery creating an offset circuit ground higher than true ground;
      • (c) it allows the charging of batteries with higher energy pulses generated by the plasma effect;
      • (d) it allows powering of the process from external power source 300.1 or battery 300.8.2;
      • (e) it allows higher energy current pulses to assist powering the steam production process; and,
      • (f) it allows a clockwise cyclical flow of current in the powering circuit when depicted as in FIG. 3.
  • Pulse contact 300.7.2 (circuit H) is preferably controlled to provide a high voltage, high frequency, high amperage, DC pulse to electrode 200.2. Line 1 is the main feed for recharging charging battery 300.8.1 via transformer 300.10, It is desired that the rate of charge of battery 300.8.1 or 300.8.2 (whichever is in the charge mode) is greater than the rate of discharge of battery 300.8.2 or 300.8.1 (whichever is in the discharge mode). As depicted in FIG. 3, a basic wiring configuration for charging batteries 300.8.1 or 300.8.2 is shown; however, it will be noted that a plurality of configurations and schemes for charging and swapping batteries could be accomplished depending on the charging objectives chosen.
  • The recommended strategy for charging and swapping batteries 300.8.1, 300.8.2 is that upon sensing battery 300.8.1 or 300.8.2 being about 50% discharged or battery 300.8.2 or 300.8.2, respectively, reaching 100% charge, then batteries 300.8.1, 300.8.2 are swapped from charge to discharge and vice versa; however, a variety of schemes for battery charging and use could be adopted, as desired, depending on the application. The rotation of batteries 300.8.1, 300.8.2 can be automated to provide optimum use of energy. It is contemplated that several configurations for wiring and charging as well as rotation of batteries 300.8.1, 300.8.2 can be possible and still obtain the main objective of charging batteries 300.8.1, 300.8.2 faster than they are depleted. Thus, the efficiency of the process is directly related to the efficiency of power filtering module 300.2 for the elimination of EMI noise and rectification of the recovered energy to the proper DC voltage level required by the batteries. This is especially true for large applications. Further, the invention contemplates automation for measuring status of batteries 300.8.1, 300.8.2 electronically and swapping of batteries 300.8.1, 300.8.2 automatically from charge to discharge and vice versa.
  • 3) Circuit C includes energy reclaim grid 200.4 (best shown in FIG. 2), wherein electromagnetic energy reclaim grid 200.4 captures radiated energy from the short duration electromagnetic pulsating energy of the magnetic field as the arc is repeatedly created and broken. Electrical energy is collected initially by energy reclaim grid 200.4 from around arc point 200.1, wherein the energy is collected and stored by capacitor 300.6.3. Capacitor 300.6.3 collects energy until the voltage exceeds the triggering voltage of neon lamp 300.6.1, at which time SCR 300.6.2 is triggered by the discharge of neon lamp 300.6.1, and electrical energy is transferred via diode 3.6.4 and variable resistor 300.15 to the output secondary of autotransformer 300.10, and subsequently via rectifier 300.13 across capacitor 300.11 for charging battery 300.8.2. Variable resistor 300.15 serves to limit return pulse current. Switch SW2 can be utilized to isolate capacitor 300.6.3 from battery 300.8.2. In an alternate embodiment of the present invention, the overall objectives can be accomplished without circuit C and grid 200.4, as sufficient energy can be recovered from the plasma effect.
  • A plurality of batteries 300.8.1, 300.8.2 could be utilized to enable selective output and collection of energy, wherein batteries 300.8.1 and 300.8.2 are preferably alternately switched from charge to discharge and vice versa. It will be recognized by those skilled in the art that a variety of known methods could be utilized to switch batteries 300.8.1, 300.8.2 from charge to discharge. Batteries 300.8.1 and 300.8.2 preferably comprise a deep cycle batteries, rated at 12 volts or higher, and 200 Ampere-hours, wherein batteries 300.8.1 and 300.8.2 preferably deliver a minimum of about 20 Amperes for at least 5 hours. It is contemplated that batteries 300.8.1, 300.8.2 could be replaced by capacitors, super-capacitors, or other devices to store and provide energy.
  • Because the recommended optimum direct current voltage for generating steam from fluids using DC electrical pulses is about 170 VDC at about 10 amps or higher, the present invention also contemplates that the electrical process can be powered with standard commercial 120VAC external power via external power source 300.1, wherein the AC power is converted to high voltage. DC power (about 170VDC or higher) to obviate the need for batteries 300.8.1, 300.8.2, wherein such is suited especially for use in stationary applications.
  • It is therefore recommended to utilize standard 120AC for commercial applications for bulk commercial steam production, wherein the AC is elevated and rectified to about 170 VDC. In such applications, a voltage exciter power source is needed to energize the circuit, wherein the power comes from external power source 300.1 in the form of 120VDC, subsequently elevated to approximately 170-180 VDC via voltage matching module 300.9 and autotransformers 300.10 in combination with rectifiers 300.13 or other electrical methods (i.e., solid state voltage multipliers or other DC potential means in series to bring the voltage potential to about 170VDC). Given that the circuit is nearly electrically self-sufficient, the invention provides a very economical commercial means for generation of steam and/or hot water because it uses small amounts of external power.
  • In such an application, voltage matching module 300.9 would be designed to allow lowering of the H1 voltage as electrical power transitions from about 170VDC to about 120VDC (Point B) for re-use and powering the circuit. Point B voltage is preferably of lower voltage (about 120VDC) to maintain a clock-wise current cyclical electrical process, with smooth transition from higher to lower voltage from Point H1 to Point B. Such transition facilitates use of the process of the present invention especially for large applications.
  • Utilizing a commercially-available DC/AC inverter with DC bridge rectification (12VDC to 120VDC at 3.5 amps), steam has been successfully produced with the present invention for mobile applications using 12VDC batteries at Point B and 120VDC at Point H1.
  • Once an electrical arc has started in steam generation system 200, solution 200.9 preferably becomes super-conducting, wherein the resistance of solution 200.9 decreases to very low impedance, and wherein the volume of steam produced is directly proportional to the size of the arc between anodes 200.3 and 200.2 and the current generated is proportional to the quantity of solution 200.9 pumped through steam generation system 200. (Unlike electric arc discharges in air, the gap of the arc within solution 200.9 can be increased without an increase in the electric current.)
  • The greater the electrical energy utilized in discharging at electrodes 200.2, 200.3, the greater the pressure, temperature, arc, flow of solution 200.9 through steam generation system 200, and the greater the volume of steam produced. Therefore, by increasing solution 200.9 flow and electrical current flow, the volume of steam produced is increased. Pulse control module 300.7 preferably controls the size and frequency of the arc discharge.
  • Energy is collected by energy reclaim grid 200.4 and subsequently converted to usable electrical energy (point C1) by storing in a capacitor 300.6.3, and subsequently transferring to batteries 300.8.1 or 300.8.2. Concurrently, high current energy is collected at point P1 as the arc forms and collapses in a repetitive hysteresis of current. Lastly, at point H1, capacitor 300.5 is continually charged by the high current produced by this plasma effect during the arc discharge, while power storage module 300.8 receives energy to charge batteries 300.8.1, 300.8.2.
  • The plasma amplifying current effect of the electrical arc produces a high current pulse of higher energy that is utilized to charge batteries 300.8.1, 300.8.2 after each arc discharge. The plasma current effect magnitude is estimated to be two to three times the initial current input prior to the arc formation.
  • It is envisioned in an alternate embodiment of the present invention that arc-electrolysis steam generator 10 could be converted to operate with alternating current (AC) produced by the power conversion module 300.3. Such AC could be obtained by eliminating pulse contact 300.7.2 completely, and replacing capacitor 300.5 with a half wave rectifier diode arrangement. The frequency and magnitude of the voltage could then be controlled via the half-cycle produced by such diode arrangement and would be proportional to frequency setpoint 300.3.3 of power conditioning module 300.3, wherein power conditioning module typically utilizes AC input. Arc discharge driven by AC would function similarly to the preferred embodiment of FIG. 3; however, the requirements for power filtering would still be necessary to eliminate EMI noise.
  • It is to be noted that a variety of solid state power supply devices may prove adaptable and suitable as solid state substitutions for the power conditioning module 300.3 as well as for power filtering module 300.2 and voltage matching module 300.9 in the present invention. For example, commercially available solid state inverters for converting alternating to direct current may be employed to provide the same desired properties of the circuit shown in FIG. 3, ranging from low to high DC voltage with built-in frequency control.
  • For large steam production applications, the present invention contemplates use of commercially-available large DC/AC inverters with variable speed drive devices to control input voltage pulses, wherein the input voltage pulses are converted into DC via large variable autotransformers.
  • It will be recognized by those skilled in the art that similar arcs could be generated in a sealed environment comprising oil(s) or gas(es), such as air. Replacement of solution 200.9 in a sealed chamber with a gas or air could also permit harvesting electrical energy without using water. Such an oil- or gas-based process would require adaptation to minimize the extra heat that must be recovered or dissipated to prevent damage. Also, such oil- or gas-based process would require much higher voltages to overcome the initial voltage threshold of arc resistance, and would require higher switching frequencies both for power conditioning and switching of the air spark gap.
  • In another alternate embodiment of the present invention, harvesting of electrical energy at other locations in the form of AC could take place, wherein such other locations may be lamps 300.3.1, 300.4.1, while simultaneously recharging batteries 300.8.1, 300.8.2 and producing steam.
  • In another alternate embodiment of the present invention, multiple arc discharges could be fired in a staggered fashion, within milliseconds of each other to provide larger quantities of steam and electrical energy.
  • Referring now more particularly to FIG. 4, illustrated therein is an alternate embodiment of arc-electrolysis steam generator 10, wherein the alternate embodiment of FIG. 4 is substantially equivalent in form and function to that of the preferred embodiment detailed and illustrated in FIG. 1, and wherein alternate system generation system 400, wherein supply system 400 comprises two or more steam generation systems 400.1, 400.2 to recirculate supply steam and condensate steam.
  • Steam generation systems 400.1 and 400.2 preferably both operate at a very high temperature (5000 to 6000 degrees Fahrenheit). For two (2) standard 10 KWh arc-electrolysis steam generators 10, about 68,000 BTU/hour (20 KWh) or more must be utilized, dissipated, or removed; otherwise, the process will generate excessive heat which will be wasted and, thereby, destroy system 400. Condensate supply tank 400.7 provides solution 200.9 for recirculation to steam generation systems 400.1 and 400.2, as required. Supply pipe 400.3 and water vapor recovery system 400.6 preferably function to keep steam generation system 400 provided with solution 200.9 via recirculation through pipe 400.9 and pump 400.8, wherein excess heat is carried away in the form of steam to steam turbine 400.4 for use in producing rotational energy for transportation, or which can be utilized to generate electricity via a generator. Heat in the form of steam could alternately be utilized via a heat exchanger for other applications, such as a source for heating homes and buildings, and the like.
  • In another alternate embodiment of the present invention, it is contemplated that energy for a fixed location for local use may be provided. Transfer switch 400.14 could be utilized to input supplemental external power 100.1 or generated electrical power 400.10.1, wherein transfer switch 400.14 directs the energy for use by the application or to final output 400.15. Effectively, use of transfer switch 400.14 allows for an automatic switching of generated power 400.10.1 to provide continuous power even when arc-electrolysis steam generator 400 is being maintained.
  • In the alternate embodiment of FIG. 4, electrical energy can be generated at two levels: 1) Primary electrical energy can be generated using electrical generator 400.10 driven by steam turbine 400.4 to power external load 400.11, and/or 2) Energy can be extracted via secondary electrical energy loads 400.12 and 400.13.
  • It is contemplated in still another alternate embodiment of the present invention that a plurality of steam generation systems 200 could be plumbed and wired in series/parallel configuration either in a single arc-electrolysis steam generator 10 or as a combination of a plurality of arc-electrolysis steam generators 10.
  • It is also contemplated that the plasma effect could be simultaneously utilized for generation of electrical energy and hot water, for use in homes.
  • It is envisioned in yet another alternate embodiment of the present invention that sea water could be electrolyzed to produce steam, wherein the salt is separated via evaporation, or the like, and steam is condensed to form salt-free water suitable for consumption or other uses.
  • It is contemplated in still yet another alternate embodiment of the present invention that sewage water could be cleaned by electrolysis in a similar fashion by the arc-electrolysis steam generator 200, producing steam which is then condensed into potable water.
  • A further alternate embodiment of the present invention could utilize other means for electrical energy storage, such as a capacitor or bank of capacitors or a mixture of batteries and capacitors. Additionally, several batteries banks, and/or other electrical energy storage means could be utilized in lieu, or in conjunction with, batteries 300.8.1, 300.8.2.
  • It is also contemplated that liquids other than water could be utilized to produce pressurized vapors for powering turbines, wherein such other liquids could include fluorocarbons.
  • The present invention further contemplates the use of three-electrode, self-triggered spark gap devices and/or laser switching spark gap devices for improved frequency control and more rapid pulsing; thereby, increasing the production of steam and electrical energy.
  • The foregoing description and drawings comprise illustrative embodiments of the present invention. Having thus described exemplary embodiments of the present invention, it should be noted by those skilled in the art that the within disclosures are exemplary only, and that various other alternatives, adaptations, and modifications may be made within the scope of the present invention. Merely listing or numbering the steps of a method in a certain order does not constitute any limitation on the order of the steps of that method. Many modifications and other embodiments of the invention will come to mind to one skilled in the art to which this invention pertains having the benefit of the teachings presented in the foregoing descriptions and the associated drawings. Although specific terms may be employed herein, they are used in a generic and descriptive sense only and not for purposes of limitation. Accordingly, the present invention is not limited to the specific embodiments illustrated herein, but is limited only by the following claims.

Claims (44)

1. An arc-electrolysis steam generator apparatus comprising:
a high-pressure vessel;
at least one pair of rigid metallic electrodes;
an electrical system to energize an arc;
an arc discharge unit;
a steam turbine;
a condensate tank;
a condensate pump;
at least one electrical power source to excite the circuit;
circulation system for steam and condensate;
liquid to convert into steam;
means for induction disposed proximate said arc discharge unit;
means for collecting high energy pulses.
2. The arc-electrolysis steam generator apparatus of claim 1, wherein said means for induction comprises an inductor grid.
3. The arc-electrolysis steam generator apparatus of claim 1, wherein said means for collecting high energy pulses comprises a circuit, and wherein said circuit comprises an autotransformer.
4. The arc-electrolysis steam generator apparatus of claim 3, wherein said reclaimed energy is recycled for use in powering said electrical system for stationary and mobile applications.
5. The arc-electrolysis steam generator apparatus of claim 4, wherein said reclaimed energy is utilized by electrical generators.
6. The arc-electrolysis steam generator apparatus of claim 4, wherein said reclaimed energy is reclaimed as electrical energy.
7. The arc-electrolysis steam generator apparatus of claim 1, wherein said liquid comprises water in solution with salts to promote lower electrical resistivity of the water for arc-electrolysis.
8. The arc-electrolysis steam generator apparatus of claim 7, wherein the salts are selected from the group consisting of alkali metal carbonates, bicarbonates, chlorides, and combinations thereof.
9. The arc-electrolysis steam generator apparatus of claim 4, wherein said reclaimed energy is stored in at least one battery.
10. The arc-electrolysis steam generator apparatus of claim 1, further comprising high energy direct current pulses to promote formation of said arc.
11. The arc-electrolysis steam generator apparatus of claim 1, further comprising high amperage alternating current energy at high voltage to produce direct current pulses.
12. A method of generating steam, said method comprising the steps of:
utilizing arc-electrolysis in a pressurized vessel with aqueous solution; and
reclaiming electrical energy.
13. The method of claim 12, further comprising the step of:
producing high-pressure steam.
14. The method of claim 12, wherein said step of reclaiming comprises the step of:
converting magnetic energy into electrical energy via an inductor.
15. The method of claim 13, further comprising the step of:
producing energy from said steam.
16. The method of claim 13, further comprising the steps of:
storing high current energy via a storage means; and
powering an electrical circuit via said stored energy.
17. The method of claim 12, wherein said storage means comprises at least one battery.
18. The method of claim 12, further comprising the step of:
storing said reclaimed energy in at least one battery.
19. The method of claim 12, further comprising the steps of:
recovering said steam in the form of condensate water.
20. A method of producing steam and electrical energy, said method comprising the steps of:
utilizing an arc-electrolysis system to electrolyze water;
collecting magnetic field energy from said arc-electrolytic system via an inductor.
21. The method of claim 20, further comprising the step of:
collecting high energy pulses.
22. The method of claim 20, further comprising the step of:
extracting steam.
23. The method of claim 22, further comprising the step of storing said steam.
24. The method of claim 20, further comprising the step of converting said steam into energy.
25. An energy-efficient steam generation system, comprising:
a solution;
an external power supply;
an arc-electrolysis unit comprising a temperature control system, a pressure control system, a submerged low voltage cold anode, a submerged high voltage hot anode, and an arc point defined between said anodes, wherein said arc-electrolysis unit is excited by said external power supply, and wherein said arc-electrolysis unit is adapted to generate a voltage pulse at said arc point;
an electrical energy reclaim grid, said electrical energy reclaim grid surrounding said arc point, and wherein said electrical energy reclaim grid is adapted to collect electromagnetic energy;
an electrical energy reclaim circuit to reclaim the energy pulses;
a steam recovery system comprising a condensate transport system;
a storage tank for condensate;
optionally at least one set of batteries; and
a transport system adapted to enable flow of said steam between said arc-electrolysis unit and a steam turbine.
26. The energy-efficient steam generation system of claim 25, wherein a solution is ionized at said arc point, and wherein heat and magnetic energy are concurrently generated.
27. The energy-efficient steam generation system of claim 25, further comprising an electrical generator, said electrical generator driven by said steam turbine, wherein at least a portion of electrical energy produced by said electrical generator is collected and utilized to provide power to said external power supply.
28. The energy-efficient steam generation system of claim 27, wherein at least a second portion of electrical energy is reclaimed by said electrical energy reclaim grid and wherein said second portion of electrical energy is utilized to power external loads.
29. A power generating apparatus comprising:
at least one arc-electrolysis unit; and
an inductor disposed proximate said at least one arc-electrolysis unit.
30. The power generating apparatus of claim 29, wherein electromagnetic energy generated by said arc-electrolysis unit is captured by said inductor.
31. The power generating apparatus of claim 30, wherein the electromagnetic energy is stored in batteries.
32. The power generating apparatus of claim 29, further comprising a pulsed plasma.
33. The power generating apparatus of claim 32, wherein the pulsed plasma generates electrical energy, and wherein the electrical energy augments input energy.
34. The power generating apparatus of claim 33, wherein the electrical energy is stored in a capacitor.
35. The power generating apparatus of claim 29, wherein steam is generated.
36. The power generating apparatus of claim 35, wherein the steam is pressurized.
37. A steam generation process comprising an electrical circuit, said steam generation process comprising the step of:
powering said process via high energy pulses.
38. The process of step 37, further comprising the step of:
grounding said electrical circuit to a positive pole of a battery.
39. The process of step 38, further comprising the step of:
providing a higher positive potential than the potential of said battery.
40. The process of step 38, further comprising the step of:
charging said battery with high energy pulses generated by a plasma effect.
41. The process of step 37, further comprising the step of:
creating a a ground offset from true ground of said circuit.
42. The process of step 37, further comprising the step of:
powering said process via a source selected from the group consisting of external power supply, at least one battery, and combinations thereof.
43. An arc-hydrolysis unit comprising:
high energy pulses.
44. The arc-hydrolysis of claim 43, wherein said energy is collected from said high energy pulses.
US11/217,823 2004-08-30 2005-09-01 Arc-electrolysis steam generator with energy recovery, and method therefor Abandoned US20060042251A1 (en)

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US11/029,119 US20060042955A1 (en) 2004-08-30 2005-01-04 Arc-hydrolysis fuel generator with supplemental energy recovery
US11/078,598 US7216484B2 (en) 2005-03-11 2005-03-11 Arc-hydrolysis steam generator apparatus and method
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