US20050208482A1 - Tat-based immunomodulatory compositions and methods for their discovery and use - Google Patents

Tat-based immunomodulatory compositions and methods for their discovery and use Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US20050208482A1
US20050208482A1 US11/082,478 US8247805A US2005208482A1 US 20050208482 A1 US20050208482 A1 US 20050208482A1 US 8247805 A US8247805 A US 8247805A US 2005208482 A1 US2005208482 A1 US 2005208482A1
Authority
US
United States
Prior art keywords
tat
nice
present invention
antigen
cells
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US11/082,478
Inventor
David Cohen
Original Assignee
Cohen David I
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to US55373304P priority Critical
Application filed by Cohen David I filed Critical Cohen David I
Priority to US11/082,478 priority patent/US20050208482A1/en
Publication of US20050208482A1 publication Critical patent/US20050208482A1/en
Application status is Abandoned legal-status Critical

Links

Images

Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N33/00Investigating or analysing materials by specific methods not covered by groups G01N1/00 - G01N31/00
    • G01N33/48Biological material, e.g. blood, urine; Haemocytometers
    • G01N33/50Chemical analysis of biological material, e.g. blood, urine; Testing involving biospecific ligand binding methods; Immunological testing
    • G01N33/53Immunoassay; Biospecific binding assay; Materials therefor
    • G01N33/569Immunoassay; Biospecific binding assay; Materials therefor for microorganisms, e.g. protozoa, bacteria, viruses
    • G01N33/56983Viruses
    • G01N33/56988AIDS or HTLV
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K39/00Medicinal preparations containing antigens or antibodies
    • A61K39/385Haptens or antigens, bound to carriers
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C07ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C07KPEPTIDES
    • C07K14/00Peptides having more than 20 amino acids; Gastrins; Somatostatins; Melanotropins; Derivatives thereof
    • C07K14/005Peptides having more than 20 amino acids; Gastrins; Somatostatins; Melanotropins; Derivatives thereof from viruses
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12NMICROORGANISMS OR ENZYMES; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF; PROPAGATING, PRESERVING OR MAINTAINING MICROORGANISMS; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING; CULTURE MEDIA
    • C12N15/00Mutation or genetic engineering; DNA or RNA concerning genetic engineering, vectors, e.g. plasmids, or their isolation, preparation or purification; Use of hosts therefor
    • C12N15/09Recombinant DNA-technology
    • C12N15/11DNA or RNA fragments; Modified forms thereof; Non-coding nucleic acids having a biological activity
    • C12N15/111General methods applicable to biologically active non-coding nucleic acids
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12NMICROORGANISMS OR ENZYMES; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF; PROPAGATING, PRESERVING OR MAINTAINING MICROORGANISMS; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING; CULTURE MEDIA
    • C12N15/00Mutation or genetic engineering; DNA or RNA concerning genetic engineering, vectors, e.g. plasmids, or their isolation, preparation or purification; Use of hosts therefor
    • C12N15/09Recombinant DNA-technology
    • C12N15/11DNA or RNA fragments; Modified forms thereof; Non-coding nucleic acids having a biological activity
    • C12N15/113Non-coding nucleic acids modulating the expression of genes, e.g. antisense oligonucleotides; Antisense DNA or RNA; Triplex- forming oligonucleotides; Catalytic nucleic acids, e.g. ribozymes; Nucleic acids used in co-suppression or gene silencing
    • C12N15/1131Non-coding nucleic acids modulating the expression of genes, e.g. antisense oligonucleotides; Antisense DNA or RNA; Triplex- forming oligonucleotides; Catalytic nucleic acids, e.g. ribozymes; Nucleic acids used in co-suppression or gene silencing against viruses
    • C12N15/1132Non-coding nucleic acids modulating the expression of genes, e.g. antisense oligonucleotides; Antisense DNA or RNA; Triplex- forming oligonucleotides; Catalytic nucleic acids, e.g. ribozymes; Nucleic acids used in co-suppression or gene silencing against viruses against retroviridae, e.g. HIV
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N33/00Investigating or analysing materials by specific methods not covered by groups G01N1/00 - G01N31/00
    • G01N33/48Biological material, e.g. blood, urine; Haemocytometers
    • G01N33/50Chemical analysis of biological material, e.g. blood, urine; Testing involving biospecific ligand binding methods; Immunological testing
    • G01N33/5005Chemical analysis of biological material, e.g. blood, urine; Testing involving biospecific ligand binding methods; Immunological testing involving human or animal cells
    • G01N33/5008Chemical analysis of biological material, e.g. blood, urine; Testing involving biospecific ligand binding methods; Immunological testing involving human or animal cells for testing or evaluating the effect of chemical or biological compounds, e.g. drugs, cosmetics
    • G01N33/5044Chemical analysis of biological material, e.g. blood, urine; Testing involving biospecific ligand binding methods; Immunological testing involving human or animal cells for testing or evaluating the effect of chemical or biological compounds, e.g. drugs, cosmetics involving specific cell types
    • G01N33/5047Cells of the immune system
    • G01N33/505Cells of the immune system involving T-cells
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K39/00Medicinal preparations containing antigens or antibodies
    • A61K2039/60Medicinal preparations containing antigens or antibodies characteristics by the carrier linked to the antigen
    • A61K2039/6031Proteins
    • A61K2039/6075Viral proteins
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12NMICROORGANISMS OR ENZYMES; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF; PROPAGATING, PRESERVING OR MAINTAINING MICROORGANISMS; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING; CULTURE MEDIA
    • C12N2310/00Structure or type of the nucleic acid
    • C12N2310/10Type of nucleic acid
    • C12N2310/14Type of nucleic acid interfering N.A.
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12NMICROORGANISMS OR ENZYMES; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF; PROPAGATING, PRESERVING OR MAINTAINING MICROORGANISMS; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING; CULTURE MEDIA
    • C12N2320/00Applications; Uses
    • C12N2320/10Applications; Uses in screening processes
    • C12N2320/11Applications; Uses in screening processes for the determination of target sites, i.e. of active nucleic acids
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12NMICROORGANISMS OR ENZYMES; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF; PROPAGATING, PRESERVING OR MAINTAINING MICROORGANISMS; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING; CULTURE MEDIA
    • C12N2740/00Reverse Transcribing RNA Viruses
    • C12N2740/00011Reverse Transcribing RNA Viruses
    • C12N2740/10011Retroviridae
    • C12N2740/16011Human Immunodeficiency Virus, HIV
    • C12N2740/16311Human Immunodeficiency Virus, HIV concerning HIV regulatory proteins
    • C12N2740/16322New viral proteins or individual genes, new structural or functional aspects of known viral proteins or genes
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N2333/00Assays involving biological materials from specific organisms or of a specific nature
    • G01N2333/005Assays involving biological materials from specific organisms or of a specific nature from viruses
    • G01N2333/08RNA viruses
    • G01N2333/15Retroviridae, e.g. bovine leukaemia virus, feline leukaemia virus, feline leukaemia virus, human T-cell leukaemia-lymphoma virus
    • G01N2333/155Lentiviridae, e.g. visna-maedi virus, equine infectious virus, FIV, SIV
    • G01N2333/16HIV-1, HIV-2
    • G01N2333/163Regulatory proteins, e.g. tat, nef, rev, vif, vpu, vpr, vpt, vpx
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N2333/00Assays involving biological materials from specific organisms or of a specific nature
    • G01N2333/435Assays involving biological materials from specific organisms or of a specific nature from animals; from humans
    • G01N2333/46Assays involving biological materials from specific organisms or of a specific nature from animals; from humans from vertebrates
    • G01N2333/47Assays involving proteins of known structure or function as defined in the subgroups
    • G01N2333/4701Details
    • G01N2333/4703Regulators; Modulating activity
    • G01N2333/4704Inhibitors; Supressors
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N2500/00Screening for compounds of potential therapeutic value
    • G01N2500/10Screening for compounds of potential therapeutic value involving cells

Abstract

A method for identifying new immunomodulatory chemical entities (NICE) comprising reacting a candidate NICE with a Tat SH3 binding domain, identifying the bound candidate NICE and determining whether the candidate NICE induces monocytes to differentiate into dendritic cells (DC) or regulatory macrophages (AReg). In particular, the present invention relates to identifying NICE that are either immunostimulatory or immunosuppressive.

Description

    RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • The present application claims priority to U.S. Provisional Patent Application Serial Number 60/553,733 filed Mar. 16, 2004.
  • FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • The present invention relates to the field of immune modulation therapeutics and more specifically to new Tat-based immunomodulatory chemical entities (NICE) useful in suppressing inappropriate immune responses in autoimmune diseases and organ transplantation and stimulating immune responses for the therapy of cancer and infectious diseases. Specifically, the NICE compositions of the present invention are can duplicate the immunosuppressive activities of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) trans-activator of transcription (Tat) and the immunostimulatory activities of Tat variants.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • Recently, significant advances have been made in understanding the human immunodeficiency disease (HIV) process. For many years, researchers have been unable to explain the seemingly immediate and profound destruction of the immune system following the initial HIV infection. Equally puzzling was a phenomenon seen in a few patients referred to as long term non-progessors (LTNP). In LTNP patients, viral loads are high and the virus can be isolated easily from the HIV target immune cells such as CD4+T lymphocytes (referred to herein as T4 cells). However, unlike the majority of infected individuals who develop acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), the LTNP do not demonstrate significant reduction in their T4 cells and do not progress to AIDS.
  • One possible, non-binding, theory that may explain these two phenomena involves a non-structural protein (a protein encoded by the virus genome that is not actually part of the virus itself) called the trans-activator of transcription (Tat). Tat is a variable RNA binding peptide of 86 to 110 amino acids in length that is encoded on two separate exons of the HIV genome. Tat is highly conserved among all human lentiviruses and is essential for viral replication. When lentivirus Tat binds to the TAR (trans-activation responsive) RNA region, transcription (conversion of viral RNA to DNA then to messenger RNA) levels increase significantly. The Tat protein associated with lentivirus virulence will be referred to hereinafter as Tat, Recently, it has been demonstrated that Tat increases viral RNA transcription and it has been proposed that Tat may initiate apoptosis (programmed cell death) in T4 cells and macrophages (a key part of the body's immune surveillance system for HIV infection) and possibly stimulates the over production of alpha interferon (α-interferon is a well established immunosuppressive cytokine). These, and other properties of lentivirus Tat proteins, have led to considerable scientific interest in Tat's role in pathogenesis and to the present inventor's proposal that Tat may act as a powerful immunosuppressant in vivo.
  • A potential key to lentivirus Tat pathogenesis may involve in its ability to trigger apoptosis. Conventional Tat initiates apoptosis by stimulating the expression of Fas ligand (FasL, a monomeric polypeptide cell surface marker associated with apoptosis) on the T4 cell and macrophage surface. When FasL is cross linked by binding with Fas (the counter part to FasL which is also expressed on a wide variety of cell types), the apoptotic system is activated. Consequently, the death of these essential T4 cells and macrophages is accelerated, resulting in extreme immunosuppression. Thus, extracellular Tat's presence early in the course of HIV infection could reduce a patient's immune response, giving the virus an advantage over the host. Furthermore, the direct destruction of T4 cells and induction of α-interferon production could help explain the lack of a robust cellular immune response seen in AIDS patients, as well as accounting for the initial profound immunosuppression.
  • Further support for this concept is found in a surprising new observation made by the present inventor who has demonstrated the Tat protein isolated from long term non-progressors is different from C-Tat found in AIDS patents. The Tat protein found in LTNP is capable of trans-activating viral RNA, however, LTNP Tat (designated herein after as IS-Tat for immunostimulatory Tat) does not induce apoptosis in T4 cells or macrophages and is not immunosuppressive. Moreover, T4 cells infected ex vivo with HIV isolated from LTNP (such cell lines are designated Tat TcL) can result in the over expression of IS-Tat proteins, often to the virtual exclusion of other viral proteins, that are strongly growth promoting rather than pro-apoptotic. The tat genes cloned from these Tat TcLs reveal sequence variations in two tat regions, at the amino terminus and within the first part of the second exon. These surprising discoveries could help explain why HIV infected LTNP T4 cells do not die off at the staggering rate seen in HIV infected individuals that progress to AIDS.
  • Additionally, variants of Tat are found in lentiviruses which infect monkey species yet do not result in the development immunodeficiency and epidemic infection. These variant Tat proteins direct monocyte differentiation into DCs which stimulate CTL responses. These simian Tat variants, and other Tat variants that are not immunosuppressive, have been termed attenuated or immunostimulatory Tat (IS-Tat).
  • Based on the observations with long-term CD4+Tat T cell lines (Tat TcL), clinical observations, and experiments in animals, attenuated Tat (more specifically IS-Tat or, alternatively, Tat proteins that have been chemically or physically altered) may act as an immune stimulant activating T4 cells inducing their proliferation. This principle may help to explain the stable T4 levels seen in LTNP. Moreover, attenuated Tat may be useful as an adjuvant when co-administered with other active vaccine components such as, but not limited to, vaccines for other viruses, bacteria, rickettsia and cancer cells.
  • Cancers and chronic infections are the most prominent examples of common human diseases that respond to immune-based treatments. Although infections were the first diseases to be controlled by immunization, a series of clinical trials in humans starting in the 1980s have established that an immune response, particularly of the cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) arm of the immune system, could regress some human melanomas (Phan CQ, et al., Cancer regression and autoimmunity induced by cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 blockade in patients with metastatic melanoma, Proc Natl Acad Sc. USA 100:8372-7, 2003) and renal cancers. These observations were broadened by the discovery that dendritic cells (DC), a specific class of antigen-presenting cells (APC), are particularly effective at initiating CTL activity against cancers and other diseases (Banchereau J et al., Dendritic cells as vectors for therapy, Cell 106:271-4, 2001; Dalyot-Herman N et al., Reversal of CD8+T cell ignorance and induction of anti-tumor immunity by peptide-pulsed APC, J Immunol 165:6731-7, 2000). Technologies that target and activate DC have yielded some early successes against human cervical pre-malignancies, caused by infection with Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) and human lung cancer. In contrast to chemotherapeutic drugs currently used against cancer, agents that provoke a CTL response against cancer potentially are accompanied by few side effects, owing to the great specificity of the immune response.
  • Efforts to develop immunotherapeutic drugs that treat cancer have been hampered by technical difficulties in targeting and activating DC to deliver and sustain the required entry signals to the CTL. Antigen targeting for the induction of a CTL response is a challenge insofar as natural processing requires that the antigen enter the cytoplasm of the cell in order to bind to the immune system's major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class I antigen, a prerequisite to CTL activation because the ligand for activating the T cell receptor on CTL is a complex of antigen and MHC Class I. In almost all cases protein antigens, even when they are coupled with a DC co-activator, enter exclusively into the alternative MHC Class II antigen presentation pathway that excludes CTL stimulation. This can be overcome in part by peptide-based technologies, because peptides bind to MHC Class I that is already on the surface of the DC. However, this technology is non-specific and most peptides are poor DC activators which limits their efficacy as human treatments for cancer.
  • A limited group of biological proteins are known to stimulate a CTL response. Variants and derivatives of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1) trans-activator of transcription (Tat) can stimulate this CTL response (Moy P et al., Tat-mediated protein delivery can facilitate MHC class I presentation of antigens, Mol Biotechnol 6:105-13, 1996; Fanales-Belasio E et al., Native HIV-1 Tat protein targets monocyte-derived dendritic cells and enhances their maturation, function, and antigen-specific T cell responses, J Immunol 168:197-206, 2002). Additional biologics that are currently known to directly trigger a CTL response are based on heat shock proteins (HSP) (Suzue K et al., Heat shock fusion proteins as vehicles for antigen delivery into the major histocompatibility complex class I presentation pathway, Immunol 94:13146-51, 1997; Stebbing J et al., Disease-associated dendritic cells respond to disease-specific antigens through the common heal shock protein receptor, Blood 102:1808-14, 2003), or on the outer coat protein of certain bacteria. Heat shock proteins have shown limited efficacy in the treatment of certain genital neoplasms related to HPV infection.
  • A large body of evidence implies that Tat is secreted from infected cells. Extracellular Tat is taken up by uninfected cells resulting in trans-activation of transcripts, a subset of which stimulate the cell (Frankel AD and Pabo CO, Cellular uptake of the Tat protein from Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Cell 55:1189-93, 1988) and a subset of which initiate programmed cell death. These observations demonstrate that Tat enters the cytoplasm of cells, where trans-activation is mediated, but they did not establish the key mechanism of entry via the receptor. The immediate immunosuppression that accompanies HIV infection has been attributed to Tat and has hindered the generation of successful HIV vaccines (Viscidi RP et al, Inhibition of antigen-induced lymphocyte proliferation by Tat protein from HIV-1, Science 146:1606-8, 1989; Cohen SS et al., Pronounced acute immunosuppression in vivo mediated by HIV-1 Tat challenge, Proc NatI Acad Sci USA 96:1084247, 1999). Additionally, Tat suppression occurs at both the antibody level and at the T cell level and is antigen-specific. This distinguishes Tat-induced immunosuppression from other immunosuppressants currently used in human therapy, such as cyclosporine, that work exclusively on T cells.
  • Biological agents currently used to treat disease introduce foreign antigens (monoclonal antibodies, insulin, Factor VIII, organ transplants) into the body. An immune response against these antigens is undesirable because this immunity neutralizes, or in the case of organ transplants, rejects the foreign body in addition to causing collateral damage through allergic and autoimmune reactions. Recombinant proteins of human origin have been very successful in overcoming this problem and sustaining the efficacy of certain biological therapies such as insulin, Factor VIII, and monoclonal antibodies. However, even in these successes, undesired auto-antibodies can still accumulate over time that limit or terminate efficacy. Methods to ameliorate these undesirable immune responses have not yet been developed.
  • Current immunosuppression treatment regimens are primarily designed for organ transplantation where a highly immunogenic foreign body often with multiple foreign antigens (histocompatibility antigens) must be maintained for the life of the patient. Up till the present time, this involves non-specific suppression of the entire immune system with multiple agents. Physicians and researchers have devised therapeutic regimens where a balance between the side effects of the immunosuppressants and organ rejection can be reached. The most common side effects associated with common immunosuppressive cocktails, which can include corticosteroids, cyclosporine and azathioprine, include stunted growth, weight gain, bone marrow inhibition, anemia, low white blood cell count and kidney damage. The most serious side effects, however, are infection, particularly with viruses and tumor formation due to the non-specific nature of the immune suppression. Therefore there exists a need to improved antigen-specific immunosuppressive therapies.
  • Autoimmune diseases are a series of unwanted immune responses that selectively destroy tissues. Severe autoimmune diseases are chronic, debilitating, and life-threatening. In some cases, specific agents that provoke a particular type of autoimmune disease are becoming defined. Approximately 2.5 million individuals currently suffer from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in the US alone. Severe RA accelerates death rates at least five-fold compared to the general population (Wolfe F et al., Predicting mortality in patients with RA, Arth Rheumatism 48:153042, 2003). Peptide fragments from collagen type 11, an important structural component in undamaged joints, can provoke RA in animals and could be developed as tolerizing agents for use against human RA (Van den Steen P et al., Cleavage of denatured natural collagen type 11 by neutrophil gelatinase B reveals enzyme specificity, post-translational modifications in the substrate, and the formation of remnant epitopes in rheumatoid arthritis, FASEB J 16:379-89, 2002).
  • Therefore, there exists a medical need for compositions which can be used as vaccines to specifically stimulate desired immune responses, such as in infectious diseases or cancer, and other compositions that suppress inappropriate immune responses to certain therapeutic, diagnostic or prophylactic agents and in autoimmune diseases in an antigen-specific manner.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • For the purposes of clarification and to avoid any possible confusion, the HIV Tat as used in the compositions of the present invention will be designated as either “Tat” for conventional immunosuppressive Tat protein and “Tat*” or “ox-Tat*” for Tat that is genetically or chemically derivatized so that it is stimulatory. Additional abbreviations for Tat used in this disclosure include sTat (soluble Tat) and C-Tat (conventional native immunosuppressive Tat from HIV).
  • The present invention provides vaccines, adjuvants and immunotherapeutics for prophylaxis, diagnosis and treatment of infectious disease and cancer, tolerogen compositions for prevention and treatment of inappropriate immune responses to foreign and endogenous antigens and methods for the discovery of a new class of pharmaceutical agents, termed New Immunomodulatory Chemical Entities (NICE) which can duplicate the immunosuppressive activities of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) trans-activator of transcription (Tat) and the immunostimulatory activities of Tat variants.
  • In an embodiment of the present invention, a method for identifying new immunomodulatory chemical entities (NICE) is provided comprising reacting a candidate NICE with a Tat SH3 binding domain wherein the Tat SH3 binding domain is bound to a solid phase to identify candidate NICE that bind to the Tat SH3, identifying the candidate NICE bound to the Tat SH3, adding the identified candidate NICE to a culture of purified peripheral blood monocytes, adding Tat having an SH3 binding domain to the peripheral blood monocytes and candidate NICE to form a test culture, incubating the test culture to allow the monocytes to differentiate into dendritic cells (DC) or regulatory macrophages (AReg), and removing the differentiated cells from the test culture and determining the presence or absence of DCs or AReg.
  • In another embodiment of the present invention, the Tat SH3 binding domain in the method for identifying NICE is selected from the group consisting of native immunosuppressive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Tat, simian lentivirus Tat, long-term non-responder Tat, randomly mutated HIV Tat and site-specific mutated HIV Tat.
  • In yet another embodiment of the present invention, the method for identifying NICE further comprised the step of injecting confirmed immunostimulatory NICE into an immunosuppressed mouse wherein the immunosuppression results from the presence of an endogenous SH3 binding domain. The immunosuppressed mouse can be a hairless (hr) mouse.
  • In an embodiment of the present invention, the method for identifying NICE further comprises the step of injecting a tolerogenic NICE into a mouse and further challenging the mouse with an antigen wherein tolerance results from the pre-treatment with tolerogenic NICE.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • FIG. 1 depicts fluorescence activated cell sorter analysis of the results of Tat activation of monocytes according to the teachings of the present invention. Human peripheral blood monocytes were committed to differentiate into DCs through 5 days of culture in GM-CSF and IL-4. Committed DCs were cultured overnight either in medium alone (Control), LPS, or Tat, after which they were stained with an anti-CD86 antibody and analyzed by FACScan for CD86, a specific marker of DC activation, induction (left panel) or generalized activation (right panel, enlargement into box R2, shown for Tat-stimulated cells).
  • FIG. 2 depicts the enhancement of antigen-specific activation of CTLs by Tat*-antigen (Ag) complexes according to the teachings of the present invention. CTL activity was quantitated as the number of y-interferon-secreting spot-forming colonies (SFC)/106 plated cells using ELISPOT assays.
  • FIG. 3 depicts median fluorescence of monocytes, cultured for six days either with no stimulus (0), TNF-α, LPS, decreasing concentrations of C-Tat, or oxidized ox-C-Tat and stained with an anti-Fas ligand (FasL) monoclonal antibody (Mab) followed by a fluorescinated goat anti-mouse polyclonal antibody.
  • FIG. 4A-B depict antibody titer to an immunogenic antigen in the presence of the tolerogen composition of the present invention (PT) or with non-immunosuppressive ox-Tat* (Ag).
  • FIG. 5 depicts fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis of mouse peritoneal macrophages that were isolated either after in vivo thioglycolate stimulation (Stimulated +adjuvant) or without in vivo stimulation (resting). Mouse peritoneal macrophages were cultured for five days either in the absence of additional stimulation (C), with LPS or with Tat. Activation was determined as percent enlarged cells (M1 fraction).
  • FIG. 6 depicts stable suppression of antigen-stimulated T lymphocytes by Tat-Ag complexes two weeks after immunization with the tolerogen compositions of the present invention.
  • FIG. 7 depicts the antigen-specificity of Tat suppression according to the teachings of the present invention. Mice were immunized at day 0 and boosted at day 7 with an adjuvant emulsion containing either Tat (Ag+Tat), or with Ag Alone as control. At day 14, draining lymph node cells were harvested and stimulated with either specific or non-specific antigen and proliferation measured by 3H thymidine uptake (CPM) after four days of culture.
  • FIG. 8 depicts fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis of human peripheral blood monocytes cultured for four days in control medium (Control), or medium containing Tat or LPS according to the teachings of the present invention. Harvested cells were doubly stained with a fluoresceinated anti-FasL Mab (αFasL-fitc) and with an anti-CD14 rhodamine labeled Mab. Cells were analyzed by FACScan for activation (forward scatter), CD14 expression (% macrophages, R2), and for induction of FasL (MFI). The T cell population is labeled R1.
  • FIG. 9A-B depicts the regulatory and immunosuppressive characteristics of Tat-activated macrophages according to the teachings of the present invention. (A) Human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PBMC) from one individual (PBMCs #3) cultured for 5 days in either medium with tetanus antigen (Ag), antigen with the further addition of Tat (Ag+Tat) or Ag with Tat and recombinant sFas protein (Ag+Tat+sFas). The results are graphed as stimulation index (mean cpm stimulated culture/mean cpm medium control). (B) Proliferation of PBMCs cultured 6 days with either tetanus or Candida antigen alone (Ag), compared with cultures in which Tat (Ag+Tat), or Tat and the antagonistic anti-Fas antibody, ZB4, were added (Ag+Tat+αFas).
  • FIG. 10 depicts domain 1 of the Tat molecule, the signal transduction domain, amino acids 3-19.
  • FIG. 11 depicts domain 2 of the Tat molecule, the cysteine-rich ligand binding domain, amino acids 22-37.
  • FIG. 12 depicts domain 3 of the Tat molecule, the membrane translocation sequence, amino acids 47-57.
  • FIG. 13 schematically depicts the construction of vaccine and tolerogen cassettes according to the teachings of the present invention. Panel A: Domains of native Tat. Panel B: Varying antigen cassettes for the production of the vaccines or tolerogens of the present invention. The immunostimulatory or immunosuppressive functions of domain 1 (SH3 binding motif) will determine if the resultant protein is a vaccine (immunostimulant) or tolerogen (immunosuppressive).
  • FIG. 14 depicts tolerogen composition constructs according to the present invention specific for preventing immune responses to human or humanized monoclonal antibodies.
  • FIG. 15 depicts re-activation of T lymphocytes by cytokines and vaccine compositions made according to the teachings of the present invention.
  • FIG. 16 depicts the efficacy of cancer vaccine compositions made according to the teachings of the present invention in shrinking tumor size and improving survival in a mouse model of cervical cancer.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  • The present invention provides vaccines, adjuvants and immunotherapeutics for prophylaxis, diagnosis and treatment of infectious disease and cancer, tolerogen compositions for prevention and treatment of inappropriate immune responses to foreign and endogenous antigens and methods for the discovery of a new class of pharmaceutical agents, termed New Immunomodulatory Chemical Entities (NICE) which can duplicate the immunosuppressive activities of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) trans-activator of transcription (Tat) and the immunostimulatory activities of Tat variants.
  • For the purposes of clarification and to avoid any possible confusion, the HIV Tat as used in the compositions of the present invention will be designated as either “Tat” for conventional immunosuppressive Tat protein and “Tat*” or “ox-Tat*” for Tat that is genetically or chemically derivatized so that it is stimulatory. Additional abbreviations for Tat used in this disclosure include sTat (soluble Tat) and C-Tat (conventional native immunosuppressive Tat from HIV).
  • The SH3 binding domain presents an important target for pharmaceutical development with the potential for the diagnosis, prophylaxis and treatment of undesirable cellular processes such as cancer and autoimmunity through small molecule intervention at discrete SH3 and SH2 domains (Koch, Calif. et al. (1991), “SH2 and SH3 domains: elements that control interactions of cytoplasmic signaling proteins,” Science 252:668-74).
  • The present invention provides methods to derivative, swap or mutate the SH3 binding domain of Tat for use as screening targets in the identification of small molecules that maintain or enhance DC function (immunostimulatory NICE) or that enhance AReg function (tolerogenic NICE). From this process, a library of closely-related molecules is created based on natural variants and random and induced mutations of Tat that can be used to differentially screen for NICE active at this motif. This library will allow the identification of NICE with high affinity for actively suppressive motifs (or dominant negative mutations competing for the same site) but not related, inactive, mutations with alternative binding specificities. The present invention provides a series of “filters” to identify high specific activity molecules and “filter out” molecules with poor specificity from the screening compound libraries. Both positive filters (suppressive motifs and related dominant negatives) and negative filters (inactive mutants and natural variants) are employed to isolate NICE with the most exact binding characteristics.
  • NICE scoring positive through the entire series of filters are validated by an in vitro functional biological assay (DC index), thereby insuring that drug candidates have the expected activities on cells (Example 6). The therapeutic activity of immunostimulatory NICE is then evaluated in vivo in the mouse strain hairless (hr). Mice expressing the hr gene mutation develop an acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-like syndrome characterized by poor cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) function, a shift in helper T lymphocytes from those regulating cell-mediated immunity (TH1) to those regulating antibody-mediated immunity (TH2) and increased susceptibility to chemical and ultraviolet light-induced skin cancers. After specificity and safety are established both in vitro and in vivo, immunostimulatory and immunosuppressive NICE can be tested clinically in human diseases including cancer, autoimmune diseases and infectious diseases.
  • The present inventor has unexpectedly demonstrated that HIV-1 Tat mediates two independent activities, a receptor-mediated triggering event at the cellular surface and an intracellular trans-activation activity that controls antigen-presenting cell (APC) differentiation. The receptor-mediated triggering event mediated by Tat is specific to APC, committing them for activation and differentiation into highly immunosuppressive antigen presenting cell regulatory macrophages (AReg) or into dendritic cells (DC) that stimulate specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes.
  • Antigen-presenting cells, macrophages and dendritic cells are critical in the pathogenesis or response to a variety of diseases, disorders and undesired immune responses. Tat triggers monocytes to differentiate into antigen-presenting macrophages expressing molecules that specifically suppress the immune response to the presented antigen(s). Treatment for human diseases may introduce foreign antigens (biologicals, including but not limited to, monoclonal antibodies, insulin, and erythropoietin) or tissues (including organ transplants and stents) where an immune response to the foreign agent is not desired. In autoimmune diseases, certain of the body's own endogenous molecules are incorrectly recognized as foreign, resulting in extensive inflammation and tissue damage. In one example, degradation of collagen type II into immunogenic peptides can trigger rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in animals and has been associated with human rheumatoid arthritis. Considerable research has centered on reducing the immune response to these proteins. It is the non-binding theory of the present inventor that the antigen-specific macrophage-induced suppression attributed to Tat can be applied to the reduction of the undesired immune response to certain foreign and endogenous molecules.
  • Unlike the current immunosuppressive therapies, the Tat-based compositions of the present invention have the potential to suppress antigen-specific immune responses without immunocompromising the patient. This is particularly important when chronic immunosuppressive therapy is needed, such as following organ transplantation or during autoimmune disease. This antigen-specific immune suppression requires a high specific activity tolerogen, which can be produced according to the teachings of the present invention. In the absence of a thorough understanding of the structure of the Tat molecule and the mechanism of Tat suppression, it has not been possible to rationally design and test tolerogens that maintain the specificity and activity of Tat. The present invention provides immunosuppressive, antigen-specific Tat-based compositions that have been designed and constructed using the recent findings on the Tat molecule by the present inventor. The Tat-based compositions of the present invention provide immune tolerance to a specific antigen exclusively while the remainder of the immune system remains intact and fully responsive.
  • The immunosuppressive effects of Tat are mediated by macrophages. When stimulated by Tat, either by natural HIV-1 infection or by Tat uptake, macrophages induce the Fas ligand (FasL), which in turn induce the programmed cell death (apoptosis) of antigen-reacting, Fas-expressing helper T cells (FIG. 3). Tat enhances the viability of cultured murine macrophages as long as the macrophages were first activated in vivo compared with no prior activation and stimulated with relatively high concentrations of Tat. By comparison, LPS promotes the viability of murine macrophages independently from in vivo stimulation, and at the same concentration effective for human macrophages. The Tat-based compositions of the present invention produces a stable suppression of mouse lymphocyte proliferation and may also serve to suppress an antigen-specific immune response to a variety of foreign antigens.
  • The macrophages responsible for these responses have been identified as antigen presenting cell regulatory macrophages (ARegs). ARegs are also known as “alternatively activated” macrophages (Tzachenis D et al., Blockade of B7/CD28 in mixed lymphocyte reaction cultures results in the generation of alternatively activated macrophages, which suppress T-cell responses, Blood 99:1465-73, 2002). ARegs are stable macrophages expressing FasL and secreting the cytokines IL-10 and IL-6 (Novak N et al., Engagement of FcεRI on human monocytes induces the production of IL-10 and prevents their differentiation in dendritic cells, J Immunol 167:797-804, 2001; Zhang H et al., Induction of specific T cell tolerance by Fas ligand-expressing antigen-presenting cells, J Immunol 162:1423-30, 1999). AReg are stable and respond in an autocrine and paracrine manner to these two cytokines, as well as in a paracrine manner to IL-4. These cytokines accumulate and switch the immune response from TH1 (based on helper T lymphocytes) to TH2 (based on suppressive T lymphocytes). As these cytokines build up they overwhelm and suppress the immune response and explain why immune responses are normally self-limiting in an antigen-specific manner.
  • An unexpected observation is that 1,000 fold lower concentrations of Tat (500 pM) trigger this effect on the macrophages, as compared with the concentration required to initiate direct apoptosis of CD4+T cells (approximately 500 nM). Therefore, at concentrations of Tat achievable as a systemically administered immunomodulator, the macrophage effect will preferentially occur over the T cell effect.
  • The Tat-mediated antigen-specific suppression of the present invention is mediated through trans- (intracellular) activation of a CD14+FasL+macrophage. Example 3 of the present invention demonstrates that, in human cells, Tat-activated macrophages are immunosuppressive ARegs. At low concentrations of Tat (50 nM), Tat-induced immunosuppression was not only fully reversed by the addition of soluble Fas, but under these conditions, Tat actually became slightly stimulatory (relative to antigen treatment alone). Antibodies to FasL reversed Tat immunosuppression of tetanus responses and enhanced the Candida response relative to Tat treatment alone. Suppression could be fully reversed (>95% of control) with the further addition of anti-IL-10 and anti-IL-6 antibodies to the cultures, both cytokines deriving from macrophages under these culture conditions. The non-binding theory of the present inventor is that a portion of Tat-induced immunosuppression is contributed by induction of FasL, although other Tat-induced factors also could participate in suppressing T cell proliferative responses, especially at higher concentrations of Tat.
  • In order to make the Tat-based vaccines of the present invention, it is necessary to remove, modify, or override through mutation, the suppressive elements in Tat such that DC activation is maintained. Based upon structural resolutions, the present inventor describes a critical SH3 binding domain within the Tat sequence that controls the generation of a highly immunosuppressive antigen presenting cell regulatory macrophages (AReg). Simian lentiviruses related to HIV-1, but not causing immunodeficiency, have an alternative domain that is not suppressive. A mutant protein in a mouse strain (hairless, hr) that develops an immunodeficiency strikingly parallel to that seen in HIV-1 infection, including lost CTL and poor APC functions, encodes a SH3 binding domain homologous to HIV-1 Tat. This SH3 domain is proposed to control the differentiation potential of monocyte precursors either into DC that stimulate CTL, or AReg that suppress CTL. While prominent in HIV-1 infection, AReg are also now recognized as critical contributors to invasion of gastric (Ishigami S et al., Tumor-associated macrophage (TAM) infiltration in gastric cancer, Anticancer Res 23:4079-83, 2003), pancreas (von Bernstorff W et al., Systemic and local immunosuppression in pancreatic cancer patients, Clin Cancer Res 7:925s-32s, 2001), and ductal infiltrating breast tumors (Lin EY et al., The macrophage growth factor CSF-1 in mammary gland development and tumor progression, J. Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia 7:147-62, 2002; Visscher DW et al., Clinicopathologic analysis of macrophage infiltrates in breast carcinoma, Pathol Res Pract 191:1133-9, 1995), as well as components of tolerance in organ transplantation.
  • Recent surprising discoveries by the present inventor demonstrate that Tat can trigger CTL responses when Tat's DC stimulatory activity is isolated away from the suppression derived from AReg activation. It has not been previously possible to extend the in vitro activities of Tat to animals. One obstacle was a failure to understand that the cellular target of Tat activity was a precursor APC as opposed to the T cell, as had been widely believed. The present inventor determined that Tat stimulates APCs, as opposed to T cells and other cell types, at picomolar concentrations that are physiologic for in vivo activity. In vitro, APCs are approximately 1000 times more sensitive to Tat than T4 lymphocytes. Due to this discovery, one barrier to the successful use of Tat as an immunotherapeutic, namely achieving concentrations attainable in vivo, has been overcome. Thus, Tat has two activities that are the core of the present invention; APC targeting and induction of antigen-specific effects that result from APC activation.
  • Therefore, an embodiment of the present invention illustrated in Example 1 is that derivatized Tat* induces monocytes committed to the DC lineage to enlarge into activated, CD86+DC APCs. The effect of derivatized Tat* on this population of cells is stimulatory, rather than suppressive, because the cells have been previously committed to become DCs. The present inventor has previously demonstrated that chemically derivatized Tat (Tat* or ox-Tat) is immunostimulatory in that it promotes differentiation of monocytes into dendritic cells, which subsequently leads to antigen-specific activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Therefore properly derivatized Tat* resulting from chemical or genetic modifications, does not induce ARegs from monocyte APC precursors. Tat from HIV-1 long-term non-progressors (patients infected with HIV-1 who do not progress to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)) and from certain related simian strains of lentivirus are also immunostimulatory rather than immunosuppressive. These natural variations in Tat are important source of sequence modifications for the genetically-derivatized Tat* of the present invention.
  • The present invention presents a model of Tat activation of dendritic cells leading to activation of tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Owing to its monocyte targeting specificity, Tat enters APC precursors, carrying along with it any other protein conjugated to it. At this step the APC is stimulated. Once inside the APC, Tat can leave the endosome, the reservoir for almost all soluble proteins, and enter the cytoplasmic space, as indicated through its transactivation of RNA expression. This trafficking property of Tat causes the initiation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I presentation, since association with MHC class I also only occurs in the cytoplasm. The balance and duration of cellular gene activation determines whether the APC differentiates into an activated DC that potently presents for CTL activation, or into an AReg that shuts off CTL and other immune responses. In Example 1, the Tat*-Ag vaccine conjugate of the present invention is genetically derivatized to favor sustained DC activation and thereby to stimulate a superior CTL response against a cancer, in this case cervical cancer associated with Human Papilloma Virus infection.
  • Tat contains three distinct regions of interest (Kuppuswamy M et al., Multiple function domains of Tat, the trans-activator of HIV-1, defined by mutational analysis, Nucleic Acids Res 17:3551-61, 1989). The first region of interest is the transduction domain at the amino terminus of Tat (amino acids 3-19). A second region of interest is a cysteine-rich ligand binding domain (amino acids 22-37, SEQ ID NO. 7) which contains seven conserved cysteines. A third region of interest is the membrane translocation sequence (MTS) which encompasses amino acids 47-57. The complete amino acid sequence of HIV-1 Tat encoded by exons 1 and 2 of the Tat gene is depicted in SEQ ID NO. 1.
  • A proline rich stretch near the amino terminus (amino acids 3-19) of HIV-1 and HIV-2 Tat (SEQ ID NO. 3) within the transduction domain, has been described as a new SH3 binding domain having significant homology to the SH3-binding domain of the mouse hairless gene (hr) (SEQ ID NO. 4). Unexpectedly, mice expressing the hr gene mutation develop an AIDS-like syndrome characterized by poor CTL function, a shift in helper T lymphocytes from those regulating cell-mediated immunity (TH1) to those regulating antibody-mediated immunity (TH2) and increased susceptibility to chemical and ultraviolet light-induced skin cancers. Additionally, variants of Tat are found in lentiviruses that infect monkey species that do not develop immunodeficiency and that do not have epidemic infection. However, these variant Tat do not have the SH3 binding domain and instead substitute a different sequence, also set off by prolines at either end of the sequence, into the transduction domain. Therefore, this SH3 binding domain is central to the immunosuppressive activity of Tat. Genetic data indicates this SH3 binding domain regulates monocyte differentiation into ARegs. In Tat proteins which do not contain this SH3 domain or this domain is mutated, monocyte differentiation is directed into DCs which stimulate CTL responses. It is this proline rich domain that is the focus of the NICE drug discovery process of the present invention.
  • It is also known that Tat contains a membrane translocation domain (MTS). After gaining access to the endosome following receptor binding, the MTS permits Tat to freely traffic across the endosomal membrane into the cytoplasm, where it transactivates gene expression, including but not restricted to genes of HIV-1 (Schwarze SR et al., In vivo protein transduction: delivery of a biologically active protein into the mouse, Science 285:1569-72, 1999). The MTS has been wrongly assumed to facilitate Tat entrance into the cell, which it can only accomplish at high concentrations that have been impossible to attain in vivo.
  • In an embodiment of the present invention, genetic derivatives of Tat, generated through modulating the signal transduction motif defined by the SH3 binding domain, are predicted to drive differentiation predominantly to dendritic cells or immunosuppressive AReg. AReg are also critical contributors to invasion of gastric, pancreas, and ductal infiltrating breast tumors, as well as components of tolerance in organ transplantation. It is a non-binding hypothesis of the present inventor that it is necessary to maintain the two external prolines at positions 3 and 18 flanking the SH3 domain in order to facilitate the proper structure for SH3 binding. In addition, the transduction domain from a non-immunosuppressive human variant Tat, or the domain from the hr mutation, can replace amino acids 3-19 of Tat, although the hr sequence (SEQ ID NO 4) is predicted to increase suppression. In addition, the stimulatory simian form of Tat (SEQ ID NO. 5), or its human equivalent sequence (SEQ ID NO. 6), can be substituted at this domain. Additional chemical modifications, such as ox-Tat, can be used for stimulation of dendritic/CTL responses and synthetic chemical moieties (NICE) can be constructed to generate an equivalent response.
  • The drug discovery process of the present invention has several distinct steps to differentially screen for NICE active at the SH3 domain. An SH3 mutational library will be constructed that allows the identification of high affinity NICE binding suppressive motifs (or dominant negative mutations competing at the same site) but not related, inactive mutations with alternative binding specificities. A first mutational library will be constructed on the basis of natural variance in the SH3 domain of HIV-1, some variants of which are less active at driving AReg formation, and some of which appear to compete against conventionally suppressive Tat (dominant negative mutations competing at the same site). A second series of mutations will be randomly generated, or generated by site-specific mutagenesis, to fill out the library. The sequences will be swapped through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification methods well known in the art into a conventional suppressive Tat (HIV-1 MN), and characterized in the in vitro functional biological assay (DC index) developed by the present inventor and described in Example 6. The hybrid Tat demonstrating the highest DC index (most DCs and fewest ARegs) will be additionally evaluated for their activity in competing against native suppressive Tat co-administered to the same APCs. By this strategy, a series of related sequences will be defined having high affinity, reduced affinity, or no apparent affinity for the specific AReg SH3 domain.
  • Potential Tat-reactive NICE will be differentially screened by positive and negative selection against three progressive “filters.” For the purposes of the present invention, as used herein, filters are defined as screening tiers through which NICE are positively or negatively screened for specific activity. The first filter for positive binding is conducted at relatively low stringency against the native SH3 binding domain (flanked within prolines). Native SH3 binding domains that induce ARegs are immobilized on a solid phase support and potential NICE, purchased in commercial libraries, are allowed to react in varying concentrations for a pre-determined time. Such binding assays are well known to those persons of skill in the art. Appropriate negative controls will be included so that specific binding can be determined and quantitated.
  • Libraries of potential Tat-reactive NICE suitable for use in the drug discovery process of the present invention include, but are not limited to, peptides and small organic synthetic molecules. These libraries can be purchased from vendors such as Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis Mo., ActiMol, TimTec Corp., Newark Del., Tripos Inc., St. Louis Mo. and Mimotopes, San Diego Calif. and others that are known to persons skilled in the art.
  • This first positive filter screens a relatively broad number of candidate NICE. The second negative filter reduces and defines candidates by negative binding (flow through) a small series of inactive sequences that “filter out” non-specific NICE, which are trapped by the inactive domains immobilized on the solid support. In the third and final filter, NICE are positively reselected for binding non-identical active motifs, preferentially domains with high specific activity identified by their characteristics in the DC index assay. At this third filter stage, conditions are evaluated such as multimerization and buffering that could enhance high affinity interactions.
  • NICE scoring positive through the three filter screenings are then evaluated in the DC index biological assay for their ability to induce differentiation of monocytes into either immunostimulatory dendritic cells or immunosuppressive AReg macrophages. This assay is described in detail in Example 6. Appropriate positive and negative controls are included so that increases in the number of DCs or ARegs can be quantitated. In addition, the NICE are tested in a wide variety of doses from 0.011-106 mM incubated with the monocytes from 1 hour to one week in order to determine those molecules that have optimal specificity, high specific activity, and favorable toxicity profiles.
  • Those NICE which are determined to preferentially direct monocyte differentiation into dendritic cells (immunostimulatory NICE) are evaluated for their ability to induce differentiation of dendritic cells in the hairless mouse model. This animal expresses endogenous SH3 domains and is immunocompromised. An immunostimulatory NICE of the present invention can overcome the SH3-induced deficiencies in dendritic cells. Mice will be injected with the NICE, or the NICE will be applied dermally, and subsequently challenged with a cutaneous irritant in delayed-type hypersensitivity assays well known in the art. These cutaneous lesions are first graded visually daily based on size and degree of redness. Skin biopsies are taken from 24 hours to one week after challenge and the number of DCs or Langerhan's cells determined histocytochemically with monoclonal antibodies specific for mouse DCs or Langerhan's cells. Appropriate positive and negative controls will be included and NICE injected in a wide dose range. The immunostimulatory NICE of the present invention can be administered to mice in this assay though means including, but not limited to intraperitoneal, subcutaneous, intradermal, oral, intranasal, cutaneous and intravenous routes. Those immunostimulatory NICE which perform to criteria in the hr mouse model will be considered candidates for immunotherapy of cancer or infectious diseases in humans.
  • In another embodiment of the present invention, immunostimulatory NICE are used as cancer adjuvants to be administered to patients to boost the immune response to tumor antigens when the construction of a cancer vaccine composition is not possible or inappropriate. The NICE adjuvant are administered admixed with the cancer antigen or administered in a different site than the cancer antigen. The cancer vaccine compositions and cancer adjuvant compositions of the present invention are administered to cancer patients in a variety of doses which will be determined after dose titration studies and methods of administration that will be optimized for the type of cancer.
  • Those NICE which are determined to preferentially direct monocytes differentiation into ARegs (immunosuppressive NICE) are evaluated for their ability to induce tolerance after being administered along with the desired immunogenic antigen. The tolerogenic NICE compositions of the present invention will be evaluated for their ability to induce tolerance in normal mice. Mice are injected with tolerogenic NICE and immunogenic antigen via a route including, but not limited to, intraperitoneal, subcutaneous, intradermal, oral, intranasal, cutaneous and intravenous administration. From four hours to one week after receiving a tolerizing agent, the mice are challenged with the corresponding immunogenic antigen alone. This test assay will be performed with an antigen which is known to induce an immune response in normal mice, such as a human protein. After an appropriate amount of time, ranging from 72 hours to 2 weeks, the mice are sacrificed and both T and B lymphocyte responses to the immunogenic antigen are determined using assays well known to those skilled in the art. The immune response in these mice will be validated by challenging the mice with an unrelated antigen which is known to induce an immune response (such as Candida) and with antigen that is not expected to induce an immune response (such as a normal mouse protein). Only if the mice react appropriately to these controls will the tolerogenic NICE composition be considered effective. In variations of the above experiment, additional mice will be administered multiple doses of tolerogenic NICE composition before challenging with corresponding immunogenic antigen. It is anticipated that repeated administration of the tolerogenic NICE composition will be necessary to induce and maintain tolerance to certain antigens and this schedule of dosing is optimized for each antigen.
  • An additional therapeutic method to influence the SH3 control of dendritic cells involves activating RNA interference (RNAi), which results in sequence-specific degradation of the targeted double strand RNA (Fire A, RNA-triggered gene splicing, Trends Genet 15:358-63, 1999; Zamore PD, RNA interference: listening to the sound of silence, Nat Struct Biol 8:746-50, 2001). Small interfering RNAs (siRNA) are RNA duplexes of 21-23 nucleotides which activate the RNAi pathway through their antisense strand and silence a gene through targeted degradation of its transcript. siRNAs are being widely developed as prophylactic and therapeutic agents to suppress selected RNA transcripts. Proposed targets include oncoproteins in cancer and infectious agents. The specificity and sensitivity of the target, an opening on the transcript free from secondary structure or complexed proteins that allows duplexed siRNA to form, and the actual delivery of the siRNA drug inside the cell are three critical factors governing the outcome of treatment. The sequence of the SH3 binding domain predisposing AReg/DC outcome is a potential RNAi target. Because the Tat's activity occurs at a balance point between stimulation (DC) and suppression (ARegs), small perturbations can be extremely efficacious.
  • An embodiment of the current invention is to create vaccine compositions for cancer and infectious disease therapy using the genetic sequences discovered from analysis of Tat to control DC vs. AReg outcome. Duplexed siRNAs are easily constructed from the sense strand of Tat and Tat variants using methods standard to those skilled in the art (Elbashir SM et al., RNA Interference is mediated by 21- and 22-nucleotide RNAs. Genes Devel 15:188-200, 2001). One of the obstacles associated with the successful therapeutic use of siRNAs is the difficulty targeting the siRNA to the target cell. The signal transduction domain and the MTS of Tat are proposed as targeting agents for siRNA. The DNA sequences disclosed in Example 7 and in SEQ ID NOs. 8, 9 and 10 are exemplary Tat targeting sequences.
  • The tolerogenic NICE compositions of the present invention can be produced with antigens implicated in a variety of autoimmune diseases. Autoimmune diseases which are within the scope of treatment with the tolerogenic NICE compositions of the present invention include, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, systemic lupus erythematosis, multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel diseases, psoriasis, scleroderma and autoimmune thyroid diseases
  • Additionally the tolerogenic NICE compositions of the resent invention have the potential to treat other immune mediator diseases such as inflammation including, but not limited to, ocular inflammation and cardiac inflammation.
  • An antigen which elicits an immune response in a mammal can be incorporated into the tolerogenic NICE composition of the present invention. Suitable antigens include, but are not limited to, endogenous molecules such as those that illicit inappropriate immune responses in autoimmune diseases and foreign antigens. Non-limiting examples of foreign antigens that commonly elicit immune responses that limit their therapeutic potential include, but are not limited to, monoclonal antibodies (Mabs), carbohydrates, insulin, blood clotting factors, growth factors and hormones, enzymes and other diagnostic, therapeutic or prophylactic proteins. Carbohydrate antigens suitable for use in the tolerogen composition of the present invention include, but are not limited to, sialic acids. Monoclonal antibodies suitable for use in the tolerogen compositions of the present invention include, but are not limited to, murine Mabs, human Mabs and humanized Mabs or Mabs produced from any mammal. Blood clotting factors suitable for use in the tolerogen compositions of the present invention include, but are not limited to, Factor VIII, Factor VII (rVIIa), Factor IX, Factor II, Factor VII, Factor IX, Factor X, von Willebrand Factor and Anti-inhibitor Coagulation Factor. Enzymes suitable for use in the tolerogen compositions of the present invention include, but are not limited to, asparaginase, collagenase, glutaminase, hyaluronidase, lysozyme, rhodanase, ribonuclease, β-lactamase, streptokinase, trypsin, uricase, urokinase, adenine deaminase, superoxide dismutase. Growth factors and hormones suitable for use in the tolerogen compositions of the present invention include, but are not limited to, human growth hormone, erythropoietin, granulocyte or macrophage stimulating factors, keratinocyte growth factor, interferons and interleukins.
  • One of skill in the art will recognize that the efficacy, or toxicity, of the compositions of the present invention, either alone or in combination with other pharmaceuticals, will influence the dose administered to a patient. Those of skill in the art may optimize dosage for maximum benefits with minimal toxicity in a patient without undue experimentation using any suitable method. Additionally, the compositions of the present invention can be administered in vivo according to any of the methods known to those skilled in the art including, but not limited to, injection, inhalation, infusion and orally or any of the methods described in exemplary texts, such as “Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences (8th and 15th Editions), the “Physicians' Desk Reference” and the “Merck Index.”
  • The compositions can be formulated with any pharmaceutically acceptable excipients as determined to be appropriate by persons skilled in the art. Non-limiting examples of formulations considered with in the scope of the present invention include injectable solutions, lipid emulsions, depots and dry powders. Any suitable carrier can be used in the composition, which will depend, in part, on the particular means or route of administration, as well as other practical considerations. The pharmaceutically acceptable carriers described herein, for example, vehicles, excipients, adjuvants or diluents, are well known to those who are skilled in the art and are readily available to the public. Accordingly, there are a wide variety of suitable formulations of the composition of the present invention. The following formulations are exemplary and not intended to suggest that other formulations are not suitable.
  • Formulations that are injectable are among the preferred formulations. The requirements for effective pharmaceutical carriers for injectable compositions are well known to those of ordinary skill in the art (See Pharmaceutical and Pharmacy Practice, J.B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia, Pa., Banker & Chalmers, Eds., pp. 238-50, 1982; ASHP Handbook on Injectable Drugs, Toissel, 4th Ed., pp.622-30, 1986). Such injectable compositions can be administered intravenously or locally, i.e., at or near the site of a disease, or other condition in need of treatment.
  • Topical formulations are well known to those of skill in the art and are suitable in the context of the present invention. Such formulations are typically applied to skin or other body surfaces.
  • The compositions of the present invention , alone or in combination with other suitable components can be made into aerosol formulations to be administered via inhalation. These aerosol formulations can be placed into pressurized acceptable propellants, such as dichlorodifluoromethane, propane, nitrogen and the like. The vaccine compositions of the present invention can also be formulated for dry powder inhalers. They also may be formulated for non-pressured preparations, such as in a nebulizer or an atomizer. Such spray formulations are particularly suitable for spray application to mucosa.
  • In addition to the above-described pharmaceutical compositions, the compositions of the present invention can be formulated as inclusion complexes, such as cyclodextrin inclusion complexes, or in liposomes (including modified liposomes such as pegylated and/or targeted liposomes).
  • It is within the scope of the present invention to provide compositions to a patient in need thereof through a plurality of routes of administrations using a plurality of formulations.
  • Additionally, the compositions of the present invention can be administered to patients in need of induction or suppression of specific immune responses according to dosing schedules known to persons skilled in the art, such as physicians. The scope of the present invention is considered to include administration of the compositions of the present invention either before, concurrent or after the onset of disease. The compositions of the present invention may be administered in a single dose or as repeated doses.
  • EXAMPLES Example 1 Effects of Tat on the Dendritic Cell Lineage
  • An additional embodiment of the present invention is that Tat induces monocytes committed to the dendritic cell (DC) lineage to enlarge into activated, CD86+DC APCs (FIG. 1). Human monocytes enriched from PBMCs by Percoll density gradient separation and adherance to anti-CD14 coated magnetic beads (Dynabeads M-450, Dynal Biotech) were committed to differentiate into DCs through five days of culture in GM-CSF (100 ng/mL) and IL-4 (100 ng/mL). Committed DCs were cultured overnight either in medium alone (Control), LPS (100 ng/mL), or Tat (50 nM), after which they were stained with an anti-CD86 antibody (BD Pharmingen) and analyzed by FACScan for CD86 induction (left panel) or generalized activation (right panel, enlargement into box R2, shown for Tat-stimulated cells). The MFIs for CD86 expression are 9 (Control), 30 (LPS), and 187 (Tat), CD86 being a specific determinant of DC activation.
  • Derivitzed Tat reduces AReg differentiation and potently enhances antigen-specific activation of CTLs (FIG. 2). Tat is chemically derivatized by oxidation (Tat* or ox-Tat) so that it does not induce ARegs from monocyte APC precursors (FIG. 3). Ten micrograms of Tat/p24 Tat*-Ag conjugate (Ag-Tat*) was administered into the flanks of Balb/C mice in adjuvant on day 0 and day 7. Experimental groups were comparatively immunized in adjuvant with 5 μg of p24 in one flank and 5 μg derivatized Tat in the other flank (Ag & Tat*), or 10 μg of p24 in adjuvant (Ag). Control mice were given two injections of adjuvant. Four mice were treated in each group. At day 14, draining lymph node cells from each animal were harvested and re-stimulated overnight in cultures of irradiated Ap24 (H-2d cells stably transfected to express antigen p24) cells or control non-transfected cells. CTL activity was quantitated as the number of y-interferon secreting spot forming colonies (SFC)/106 plated cells using ELISPOT assays. The background with non-transfected re-stimulators, which was in all cases <10 SFC/106, is subtracted from each point. The results are indicative of three similar experiments.
  • Example 2 Tat Activation of Macrophages and Suppression of the Immune Response
  • Recombinant Tat protein is prepared as previously described (Li, C.J. et al. (1995), “Induction of apoptosis in uninfected lymphocytes by HIV-1 Tat protein,” Science 268:429-31) under mildly denaturing conditions and was renatured in the presence of 0.1 mM DTT.
  • Tat activation of monocytes is dose-dependent and saturatable (FIG. 3). Human monocytes were cultured in increasing concentrations of recombinant Tat for six days at which time they were assayed for Fas ligand (FasL) induction as a measure of activation by using flow cytometry (FACScan, Becton Dickinson) to quantitate the intensity of staining (mean fluorescence index (MFI)) with an anti-Fas ligand monoclonal antibody (Nok 1, BD Pharmingen). Higher concentrations of Tat did not increase MFI (not shown), and T cells could not be activated with 50 nM Tat (not shown), the plateau stimulatory concentration for APCs.
  • Tat suppresses the antigen-specific humoral immune response to HIV-1 p24 (FIG. 4). At week 0, mice (4 in each group) were immunized with 5 μg recombinant p24 protein (Chiron, Emeryville, Calif.) and either 5 μg recombinant Tat protein (PT) or 5 μg recombinant ox-Tat* protein (Ag) mixed in 100 μL complete Freund's adjuvant and administered subcutaneously in the flank. Following immunization, sera were collected every other week for 10 weeks and assayed for a specific antibody response to p24 by commercially available ELISA (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, Ill.). The p24 antibody titer at 2 weeks (FIG. 4A) was completely suppressed by the Tat protein (PT) compared with the ox-Tat* control (Ag). This response was maintained for at least 6 weeks. The antibody titers at 6 weeks are approximately ten times greater than at week 2 due to maturation of the immune response.
  • Tat enhances the viability of cultured murine macrophages as long as the macrophages were first activated in vivo compared with no prior activation and stimulated with relatively high concentrations of Tat (FIG. 5). APCs were isolated by peritoneal lavage from mice intraperitoneally injected four days earlier with either 2.9% thioglycolate (as adjuvant) or 0.85% saline solution (resting). Harvested washout cells were cultured at 106 cells/mL for five days in medium alone (Control, C), lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100 ng/mL), or Tat produced as recombinant protein in E. coli (Tat, 500 ng/mL). Activation was determined as % enlarged cells (M1 fraction).
  • The Tat tolerogen of the present invention produces a stable suppression of mouse lymphocyte proliferation (FIG. 6). Mice were immunized in quadruplicate with a Freund's adjuvant emulsion containing either 5 μg Tat/p24 (recombinant HIV-1 gag protein p24) tolerogen (GRP 2) or with 5 μg avidin-p24 (GRP 1) as control. At two weeks residual draining lymph node cells were harvested, pooled within each group, and cultured at 105 cells/microtiter well for four days in the presence of graded concentrations of recombinant p24 protein (p24 μg/mL). Proliferation was assayed as a determinant of recall T cell response by quantitating overnight 3H thymidine uptake (CPM) in a liquid scintillation counter. This response is maintained for up to six weeks.
  • In addition, the Tat tolerogen of the present invention generates an antigen-specific immune suppression (FIG. 7). Mice in quadruplicate were immunized at day 0 and boosted at day 7 with an adjuvant emulsion containing either 5 μg Tat/p24 tolerogen (Ag+Tol) or with 5 μg avidin-p24 (Ag Alone) as control. At day 14, draining lymph node cells were harvested and stimulated at 105 cells/microtiter culture well either with added antigen (Specific, recombinant p24 μg/mL) or with added anti-T cell receptor monoclonal antibody (NonSpecific, 2C11, 10 μg/mL). Tritiated thymidine uptake (CPM) was determined by liquid scintillation at day 4 of culture. The specific Ag+Tol response is suppressed 98% relative to Ag alone, and is not distinguishable from cells cultured in the absence of stimulants.
  • Example 3 Tat Suppression is Mediated by ARegs
  • The Tat mediated antigen-specific suppression of the present invention is mediated through trans- (intracellular) activation of a CD14+FasL+macrophage (FIG. 8). In mice, Tat tolerizes at the T cell level and is maintained for at least six weeks after the initial treatment under the conditions demonstrated in FIG. 6. A human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) population enriched for monocytes by Percoll centrifugation was cultured for four days either in medium containing 5% fetal calf serum (FCS, Control), Tat (50 nM), or LPS (100 ng/mL). Harvested cells were doubly stained with a fluoresceinated (anti-fl1) anti-FasL monoclonal antibody (Mab), (αFasL-fitc, Nok 1, BD Pharmingen) and with an anti-CD14 rhodamine labeled Mab (αCD14fl2, BD Biosciences, CD14 being a determinant specific to macrophages (M(φ). Cells were analyzed by FACScan (Becton Dickinson) for activation (Forward Scatter), CD14 expression (R2, percent Mφs), and for induction of FasL (MFI). The T cell population (R1) was CD14-and did not express FasL. Similar results were obtained from cells harvested after 2, 3, 5, or 6 days of culture as for PBMCs harvested at day four.
  • The present invention demonstrates that, in human cells, Tat-activated macrophages are regulatory and immunosuppressive APC macrophage regulators (ARegs) (FIG. 9). To define the pathway of Tat immunosuppression, through FasL induction on the macrophage, resulting in loss of helper T cell recall responses, T cell proliferation assays are used with recall antigens, tat and FasL antagonists. FIG. 9A: Human PBMCs from one individual were cultured in triplicate for 5 days in either medium (not shown), tetanus antigen (Ag, 0.3 Lf/mL), antigen with the further addition of 50 nM Tat (Ag+Tat) or Ag with 50 nM Tat and recombinant sFas protein (25 μg/mL) to block surface Fas L expressed on macrophages (Ag+Tat+sFas). Tritiated thymidine was added over the last 18 hours, and results are graphed as stimulation index (mean cpm stimulated culture/mean cpm medium control). Results are representative of three similar experiments. At low concentrations of Tat (50 nM), Tat-induced immunosuppression was not only fully reversed by the addition of soluble Fas, but under these conditions, Tat actually became stimulatory (141% relative to antigen treatment alone). FIG. 9B: Proliferation of PBMCs cultured 6 days with either tetanus or Candida antigen alone (Ag), compared with cultures in which Tat (Ag+Tat, 125 nM), or Tat (125 nM) and the antagonistic anti-Fas antibody, ZB4 (250 μg/mL, Upstate Biotechnology) also were added (Ag+Tat+αFas). Results are representative of three similar experiments.
  • Example 4 Sequence and Homology Features of the Tat Protein
  • The complete amino acid sequence of HIV-1 Tat encoded by exons 1 and 2 of the Tat gene is listed below:
    ATG GAG CCC GTG GAC CCT CGC CTG GAG CCC TGG AAG CAC CCG GGC AGC SEQ ID NO.1
    Met Glu Pro Val Asp Pro Arg Leu Glu Pro Trp Lys His Pro Gly Ser SEQ ID NO.2
    1               5                   10/30               15
    CAG CCC AAG ACC GCC TGC ACC ACA TGT TACT GC AAG AAG TGC TGC TTC
    Gln Pro Lys Thr Ala Cys Thr Thr Cys Tyr Cys Lys Lys Cys Cys Phe
                20/60               25                  30/90
    CAC TGC CAG GTG TGC TTC ACC AAG AAG GCC TTG GGC ATC AGC TAC GGC
    His Cys Gln Val Cys Phe Thr Lys Lys Ala Leu Gly Ile Ser Tyr Gly
            35                  40/120              45
    CGC AAG AAG CGC CGG CAG CGC CGC CGG GCC CCT GAG GAC AGC CAG ACC
    Arg Lys Lys Arg Arg Gln Arg Arg Arg Ala Pro Glu Asp Ser Gln Thr
        50/150              55                  60/180            
    CAC CAG GTG AGC CCT CCC AAG CAG CCC GCT CCA CAG TTC CGC GGC GAC
    His Gln Val Ser Pro Pro Lys Gln Pro Ala Pro Gln Phe Arg Gly Asp
    65                  70/210              75                  80/240
    CCT ACC GGT CCC AAG GAG AGC AAG AAG AAG GTG GAG CGC GAG ACC GAG
    Pro Thr Gly Pro Lys Glu Ser Lys Lys Lys Val Glu Arg Glu Thr Glu
                    85                  90/270                95
    ACC CAT CCC GTC GAC
    Thr His Pro Val Asp
                100/300
  • The Tat of the present invention has a proline (P) rich segment near the amino terminus (amino acids 3-19):
    (SEQ ID NO. 3)
    Pro Val Asp Pro Arg Leu Glu Pro Trp Lys His Pro
    Gly Ser Gln Pro Lys
  • This highly conserved region of HIV-1 Tat is a canonical SH3 binding domain (FIG. 12).
  • The mouse hairless (hr) gene also has an SH3 binding motif of amino acids 176-196:
    (SEQ ID NO.4)
    Pro Cys Asp Trp Pro Leu Thr Pro Asp Pro Trp Val
    Tyr Ser Gly Ser Gln Pro Lys Val Pro
  • Homology exists between the human Tat SH3 binding domain (SEQ ID NO. 3) and the SH3 binding domain of the mouse hr gene (SEQ ID NO. 4):
    Human 3   Pro Val Arg Pro Asn Leu Glu Pro Trp Lys His Pro 14
    Mouse 180 Pro Leu Thr Pro Asn --------Pro Trp Val Tyr Ser 189
    Human 15  Gly Ser Gin Pro 18
    Mouse 190 Gly Ser Gln Pro 193
  • Variants of Tat found in simian lentiviruses that do not cause immunodeficiency do not have an SH3 binding domain but instead have the following
    (SEQ ID NO. 5)
    Pro Leu Arg Glu Gln Glu Asn Ser Leu Glu Ser Ser
    Asn Glu Arg Ser Ser Cys Ile Leu Glu Ala Asp Ala
    Thr Thr Pro
  • The human equivalent of the simian sequence above (SEQ ID NO. 5) is:
    (SEQ ID NO. 6)
    Ser Asn Glu Arg Ser Ser Cys Glu Leu Glu Val
  • Another region of interest is a cysteine-rich proposed ligand binding domain (amino acids 22-37) which contains seven cysteines (FIG. 10).
    (SEQ ID No. 7)
    Cys Thr Thr Cys Tyr Cys Lys Lys Cys Cys Phe His
    Cys Gln Val Cys
  • Additionally, it is known that Tat contains a membrane translocation domain (MTS) (FIG. 11).
  • Example 5 In Vitro Bioassay for Monocyte Differentiation
  • The in vitro ultra-sensitive monocyte Tat bioassay of the present invention is used to assess the immunosuppressant or immunostimulatory activity of the Tat proteins used in tolerogen compositions of the present invention. This assay utilizes fresh monocyte cells substantially purified from human peripheral blood using standard density gradient enrichment procedures or other cell isolation protocols known in the art. The substantially purified monocytes are washed and then cultured in RPMI-1640 supplemented with 10% FBS at 37° C.
  • The in vitro ultra-sensitive monocyte Tat bioassay is performed using a positive control (FasL, inducing compound) and a negative control (no active compound is added to the culture). Suitable positive controls include, but are not limited to, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and or tissue necrosing factor (TNF-α) at a final concentration of 100 ng/mL and 50 ng/mL, respectively. Test samples (Tat preparations) are run at final concentrations from 50 pM to 50nM and include Tat, ox-Tat, NICE and other Tat derivatives and mutants.
  • The test samples and controls are individually mixed with the substantially pure monocytes seeded at a density of 106 cells/mL in round bottom tubes containing RPMI-1640 with 10% FBS (herein referred to collectively as assay cultures). The assay cultures are then incubated for a suitable period of time, preferably from five to six days, at 37° C., in a 5% CO2 environment.
  • At the end of the incubation period, cells are removed from each assay culture and the presence of any induced FasL expression (for measurement of differentiation into ARegs) or CD86 expression (for differentiation in dendritic cells) is detected by staining with an anti-FasL or anti-CD86 antibodies and appropriate fluorescent detection agents. After the substantially pure macrophages have been stained, the fluorescence is detected using a fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS) system. Control staining is performed using the fluorescent detection system alone and subtracted from the specific anti-FasL or anti-CD86 staining seen in the assay cultures. The greater the percentage of FasL positive cells in a given assay culture, the more immunosuppressant the test sample in the assay culture is. Conversely, if the assay culture contains a predominance of CD86 positive cells, the test sample is identified to be immunostimulatory. Negative controls should always remain non-reactive with the antibodies and the positive control should fall within predetermined ranges.
  • Example 6 siRNA Targeting Domains
  • Human Tat SH3 targeting domain:
    ccagtagatc ctagactaga gccctggaag catccaggaa gtcagcctaa (SEQ ID NO.8)
  • Mouse Hairless SH3 targeting domain:
    (SEQ ID NO.9)
    ccatgtgact ggcccctgac cccgcacccc tgggtatact ccgggggcca gcccaaagtg
    ccc
  • Targeting domain from the human equivalent of the simian non-immunosuppressive Tat motif:
    agcaacgagc ggagttcctg cgagctagag gtg (SEQ ID NO.10)
  • Unless otherwise indicated, all numbers expressing quantities of ingredients, properties such as molecular weight, reaction conditions, and so forth used in the specification and claims are to be understood as being modified in all instances by the term “about.” Accordingly, unless indicated to the contrary, the numerical parameters set forth in the following specification and attached claims are approximations that may vary depending upon the desired properties sought to be obtained by the present invention. At the very least, and not as an attempt to limit the application of the doctrine of equivalents to the scope of the claims, each numerical parameter should at least be construed in light of the number of reported significant digits and by applying ordinary rounding techniques. Notwithstanding that the numerical ranges and parameters setting forth the broad scope of the invention are approximations, the numerical values set forth in the specific examples are reported as precisely as possible. Any numerical value, however, inherently contains certain errors necessarily resulting from the standard deviation found in their respective testing measurements.
  • The terms “a” and “an” and “the” and similar referents used in the context of describing the invention (especially in the context of the following claims) are to be construed to cover both the singular and the plural, unless otherwise indicated herein or clearly contradicted by context. Recitation of ranges of values herein is merely intended to serve as a shorthand method of referring individually to each separate value falling within the range. Unless otherwise indicated herein, each individual value is incorporated into the specification as if it were individually recited herein. All methods described herein can be performed in any suitable order unless otherwise indicated herein or otherwise clearly contradicted by context. The use of any and all examples, or exemplary language (e.g. “such as”) provided herein is intended merely to better illuminate the invention and does not pose a limitation on the scope of the invention otherwise claimed. No language in the specification should be construed as indicating any non-claimed element essential to the practice of the invention.
  • Groupings of alternative elements or embodiments of the invention disclosed herein are not to be construed as limitations. Each group member may be referred to and claimed individually or in any combination with other members of the group or other elements found herein. It is anticipated that one or more members of a group may be included in, or deleted from, a group for reasons of convenience and/or patentability. When any such inclusion or deletion occurs, the specification is herein deemed to contain the group as modified thus fulfilling the written description of all Markush groups used in the appended claims.
  • Preferred embodiments of this invention are described herein, including the best mode known to the inventors for carrying out the invention. Of course, variations on those preferred embodiments will become apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art upon reading the foregoing description. The inventor expects skilled artisans to employ such variations as appropriate, and the inventors intend for the invention to be practiced otherwise than specifically described herein. Accordingly, this invention includes all modifications and equivalents of the subject matter recited in the claims appended hereto as permitted by applicable law. Moreover, any combination of the above-described elements in all possible variations thereof is encompassed by the invention unless otherwise indicated herein or otherwise clearly contradicted by context.
  • Furthermore, numerous references have been made to patents and printed publications throughout this specification. Each of the above cited references and printed publications are herein individually incorporated by reference in their entirety.
  • In closing, it is to be understood that the embodiments of the invention disclosed herein are illustrative of the principles of the present invention. Other modifications that may be employed are within the scope of the invention. Thus, by way of example, but not of limitation, alternative configurations of the present invention may be utilized in accordance with the teachings herein. Accordingly, the present invention is not limited to that precisely as shown and described.

Claims (5)

1. A method for identifying new immunomodulatory chemical entities (NICE) comprising:
a. reacting a candidate NICE with a Tat SH3 binding domain wherein said Tat SH3 binding domain is bound to a solid phase to identify candidate NICE that bind to said Tat SH3;
b. identifying said candidate NICE bound to said Tat SH3;
c. adding said identified candidate NICE to a culture of purified peripheral blood monocytes;
d. adding Tat having an SH3 binding domain to said peripheral blood monocytes and candidate NICE to form a test culture;
e. incubating said test culture to allow said monocytes to differentiate into dendritic cells (DC) or regulatory macrophages (AReg);
f. removing said differentiated cells from said test culture and determining the presence or absence of DCs or AReg.
2. The method according to claim 1 wherein said Tat SH3 binding domain in step (a) is selected from the group consisting of native immunosuppressive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Tat, simian lentivirus Tat, long-term non-responder Tat, randomly mutated HIV Tat and site-specific mutated HIV Tat.
3. The method according to claim 1 further comprising the step of injecting confirmed immunostimulatory NICE from step (f) of claim 1 into an immunosuppressed mouse wherein said immunosuppression results from the presence of an endogenous SH3 binding domain.
4. The method according to claim 2 wherein the said immunosuppressive mouse is a hairless (hr) mouse.
5. A method according to claim 1 further comprising the step of injecting a tolerogenic NICE from step (f) of claim 1 into a mouse and further challenging said mouse with an antigen wherein said tolerance results from the pre-treatment with tolerogenic NICE.
US11/082,478 2004-03-16 2005-03-16 Tat-based immunomodulatory compositions and methods for their discovery and use Abandoned US20050208482A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US55373304P true 2004-03-16 2004-03-16
US11/082,478 US20050208482A1 (en) 2004-03-16 2005-03-16 Tat-based immunomodulatory compositions and methods for their discovery and use

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US11/082,478 US20050208482A1 (en) 2004-03-16 2005-03-16 Tat-based immunomodulatory compositions and methods for their discovery and use

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20050208482A1 true US20050208482A1 (en) 2005-09-22

Family

ID=34962665

Family Applications (3)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US10/598,978 Active 2026-07-07 US7927580B2 (en) 2004-03-16 2005-03-16 Tat-based immunomodulatory compositions and methods of their discovery and use
US11/082,478 Abandoned US20050208482A1 (en) 2004-03-16 2005-03-16 Tat-based immunomodulatory compositions and methods for their discovery and use
US13/087,963 Abandoned US20110195078A1 (en) 2004-03-16 2011-04-15 Tat-based immunomodulatory compositions and methods for their discovery and use

Family Applications Before (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US10/598,978 Active 2026-07-07 US7927580B2 (en) 2004-03-16 2005-03-16 Tat-based immunomodulatory compositions and methods of their discovery and use

Family Applications After (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US13/087,963 Abandoned US20110195078A1 (en) 2004-03-16 2011-04-15 Tat-based immunomodulatory compositions and methods for their discovery and use

Country Status (2)

Country Link
US (3) US7927580B2 (en)
WO (2) WO2005090968A1 (en)

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20110319593A1 (en) * 2008-02-06 2011-12-29 Barbara Ensoli Process for the production of biologically active hiv-1 tat protein

Families Citing this family (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2005090968A1 (en) * 2004-03-16 2005-09-29 Inist Inc. Tat-based immunomodulatory compositions and methods of their discovery and use
AU2010230073B2 (en) 2009-03-23 2016-05-26 Pin Pharma, Inc. Treatment of cancer with immunostimulatory HIV Tat derivative polypeptides
EP2558576B1 (en) * 2010-04-14 2016-10-19 Envigo RMS, Inc. Hairless nod scid mouse
CA2894166A1 (en) * 2012-12-06 2014-06-12 Pin Pharma, Inc. Treatment of inflammation, autoimmune, and neurodegenerative disorders with immunosuppressive tat derivative polypeptides
JP2016533352A (en) 2013-10-04 2016-10-27 ピーアイエヌ ファーマ インコーポレイテッド Treatment with immunostimulatory HIV Tat derivative polypeptide of cancer

Citations (65)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1852A (en) * 1840-11-10 Manner of constructing and shifting the switches used at turnouts on
US3160A (en) * 1843-07-08 Cutting- gabmewts
US5330A (en) * 1847-10-16 Improvement in swings
US9949A (en) * 1853-08-16 Boat or scow
US28652A (en) * 1860-06-12 Vapor-lamp
US34209A (en) * 1862-01-21 Improvement in truss-girders for bridges
US54137A (en) * 1866-04-24 Improvement in the manufacture of watch-backs
US91073A (en) * 1869-06-08 blemker
US91599A (en) * 1869-06-22 Improvement in low-water indicators
US99664A (en) * 1870-02-08 Improvement in corsets
US99663A (en) * 1870-02-08 District
US148456A (en) * 1874-03-10 Improvement in stock-frames for platform-scales
US158134A (en) * 1874-12-22 Improvement in paper boxes
US162719A (en) * 1875-04-27 Improvement in fire-extinguishers
US166832A (en) * 1875-08-17 Improvement in corn-shellers
US180326A (en) * 1876-07-25 Improvement in bedsteads
US190326A (en) * 1877-05-01 Improvement in apparatus for crushing, grinding, and separating ore
US193330A (en) * 1877-07-24 Improvement in processes and apparatus for putting up caustic alkali
US194408A (en) * 1877-08-21 Improvement in washing-machines
US197269A (en) * 1877-11-20 Improvement in nailing-machines
US215797A (en) * 1879-05-27 Improvement in valve-gears for steam-engines
US224010A (en) * 1880-02-03 gilso n
US232074A (en) * 1880-09-07 Joining metal plates
US5585103A (en) * 1991-07-25 1996-12-17 Idec Pharmaceutical Corporation Induction of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses
US5597895A (en) * 1991-11-05 1997-01-28 Board Of Regents, University Of Texas System Transdominant tat mutants and uses thereof
US5616559A (en) * 1991-01-28 1997-04-01 Biogen, Inc. Papillomavirus E2 trans-activation repressors
US5652122A (en) * 1989-12-21 1997-07-29 Frankel; Alan Nucleic acids encoding and methods of making tat-derived transport polypeptides
US5804604A (en) * 1989-12-21 1998-09-08 Biogen, Inc. Tat-derived transport polypeptides and fusion proteins
US5889175A (en) * 1993-01-04 1999-03-30 Transgene S.A. Nucleic acids encoding HIV-1 trans-dominant mutants and their use to abrogate HIV-1 viral replication
US5891994A (en) * 1997-07-11 1999-04-06 Thymon L.L.C. Methods and compositions for impairing multiplication of HIV-1
US5942401A (en) * 1996-10-18 1999-08-24 Connaught Laboratories Limited Method of determining favorable prognosis against progressing from an asymptomatic condition to AIDS in an human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive subject
US5981258A (en) * 1993-12-13 1999-11-09 Transgene S.A. Composition of trans-dominant variants of viral proteins for obtaining an antiviral effect
US6132721A (en) * 1995-03-08 2000-10-17 Neovacs Non-Toxic immunogens derived from a retroviral regulatory protein, antibodies, preparation method therefor, and pharmaceutical compositions containing same
US6194388B1 (en) * 1994-07-15 2001-02-27 The University Of Iowa Research Foundation Immunomodulatory oligonucleotides
US6200575B1 (en) * 1996-03-07 2001-03-13 Neovacs Non-toxic immunogens derived from a retroviral regulatory protein antibodies preparation process and pharmaceutical compositions comprising them
US6207646B1 (en) * 1994-07-15 2001-03-27 University Of Iowa Research Foundation Immunostimulatory nucleic acid molecules
US6228369B1 (en) * 1993-12-13 2001-05-08 Transgene S.A. Composition of trans-dominant variants of viral proteins for obtaining an anti-viral effect
US6239116B1 (en) * 1994-07-15 2001-05-29 University Of Iowa Research Foundation Immunostimulatory nucleic acid molecules
US6316003B1 (en) * 1989-12-21 2001-11-13 Whitehead Institute For Biomedical Research Tat-derived transport polypeptides
US6339068B1 (en) * 1997-05-20 2002-01-15 University Of Iowa Research Foundation Vectors and methods for immunization or therapeutic protocols
US6406705B1 (en) * 1997-03-10 2002-06-18 University Of Iowa Research Foundation Use of nucleic acids containing unmethylated CpG dinucleotide as an adjuvant
US20020091073A1 (en) * 1995-12-29 2002-07-11 National Jewish Medical And Research Center Method to limit immunodeficiency virus infection and compounds therefor
US6420141B1 (en) * 1997-12-26 2002-07-16 Neovacs Anti-HIV immunogens (toxoids), preparation methods and use for preventing and treating aids
US6495347B1 (en) * 1999-07-08 2002-12-17 Stressgen Biotechnologies Corporation Induction of a Th1-like response in vitro
US20020193330A1 (en) * 2000-09-08 2002-12-19 David Hone Genetically engineered co-expression DNA vaccines, construction methods and uses thereof
US6497880B1 (en) * 1998-12-08 2002-12-24 Stressgen Biotechnologies Corporation Heat shock genes and proteins from Neisseria meningitidis, Candida glabrata and Aspergillus fumigatus
US20020197269A1 (en) * 2000-01-28 2002-12-26 Cistem Biotechnologies Gmbh Pharmaceutical composition for immunomodulation and preparation of vaccines
US20030003160A1 (en) * 1995-09-01 2003-01-02 Pugh Sydney M. Synthetic biomaterial compound of calcium phosphate phases particularly adapted for supporting bone cell activity
US6524582B2 (en) * 2000-04-28 2003-02-25 Thymon L.L.C. Methods and compositions for impairing multiplication of HIV-1
US6524825B1 (en) * 1997-08-05 2003-02-25 Stressgen Biotechnologies, Inc. Immune responses against HPV antigens elicited by compositions comprising an HPV antigen and a stress protein or an expression vector capable of expression of these proteins
US20030099663A1 (en) * 1999-10-01 2003-05-29 Cistem Biotechnologies Gmbh Pharmaceutical composition comprising an antigen
US6593292B1 (en) * 1999-08-24 2003-07-15 Cellgate, Inc. Compositions and methods for enhancing drug delivery across and into epithelial tissues
US20030158134A1 (en) * 2000-01-31 2003-08-21 Gerald Voss Vaccine for the prophylactic or therapeutic immunization against hiv
US20030162719A1 (en) * 1997-05-21 2003-08-28 Rothbard Jonathan B. Method and composition for enhancing transport across biological membranes
US20030190326A1 (en) * 2000-10-06 2003-10-09 Francois Dalenccon Pharmaceutical composition for immunisation against aids
US20030215797A1 (en) * 1999-08-12 2003-11-20 Cohen David I. Vaccines and immunotherapeutics derived from the human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV) trans-activator of transcription protein for the treatment and prevention of HIV disease
US20030232074A1 (en) * 2002-04-04 2003-12-18 Coley Pharmaceutical Gmbh Immunostimulatory G, U-containing oligoribonucleotides
US20040001852A1 (en) * 1998-07-15 2004-01-01 Neovacs 11, Rue Pernety Use of immunogenic immunosuppressive and/or angiogenic proteins which have been rendered inactive, process for their preparation and pharmaceutical or vaccinal uses
US20040005330A1 (en) * 2001-12-11 2004-01-08 Jay Rappaport Mutated HIV Tat
US20040009949A1 (en) * 2002-06-05 2004-01-15 Coley Pharmaceutical Group, Inc. Method for treating autoimmune or inflammatory diseases with combinations of inhibitory oligonucleotides and small molecule antagonists of immunostimulatory CpG nucleic acids
US6686333B1 (en) * 1996-10-04 2004-02-03 The United States Of America As Represented By The Department Of Health And Human Resources Inhibition of HIV replication using soluble Tat peptide analogs
US20040028652A1 (en) * 2000-06-02 2004-02-12 Danher Wang Composition and method for stimulating immune response to pathogen using complex adenoviral vector
US20040034209A1 (en) * 2001-01-26 2004-02-19 David Ho Vaccination of hiv infected persons following highly active antiretrovial therapy
US20040054137A1 (en) * 2000-05-26 2004-03-18 Thomson Scott Anthony Synthetic peptides and uses therefore
US6797491B2 (en) * 2000-06-26 2004-09-28 Stressgen Biotechnologies Corporation Human papilloma virus treatment

Family Cites Families (18)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPH05506031A (en) 1990-03-30 1993-09-02
WO1991018454A1 (en) 1990-05-18 1991-11-28 Centre National De La Recherche Scientifique Compositions capable of blocking cytotoxicity of viral regulatory proteins and neurotoxic symptoms associated with retroviral infection
WO1994015634A1 (en) 1992-12-30 1994-07-21 Matthias Rath Tat and rev oligopeptides in hiv treatment
JP3386128B2 (en) * 1993-01-15 2003-03-17 パンコウ,マーク・エル Contact lens treatment apparatus
DE4405810A1 (en) 1994-02-23 1995-08-24 Behringwerke Ag From a retrovirus of the HIV group derived peptides and their use
EP0767678A1 (en) 1994-05-23 1997-04-16 Gideon Goldstein Compositions of transactivating proteins of human immunodeficiency virus
EP0834569A1 (en) 1996-10-03 1998-04-08 Boehringer Mannheim Gmbh Thermostable DNA polymerase from carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans
WO1998043669A1 (en) 1997-04-03 1998-10-08 Thomas Jefferson University Chimeric viral proteins
AU7158398A (en) 1997-04-17 1998-11-11 Regents Of The University Of California, The Use of lentiviral vectors for antigen presentation in dendritic cells
GB9720585D0 (en) 1997-09-26 1997-11-26 Smithkline Beecham Biolog Vaccine
IT1297090B1 (en) 1997-12-01 1999-08-03 Barbara Ensoli Tat of HIV-1 or its derivatives, alone or in combination, by vaccination purpose, prophylactic and therapeutic, against AIDS and tumors
AU5617900A (en) 1999-06-17 2001-01-09 Robert C. Gallo Chimeric chemokine-antigen polypeptides and uses therefor
AU4082300A (en) 1999-06-21 2001-01-09 Government Of The United States Of America, As Represented By The Secretary Of The Department Of Health And Human Services, The Hiv tat peptides and multiple peptide conjugate system
ES2250151T3 (en) 1999-06-29 2006-04-16 Glaxosmithkline Biologicals S.A. Cpg use as a vaccine adjuvant against HIV.
FR2802426B1 (en) 1999-12-15 2004-04-02 Neovacs Using protein immunogenic immunosuppressive and / or angiogenic rendered inactive for the production of secretory IgA
WO2001078775A2 (en) 2000-04-12 2001-10-25 Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation A method for making an hiv vaccine
EP1279404A1 (en) 2001-07-26 2003-01-29 Istituto Superiore Di Sanita Use of HIV-1 tat, fragments or derivatives thereof, to target or to activate antigen-presenting cells, to deliver cargo molecules for vaccination or to treat other diseases
WO2005090968A1 (en) * 2004-03-16 2005-09-29 Inist Inc. Tat-based immunomodulatory compositions and methods of their discovery and use

Patent Citations (85)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US232074A (en) * 1880-09-07 Joining metal plates
US3160A (en) * 1843-07-08 Cutting- gabmewts
US5330A (en) * 1847-10-16 Improvement in swings
US9949A (en) * 1853-08-16 Boat or scow
US28652A (en) * 1860-06-12 Vapor-lamp
US34209A (en) * 1862-01-21 Improvement in truss-girders for bridges
US54137A (en) * 1866-04-24 Improvement in the manufacture of watch-backs
US91073A (en) * 1869-06-08 blemker
US91599A (en) * 1869-06-22 Improvement in low-water indicators
US99664A (en) * 1870-02-08 Improvement in corsets
US99663A (en) * 1870-02-08 District
US148456A (en) * 1874-03-10 Improvement in stock-frames for platform-scales
US158134A (en) * 1874-12-22 Improvement in paper boxes
US162719A (en) * 1875-04-27 Improvement in fire-extinguishers
US166832A (en) * 1875-08-17 Improvement in corn-shellers
US180326A (en) * 1876-07-25 Improvement in bedsteads
US190326A (en) * 1877-05-01 Improvement in apparatus for crushing, grinding, and separating ore
US193330A (en) * 1877-07-24 Improvement in processes and apparatus for putting up caustic alkali
US194408A (en) * 1877-08-21 Improvement in washing-machines
US197269A (en) * 1877-11-20 Improvement in nailing-machines
US215797A (en) * 1879-05-27 Improvement in valve-gears for steam-engines
US224010A (en) * 1880-02-03 gilso n
US1852A (en) * 1840-11-10 Manner of constructing and shifting the switches used at turnouts on
US5804604A (en) * 1989-12-21 1998-09-08 Biogen, Inc. Tat-derived transport polypeptides and fusion proteins
US6316003B1 (en) * 1989-12-21 2001-11-13 Whitehead Institute For Biomedical Research Tat-derived transport polypeptides
US5747641A (en) * 1989-12-21 1998-05-05 Biogen Inc Tat-derived transport polypeptide conjugates
US5652122A (en) * 1989-12-21 1997-07-29 Frankel; Alan Nucleic acids encoding and methods of making tat-derived transport polypeptides
US5670617A (en) * 1989-12-21 1997-09-23 Biogen Inc Nucleic acid conjugates of tat-derived transport polypeptides
US5674980A (en) * 1989-12-21 1997-10-07 Biogen Inc Fusion protein comprising tat-derived transport moiety
US5656599A (en) * 1991-01-28 1997-08-12 Biogen, Inc. Papillomavirus E2 trans-activation repressors
US5616559A (en) * 1991-01-28 1997-04-01 Biogen, Inc. Papillomavirus E2 trans-activation repressors
US6270769B1 (en) * 1991-07-25 2001-08-07 Idec Pharmaceuticals Corporation Induction of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses
US5585103A (en) * 1991-07-25 1996-12-17 Idec Pharmaceutical Corporation Induction of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses
US5686264A (en) * 1991-11-05 1997-11-11 Board Of Regents, The University Of Texas Sys Compositions and methods relating to transdominant Tat mutants
US5597895A (en) * 1991-11-05 1997-01-28 Board Of Regents, University Of Texas System Transdominant tat mutants and uses thereof
US5889175A (en) * 1993-01-04 1999-03-30 Transgene S.A. Nucleic acids encoding HIV-1 trans-dominant mutants and their use to abrogate HIV-1 viral replication
US6284252B1 (en) * 1993-01-04 2001-09-04 Transgene S.A. Transdominant TAT variants of the human immunodeficiency virus
US5981258A (en) * 1993-12-13 1999-11-09 Transgene S.A. Composition of trans-dominant variants of viral proteins for obtaining an antiviral effect
US6228369B1 (en) * 1993-12-13 2001-05-08 Transgene S.A. Composition of trans-dominant variants of viral proteins for obtaining an anti-viral effect
US6239116B1 (en) * 1994-07-15 2001-05-29 University Of Iowa Research Foundation Immunostimulatory nucleic acid molecules
US6194388B1 (en) * 1994-07-15 2001-02-27 The University Of Iowa Research Foundation Immunomodulatory oligonucleotides
US6207646B1 (en) * 1994-07-15 2001-03-27 University Of Iowa Research Foundation Immunostimulatory nucleic acid molecules
US6132721A (en) * 1995-03-08 2000-10-17 Neovacs Non-Toxic immunogens derived from a retroviral regulatory protein, antibodies, preparation method therefor, and pharmaceutical compositions containing same
US20030003160A1 (en) * 1995-09-01 2003-01-02 Pugh Sydney M. Synthetic biomaterial compound of calcium phosphate phases particularly adapted for supporting bone cell activity
US20020091073A1 (en) * 1995-12-29 2002-07-11 National Jewish Medical And Research Center Method to limit immunodeficiency virus infection and compounds therefor
US6200575B1 (en) * 1996-03-07 2001-03-13 Neovacs Non-toxic immunogens derived from a retroviral regulatory protein antibodies preparation process and pharmaceutical compositions comprising them
US6686333B1 (en) * 1996-10-04 2004-02-03 The United States Of America As Represented By The Department Of Health And Human Resources Inhibition of HIV replication using soluble Tat peptide analogs
US6319666B1 (en) * 1996-10-18 2001-11-20 Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam Induction of REV and TAT specific cytotoxic T-cells for prevention and treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection
US6024965A (en) * 1996-10-18 2000-02-15 Erasums University Rotterdam Induction of REV and TAT specific cytotoxic T-cells for prevention and treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection
US5942401A (en) * 1996-10-18 1999-08-24 Connaught Laboratories Limited Method of determining favorable prognosis against progressing from an asymptomatic condition to AIDS in an human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive subject
US20030091599A1 (en) * 1997-03-10 2003-05-15 Coley Pharmaceutical Gmbh Use of nucleic acids containing unmethylated CpG dinucleotide as an adjuvant
US20030224010A1 (en) * 1997-03-10 2003-12-04 Coley Pharmaceutical Gmbh Use of nucleic acids containing unmethylated CpG dinucleotide as an adjuvant
US6406705B1 (en) * 1997-03-10 2002-06-18 University Of Iowa Research Foundation Use of nucleic acids containing unmethylated CpG dinucleotide as an adjuvant
US6339068B1 (en) * 1997-05-20 2002-01-15 University Of Iowa Research Foundation Vectors and methods for immunization or therapeutic protocols
US20030162719A1 (en) * 1997-05-21 2003-08-28 Rothbard Jonathan B. Method and composition for enhancing transport across biological membranes
US6193981B1 (en) * 1997-07-11 2001-02-27 Thymon L.L.C. Methods and compositions for impairing multiplication of HIV-1
US20030194408A1 (en) * 1997-07-11 2003-10-16 Thymon L.L.C. Methods and compositions for impairing multiplication of HIV-1
US5891994A (en) * 1997-07-11 1999-04-06 Thymon L.L.C. Methods and compositions for impairing multiplication of HIV-1
US20030166832A1 (en) * 1997-07-11 2003-09-04 Thymon L.L.C. Methods and compositions for impairing multiplication of HIV-1
US6525179B1 (en) * 1997-07-11 2003-02-25 Thymon L.L.C. Methods and compositions for impairing multiplication of HIV-1
US6524825B1 (en) * 1997-08-05 2003-02-25 Stressgen Biotechnologies, Inc. Immune responses against HPV antigens elicited by compositions comprising an HPV antigen and a stress protein or an expression vector capable of expression of these proteins
US20030148456A1 (en) * 1997-08-05 2003-08-07 Stressgen Biotechnologies, Inc., A British Columbia, Canada Corporation Immune responses against HPV antigens elicited by compositions comprising an HPV antigen and a stress protein or an expression vector capable of expression of these proteins
US6420141B1 (en) * 1997-12-26 2002-07-16 Neovacs Anti-HIV immunogens (toxoids), preparation methods and use for preventing and treating aids
US20040001852A1 (en) * 1998-07-15 2004-01-01 Neovacs 11, Rue Pernety Use of immunogenic immunosuppressive and/or angiogenic proteins which have been rendered inactive, process for their preparation and pharmaceutical or vaccinal uses
US6497880B1 (en) * 1998-12-08 2002-12-24 Stressgen Biotechnologies Corporation Heat shock genes and proteins from Neisseria meningitidis, Candida glabrata and Aspergillus fumigatus
US20030099664A1 (en) * 1998-12-08 2003-05-29 Stressgen Biotechnologies Corporation, A Victoria, Canada Corporation Heat shock genes and proteins from Neisseria meningitidis, Candida glabrata and Aspergillus fumigatus
US6657055B2 (en) * 1999-07-08 2003-12-02 Stressgen Biotechnologies Corporation Induction of a Th1-like response in vitro
US6495347B1 (en) * 1999-07-08 2002-12-17 Stressgen Biotechnologies Corporation Induction of a Th1-like response in vitro
US6667151B1 (en) * 1999-08-12 2003-12-23 Inist, Inc. Vaccines and immunotherapeutics derived from the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) trans-activator of transcription protein for the treatment and prevention of HIV disease
US20030215797A1 (en) * 1999-08-12 2003-11-20 Cohen David I. Vaccines and immunotherapeutics derived from the human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV) trans-activator of transcription protein for the treatment and prevention of HIV disease
US6593292B1 (en) * 1999-08-24 2003-07-15 Cellgate, Inc. Compositions and methods for enhancing drug delivery across and into epithelial tissues
US20030099663A1 (en) * 1999-10-01 2003-05-29 Cistem Biotechnologies Gmbh Pharmaceutical composition comprising an antigen
US20020197269A1 (en) * 2000-01-28 2002-12-26 Cistem Biotechnologies Gmbh Pharmaceutical composition for immunomodulation and preparation of vaccines
US20030158134A1 (en) * 2000-01-31 2003-08-21 Gerald Voss Vaccine for the prophylactic or therapeutic immunization against hiv
US20030180326A1 (en) * 2000-04-28 2003-09-25 Thymon L.L.C. Methods and compositions for impairing multiplication of HIV-1
US6524582B2 (en) * 2000-04-28 2003-02-25 Thymon L.L.C. Methods and compositions for impairing multiplication of HIV-1
US20040054137A1 (en) * 2000-05-26 2004-03-18 Thomson Scott Anthony Synthetic peptides and uses therefore
US20040028652A1 (en) * 2000-06-02 2004-02-12 Danher Wang Composition and method for stimulating immune response to pathogen using complex adenoviral vector
US6797491B2 (en) * 2000-06-26 2004-09-28 Stressgen Biotechnologies Corporation Human papilloma virus treatment
US20020193330A1 (en) * 2000-09-08 2002-12-19 David Hone Genetically engineered co-expression DNA vaccines, construction methods and uses thereof
US20030190326A1 (en) * 2000-10-06 2003-10-09 Francois Dalenccon Pharmaceutical composition for immunisation against aids
US20040034209A1 (en) * 2001-01-26 2004-02-19 David Ho Vaccination of hiv infected persons following highly active antiretrovial therapy
US20040005330A1 (en) * 2001-12-11 2004-01-08 Jay Rappaport Mutated HIV Tat
US20030232074A1 (en) * 2002-04-04 2003-12-18 Coley Pharmaceutical Gmbh Immunostimulatory G, U-containing oligoribonucleotides
US20040009949A1 (en) * 2002-06-05 2004-01-15 Coley Pharmaceutical Group, Inc. Method for treating autoimmune or inflammatory diseases with combinations of inhibitory oligonucleotides and small molecule antagonists of immunostimulatory CpG nucleic acids

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20110319593A1 (en) * 2008-02-06 2011-12-29 Barbara Ensoli Process for the production of biologically active hiv-1 tat protein
US9428557B2 (en) * 2008-02-06 2016-08-30 Istituto Superiore Di Sanita Process for the production of biologically active HIV-1 tat protein

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
WO2006033665A1 (en) 2006-03-30
WO2005090968A1 (en) 2005-09-29
US20110195078A1 (en) 2011-08-11
US20080155703A1 (en) 2008-06-26
US7927580B2 (en) 2011-04-19

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
Levy et al. Extracellular Vpr protein increases cellular permissiveness to human immunodeficiency virus replication and reactivates virus from latency.
US7504101B2 (en) Methods for enhancing antigen-specific immune response using antibodies that bind OX-40
CA2703947C (en) Therapeutic and diagnostic methods using tim-3
KR100922809B1 (en) Compositions And Methods For Identifying Antigens Which Elicit An Immune Response
JP4873810B2 (en) Using the peptides and nucleic acid compositions, induction of cellular immune response to human immunodeficiency virus-1
KR101523391B1 (en) Compositions and methods for the treatment of infections and tumors
DK2397156T3 (en) Methods and compositions for the treatment of persistent infektio-tions, and cancer by inhibiting programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) -pathwayen.
Kanazawa et al. Tat competes with CIITA for the binding to P-TEFb and blocks the expression of MHC class II genes in HIV infection
Turville et al. Immunodeficiency virus uptake, turnover, and 2-phase transfer in human dendritic cells
JP2018148896A (en) Switch costimulatory receptors
DE69838486T2 (en) HIV-1 Tat, or derivatives thereof for prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination
AU2009319701B2 (en) Methods for the treatment of infections and tumors
EP1425035B1 (en) Use of biologically active hiv-1 tat, fragments or derivatives thereof, to target and/or to activate antigen-presenting cells, and/or to deliver cargo molecules for preventive or therapeutic vaccination and/or to treat other diseases
Ma et al. Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor binds to annexin II, a cofactor for macrophage HIV-1 infection
Moll et al. Inhibition of lipid antigen presentation in dendritic cells by HIV-1 Vpu interference with CD1d recycling from endosomal compartments
Apasov et al. Cell-mediated cytotoxicity: contact and secreted factors
US7868159B2 (en) Modulation of negative immune regulators and applications for immunotherapy
Poccia et al. Heat‐shock protein expression on the membrane of T cells undergoing apoptosis
AU2008332278C1 (en) Cancer vaccine composition
Engelmayer et al. Mature dendritic cells infected with canarypox virus elicit strong anti-human immunodeficiency virus CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell responses from chronically infected individuals
US7868158B2 (en) Modulation of cytokine signaling regulators and applications for immunotherapy
CA2436281A1 (en) Chimeric molecules containing a module able to target specific cells and a module regulating the apoptogenic function of the permeability transition pore complex (ptpc)
JP2003530083A (en) Using the peptides and nucleic acid compositions, induction of cellular immune responses to HER2 / neu
CN102272153A (en) T-cell high affinity receptor and Applications
Luo et al. Engineering human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells to produce a broadly neutralizing anti-HIV antibody after in vitro maturation to human B lymphocytes.

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
STCB Information on status: application discontinuation

Free format text: ABANDONED -- FAILURE TO RESPOND TO AN OFFICE ACTION