US20050163037A1 - Magnetic anisotropy of soft-underlayer induced by magnetron field - Google Patents

Magnetic anisotropy of soft-underlayer induced by magnetron field Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US20050163037A1
US20050163037A1 US11085074 US8507405A US2005163037A1 US 20050163037 A1 US20050163037 A1 US 20050163037A1 US 11085074 US11085074 US 11085074 US 8507405 A US8507405 A US 8507405A US 2005163037 A1 US2005163037 A1 US 2005163037A1
Authority
US
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
magnetic
underlayer
anisotropy
substrate
magnetron
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US11085074
Inventor
Chung-Hee Chang
Rajiv Ranjan
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Seagate Technology LLC
Original Assignee
Seagate Technology LLC
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11BINFORMATION STORAGE BASED ON RELATIVE MOVEMENT BETWEEN RECORD CARRIER AND TRANSDUCER
    • G11B5/00Recording by magnetisation or demagnetisation of a record carrier; Reproducing by magnetic means; Record carriers therefor
    • G11B5/62Record carriers characterised by the selection of the material
    • G11B5/64Record carriers characterised by the selection of the material comprising only the magnetic material without bonding agent
    • G11B5/66Record carriers characterised by the selection of the material comprising only the magnetic material without bonding agent consisting of several layers
    • G11B5/667Record carriers characterised by the selection of the material comprising only the magnetic material without bonding agent consisting of several layers including a soft magnetic layer
    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11BINFORMATION STORAGE BASED ON RELATIVE MOVEMENT BETWEEN RECORD CARRIER AND TRANSDUCER
    • G11B5/00Recording by magnetisation or demagnetisation of a record carrier; Reproducing by magnetic means; Record carriers therefor
    • G11B5/84Processes or apparatus specially adapted for manufacturing record carriers
    • G11B5/851Coating a support with a magnetic layer by sputtering

Abstract

A perpendicular magnetic recording medium having a substrate and a magnetic underlayer on the substrate, the magnetic underlayer having an easy axis of magnetization substantially directed in a radial or transverse direction, and a process for manufacturing the perpendicular magnetic recording medium are disclosed.

Description

    RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • This application claims priority from Provisional Application Ser. No. 60/221,458 filed Jul. 25, 2000, entitled “Uniaxial Anisotropy of Soft-Underlayer Induced by Magnetron Field,” the entire disclosure of which is hereby incorporated herein by reference. This application is also related to the application entitled “Magnetic Anisotropy of Soft-Underlayer Induced by Seedlayer,” filed along with this application, the entire disclosure of which is hereby incorporated herein by reference.
  • FIELD OF INVENTION
  • This invention relates to perpendicular recording media, such as thin film magnetic recording disks having perpendicular recording, and to a method of manufacturing the media. The invention has particular applicability to high areal density magnetic recording media exhibiting low noise.
  • BACKGROUND
  • The increasing demands for higher areal recording density impose increasingly greater demands on thin film magnetic recording media in terms of remanent coercivity (Hr), magnetic remanance (Mr), coercivity squareness (S*), medium noise, i.e., signal-to-medium noise ratio (SMNR), and narrow track recording performance. It is extremely difficult to produce a magnetic recording medium satisfying such demanding requirements.
  • The linear recording density can be increased by increasing the Hr of the magnetic recording medium, and by decreasing the medium noise, as by maintaining very fine magnetically non-coupled grains. Medium noise in thin films is a dominant factor restricting increased recording density of high-density magnetic hard disk drives, and is attributed primarily to inhomogeneous grain size and intergranular exchange coupling. Accordingly, in order to increase linear density, medium noise must be minimized by suitable microstructure control.
  • According to the domain theory, a magnetic material is composed of a number of submicroscopic regions called domains. Each domain contains parallel atomic moments and is always magnetized to saturation, but the directions of magnetization of different domains are not necessarily parallel. In the absence of an applied magnetic field, adjacent domains may be oriented randomly in any number of several directions, called the directions of easy magnetization, which depend on the geometry of the crystal. The resultant effect of all these various directions of magnetization may be zero, as is the case with an unmagnetized specimen. When a magnetic filed is applied, the domains most nearly parallel to the direction of the applied field grow in size at the expense of the others. This is called boundary displacement of the domains or the domain growth. A further increase in magnetic field causes more domains to rotate and align parallel to the applied field. When the material reaches the point of saturation magnetization, no further domain growth would take place on increasing the strength of the magnetic field.
  • The ease of magnetization or demagnetization of a magnetic material depends on the crystal structure, grain orientation, the state of strain, and the direction and strength of the magnetic field. The magnetization is most easily obtained along the easy axis of magnetization but most difficult along the hard axis of magnetization. A magnetic material is said to posses a magnetic anisotropy when easy and hard axes exist. On the other hand, a magnetic material is said to be isotropic when there are no easy or hard axes.
  • “Anisotropy energy” is the difference in energy of magnetization for these two extreme directions, namely, the easy axis of magnetization and the hard axis of magnetization. For example, a single crystal of iron, which is made up of a cubic array of iron atoms, tends to magnetize in the directions of the cube edges along which lie the easy axes of magnetization. A single crystal of iron requires about 1.4×105 ergs/cm3 (at room temperature) to move magnetization into the hard axis of magnetization, which is along a cubic body diagonal.
  • The anisotropy energy UA could be expressed in an ascending power series of the direction cosines between the magnetization and the crystal axes. For cubic crystals, the lowest-order terms take the form of Equation (1),
    U A =K 11 2α2 22 2α3 23 2α1 2)+K 21 2α2 2α3 2)  (1)
    where α1, α2 and α3 are direction cosines with respect to the cube, and K1 and K2 are temperature-dependent parameters characteristic of the material, called anisotropy constants.
  • Anisotropy constants can be determined from (1) analysis of magnetization curves, (2) the torque on single crystals in a large applied field, and (3) single crystal magnetic resonance.
  • The total energy of a magnetic substance depends upon the state of strain in the magnetic material and the direction of magnetization through three contributions. The first two consist of the crystalline anisotropy energy of the unstrained lattice plus a correction that takes into account the dependence of the anisotropy energy on the state of strain. The third contribution is that of the elastic energy, which is independent of magnetization direction and is a minimum in the unstrained state. The state of strain of the crystal will be that which makes the sum of the three contributions of the energy a minimum. The result is that, when magnetized, the lattice is always distorted from the unstrained state, unless there is no anisotropy.
  • “Magnetostriction” refers to the changes in dimension of a magnetic material when it is placed in magnetic field. It is caused by the rotation of domains of a magnetic material under the action of magnetic field. The rotation of domains gives rise to internal strains in the material, causing its contraction or expansion.
  • The requirements for high areal density impose increasingly greater requirements on magnetic recording media in terms of coercivity, remanent squareness, low medium noise and narrow track recording performance. It is extremely difficult to produce a magnetic recording medium satisfying such demanding requirements, particularly a high-density magnetic rigid disk medium for longitudinal and perpendicular recording. The magnetic anisotropy of longitudinal and perpendicular recording media makes the easily magnetized direction of the media located in the film plane and perpendicular to the film plane, respectively. The remanent magnetic moment of the magnetic media after magnetic recording or writing of longitudinal and perpendicular media is located in the film plane and perpendicular to the film plane, respectively.
  • A substrate material conventionally employed in producing magnetic recording rigid disks comprises an aluminum-magnesium (Al—Mg) alloy. Such Al—Mg alloys are typically electrolessly plated with a layer of NiP at a thickness of about 15 microns to increase the hardness of the substrates, thereby providing a suitable surface for polishing to provide the requisite surface roughness or texture.
  • Other substrate materials have been employed, such as glass, e.g., an amorphous glass, glass-ceramic material which comprises a mixture of amorphous and crystalline materials, and ceramic materials. Glass-ceramic materials do not normally exhibit a crystalline surface. Glasses and glass-ceramics generally exhibit high resistance to shocks.
  • FIG. 1 shows the schematic arrangement of a magnetic disk drive 10 using a rotary actuator. A disk or medium 11 is mounted on a spindle 12 and rotated at a predetermined speed. The rotary actuator comprises an arm 15 to which is coupled a suspension 14. A magnetic head 13 is mounted at the distal end of the suspension 14. The magnetic head 13 is brought into contact with the recording/reproduction surface of the disk 11. The rotary actuator could have several suspensions and multiple magnetic heads to allow for simultaneous recording and reproduction on and from both surfaces of each medium.
  • An electromagnetic converting portion (not shown) for recording/reproducing information is mounted on the magnetic head 13. The arm 15 has a bobbin portion for holding a driving coil (not shown). A voice coil motor 19 as a kind of linear motor is provided to the other end of the arm 15. The voice motor 19 has the driving coil wound on the bobbin portion of the arm 15 and a magnetic circuit (not shown). The magnetic circuit comprises a permanent magnet and a counter yoke. The magnetic circuit opposes the driving coil to sandwich it. The arm 15 is swingably supported by ball bearings (not shown) provided at the upper and lower portions of a pivot portion 17. The ball bearings provided around the pivot portion 17 are held by a carriage portion (not shown).
  • A magnetic head support mechanism is controlled by a positioning servo driving system. The positioning servo driving system comprises a feedback control circuit having a head position detection sensor (not shown), a power supply (not shown), and a controller (not shown). When a signal is supplied from the controller to the respective power supplies based on the detection result of the position of the magnetic head 13, the driving coil of the voice coil motor 19 and the piezoelectric element (not shown) of the head portion are driven.
  • A cross sectional view of a conventional longitudinal recording disk medium is depicted in FIG. 2. A longitudinal recording medium typically comprises a non-magnetic substrate 20 having sequentially deposited on each side thereof an underlayer 21, 21′, such as chromium (Cr) or Cr-alloy, a magnetic layer 22, 22′, typically comprising a cobalt (Co)-base alloy, and a protective overcoat 23, 23′, typically containing carbon. Conventional practices also comprise bonding a lubricant topcoat (not shown) to the protective overcoat. Underlayer 21, 21′, magnetic layer 22, 22′, and protective overcoat 23, 23′, are typically deposited by sputtering techniques. The Co-base alloy magnetic layer deposited by conventional techniques normally comprises polycrystallites epitaxially grown on the polycrystal Cr or Cr-alloy underlayer.
  • The underlayer and magnetic layer are conventionally sequentially sputter deposited on the substrate in an inert gas atmosphere, such as an atmosphere of pure argon. A conventional carbon overcoat is typically deposited in argon with nitrogen, hydrogen or ethylene. Conventional lubricant topcoats are typically about 20 Å thick.
  • It is recognized that the magnetic properties, such as Hr, Mr, S* and SMNR, which are critical to the performance of a magnetic alloy film, depend primarily upon the microstructure of the magnetic layer which, in turn, is influenced by one or more underlying layers on which it is deposited. It is also recognized that an underlayer made of soft magnetic films is useful in perpendicular recording media because a relatively thick (compared to magnetic layer) soft underlayer provides a return path for the read-write head and amplifies perpendicular component of the write field in the recording layer. However, Barkhausen noise caused by domain wall motions in the soft underlayer can be a significant noise source. Since the orientation of the domains can be controlled by the magnetic anisotropy, introducing a magnetic anisotropy in the soft underlayer would be one way to suppress Barkhausen noise. When the magnetic anisotropy is sufficiently large, the domains would preferably orient themselves along the anisotropy axis.
  • The magnetic anisotropy could be controlled in several ways in the soft magnetic thin film materials. The most frequently applied methods are post-deposition annealing while applying a magnetic field and applying a bias magnetic field during deposition. However, both methods can cause complications in the disk manufacturing process.
  • A “soft magnetic” material is material that is easily magnetized and demagnetized. As compared to a soft magnetic material, a “hard magnetic” material is one that neither magnetizes nor demagnetizes easily. The problem of making soft magnetic materials conventionally is that they usually have many crystalline boundaries and crystal grains oriented in many directions. In such metals, the magnetization process is accompanied by much irreversible Block wall motion and by much rotation against anisotropy, which is usually irreversible. See Mc-Graw Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology, Vol. 5, 366 (1982). Mc-Graw Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology further states that the preferred soft material would be a material fabricated by some inexpensive technique that results in all crystal grains being oriented in the same or nearly the same direction. Id. Applicants, however, have found that “all grains” oriented in the same direction would be very difficult to produce and would not be the “preferred soft material.” In fact, applicants have found that very high anisotropy is not desirable.
  • This invention describes how one can create magnetic anisotropy in soft underlayer by maximizing the effect of a magnetron field and minimizing magnetostriction effect.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • The invention provides a perpendicular magnetic recording medium having high areal recording density exhibiting low noise. One way of achieving this goal is to produce a magnetic film in the perpendicular magnetic recording medium with an easy axis substantially directed in a transverse direction to a traveling direction of a read-write head.
  • One embodiment is a recording device for perpendicular recording comprising a magnetic head and a recording medium, the recording medium comprising a substrate and a magnetic underlayer on the substrate, the underlayer comprising an easy axis of magnetization directed in a direction substantially transverse to a traveling direction of the magnetic head. The underlayer could comprise a substantially radial or transverse anisotropy.
  • The underlayer could comprise a soft magnetic material. The underlayer provides a return path for a recording head. The underlayer could also amplify a perpendicular component of a write field in a recording layer overlying the underlayer. Preferably, the underlayer would have low magnetostriction about 0, typically lower than 1-5×10−6. The underlayer could comprise a material selected from the group consisting of a permalloy, a CoZrNb alloy, a NiFe alloy and a FeAlN alloy. The recording medium could be a disk, a tape or any other device capable of recording data.
  • In one embodiment, the underlayer has the easy axis of magnetization induced by a magnetron field and the thickness of the underlayer could be about 200-400 nm.
  • Another embodiment is a method for manufacturing a magnetic recording disk for perpendicular recording, comprising applying a magnetron field and depositing an underlayer on a substrate, wherein the underlayer could comprise an easy axis of magnetization directed in a radial direction of the magnetic recording disk. The method could further comprise heating the substrate. The step of depositing an underlayer could be by sputtering, wherein the sputtering could be a reactive sputtering. In one variation, the substrate is kept stationary during the depositing a magnetic underlayer, wherein a diameter of a magnetron source producing the magnetron field is larger than a diameter of the substrate. In another variation, the substrate is rotated during the depositing a magnetic underlayer, wherein a size of a magnetron source producing the magnetron field is smaller or comparable to a diameter of the substrate and the substrate is placed off-center with respect to the magnetron source.
  • Another embodiment is a disk drive comprising a magnetic recording disk for perpendicular recording, wherein the magnetic recording disk comprises a substrate and a magnetic underlayer on the substrate, wherein the underlayer comprises an easy axis of magnetization directed in a radial direction of the magnetic recording disk.
  • Yet another embodiment is a magnetic recording disk for perpendicular recording, comprising a substrate and means for providing a return path for a recording head. In this invention, means for providing a return path for a recording head comprises a soft magnetic layer having an easy axis of magnetization directed in a radial direction of the magnetic recording disk or directed in a transverse direction of a traveling direction of a magnetic head traveling over a tape or disk during a read-write operation.
  • As will be realized, this invention is capable of other and different embodiments, and its details are capable of modifications in various obvious respects, all without departing from this invention. Accordingly, the drawings and description are to be regarded as illustrative in nature and not as restrictive.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • FIG. 1 is a view of a magnetic disk drive.
  • FIG. 2 is a schematic representation of the film structure in accordance with a magnetic recording medium of the prior art.
  • FIG. 3 is perspective view of a magnetic head and a magnetic disk of a perpendicular recording disk medium.
  • FIGS. 4 a and 4 b are schematic diagrams of a magnetron source and disk substrate in embodiments of this invention showing a fixed magnetron source centered and off-centered from the center of a rotating disk substrate.
  • FIG. 5 is a schematic representation of the film structure in accordance with a magnetic recording medium of this invention.
  • FIG. 6 shows hysteresis loops of an as-deposited CoZr5Nb4 film measured in radial and circumferential directions using a DMS vector VSM.
  • FIG. 7 shows the hysteresis loops measured in radial and circumferential directions of a FeAlN film.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • A perpendicular recording disk medium, shown in FIG. 3, is similar to the longitudinal recording medium depicted in FIG. 2, but with the following differences. First, a perpendicular recording disk medium has soft magnetic underlayer 31 of an alloy such as Permalloy instead of a Cr-containing underlayer. Second, as shown in FIG. 3, magnetic layer 32 of the perpendicular recording disk medium comprises domains oriented in a direction perpendicular to the plane of the substrate 30. Also, shown in FIG. 3 are the following: (a) read-write head 33 located on the recording medium, (b) traveling direction 34 of head 33 and (c) transverse direction 35 with respect to the traveling direction 34.
  • This invention provides magnetic recording media suitable for high areal recording density exhibiting high SMNR. This invention achieves such technological advantages by forming a substantially radial anisotropy in a soft underlayer. The underlayer is “soft” because it made of a soft magnetic material and it is called an “underlayer” because it resides under a recording layer. A seedlayer, on the other hand, is a layer lying in between the substrate and the underlayer.
  • In a preferred embodiment, a magnetron field produces the radial anisotropy in the soft underlayer. In a magnetron, electrons generated from a heated cathode move under the combined force of a radial electric field and an axial magnetic field. By its structure, a magnetron causes moving electrons to interact synchronously with traveling-wave components of a microwave standing-wave pattern in such a manner that electron potential energy is converted to microwave energy with high efficiency.
  • The magnetron is a device of essentially cylindrical symmetry. On the central axis is a hollow cylindrical cathode. The outer surface of the cathode carries electron-emitting materials, primarily barium and strontium oxides in a nickel matrix. Such a matrix is capable of emitting electrons when current flows through the heater inside the cathode cylinder.
  • At a radius somewhat larger than the outer radius of the cathode is a concentric cylindrical anode. The anode serves two functions: (1) to collect electrons emitted by the cathode and (2) to store and guide microwave energy. The anode comprises a series of quarter-wavelength cavity resonators symmetrically arranged around the cathode.
  • A radial dc electric field (perpendicular to the cathode) is applied between cathode and anode. This electric field and the axial magnetic field (parallel and coaxial with the cathode) introduced by pole pieces at either end of the cathode, as described above, provide the required crossed-field configuration.
  • The phrase “an easy axis of magnetization directed in a direction substantially transverse to a traveling direction of the magnetic head” means that the easy axis of magnetization is directed more toward a direction transverse to the traveling direction of the read-write head than toward the traveling direction. Also, the phrase “a substantially radial or transverse anisotropy” means that the domains of the soft magnetic material of the underlayer are directed more toward a direction transverse to the traveling direction of the read-write head than toward the traveling direction.
  • Typically, when a magnetic recording medium is a tape, the tape travels and the head is stationary. Therefore, “a traveling direction of the magnetic head” of a stationary head of a recording device in which the magnetic recording tape moves is the direction in which the head “travels” spatially with respect to the magnetic recording tape.
  • In one embodiment of this invention, fixed magnetron sources with inner-and-outer magnet poles are used in a single disk type sputtering machine. Shunts are placed in the gap between the inner and outer magnet poles. Soft magnetic films with low magnetostriction are sputtered using the above magnetron sources on super-smooth disk substrates. Low magnetostriction is obtained by choosing either proper material such as permalloy and CoZrNb or proper sputtering conditions for the materials with higher magnetostriction such as NiFe55 and FeAlN. The disk substrates are kept either stationary (Example I) or rotating (Example II), depending upon the relative size of the magnetron source and the disk substrate. In Example I, the diameter of the source is larger than that of disks, and disks are concentric with the source during sputtering. In Example II, the size of magnetron source is smaller or comparable to that of the disk, and vertical distance between the source and substrate is relatively small.
  • A disk substrate 41 is placed centered (FIG. 4 a) and off-centered (FIG. 4 b) with a target 42, to minimize stress in the films. In FIG. 4 a, the magnet array in the circular magnetron is symmetrical and the disk and magnetron are in concentric geometry. Therefore, no relative motion between magnetron and disk substrate is required. In another variation of the method shown in FIG. 4 a, the magnet array in circular magnetron can be asymmetrical. Thus either the disk or magnetron should be rotated to provide a radial field to the disk. However, as shown in FIG. 4 b, even if the disk is off-centered from the magnetron, a net field can be applied in the radial direction of the disk when the disk is rotated. Offset should be adjusted to obtain a radial field on the whole disk, depending upon size of disk, magnetron pack and magnetron field profile. The soft-underlayers manufactured according to the current methods had radial magnetic anisotropy induced by a field.
  • The term “induced” is used because magnetron field is external factor that causes anisotropy. Unlike magnetic anisotropy caused by magnetocrystalline or shape anisotropy, anisotropy formed by magnetron field is considered as induced anisotropy.
  • Applicants recognized that the soft-underlayers manufactured according to the current methods have radial magnetic anisotropy induced by a field by considering all possible origins of magnetic anisotropy:
  • (1) Magnetocrystalline anisotropy: Sputtered thin films listed as examples in this application form poly-crystalline microstructure. Crystallographic orientation of micro-crystals in the films is random in the plane of disk. There is no reason why they form differently in radial and circumferential direction. Therefore, the disks of this invention do not have magnetocrystalline anisotropy.
  • (2) Shape anisotropy: This also does not explain the anisotropy between radial and circumferential direction of the disks of this invention.
  • (3) Stress anisotropy: Magnetostriction can cause stress-induced anisotropy. However, the disks of this invention had very low magnetostriction effect and, therefore, there could be substantially no stress anisotropy in the disks of this invention.
  • (4) External field induced anisotropy: When an external magnetic field is applied during film deposition, it can create short-range ordering that produces magnetic anisotropy in the direction of applied field. This method is used in manufacturing a read-write head of a recording medium. Similarly, this invention utilizes a magnetron field to apply a field in the radial direction of disks to produce radial anisotropy.
  • In accordance with embodiments of this invention, the substrates that may be used in the invention include glass, glass-ceramic, NiP/aluminum, metal alloys, plastic/polymer material, ceramic, glass-polymer, composite materials or other non-magnetic materials.
  • A preferred embodiment of a perpendicular recording medium of this invention is shown in FIG. 5. The thickness of soft magnetic underlayer 52 is about 200-400 nm, and the thickness of magnetic layer 55 deposited on the underlayer is about 20 nm. In between the soft magnetic underlayer 52 and the magnetic layer 55 could be intermediate layers 53 and 54 of thickness of about 5-10 nm. Protective layer 56 typically covers the magnetic layer 55.
  • A perpendicular recording medium of this invention comprises a soft underlayer and a recording layer. A soft underlayer should preferably be made of soft magnetic materials and the recording layer should preferably be made of hard magnetic materials. A soft underlayer is relatively thick compared to other layers. Any layers between the soft underlayer and the recording layer is called interlayer or intermediate layer. An interlayer can be made of more than one layer of non-magnetic materials. The purpose of the interlayer is to prevent an interaction between the soft magnetic underlayer and recording layer. An interlayer could also promote the desired properties of the recording layer. Conventional (longitudinal) media do not have a soft magnetic underlayer. Therefore, the layers named as “underlayer,” “seed layer,” “sub-seed layer,” or “buffer layer” of longitudinal media are somewhat equivalent to the intermediate layer(s) of perpendicular media.
  • “Anisotropy” in the examples below was determined as follows. First, the hysteresis loops of the soft underlayer material were measured along both the radial and circumferential directions of the magnetic recording disk. For example, FIGS. 6 and 7 show representative hysteresis loops of the two soft underlayer materials of Examples 1 and 2, discussed below. From FIG. 6 one can see that external field of about 1 Oe can saturate the underlayer used in the disk of example of FIG. 6 when a field is applied in the radial direction, while about 20 Oe is necessary to saturate the sample in circumferential direction. In other words, it is easier to saturate the sample in radial direction than in circumferential direction. Thus, radial and circumferential directions are called the easy and hard axis, respectively.
  • The underlayers of the disks whose hysteresis loops are shown in FIG. 6 also have radial anisotropy. If there would be no anisotropy, the hysteresis loops for the radial and circumferential directions would superimpose on each other. The fact that these two hysteresis loops do not superimpose over one another indicates that the magnetic underlayer material has anisotropy. With reference to the hysteresis loops of FIG. 6, “anisotropy” is determined as follows.
  • (1) A straight line that goes through the origin and represents the slope of the initial portion of the hard axis hysteresis loop passing through or near the origin is drawn.
  • (2) The saturated part of the easy axis hysteresis loop is extended until it intersects with the line drawn in step (1).
  • (3) The field that corresponds to the intersection of the two lines drawn in steps (1) and (2) is called Hk and it is a measure of the radial anisotropy of the soft magnetic underlayer sample.
  • In particular, the soft magnetic underlayers of the disks whose hysteresis loops are shown in FIGS. 6 and 7 have radial anisotropy values of 17 Oe and 30 Oe, respectively.
  • EXAMPLES
  • All samples described in this disclosure were fabricated with DC magnetron sputtering except carbon films were made with AC magnetron sputtering.
  • Example I
  • A single-disk type of sputtering machine with multi-vacuum chambers was used for fabricating CoZr5Nb4 alloy films as shown in FIG. 4 a. The diameter of magnetron source and disk were 7 inch and 84 mm, respectively. The films were sputtered on either heated or unheated substrates in argon gas pressure of 3 to 6 mtorr using 1 to 4 kW DC power. The hysteresis loops of an as-deposited CoZr5Nb4 film measured in radial and circumferential direction using a DMS vector VSM are shown in FIG. 6. A “DMS vector VSM” is Model 10 VSM provided by Digital Measurement Systems. It is called vector VSM because the direction of field can be changed arbitrary with respect to sample.
  • The particular film of the disk whose hysteresis loop is shown in FIG. 6 was sputtered on unheated disk substrate by applying 4 kW power at argon pressure of 3 mtorr. Hysteresis loops of the films sputtered in different conditions showed similar characteristics as shown in FIG. 6, due to low magnetostriction, which is insensitive to deposition conditions. The term “different conditions” means different sputtering conditions such as different power and pressure, i.e., a wide sputtering process window is available to obtain CoZrNb films with low magnetostriction and thus obtain radial anisotropy induced by magnetron field. The term “similar characteristics” means that the soft underlayer has very low coercivity (1 Oe or less) in both radial and circumferential directions and it has a radial magnetic anisotropy of order of 15 Oe. As-deposited CoZr5Nb4 films sputtered in any conditions had radial anisotropy induced by a magnetron field.
  • This method could be used with NiFe alloys. Due to different dependency of magnetostriction on the composition of the alloy, proper sputtering conditions that allow a magnetron field to take a full effect on inducing anisotropy are different for different compositions. For example, NiFe25 films that had almost zero magnetostriction showed the strongest radial anisotropy when they were sputtered on an unheated substrate with relatively low power, whereas NiFe40 films were radially anisotropic when they were sputtered on heated substrates.
  • Example II
  • A single-disk type of sputtering machine containing a multi-magnetron source was used for fabricating FeAlN films as shown in FIG. 4 b. The diameter of the magnetron source was 3 inch, and the diameter of disk was 84 mm or larger. The films were sputtered on unheated substrates in the mixture of argon and nitrogen gas by reactive sputtering using FeAl alloy target. Nitrogen gas flow % and total gas pressure was varied from 0 to 15% and 3 to 15 mtorr, respectively. The DC power was fixed at 400 W and offset was varied from about 0.25 to 1.55 inch. Here, offset is defined as the horizontal distance between the center of the disk and the center of the source. The disk substrates were rotated in 50 rpm. The orientation of magnetic anisotropy and the magnitude of the anisotropy field of the films showed very complicated dependency on nitrogen %, total gas pressure, and thickness. The films sputtered at large offset with low nitrogen flow % showed radial anisotropy induced by magnetron field. FIG. 7 shows the hysteresis loops measured in radial and circumferential directions for a 400 nm thick film sputtered at 1.55 inch offset. The film was sputtered at 2% nitrogen flow and total gas pressure of 3 mtorr, and showed radial anisotropy.
  • By this invention, radial magnetic anisotropy can be induced in soft underlayer films deposited on disk substrates by using a fixed pole DC-magnetron sputtering source. Magnetostriction effects on the anisotropy need to be minimized by choosing materials with low magnetostriction, or adjusting sputtering conditions.
  • The above description is presented to enable a person skilled in the art to make and use the invention, and is provided in the context of a particular application and its requirements. Various modifications to the preferred embodiments will be readily apparent to those skilled in the art, and the generic principles defined herein may be applied to other embodiments and applications without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. Thus, this invention is not intended to be limited to the embodiments shown, but is to be accorded the widest scope consistent with the principles and features disclosed herein.
  • This application discloses several numerical range limitations. Persons skilled in the art would recognize that the numerical ranges disclosed inherently support any range within the disclosed numerical ranges even though a precise range limitation is not stated verbatim in the specification because this invention can be practiced throughout the disclosed numerical ranges. A holding to the contrary would “let form triumph over substance” and allow the written description requirement to eviscerate claims that might be narrowed during prosecution simply because the applicants broadly disclose in this application but then might narrow their claims during prosecution. Finally, the entire disclosure of the patents and publications referred in this application are hereby incorporated herein by reference.

Claims (10)

  1. 1-21. (canceled)
  2. 22. A method for manufacturing a magnetic recording disk for perpendicular recording, comprising:
    applying a magnetron field and
    depositing an underlayer on a substrate,
    wherein the underlayer comprises an easy axis of magnetization directed in a radial direction of the magnetic recording disk.
  3. 23. The method of claim 22, further comprising heating the substrate.
  4. 24. The method of claim 22, wherein the depositing an underlayer is by sputtering.
  5. 25. The method of claim 24, wherein the sputtering is a reactive sputtering.
  6. 26. The method of claim 22, wherein the substrate is kept stationary during said depositing a magnetic underlayer.
  7. 27. The method of claim 26, wherein a diameter of a magnetron source producing the magnetron field is larger than a diameter of the substrate.
  8. 28. The method of claim 22, wherein the substrate is rotated during said depositing a magnetic underlayer.
  9. 29. The method of claim 28, wherein a size of a magnetron source producing the magnetron field is smaller or comparable to a diameter of the substrate.
  10. 30. The method of claim 29, wherein the substrate is placed off-center with respect to the magnetron source.
US11085074 2000-07-25 2005-03-22 Magnetic anisotropy of soft-underlayer induced by magnetron field Abandoned US20050163037A1 (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US22145800 true 2000-07-25 2000-07-25
US09873263 US6914749B2 (en) 2000-07-25 2001-06-05 Magnetic anisotropy of soft-underlayer induced by magnetron field
US11085074 US20050163037A1 (en) 2000-07-25 2005-03-22 Magnetic anisotropy of soft-underlayer induced by magnetron field

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US11085074 US20050163037A1 (en) 2000-07-25 2005-03-22 Magnetic anisotropy of soft-underlayer induced by magnetron field

Related Parent Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US09873263 Division US6914749B2 (en) 2000-07-25 2001-06-05 Magnetic anisotropy of soft-underlayer induced by magnetron field

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20050163037A1 true true US20050163037A1 (en) 2005-07-28

Family

ID=26915806

Family Applications (2)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US09873263 Expired - Fee Related US6914749B2 (en) 2000-07-25 2001-06-05 Magnetic anisotropy of soft-underlayer induced by magnetron field
US11085074 Abandoned US20050163037A1 (en) 2000-07-25 2005-03-22 Magnetic anisotropy of soft-underlayer induced by magnetron field

Family Applications Before (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US09873263 Expired - Fee Related US6914749B2 (en) 2000-07-25 2001-06-05 Magnetic anisotropy of soft-underlayer induced by magnetron field

Country Status (1)

Country Link
US (2) US6914749B2 (en)

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20070248843A1 (en) * 2006-04-21 2007-10-25 Seagate Technology Llc Corrosion-resistant granular magnetic media with improved recording performance and methods of manufacturing same

Families Citing this family (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2004001779A1 (en) * 2002-06-21 2003-12-31 Seagate Technology Llc Method of producing nife alloy films having magnetic anisotropy and magnetic storage media including such films
JP3730627B2 (en) * 2003-02-28 2006-01-05 昭和電工株式会社 The magnetic recording medium and a magnetic recording and reproducing apparatus
JP4220475B2 (en) * 2003-03-19 2009-02-04 富士通株式会社 The magnetic recording medium and a method for producing the same, and a magnetic recording apparatus and magnetic recording method
US7616403B2 (en) * 2004-10-29 2009-11-10 Hitachi Global Storage Technologies Netherlands B.V. Winged design for reducing corner stray magnetic fields
US7508628B2 (en) * 2004-10-29 2009-03-24 Hitachi Global Storage Technologies Netherlands B.V. Winged pole and shield structure for reducing stray field in a perpendicular write head
US8147996B2 (en) * 2005-06-07 2012-04-03 Seagate Technology Llc Perpendicular media with dual soft magnetic layers
JP2007272999A (en) * 2006-03-31 2007-10-18 Shin Etsu Chem Co Ltd Substrate for magnetic recording medium, its manufacturing method and magnetic recording medium
US8114470B2 (en) * 2008-11-26 2012-02-14 Seagate Technology Llc Reduced spacing recording apparatus
US8685547B2 (en) 2009-02-19 2014-04-01 Seagate Technology Llc Magnetic recording media with enhanced writability and thermal stability
US9142240B2 (en) 2010-07-30 2015-09-22 Seagate Technology Llc Apparatus including a perpendicular magnetic recording layer having a convex magnetic anisotropy profile

Citations (21)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4776938A (en) * 1985-10-07 1988-10-11 Victor Company Of Japan, Ltd. Method of producing magnetic disc
US4847161A (en) * 1986-12-19 1989-07-11 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Magnetically anisotropic recording medium
US4904543A (en) * 1987-04-23 1990-02-27 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Compositionally modulated, nitrided alloy films and method for making the same
US5026470A (en) * 1989-12-19 1991-06-25 International Business Machines Sputtering apparatus
US5226966A (en) * 1989-12-27 1993-07-13 Digital Equipment Corporation Apparatus for providing uniaxial anisotropy in a magnetic recording disk
US5415754A (en) * 1993-10-22 1995-05-16 Sierra Applied Sciences, Inc. Method and apparatus for sputtering magnetic target materials
US5650958A (en) * 1996-03-18 1997-07-22 International Business Machines Corporation Magnetic tunnel junctions with controlled magnetic response
US5660930A (en) * 1994-04-04 1997-08-26 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Multilayered thin films for perpendicular magnetic recording
US5668688A (en) * 1996-05-24 1997-09-16 Quantum Peripherals Colorado, Inc. Current perpendicular-to-the-plane spin valve type magnetoresistive transducer
US5736235A (en) * 1990-08-20 1998-04-07 Hitachi, Ltd. Magnetic recording medium having at least two magnetic layers with easy axes oriented in the same direction
US5854727A (en) * 1994-09-30 1998-12-29 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Magnetic head and magnetic disk drive
US5898548A (en) * 1997-10-24 1999-04-27 International Business Machines Corporation Shielded magnetic tunnel junction magnetoresistive read head
US5922442A (en) * 1996-04-26 1999-07-13 Hmt Technology Corporation Magnetic recording medium having a CoCr alloy interlayer of a low saturation magnetization
US5933297A (en) * 1992-04-13 1999-08-03 Hitach, Ltd. Magnetic storage/read system with read head including magnetoresistive element
US5995338A (en) * 1995-07-25 1999-11-30 Hitachi, Ltd. Magnetoresistive head and magnetic disk apparatus
US6111784A (en) * 1997-09-18 2000-08-29 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Magnetic thin film memory element utilizing GMR effect, and recording/reproduction method using such memory element
US6123814A (en) * 1995-03-31 2000-09-26 Balzers Aktiengesellschaft Coating station
US6171693B1 (en) * 1998-10-27 2001-01-09 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Structures with improved magnetic characteristics for giant magneto-resistance applications
US6198609B1 (en) * 1998-11-09 2001-03-06 Read-Rite Corporation CPP Magnetoresistive device with reduced edge effect and method for making same
US20020071208A1 (en) * 2000-12-08 2002-06-13 Sharat Batra Perpendicular magnetic recording head to reduce side writing
US6531202B1 (en) * 1999-11-29 2003-03-11 Seagate Technology Llc Perpendicular magnetic recording media with reduced-noise soft magnetic underlayer

Patent Citations (22)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4776938A (en) * 1985-10-07 1988-10-11 Victor Company Of Japan, Ltd. Method of producing magnetic disc
US4847161A (en) * 1986-12-19 1989-07-11 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Magnetically anisotropic recording medium
US4904543A (en) * 1987-04-23 1990-02-27 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Compositionally modulated, nitrided alloy films and method for making the same
US5026470A (en) * 1989-12-19 1991-06-25 International Business Machines Sputtering apparatus
US5226966A (en) * 1989-12-27 1993-07-13 Digital Equipment Corporation Apparatus for providing uniaxial anisotropy in a magnetic recording disk
US5736235A (en) * 1990-08-20 1998-04-07 Hitachi, Ltd. Magnetic recording medium having at least two magnetic layers with easy axes oriented in the same direction
US5933297A (en) * 1992-04-13 1999-08-03 Hitach, Ltd. Magnetic storage/read system with read head including magnetoresistive element
US5415754A (en) * 1993-10-22 1995-05-16 Sierra Applied Sciences, Inc. Method and apparatus for sputtering magnetic target materials
US5660930A (en) * 1994-04-04 1997-08-26 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Multilayered thin films for perpendicular magnetic recording
US5995341A (en) * 1994-09-30 1999-11-30 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Magnetic disk drive recording a signal with a skew angle
US5854727A (en) * 1994-09-30 1998-12-29 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Magnetic head and magnetic disk drive
US6123814A (en) * 1995-03-31 2000-09-26 Balzers Aktiengesellschaft Coating station
US5995338A (en) * 1995-07-25 1999-11-30 Hitachi, Ltd. Magnetoresistive head and magnetic disk apparatus
US5650958A (en) * 1996-03-18 1997-07-22 International Business Machines Corporation Magnetic tunnel junctions with controlled magnetic response
US5922442A (en) * 1996-04-26 1999-07-13 Hmt Technology Corporation Magnetic recording medium having a CoCr alloy interlayer of a low saturation magnetization
US5668688A (en) * 1996-05-24 1997-09-16 Quantum Peripherals Colorado, Inc. Current perpendicular-to-the-plane spin valve type magnetoresistive transducer
US6111784A (en) * 1997-09-18 2000-08-29 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Magnetic thin film memory element utilizing GMR effect, and recording/reproduction method using such memory element
US5898548A (en) * 1997-10-24 1999-04-27 International Business Machines Corporation Shielded magnetic tunnel junction magnetoresistive read head
US6171693B1 (en) * 1998-10-27 2001-01-09 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Structures with improved magnetic characteristics for giant magneto-resistance applications
US6198609B1 (en) * 1998-11-09 2001-03-06 Read-Rite Corporation CPP Magnetoresistive device with reduced edge effect and method for making same
US6531202B1 (en) * 1999-11-29 2003-03-11 Seagate Technology Llc Perpendicular magnetic recording media with reduced-noise soft magnetic underlayer
US20020071208A1 (en) * 2000-12-08 2002-06-13 Sharat Batra Perpendicular magnetic recording head to reduce side writing

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20070248843A1 (en) * 2006-04-21 2007-10-25 Seagate Technology Llc Corrosion-resistant granular magnetic media with improved recording performance and methods of manufacturing same
US7691499B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2010-04-06 Seagate Technology Llc Corrosion-resistant granular magnetic media with improved recording performance and methods of manufacturing same

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
US20020025452A1 (en) 2002-02-28 application
US6914749B2 (en) 2005-07-05 grant

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
Piramanayagam Perpendicular recording media for hard disk drives
US5605733A (en) Magnetic recording medium, method for its production, and system for its use
US6834026B2 (en) Method for thermally-assisted recording on a magnetic recording disk
US6156404A (en) Method of making high performance, low noise isotropic magnetic media including a chromium underlayer
US8431258B2 (en) Perpendicular magnetic recording medium and method of manufacturing the same
US5759681A (en) Magnetic recording medium and magnetic recording system using the same
US5589262A (en) Perpendicular magnetic recording medium having a soft magnetic underlayer with a stripe magnetic domain structure
Lambeth et al. Media for 10 Gb/in. 2 hard disk storage: issues and status
US7910159B2 (en) Radial magnetic field reset system for producing single domain soft magnetic underlayer on perpendicular magnetic recording medium
US6174597B1 (en) Magnetic recording apparatus
US7282278B1 (en) Tilted recording media with L10 magnetic layer
US5763071A (en) High areal density magnetic recording medium with dual magnetic layers
US5989728A (en) Thin film magnetic recording medium having high coercivity
US20090117408A1 (en) Perpendicular magnetic recording disk and method of manufacturing the same
US5652054A (en) Magnetic recording media having a magnetic thin film made of magnetic metals grains and nonmagnetic matrix
US20070292720A1 (en) Multilayer Exchange Spring Recording Media
US20020037439A1 (en) Multilayer magnetic recording media with columnar microstructure for improved exchange decoupling
US6818330B2 (en) Perpendicular recording medium with antiferromagnetic exchange coupling in soft magnetic underlayers
US6383668B1 (en) Magnetic recording media with antiferromagnetically coupled host layer for the magnetic recording layer
US20050202286A1 (en) Inter layers for perpendicular recording media
US6562489B2 (en) Magnetic recording medium and magnetic storage apparatus
US7038873B2 (en) Magnetic recording medium having a specific relation of coercive force HC and residual magnetization MR in perpendicular direction to substrate surface
US6846583B2 (en) Magnetic recording medium and magnetic recording apparatus
US6753072B1 (en) Multilayer-based magnetic media with hard ferromagnetic, anti-ferromagnetic, and soft ferromagnetic layers
US20060177702A1 (en) Magnetic recording medium, method of producing the same, and magnetic storage apparatus

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AS Assignment

Owner name: JPMORGAN CHASE BANK, N.A., AS ADMINISTRATIVE AGENT

Free format text: SECURITY AGREEMENT;ASSIGNORS:MAXTOR CORPORATION;SEAGATE TECHNOLOGY LLC;SEAGATE TECHNOLOGY INTERNATIONAL;REEL/FRAME:022757/0017

Effective date: 20090507

Owner name: WELLS FARGO BANK, NATIONAL ASSOCIATION, AS COLLATE

Free format text: SECURITY AGREEMENT;ASSIGNORS:MAXTOR CORPORATION;SEAGATE TECHNOLOGY LLC;SEAGATE TECHNOLOGY INTERNATIONAL;REEL/FRAME:022757/0017

Effective date: 20090507

AS Assignment

Owner name: SEAGATE TECHNOLOGY LLC, CALIFORNIA

Free format text: RELEASE;ASSIGNOR:JPMORGAN CHASE BANK, N.A., AS ADMINISTRATIVE AGENT;REEL/FRAME:025662/0001

Effective date: 20110114

Owner name: MAXTOR CORPORATION, CALIFORNIA

Free format text: RELEASE;ASSIGNOR:JPMORGAN CHASE BANK, N.A., AS ADMINISTRATIVE AGENT;REEL/FRAME:025662/0001

Effective date: 20110114

Owner name: SEAGATE TECHNOLOGY HDD HOLDINGS, CALIFORNIA

Free format text: RELEASE;ASSIGNOR:JPMORGAN CHASE BANK, N.A., AS ADMINISTRATIVE AGENT;REEL/FRAME:025662/0001

Effective date: 20110114

Owner name: SEAGATE TECHNOLOGY INTERNATIONAL, CALIFORNIA

Free format text: RELEASE;ASSIGNOR:JPMORGAN CHASE BANK, N.A., AS ADMINISTRATIVE AGENT;REEL/FRAME:025662/0001

Effective date: 20110114

AS Assignment

Owner name: SEAGATE TECHNOLOGY US HOLDINGS, INC., CALIFORNIA

Free format text: TERMINATION AND RELEASE OF SECURITY INTEREST IN PATENT RIGHTS;ASSIGNOR:WELLS FARGO BANK, NATIONAL ASSOCIATION, AS COLLATERAL AGENT AND SECOND PRIORITY REPRESENTATIVE;REEL/FRAME:030833/0001

Effective date: 20130312

Owner name: SEAGATE TECHNOLOGY INTERNATIONAL, CAYMAN ISLANDS

Free format text: TERMINATION AND RELEASE OF SECURITY INTEREST IN PATENT RIGHTS;ASSIGNOR:WELLS FARGO BANK, NATIONAL ASSOCIATION, AS COLLATERAL AGENT AND SECOND PRIORITY REPRESENTATIVE;REEL/FRAME:030833/0001

Effective date: 20130312

Owner name: SEAGATE TECHNOLOGY LLC, CALIFORNIA

Free format text: TERMINATION AND RELEASE OF SECURITY INTEREST IN PATENT RIGHTS;ASSIGNOR:WELLS FARGO BANK, NATIONAL ASSOCIATION, AS COLLATERAL AGENT AND SECOND PRIORITY REPRESENTATIVE;REEL/FRAME:030833/0001

Effective date: 20130312

Owner name: EVAULT INC. (F/K/A I365 INC.), CALIFORNIA

Free format text: TERMINATION AND RELEASE OF SECURITY INTEREST IN PATENT RIGHTS;ASSIGNOR:WELLS FARGO BANK, NATIONAL ASSOCIATION, AS COLLATERAL AGENT AND SECOND PRIORITY REPRESENTATIVE;REEL/FRAME:030833/0001

Effective date: 20130312